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Anis Amira binti Faizal Riza


Design experiment: Factor affecting seed germination


To investigate the relationship between the acidity of soil and the growth of green beans over a-week


The pH factor of soli reflects its acidity level, which is important to consider because all plants require
different levels for proper growth. The soil’s acidity level also affects the dispersal of other important
nutrients in the soil, and an imbalance can block a plant’s ability to absorb them. Testing pH level is
important, particularly when planting a garden for the first time in new soil whose acidity is

PH will affect the activity of the entire enzyme in the plant. Some will stop functioning before others
as the pH is changed. PH affects the availability of plant nutrients when a plant is growing in soil. At
the extremes, acid or alkali are just too corrosive to enable survival of the plant.

A neutral pH is ideal for microbial action that produces chemical changes in soil, making nitrogen,
sulfur and phosphorus more available. A pH that is either too high or too low may also interfere with
the effectiveness of pesticides by changing their basic composition or weakening their ability to kill
unwanted insects. Correcting very acidic soil usually involves working lime into the soil a few weeks
before planting, while correcting alkaline soil normally calls for the addition of gypsum, which also
reduces the high sodium content often found in such soil.

Research question:

How does the effect of acid on the seed germination of green bean seeds in a-week period?


Independent variable: The using an acid solution with a pH of 5 to treat seeds

Dependent variable: Seed germination rate

Control variable : Type of seed

: Time taken of the seed to germinate

: Presence of light
Materials and apparatus:


Name Uncertainty Number needed

Vinegar / 100ml
Water / 100ml
pH paper / 1
Paper towel / -
Green bean seeds / 10


Name Uncertainty Number needed

Ziploc bag / 2
Masking tape / 1


1. Gather all of the materials needed to perform the experiment.

2. Make the acid solution by diluting household vinegar with water until a pH of
5 is obtained.

3. Label each Ziploc bag with the treatment type, name of person in lab group, and
period number.

4. Place 10 of the green bean seeds on the paper towel so that they are equally
spaced and above the fold of the paper towel.

5. Treat each seed with 1 mL of the acid solution (pH of 5). (Experimental group)

6. Seal the bag and place on the left side of the classroom on the windows with
masking tape.

7. Place the other 10 green bean seeds in the second paper towel so that they are
equally spaced and above the fold of the paper towel.

8. Treat each of these seeds with 1 mL of water only. (Control group)

9. Seal the bag and place on the left side of the classroom on the windows with
masking tape next to the bag that was treated with acid. This will ensure that both
bags are exposed to the same amount of light and temperature. (Controlled

10. Record the seed germination rate and other observations in both bags over a
seven day period.
Data processing:

Table 2. Germination data for seeds in Experimental Group (1 mL of acid per seed)

Date Days Total Seeds Percent Cumulative

Started since in Seeds Total Seeds Germination Percent
start Treatment Germinated Germinated during time Germination
During Time Since To interval (per
Interval day)

0 10

1 10

2 10

3 10

4 10

5 10

6 10

7 10