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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof.

Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Chapter 13 : PRODUCT BLENDING

Introduction

• The major refinery products produced by blending are:


- Gasoline
- Jet fuels
- Diesel fuel
- Furnace oils. More restrictions on product specs
- Residual fuels.
- Heating oils.
- Lubricating oils.

• Refinery sources of gasoline (blending components)


- Straight-run gasoline (CDU naphtha).
- Coker gasoline
- FCC/TCC gasoline
- Hydrocracker gasoline (hydrocrackate)
- Reforming (reformate)
- Alkylation (alkylate)
- Polymerization (polymerate)
- Isomerization (isomerate)
- ARDS/isomax gasoline
- H-oil gasoline
- Thermal cracker gasoline.
- Aromatic concentrate
- C4+ Gases

Figure 13-1: Refinery gasoline blending

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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

• These gasoline blending-stocks have different molecular contents and performance


qualities (RON, MON, RVP, API, BP range, etc.) as shown in Table 13-1.
• They must be blended into various grades that meet market demands.
• Blending components must meet all desired specifications like boiling point, specific
gravity, RVP, RON and MON.
• The product is designated ‘off spec’ if it does not meet one or more of the required
specifications which could make it either unsalable or salable for a lower price.
Exceeding one or more of the required product specifications is termed ‘giveaway’,
which is also a loss since it means selling a higher quality product for a lower price.
• Basic intermediate streams are usually blended to produce a variety of on-spec
finished products. For example, naphtha can be blended into either gasoline or jet
fuel, depending upon the product demand. Likewise, middle distillates can be blended
into the kerosene or diesel pool.
• The objective of product blending is to allocate the available blending components in
such a way as to meet product demands and specifications at the lowest possible cost
and to yield products which maximize overall profit.
• For example, if a refiner sells about one billion gallons of gasoline per year (about
65,000 BPCD), a saving of one-hundredth (1/100) of a cent per gallon results in an
additional profit of $100,000 per year.

Figure 13-2: Refinery tank farm blending & shipping farcicalities

Figure 13-3: Refinery blending facilities

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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Table 13-1: Blending Component Values for Gasoline Blending Streams.


No Component RVP (psi) BMON BRON °API
1. i-C4 71.0 92.0 93.0
2. n-C4 52.0 92.0 93.0
3. i-C5 19.4 90.8 93.2
4. n-C5 14.7 72.4 71.5
5. i-C6 6.4 78.4 79.2
6. LSR gasoline (C5-180°F) 11.1 61.6 66.4 78.6
7. LSR gasoline Isomerized, once-through 13.5 81.1 83.0 80.4
8. HSR gasoline 1.0 58.7 62.3 48.2
9. Lt hydrocrackate 12.9 82.4 82.8 79.0
10. Hydrocrackate, C5-C6 15.5 85.5 89.2 86.4
11. Hydrocrackate, C6-l90 °F 3.9 73.7 75.5 85.0
12. Hydrocrackate, 190-250 °F 1.7 75.6 79.0 55.5
13. Hvy hydrocrackate 1.1 67.3 67.6 49.0
14. Coker gasoline 3.6 60.2 67.2 57.2
15. Lt thermal gasoline. 9.9 73.2 80.3 74.0
16. C6+ lt thermal gasoline. 1.1 68.1 76.8 55.1
17. FCC gasoline, 200-300 °F 1.4 77.1 92.1 49.5
18. FCC C5+ gasoline 4.4 76.8 92.3 57.2
19. Hydrog lt FCC gasoline, C5+ 13.9 80.9 83.2 51.5
20. Hydrog C5-200 °F FCC gasoline 14.1 81.7 91.2 58.1
21. Hydrog lt FCC gasoline, C6+ 5.0 74.0 86.3 49.3
22. Hydrog C5+ FCC gasoline 13.1 80.7 91.0 54.8
23. Hydrog 300-400 °F FCC gasoline 0.5 81.3 90.2 48.5
24. Reformate, 94 RON 2.8 84.4 94.0 45.8
25. Reformate, 98 RON 2.2 86.5 98.0 43.1
26. Reformate, 100 RON 3.2 88.2 100.0 41.2
27. Aromatic concentrate 1.1 94.0 107.0
28. Alkylate, C3= 5.7 87.3 90.8
29. Alkylate, C4= 4.6 95.9 97.3 70.3
30. Alkylate, C3=, C4= 5.0 93.0 94.5
31. Alkylate, C5= 1.0 88.8 89.7
32. Polymer 8.7 84.0 96.9 59.5
+
33. C5 TCC gasoline 4.0 76.6 85.5
34. C6+ TCC gasoline 2.6 75.8 84.3
BMON = Blending motor octane number, BRON = Blending research octane number.
These values are provided for illustration and cannot be generalized.

Table 13-2: Blending values of octane improvers (boosters/additives)


Compound Formula MW API Tb (ºF) RVP (psi) Flash (ºF) RON MON
Methanol CH4O 32 46.2 148.5 40 53.6 135 105
Ethanol C2H6O 46.1 46.1 173 11 53.6 132 106
TBA C4H10O 74.1 47.4 180.4 6 39.2 106 89
MTBE C5H12O 88.1 58.0 131.4 9 -18.4 118 101
ETBE C6H14O 102.2 56.7 159.8 4 -2.2 118 102
TAME C6H14O 102.2 53.7 185 1.5 12.2 111 98
TEL C8H20Pb 323.4 3.143 239 0 199.4 10,000 13,000

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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Blending for API gravity


• API Gravities are not linear and therefore cannot be averaged.
• Specific gravity can be volume averaged.

Example 13-1: Blending for API


Calculate the API of a blend from
1,000 bbls oil 70 ºAPI
2,000 bbls oil 5 ºAPI

Solution:
141.5 141.5
𝑆𝐺 = = = 0.7026
𝐴𝑃𝐼 + 131.5 70 + 131.5
141.5 141.5
𝑆𝐺 = = = 1.0374
𝐴𝑃𝐼 + 131.5 5 + 131.5

Ave. sp. gr. = 0.3333(0.7026) + 0.6666(1.0374) = 0.9258


API = (141.5/ 0.9258)-131.5 = 21.34 √
If you average the API then the answer is = 0.3333 x 70 + 0.6666 x 5 = 26.67 X

Blending for Initial & Final BP


• The initial boiling point of the blend equals the lowest of the blending stocks and the
final boiling point equals the highest.

Example 13-2: Blending for Boiling Point


Calculate the initial and final boiling points of the blend from the following blending stocks,
LSR gasoline (C5 – 180 ºF)
HSR gasoline (200 – 380 ºF)
FCC gasoline (200 – 300 ºF)
Blend (C5 – 380 ºF)

Blending for Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP)


• The theoretical method for blending to the desired RVP requires knowledge of the
average molecular weight of each of the streams.
A more convenient way developed by Chevron Research Company is to use ‘Vapor
Pressure Indices’ (VPI) compiled as a function of the RVP of the blending streams as
shown in Table 13-3.
• The RVP of the blend is closely approximated by the sum of all the products of the
volume fraction (Xv) times the VPI for each blending component i.
(VPI)blend = ∑ Xvi (VPI)i 13-1
• RVP of a gasoline is controlled by adding n-butane to (C5 – 380°F) naphtha.
• If the volume of the n-butane to be blended for a given RVP is given by,
V0 (VPI)0 + V1 (VPI)1 + …...… = (V0 +V1 + …) (VPI)m 13-2
where
V0 = Volume (bbl) of n-butane.
V1 = Volume (bbl) of blending stock 1,
1, 2, 3 = blending stocks 1, 2, 3, etc.
(VPBI)m = VPBI of the mixture.

𝑛 0.8
(∑ (𝑉𝑖 𝑅𝑉𝑃𝑖1.25 ))
𝑖=0
𝑅𝑉𝑃𝑚 = 13-3
𝑉𝑚

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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Table 13-3: RVP Index for Gasoline and Turbine Fuels.


Vapor
Pressure,
psi 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
0 0.00 0.05 0.13 0.22 0.31 0.42 0.52 0.64 0.75 0.87
1 1.00 1.12 1.25 1.38 1.52 1.66 1.79 1.94 2.08 2.23
2 2.37 2.52 2.67 2.83 2.98 3.14 3.30 3.46 3.62 3.78
3 3.94 4.11 4.28 44.4 4.61 4.78 4.95 5.13 5.30 5.48
4 5.65 5.83 6.01 6.19 6.37 6.55 6.73 6.92 7.10 7.29
5 7.47 7.66 7.85 8.04 8.23 8.42 8.61 8.80 9.00 9.19
6 9.39 9.58 9.78 9.98 10.2 10.4 10.6 10.8 11.0 11.2
7 11.4 11.6 11.8 12.0 12.2 12.4 12.6 12.8 13.0 13.2
8 13.4 13.7 13.9 14.1 14.3 14.5 14.7 14.9 15.2 15.4
9 15.6 15.8 16.0 16.2 16.4 16.7 16.9 17.1 17.3 17.6
10 17.8 18.0 18.2 18.4 18.7 18.9 19.1 19.4 19.6 19.8
11 20.0 20.3 20.5 20.7 20.9 21.2 21.4 21.6 21.9 22.1
12 22.3 22.6 22.8 23.0 23.3 23.5 23.7 24.0 24.2 24.4
13 24.7 24.9 25.2 25.4 25.6 25.9 26.1 26.4 26.6 26.8
14 27.1 27.3 27.6 27.8 28.0 28.3 28.5 28.8 29.0 29.3
15 29.5 29.8 30.0 30.2 30.5 30.8 31.0 31.2 31.5 31.8
16 32.0 32.2 32.5 32.8 33.0 33.2 33.5 33.8 34.0 34.3
17 34.5 34.8 35.0 35.3 35.5 35.8 36.0 36.3 36.6 36.8
18 37.1 37.3 37.6 37.8 38.1 38.4 38.6 38.9 39.1 39.4
19 39.7 39.9 40.2 40.4 40.7 41.0 41.2 41.5 41.8 42.0
20 42.3 42.6 42.8 43.1 43.4 43.6 43.9 44.2 44.4 44.7
21 45.0 45.2 45.5 45.8 46.0 46.3 46.6 46.8 47.1 47.4
22 47.6 47.9 48.2 48.4 48.7 49.0 49.3 49.5 49.8 50.1
23 50.4 50.6 50.9 51.2 51.5 51.7 52.0 52.3 52.6 52.8
24 53.1 53.4 53.7 54.0 54.2 54.5 54.8 55.1 55.3 55.6
25 55.9 56.2 56.5 56.7 57.0 57.3 57.5 57.9 58.1 58.4
26 58.7 59.0 59.3 59.6 59.8 60.1 60.4 60.7 61.0 61.3
27 61.5 61.8 62.1I 62.4 62.7 63.0 63.3 63.5 63.8 64.1
28 64.4 64.7 65.0 65.3 65.6 65.8 66.1 66.4 66.7 67.0
29 67.3 67.6 67.9 68.2 68.4 68.8 69.0 69.3 69.6 69.9
30 70.2 Example:
40 101 Calculate the vapor-pressure of a gasoline blend as follows
(nC4) 51.6 138 Vapor Vapor Volume
(iC4) 72.2 210 Component Volume Pressure Pressure Fraction
(C3) 190.0 705 Fraction psi Index No. x
VPI
n-Butane 0.050 51.6 138 6.90
Equation: Light Straight Run 0.450 6.75 10.9 4.90
VPI = VP1.25 Heavy Refined 0.500 1.00 1.00 0.50
Total 1.000 7.45 12.3 12.3
From the brochure, “31.0°API Iranian Heavy Crude Oil,” by arrangement with Chevron
Research Company. Copyright © 1971 by Chevron Oil Trading Company.

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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Blending for Octane Number


• Octane numbers are blended on a volumetric basis.
• True octane numbers do not blend linearly therefore blending octane numbers are used.
• Those are numbers which, when added on a volumetric average basis, will give the true
octane of the blend.
• Blending octane numbers are based on experience.
• The formula used for calculations is:

Vblend (ON)blend = ∑ Vi (ON)i 13-4


where,
Vblend = Total volume of gasoline blended (bbl).
Vi = Volume of blending component i (bbl).
(ON)blend = Desired true octane of blend.
(ON)i = Octane number of component i.
• If n-butane alone is not sufficient to increase the Pool octane number of the gasoline,
different ways are used to improve the octane number;
1. Increase severity of reforming to produce a 98.8 or 100 RONC reformate.1
2. Use oxygenates such as MTBE or ETBE (Table 13-2) to improve the pool octane.

Example 13-3: Blending for RVP and Octane Number:


From the following stocks; 1,250 bbls HSR gasoline,
750 bbls LSR gasoline,
620 bbls C5+ FCC gasoline,
a. Calculate the amount of n-butane required to produce a gasoline with an RVP of 9 psi.
b. Calculate the RON and MON for the blend.
c. Calculate the posted octane number (PON) if 10 V% MTBE is added (keeping RVP = 9).

Solution
a. Amount of n-butane
RVP values are obtained from Table 13-1
VPBI values are obtained from Table 13-2

COMPONENT # (BPDi) (RVPi) (VPIi) (BPDi)(VPIi)


Table 13-1
Table 13-3
n-butane 2 W 51.6 138 138W
HSR gasoline 8 1250 1.0 1.0 1250.00
LSR gasoline 6 750 11.1 20.3 15225.00
C5+ FCC gasoline 18 620 4.4 6.37 3949.40
Total for blend 2620 + W 138W + 20424.4
∑(BPDi) ∑ (BPDi)(VPIi)

For the blend at 9.0 RVP, (VPI)m = 15.6, from Table 13-3 into the equation

(VPI)blend = ∑ Xvi (VPI)i 13-1


(VPI)m ∑(BPDi) = ∑(BPDi)(VPIi)
15.6 (2620 + W) = 20424.4 + 138 W
W = 165 BPD of n-butane
1
(This is not attractive because it is costly, and the aromatics content of the gasoline would increase
and the volume would decrease).
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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

b. RON and MON of the blend


Component # BPD Vol. MON RON MON x RON x
Frac. Table 13-1 Table 13-1 Vol. frac. Vol. frac.
n-butane 2 165 0.0592 92.0 93.0 4.85 5.51
HSR gasoline 8 1250 0.4488 58.7 62.3 26.34 27.96
LSR gasoline 6 750 0.2693 61.6 66.4 16.59 17.88
C5+ FCC gasoline 18 620 0.2226 76.8 92.3 17.10 20.55
Total for blend 2785 64.9 71.9

MON of the blend = ∑MON x vol. frac. = 64.9


RON of the blend = ∑RON x vol. frac. = 71.9

c. RON and MON of the blend after adding 10 V% MTBE


10 % MTBE is equal to 0.1(2785 BPD) = 278.5 BPD
MTBE octane number is from Table 13-2.

Component BPD Vol. MON RON MON x Vol. RON x


Frac. frac. Vol. frac.
n-butane 165 0.054 92.0 93.0 4.97 5.022
HSR gasoline 1250 0.408 58.7 62.3 23.95 25.42
LSR gasoline 750 0.245 61.6 66.4 15.1 16.27
C5 FCC gasoline 620 0.202 76.8 92.3 15.51 18.64
MTBE 278.5 .091 101 118 9.19 10.74
Total 3063.5 68.72 76.1

(vol. frac. x RON)   (vol.frac. x MON) 76.1  68.72


PON of the blend =  = = 72.4
2 2

BLENDING FOR OTHER PROPERTIES


• Several methods exist for estimating the physical properties of a blend from those of
the blending stocks.
• One of the most convenient methods of estimating properties, that do not blend
linearly, is to substitute for the true value to be blended another value (called blending
factor or index) which has the property of blending approximately linear.
• The Chevron Research Company has compiled factors or index numbers for several
other properties such as viscosity, flash point, aniline, and pour point.

Blending for Viscosity


• Viscosity blending is more complicated than blending for the other properties.
• It is not an additive property and it is necessary to use special techniques to estimate
the viscosity of a blend from the viscosities of its blending stocks.
• The method most commonly accepted is the use of ASTM charts.
• The viscosity factor of the blend can be calculated using the equation:
(VF) blend = ∑ Xvi (VF)i 13-5
where, Xvi = Volume fraction.
(VF)i = Viscosity factor for component i (Table 13-6, Table 13-7, Table 13-8).
(VF)blend = Viscosity factor for the blend.
• Blending of kinematic viscosities (centistokes, cSt = mm2/s) the viscosities of all
components of the blend in cSt must be at the same temperature. Table 13-6

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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

• Blending of viscosities in Saybolt universal seconds (SUS) may also be done at any
temperature and interchangeably with kinematic viscosities at the same temperature
using Table 13-7.
• Viscosity factors also are given in Table 13-8 for viscosities expressed in Saybolt
Furol Seconds (SFS).
• SFS viscosities are blended only at 122°F. If SFS viscosities are at any other
temperature, they must be converted to centistokes or SUS before blending.
• Viscosity factors for SFS at 122 °F may be used interchangeably with viscosity
factors for SUS at 130 °F and with centistokes at 130°F.
• Table 13-6, Table 13-7, and Table 13-8 may be used to convert viscosities in SFS at
122 °F to either kinematic or Saybolt Universal viscosities at 130 °F.
• Other viscosity units include
- Redwood sec
- Redwood Admiralty Seconds
- Redwood No.1 Seconds
• The viscosity of a blend can also be estimated by API Procedure 11A4.3 in the API
Technical Data Book on Petroleum Refining.

Blending for Flash Point


• The flash point index of a blend is given by

(FPI) blend = ∑ Xvi (FPI)i 13-6


where

Xvi = Volume fraction.


(FPI) blend = Flash point blending index of the blend.
(FPI)i = Flash point index of component i from Table 13-9

Blending for Aniline Point

• The aniline point index of a blend is given by

(API) blend = ∑ Xvi (API)i 13-7


where
Xvi = Volume fraction.
(API) blend = Aniline point blending index of the blend.
(API)i = Aniline point index of component i from Table 13-10

Blending for Pour Point

• The pour point index of a blend is given by

(PP) blend = ∑ Xvi (PPI)i 13-8


where
Xvi = Volume fraction.
(PP) blend = Pour point of the blend.
(PPI)i = Pour point index of component i, from Table 13-11

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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Example 13-4
Calculate the viscosity, flash point, aniline point, and pour point of the blend from the following
blending stocks.

Stock bbls ASTM 50% Viscosity Flash point Aniline Pour point
temp (ºF) (ºF) point (ºF) (ºF)
A 5,000 575 430 SFS at 122 ºF 100 70 10
B 3,000 425 82.5 SUS at 130 ºF 90 160 50
C 2,000 500 2.15 cSt at 130 ºF 130 40 (mixed) 65
Blend 10,000 ? ? ? ?

Solution:

a. Viscosity
Stock vol. frac. Viscosity Factor vol. frac. x
of blend (Table 13-6) Factor
A 0.5 430 SFS at 120 ºF 0.700 0.350
B 0.3 82.5 SUS at 130 ºF 0.500 0.150
C 0.2 2.15 cSt at 130 ºF 0.300 0.060
Total 1 0.560

For a blend with a factor of 0.56 Table 13-6, Table 13-7 and Table 13-8 give the following viscosities
39.5 cSt at 130 ºF, 183 SUS at 130 ºF, and 25.7 SFS at 122 ºF

b. Flash point
Stock vol. frac. of blend Flash point (ºF) Blending Index (Table 13-9) vol. frac. x index
A 0.5 100 753 376.5
B 0.3 90 1,170 351
C 0.2 130 224 44.8
Total 1 772

The Table 13-9 gives a flash point for the blend of 99.5 ºF for a blending index of 772.

c. Aniline Point
Stock vol. frac. Aniline point (ºF) Blending Index vol. frac. x index
of blend (Table 13-10)
A 0.5 70 347 173.5
B 0.3 160 855 256.5
C 0.2 40 (mixed) -425 -85
Total 1 345

Table 13-10 gives for a blending index of 345 an aniline point for the blend of 69.5 ºF or a mixed
aniline point of 115.3 ºF.

d. Pour Point
Stock vol. frac. ASTM 50% Pour Point (ºF) Blending Index vol. frac. x
of blend temp (ºF) (Table 13-11) index
A 0.5 575 10 8 4
B 0.3 425 50 61 18.3
C 0.2 500 65 98 19.6
Total 1 41.9

The pour point of the blend is 41.9 ºF or 42 ºF.

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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Notice that for the Octane number and the pour point the property (not the index) is
calculated, therefore, there is no need to go back to the Table to get the desired property.

Blending for Freezing point

• The freezing point index of a blend is given by

(FPI) blend = ∑ Xvi (FPI)i 13-9


where
Xvi = Volume fraction.
(FPI) blend = Freezing point blending index of the blend.
(FPI)i = Freezing point blending index of component i from Table 13-4 or13-5.

Table 13-4. Freezing point index in Fahrenheit


Freeze Point (°F) Index Freeze Point (°F) Index Freeze Point (°F) Freeze Point (°F)
-250 0.0064 -105 1.2286 40 235.03
-245 0.0077 -100 1.4727 45 281.71
-240 0.0092 -95 1.7651 50 337.66
-235 0.0111 -90 2.1157 55 404.72
-230 0.0133 -85 2.5359 60 485.11
-225 0.0159 -80 3.0396 65 581.46
-220 0.0190 -75 3.6433 70 696.94
-215 0.0228 -70 4.3669 75 835.37
-210 0.0274 -65 5.2343 80 1001.3
-205 0.0328 -60 6.2739 85 1200.2
-200 0.0393 -55 7.5199 90 1438.5
-195 0.0471 -50 9.0135 95 1724.2
-190 0.0565 -45 10.804 100 2066.7
-185 0.0677 -40 12.949 105 2477.2
-180 0.0811 -35 15.521 110 2969.2
-175 0.0973 -30 18.604 115 3558.9
-170 0.1166 -25 22.299 120 4265.7
-165 0.1397 -20 26.728 125 5112.9
-160 0.1675 -15 32.037 130 6128.4
-155 0.2007 -10 38.400 135 7345.6
-150 0.2406 -5 46.026 140 8804.6
-145 0.2884 0 55.168 145 10553.3
-140 0.3457 5 66.125 150 12649.3
-135 0.4143 10 79.258 155 15161.6
-130 0.4966 15 95.000 160 18173.0
-125 0.5953 20 113.87 165 21782.4
-120 0.7135 25 136.48 170 26108.7
-115 0.8552 30 163.59 175 31294.2
-110 1.0250 35 196.08
Courtesy Albahri 2016

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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Table 13-5 Freezing point index in Kelvin


Freeze Point (K) Index Freeze Point (K) Index Freeze Point (K) Index
116 0.0061 196 1.139 276 210.1
118 0.0070 198 1.297 278 238.8
120 0.0080 200 1.473 280 272.4
122 0.0091 202 1.683 282 310.8
124 0.0104 204 1.919 284 353.8
126 0.0119 206 2.183 286 402.0
128 0.0135 208 2.486 288 459.4
130 0.0154 210 2.838 290 523.6
132 0.0175 212 3.233 292 595.3
134 0.0200 214 3.672 294 678.5
136 0.0227 216 4.193 296 774.5
138 0.0259 218 4.783 298 881.8
140 0.0295 220 5.442 300 1001.3
142 0.0336 222 6.191 302 1144.5
144 0.0383 224 7.071 304 1305.0
146 0.0437 226 8.058 306 1484.2
148 0.0497 228 9.157 308 1689.9
150 0.0565 230 10.45 310 1929.7
152 0.0646 232 11.92 312 2198.0
154 0.0736 234 13.57 314 2496.8
156 0.0837 236 15.42 316 2851.1
158 0.0953 238 17.62 318 3252.2
160 0.1088 240 20.08 320 3700.2
162 0.1240 242 22.83 322 4209.2
164 0.1408 244 26.02 324 4807.9
166 0.1608 246 29.70 326 5478.5
168 0.1834 248 33.82 328 6225.8
170 0.2087 250 38.40 330 7102.2
172 0.2374 252 43.89 332 8104.3
174 0.2712 254 50.05 334 9224.3
176 0.3090 256 56.92 336 10483
178 0.3512 258 64.81 338 11979
180 0.4006 260 74.01 340 13654
182 0.4571 262 84.30 342 15523
184 0.5203 264 95.75 344 17691
186 0.5913 266 109.3 346 20194
188 0.6756 268 124.7 348 22994
190 0.7702 270 141.9 350 26109
192 0.8756 272 161.4 352 29842
194 0.9979 274 184.4 354 33576
Courtesy Albahri 2016

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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Blending for Smoke point

• The smoke point of a blend is given by

(SP) blend = ∑ Xvi (SP)i 13-10


where
Xvi = Volume fraction.
(SP) blend = Smoke point blending index of the blend.
(SP)i = Smoke point of component i

Example 13-5

Calculate the smoke point and the freezing point of the blend from the following kerosene
blending stocks.

Stock bbls Freezing point Smoke Point


(ºF) (mm)
A 5,000 -55 25
B 3,000 -50 22
C 2,000 -51 21
Blend 10,000 ? ?

Solution:

Smoke point
Stock vol. frac. Smoke Point Smoke Point x
of blend (mm) vol. frac.
A 0.5 25 12.5
B 0.3 22 6.6
C 0.2 21 4.2
Blend 1 23.3

The smoke point of the blend is 23.3 mm

Freezing Point (ºF) using Table 13-4


Stock vol. frac. Freezing point (ºF) Freezing Point vol. frac. x index
of blend blending index
A 0.5 -55 7.5199 3.7600
B 0.3 -50 9.0135 2.7041
C 0.2 -51 8.6928 1.7386
Total 1 8.2027

The table gives a freezing point of -52.7 ºF for a blend with a factor of 8.2027

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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Viscosity conversion using tabular method

Viscosity Conversions
(Older SUS or SSU to current cSt. or mm2/s)

Assumes that viscosities are at the same temperature and the


Viscosity Index is 95.

35 SSU ~ 2.5 cSt 550 SSU ~ 119 cSt


40 SSU ~ 4.2 cSt 600 SSU ~ 129 cSt
45 SSU ~ 5.8 cSt 650 SSU ~ 140 cSt
50 SSU ~ 7.4 cSt 700 SSU ~ 151 cSt
55 SSU ~ 8.8 cSt 750 SSU ~ 162 cSt
60 SSU ~ 10.4 cSt 800 SSU ~ 173 cSt
65 SSU ~ 11.8 cSt 850 SSU ~ 183 cSt
70 SSU ~ 13.1 cSt 900 SSU ~ 195 cSt
75 SSU ~ 14.4 cSt 1,000 SSU ~ 216 cSt
80 SSU ~ 15.6 cSt 1,100 SSU ~ 237 cSt
85 SSU ~ 17.0 cSt 1,200 SSU ~ 259 cSt
90 SSU ~ 18.3 cSt 1,300 SSU ~ 280 cSt
95 SSU ~ 19.4 cSt 1,400 SSU ~ 302 cSt
100 SSU ~ 20.6 cSt 1,500 SSU ~ 324 cSt
110 SSU ~ 22.9 cSt 1,600 SSU ~ 345 cSt
120 SSU ~ 25.2 cSt 1,700 SSU ~ 368 cSt
130 SSU ~ 27.5 cSt 1,800 SSU ~ 389 cSt
140 SSU ~ 29.7 cSt 1,900 SSU ~ 411 cSt
150 SSU ~ 31.9 cSt 2,000 SSU ~ 432 cSt
160 SSU ~ 34.2 cSt 2,100 SSU ~ 453 cSt
170 SSU ~ 36.5 cSt 2,200 SSU ~ 475 cSt
180 SSU ~ 38.6 cSt 2,300 SSU ~ 496 cSt
190 SSU ~ 40.8 cSt 2,400 SSU ~ 518 cSt
200 SSU ~ 43.0 cSt 2,500 SSU ~ 539 cSt
225 SSU ~ 48.5 cSt 2,600 SSU ~ 562 cSt
250 SSU ~ 53.8 cSt 2,700 SSU ~ 584 cSt
275 SSU ~ 59.2 cSt 2,800 SSU ~ 605 cSt
300 SSU ~ 64.8 cSt 2,900 SSU ~ 627 cSt
325 SSU ~ 70.1 cSt 3,000 SSU ~ 648 cSt
350 SSU ~ 75.6 cSt 3,500 SSU ~ 756 cSt
375 SSU ~ 81.1 cSt 4,000 SSU ~ 864 cSt
400 SSU ~ 86.5 cSt 5,000 SSU ~ 1,080 cSt
425 SSU ~ 92.0 cSt 6,000 SSU ~ 1,296 cSt
450 SSU ~ 97.4 cSt 7,000 SSU ~ 1,509 cSt
475 SSU ~ 102.7 cSt 8,000 SSU ~ 1,726 cSt
500 SSU ~ 108.0 cSt 9,000 SSU ~ 1,943 cSt

13-13
Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Numerical Method for blending freezing point

In British units

FPIFi = 55.168 (1.0369)FPFi i = 1, 2, 3, … 13-11


FPIm = ∑ Xvi (FPIF)i 13-12
FPFm = -111.1628+27.682 ln (FPIm) 13-13
where
FPFi = freezing point of component i in °F
FPFm = freezing point of the blend in °F
FPIi = freezing point index for component i
FPIm = freezing point index for the blend
Xvi = volume fraction of component i

Freezing Point (ºF) using numerical method


Stock vol. frac. Freezing point (ºF) Freezing Point vol. frac. x index
of blend blending index
A 0.5 -55 7.5199 3.7600
B 0.3 -50 9.0135 2.7040
C 0.2 -51 8.6928 1.7386
Total 1 8.2026

Equation gives a freezing point of -52.9 ºF for a blend with a factor of 8.2026

In SI units

FPIKi = (3.2312E-6)(1.06735)FPKi i = 1, 2, 3, … 13-14


FPIm = ∑ Xvi (FPIK)i 13-15
FPFm = 193.7984+15.3789 ln (FPIm) 13-16
where
FPKi = freezing point of component i in K
FPKm = freezing point of the blend in K
FPIi = freezing point index for component i
FPIm = freezing point index for the blend
Xvi = volume fraction of component i

Example 13-6
Freezing Point (K) using table
Stock vol. frac. Freezing point (K) Freezing Point vol. frac. x index
of blend blending index
A 0.5 225 7.5199 3.7600
B 0.3 227.8 9.0278 2.7083
C 0.2 227.2 8.7028 1.7406
Total 1 8.2089

Table gives a freezing point of 226.3 K (-52.7 ºF) for a blend with a factor of 8.2026

13-14
Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Freezing Point (K) using numerical method


Stock vol. frac. Freezing point (K) Freezing Point vol. frac. x index
of blend blending index
A 0.5 -225 7.5580 3.7790
B 0.3 227.8 9.0712 2.7214
C 0.2 227.2 8.7233 1.7447
Total 1 8.2450

Equation gives a freezing point of 226.2 K (-52.8 ºF) for a blend with a factor of 8.2026

Numerical Method for blending viscosity

Table 13-6, Table 13-7, and Table 13-8 are correlated to obtain the following equations,

For blend no. 1

X1 = log10 (visc.1) 13-17

for viscosity in centistokes (use the following equations)


0.17+0.5238 𝑋1
𝑉𝐹1 = 1+0.5124 𝑋 2 13-18
1 −0.01233 𝑋1

or more accurately

α = (X1 + 0.3103)/10 13-19

𝛽 = 0.2917 (𝛼)−0.164 13-20

𝑉𝐹1 = 1.056 (𝛼)𝛽 13-21

for the viscosity in SUS (use one of the following equations)


0.80755
𝑉𝐹1 = 0.6068 + 0.04797𝑋1 − 13-22
𝑋12

or
−97993438+103852082 𝑋1
𝑉𝐹1 = 1+118310078 𝑋 2 13-23
1 −3052999 𝑋1

or more accurately

VF1 = 0.5909 (X1 -1.4414)0.2537 13-24

for viscosity in SFS

VF1 = 0.5008 X10.345 13-25

For blend no. 2, use the above equations 17 through 25.


For example, Equations 17 and 18 would become,
13-15
Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

X2 = log10 (visc.2) 13-26

0.17+0.5238 𝑋2
𝑉𝐹2 = 1+0.5124 𝑋 2 13-27
2 −0.0123 𝑋2

The viscosity factor for the blend

V1 VF1  V2 VF2  ...


V Fblend  13-28
V1  V2  ...

To calculate the viscosity of the blend in cSt

−0.3148+1.796 (𝑉𝐹𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑑 )
𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑐.𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑑 ) = 1−1.26376 (𝑉𝐹 2
13-29
𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑑 )+0.4498 (𝑉𝐹𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑑 )

To calculate the viscosity of the blend in SUS use either of the following equations

5.2602+34.83 (𝑉𝐹𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑑 )3.9746


𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑐.𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑑 ) = 13-30
3.7246+(𝑉𝐹𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑑 )3.9746

log(visc.blend) = 21.0553 -19.6471 exp[-0.4467(VFblend)3.9315] 13-31

33.4177 (𝑉𝐹 )3.9746


𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑐.𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑑 ) = 1.4123 + 3.7246+(𝑉𝐹𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑑)3.9746 13-32
𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑑

Equations 31 and 32 are more accurate than 30

To calculate the viscosity of the blend in SFS

log(visc.blend) = 13.0784 -12.6188 exp [-0.7749(VFblend)3.9578] 13-33

Example 13-7: Blending for viscosity using above (Albahri Viscosity Blending equations)

visc.i VFi Vi vol frac x factor


500 0.691 0.3333 0.230
300 0.669 0.3333 0.223
200 0.651 0.3334 0.217
Total 0.670

Log (viscblend) = 2.503 → Visc = 318 cSt

Using tabular method


Stock vol. frac. of blend Viscosity Factor (Table 13-6) vol. frac. x Factor
A 0.3333 500 cSt at 130 ºF 0.689 0.230
B 0.3333 300 cSt at 130 ºF 0.663 0.221
C 0.3334 200 cSt at 130 ºF 0.648 0.216
Total 1 0.667

Table 13-6 gives 300 cSt at 130 ºF for a blend with a factor of 0.667

13-16
Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Example 13-8: Blending for viscosity using above (Albahri Viscosity Blending equations)

visc.i VFi Vi vol frac x factor


500 0.691 0.3333 0.230
300 0.669 0.3333 0.223
200 0.651 0.3334 0.217
Total 0.670

Log (viscblend) = 2.503 → Visc = 318 cSt

Using tabular method


Stock vol. frac. Viscosity Factor (Table vol. frac. x
of blend 13-6) Factor
A 0.3333 500 cSt at 130 ºF 0.689 0.230
B 0.3333 300 cSt at 130 ºF 0.663 0.221
C 0.3334 200 cSt at 130 ºF 0.648 0.216
Total 1 0.667

Table 13-6 gives 300 cSt at 130 ºF for a blend with a factor of 0.667

Example 13-9: viscosity conversion (Numerical Method)


Convert the viscosity of an oil sample having 100 cSt to SUS and SFS

Solution: From Table 13-6 the viscosity factor for 100 cSt is 0.613. This factor corresponds
to 460 SUS and 62 SFS at 122 °F.

Numerical Method

From equation (17 and 19 – 21) get the viscosity factor

X1 = log (vcSt) = log (100) = 2

α = (X1 + 0.3103)/10 = 0.23103


𝛽 = 0.2917 (α)−0.164 = 0.3709
𝑉𝐹1 = 1.0559 (𝛼)𝛽 = 0.6132

Then use equation (31) to get the viscosity in SUS

log(visc.blend) = 21.0553 -19.6471 exp[-0.4467(VFblend)3.9315]

log(visc.blend) = 21.0553 -19.6471 exp[-0.4467(0.6132)3.9315] = 2.65


visc = 446.8 SUS √

Use equation (33) to get the viscosity in SFS

log(visc.blend) = 13.0784 -12.6188 exp [-0.7749(VFblend)3.9578]

log(visc.blend) = 13.0784 -12.6188 exp [-0.7749(0.61319)3.9578] = 1.7948


visc = 62.34 SFS √

13-17
Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Numerical method for calculating the pour point of distillate blending stocks.

The pour point blending index is given by the following equations instead of Table

In kelvin

PPI(K)i = 255.565 + 4.90211𝗑10-6 exp [-0.016418 (PPK) - 0.0522346 (TbK)


+ 1.5751 𝗑10-4 (PPK)(TbK)] (PPK)1.67057 (TbK)2.37162
13-34

PPI(K)i = pour point index for component i in Kelvin


PPK = pour point in kelvin
TbK = ASTM distillation curve 50% temperature in kelvin (≈average boiling point)

In Fahrenheit

PPIFi = 0.1786 + 0.425117 exp [0.0147 (PPF+70) - 0.00887 (TbF)


+ 4.925 𝗑10-5 (PPF+70)(TbF)] (PPF+70)0.1894 (TbF)0.5855
13-35

PPIFi = pour point index for component i in °F


PPF is pour point in °F
TbF = ASTM distillation curve 50% temperature in °F (≈average boiling point)

The procedure is to calculate the PPI for each component using the above equation then obtain the
pour point of the blend using the following equation

PP = ∑ Xvi PPIKi
13-36

Example 13-10
Applied to the previous example to calculate the pour point, the above equations will yield,

Pour Point (ºF, Eqn. 34)


vol. frac. Pour Point
Stock ASTM 50% temp (ºF) Blending Index vol. frac. x index
of blend (ºF)
A 0.5 10 575 7.8 3.92
B 0.3 50 425 60.6 18.17
C 0.2 65 500 98.3 19.66
Total 1 41.8

Pour Point (K, Eqn. 35)


Xv of Pour ASTM 50% Pour Point ASTM 50% Blending vol. frac. x
Stock Point (ºF) (K)
blend temp (ºF) temp (K) Index index
A 0.5 10 575 261.1 575.0 259.90 129.95
B 0.3 50 425 283.3 491.7 289.16 86.75
C 0.2 65 500 291.7 533.3 310.27 62.05
Total 1 278.8 K
41.8 ºC

13-18
Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Numerical method for calculating the flash point of blending stocks.

The flash point blending index is given by the following equations

In British units: (FPI)i = (0.3792866 + 2.0855𝗑10-3 FPFi)-12.4108


13-37
In SI Units: (FPI)i = (-0.5800437+ 3.7539𝗑10-3 FPKi)-12.4108
13-38
FPFi = Flash point of component i in ºF
FPKi = Flash point of component i in Kelvin
Xvi = volume fraction of component i
(FPI)m = Flash point index for the blend

(FPI)m = ∑ Xvi (FPI)i


13-39
The flash point is then calculated for the blend using the following equations

In British units: FPFm = [327.0522 -27.1872 ln(FPIm)]/[1+ 0.071016 ln(FPIm)


-2.766222𝗑-5 ln(FPIm)2]
13-40

In SI units: FPKm = [437.250592356 + 4.0809276 ln(FPIm)]/[1+ 0.0733857193 ln(FPIm)


+ 1.40131821823232𝗑-4 ln(FPIm)2]
13-41

where
FPF = flash point of the blend in degrees °F
FPK = flash point of the blend in K

Example 13-11
Applied to the previous example to calculate the flash point, the above equations will yield,

Flash point (ºF)


Stock vol. frac. of blend Flash point (ºF) Blending Index vol. frac. x index
A 0.5 100 730.7 365.3
B 0.3 90 1143.9 343.2
C 0.2 130 208.2 41.6
Total 1 750.2

→ from Eqn 40 Flash = 100.1 ⁰F

Flash point (K)


vol. frac. of Flash point vol. frac. x
Stock Blending Index
blend (K) index
A 0.5 311.1 730.7 365.3
B 0.3 305.6 1144.0 343.2
C 0.2 327.8 208.2 41.6
Total 1 750.2

→ from Eqn. 41 Flash =311.2 K or 100.1 ⁰F

13-19
Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Numerical method for calculating the aniline point of distillate blending stocks.

The aniline point blending index is given by the following equations

In British units:

APIi = 49.11 (1 + 0.05 APFi)1.3004


13-42
In SI Units:
73778706
APIi = − 4852.435 + 14.7655 APKi + (more accurate)
𝐴𝑃𝐾𝑖2
13-43
APIi = 1437.69 + 1618.79 COS (0.007435 APKi + 1.7832)
13-44
where
APFi = Aniline point of component i in °F
APKi = Aniline point of component i in Kelvin
Xvi = volume fraction of component i
APIm = Aniline point index for the blend

APIm = ∑ Xvi APIi


13-45
The aniline point is then calculated for the blend using the following equations

In British units:

(213932+16375.8 (API𝑚 )0.7788 )


APFm = (17287.78+(API𝑚 )0.7788 )
− 32
13-46
In SI units:

(4093333+9025 (API𝑚 )0.77911 )


APKm = (16731+(API𝑚 )0.77911 )
(more accurate)
13-47
or
APKm = 2427.82 − 2182.923 exp (− 0.0002259 (APIm) 0.7898)
13-48
where
APF = Aniline point of the blend in °F
APK = Aniline point of the blend in K

13-20
Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Numerical method for calculating the mixed aniline point of distillate blending stocks.
The mixed aniline point blending index is given by the following equations

In British units use one of the following equations:

MAPIi =1090 + 2221 cos (0.005425 MAPFi + 3.7453) (more accurate)


13-49
(−740.124+8.8357 𝑀𝐴𝑃𝐹𝑖 )
MAPIi = (1−2.456×10−3 𝑀𝐴𝑃𝐹 +6.629×10−6 𝑀𝐴𝑃𝐹2 )
𝑖 𝑖

13-50
In SI Units use one for the following equations:
140904757
MAPIi = - 10323.5 + 29.064 MAPKi + (more accurate)
𝑀𝐴𝑃𝐾𝑖2
13-51
(−650.1+2.796 𝑀𝐴𝑃𝐾𝑖 )
MAPIi = (1−4.448×10−3 𝑀𝐴𝑃𝐾 +5.8987×10−6 𝑀𝐴𝑃𝐾2 ) − 1000
𝑖 𝑖
13-52
MAPIi = 1090.1 + 2221.5 cos (0.009764 MAPKi +1.2502)
13-53
where
MAPFi = Mixed aniline point of component i in °F
MAPKi = Mixed aniline point of component i in Kelvin
Xvi = volume fraction of component i
MAPIm = Mixed aniline point index for the blend

MAPIm = ∑ Xvi MAPIi


13-54
The mixed aniline point for the blend is then calculated using the one of the following

In British units:

(83.783+0.113208 𝑀𝐴𝑃𝐵𝐼𝑚 )
MAPFm = (1+2.184×10−4 𝑀𝐴𝑃𝐼 −8 2
𝑚 −7.166×10 𝑀𝐴𝑃𝐼𝑚 )
13-55
In SI units:
1
MAPKm = [3.9884×10−3 +1.432×10−4 ln(𝑀𝐴𝑃𝐼 −6
𝑚 +1000)−5.058×10 (ln(𝑀𝐴𝑃𝐼𝑚 +1000))3 ]
(more accurate)
13-56
1
MAPKm = (4.8173×10−3 −1.0622×10−4 𝑀𝐴𝑃𝐼0.3839)
𝑚
13-57
[231.53+0.3032 (𝑀𝐴𝑃𝐼𝑚 +1000)]
MAPKm = [1+8.46×10−4 (𝑀𝐴𝑃𝐼 −8 2 ]
𝑚 +1000)−7.56×10 (𝑀𝐴𝑃𝐼𝑚 +1000)
13-58
(1085344+2437 (MAPI𝑚 +1000)0.7407 )
MAPKm = (4770+(MAPI𝑚 +1000)0.7407 )
(least accurate)
13-59

13-21
Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Example 13-12
Applied to the previous example to calculate the aniline point, the above equations will yield,

Aniline point (°F)


Stock vol. frac. of blend Aniline point (ᵒF) Blending Index (Eq. 42/49) vol. frac. x index
A 0.5 70 347.2 173.6
B 0.3 160 855.2 256.6
C 0.2 40 (mixed) -424.1 -84.8
Total 1 345.4

→ from Eqn. 46 aniline point = 69.6 ⁰F


→ from Eqn. 55 mixed aniline point = 115.2 ⁰F

Aniline point (K)


Aniline point Blending Index
Stock vol. frac. of blend vol. frac. x index
(K) (Eq. 43/51)
A 0.5 294.4 346.2 173.1
B 0.3 344.4 855.3 256.6
C 0.2 277.8 -242.0 -84.8
Total 1 344.9

→ from Eqn. 47 aniline point = 294.2 K or 69.5 ⁰F


→ from Eqn. 56 mixed aniline point = 319.6 K or 115.3 ⁰F

Case Study: Refinery blending using optimization

Example 13-13:
Calculate the amount of each blending stock that would produce a 300,000 bbls gasoline
product with the flowing specifications, API = 70 min, ON = 95 min, RVP = 9 psig max
Available blends are as follows
Component bbls API ON RVP SG RVPI = RVP1.25
Tank 1 Reformate 500,000 70 94 10 0.7022 17.7828
Tank 2 Isomerate 400,000 69 92 9 0.7057 15.5885
Tank 3 Alkylate 600,000 72 96 8 0.6953 13.4543
Desired Blend 300,000 70 95 9 0.7022 15.5885

Solution:

Let
N1 = bbls of Tank 1 reformate
N2 = bbls of Tank 2 isomerate
N3 = bbls of Tank 3 alkylate

Objective function N1 + N2 + N3 = 300,000

Constraints:
N1 ≤ 500,000
N2 ≤ 400,000
N3 ≤ 600,000
N1, N2, N3 ≥ 0 (non-negativity)

13-22
Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

for API gravity 0.7022 X1 + 0.7057 X2 + 0.6953 X3 ≤ 0.7022


for ON 94 X1 + 92 X2 + 96 X3 ≥ 95
for RVP 17.7828 X1 + 15.5885 X2 + 13.4543 X3 ≥ 15.5885

where
X1 = n1/(n1+n2+n3)
X2 = n2/(n1+n2+n3)
X3 = n3/(n1+n2+n3)

Solver solution indicates that


N1 = 0
N2 = 59,970
N3 = 240,030

Blend properties
API = 71.4 (giveaway)
ON = 95.2
RVP = 8.2 psig

Figure 13-4: Product blending using linear programming and the solver function of Microsoft Excel.

13-23
Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Table 13-6: Factors for Volume Blending of Viscosities at Constant Temperatures


Corresponding to values of Kinematic Viscosity, Centistokes (cSt).

cSt
0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09

0.5 0.000 0.006 0.013 0.019 0.025 0.030 0.036 0.041 0.046 0.051
0.6 0.056 0.061 0.065 0.069 0.074 0.078 0.082 0.086 0.089 0.093
0.7 0.097 0.100 0.104 0.107 0.110 0.114 0.117 0.120 0.123 0.126
0.8 0.128 0.131 0.134 0.137 0.139 0.142 0.144 0.147 0.149 0.152
0.9 0.154 0.156 0.159 0.161 0.163 0.165 0.167 0.169 0.172 0.174

cSt
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

1 0.176 0.194 0.210 0.224 0.236 0.247 0.257 0.266 0.275 0.283
2 0.290 0.297 0.303 0.309 0.314 0.320 0.325 0.329 0.334 0.338
3 0.342 0.346 0.350 0.353 0.357 0.360 0.363 0.366 0.369 0.372
4 0.375 0.378 0.380 0.383 0.385 0.387 0.390 0.392 0.394 0.396
5 0.398 0.400 0.402 0.404 0.406 0.408 0.410 0.411 0.413 0.414
6 0.416 0.418 0.419 0.421 0.422 0.423 0.425 0.426 0.428 0.429
7 0.431 0.432 0.433 0.434 0.436 0.437 0.438 0.439 0.440 0.442
8 0.443 0.444 0.445 0.446 0.447 0.448 0.449 0.450 0.451 0.452
9 0.453 0.454 0.455 0.456 0.456 0.457 0.458 0.459 0.460 0.461

cSt
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 0.462 0.470 0.477 0.483 0.489 0.494 0.499 0.503 0.508 0.511
20 0.515 0.519 0.522 0.525 0.528 0.531 0.533 0.536 0.538 0.541
30 0.543 0.545 0.547 0.549 0.551 0.553 0.555 0.557 0.558 0.559
40 0.561 0.563 0.564 0.566 0.567 0.568 0.570 0.571 0.572 0.573
50 0.575 0.576 0.577 0.578 0.579 0.580 0.581 0.582 0.583 0.584
60 0.585 0.586 0.587 0.588 0.589 0.590 0.591 0.592 0.592 0.593
70 0.594 0.595 0.596 0.596 0.597 0.598 0.599 0.599 0.600 0.601
80 0.601 0.602 0.603 0.603 0.604 0.605 0.605 0.606 0.607 0.607
90 0.608 0.608 0.609 0.610 0.610 0.611 0.611 0.612 0.612 0.613

cSt
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

100 0.613 0.618 0.623 0.627 0.631 0.634 0.637 0.640 0.643 0.646
200 0.648 0.651 0.653 0.655 0.657 0.659 0.661 0.662 0.664 0.666
300 0.667 0.669 0.670 0.671 0.673 0.674 0.675 0.676 0.678 0.679
400 0.680 0.681 0.682 0.683 0.684 0.685 0.686 0.687 0.688 0.688
500 0.689 0.690 0.691 0.692 0.692 0.693 0.694 0.695 0.696 0.696
600 0.697 0.698 0.698 0.699 0.700 0.700 0.701 0.701 0.702 0.702
700 0.703 0.704 0.704 0.705 0.705 0.706 0.706 0.707 0.707 0.708
800 0.708 0.709 0.709 0.710 0.710 0.711 0.711 0.712 0.712 0.713
900 0.713 0.714 0.714 0.715 0.715 0.715 0.716 0.716 0.716 0.717

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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

cSt
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

1,000 0.717 0.721 0.724 0.727 0.730 0.733 0.735 0.737 0.739 0.741
2,000 0.743 0.745 0.747 0.748 0.750 0.751 0.752 0.754 0.755 0.756
3,000 0.757 0.758 0.759 0.761 0.762 0.763 0.764 0.765 0.765 0.766
4,000 0.767 0.768 0.769 0.770 0.770 0.771 0.772 0.772 0.773 0.774
5,000 0.775 0.775 0.776 0.777 0.778 0.778 0.778 0.779 0.779 0.780
6,000 0.780 0.781 0.781 0.782 0.782 0.783 0.783 0.784 0.784 0.785
7,000 0.785 0.786 0.786 0.787 0.787 0.787 0.788 0.788 0.789 0.790
8,000 0.790 0.790 0.790 0.791 0.791 0.791 0.792 0.792 0.792 0.793
9,000 0.793 0.794 0.794 0.794 0.795 0.795 0.795 0.796 0.796 0.796

cSt
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000

10,000 0.796 0.799 0.802 0.804 0.806 0.808 0.810 0.812 0.814 0.815
20,000 0.817 0.818 0.820 0.821 0.822 0.823 0.824 0.825 0.826 0.827
30,000 0.828 0.829 0.830 0.831 0.832 0.8330 0.833 0.834 0.835 0.836
40,000 0.836 0.837 0.838 0.838 0.839 .839 0.840 0.841 0.841 0.842
50,000 0.842 0.843 0.843 0.844 0.844 0.845 0.845 0.846 0.846 0.847
60,000 0.847 0.848 0.848 0.848 0.849 0.849 0.850 0.850 0.850 0.851
70,000 0.851
80,000 0.854
90,000 0.858

cSt cSt cSt

100,000 0.860 1,000,000 0.914 10,000,000 0.960


200,000 0.877 2,000,000 0.928 20,000,000 0.973
300,000 0.887 3,000,000 0.937 30,000,000 0.980
400,000 0.894 4,000,000 0.942 40,000,000 0.985
500,000 0.899 5,000,000 0.947 50,000,000 0.989
600,000 0.903 6,000,000 0.950 60,000,000 0.992
700,000 0.906 7,000,000 0.953 70,000,000 0.995
800,000 0.909 8,000,000 0.956 80,000,000 0.997
900,000 0.912 9,000,000 0.958 90,000,000 0.999

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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Table 13-7 Factors for Volume Blending of Viscosities at Constant Temperatures


Corresponding to values of Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS).

SUS
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

32 0.275 0.278 0.280 0.282 0.284 0.286 0.288 0.290 0.292 0.294
33 0.296 0.298 0.300 0.302 0.303 0.305 0.307 0.309 0.310 0.312
34 0.314 0.315 0.317 0.318 0.320 0.321 0.323 0.324 0.326 0.327
35 0.328 0.330 0.331 0.333 0.334 0.335 0.337 0.338 0.339 0.340
36 0.342 0.343 0.344 0.345 0.346 0.347 0.349 0.350 0.351 0.352
37 0.353 0.354 0.355 0.356 0.357 0.358 0.359 0.360 0.362 0.363
38 0.363 0.364 0.365 0.366 0.367 0.368 0.369 0.370 0.371 0.372
39 0.373 0.373 0.374 0.375 0.376 0.377 0.378 0.378 0.379 0.380

SUS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

40 0.381 0.388 0.395 0.402 0.408 0.413 0.418 0.423 0.428 0.431
50 0.435 0.439 0.442 0.445 0.449 0.451 0.454 0.457 0.459 0.462
60 0.464 0.466 0.469 0.471 0.473 0.475 0.476 0.478 0.480 0.482
70 0.483 0.485 0.486 0.488 0.489 0.491 0.492 0.493 0.495 0.496
80 0.497 0.498 0.499 0.501 0.502 0.503 0.504 0.505 0.506 0.507
90 0.508 0.509 0.510 0.511 0.512 0.513 0.513 0.514 0.515 0.516

SUS
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

100 0.517 0.524 0.531 0.537 0.542 0.547 0.551 0.555 0.559 0.562
200 0.565 0.568 0.571 0.574 0.576 0.579 0.581 0.583 0.585 0.587
300 0.589 0.591 0.593 0.595 0.596 0.598 0.600 0.601 0.603 0.604
400 0.605 0.607 0.608 0.609 0.611 0.612 0.613 0.614 0.615 0.616
500 0.617 0.618 0.619 0.620 0.621 0.622 0.623 0.624 0.625 0.626
600 0.627 0.628 0.628 0.629 0.630 0.631 0.632 0.632 0.633 0.634
700 0.635 0.635 0.636 0.637 0.637 0.638 0.639 0.639 0.640 0.640
800 0.641 0.642 0.642 0.643 0.643 0.644 0.645 0.645 0.646 0.646
900 0.647 0.647 0.648 0.648 0.649 0.649 0.650 0.650 0.651 0.651

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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

SUS
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

1,000 0.652 0.656 0.660 0.664 0.667 0.670 0.673 0.676 0.678 0.681
2,000 0.683 0.685 0.687 0.689 0.691 0.692 0.694 0.696 0.697 0.699
3,000 0.700 0.701 0.703 0.704 0.705 0.706 0.707 0.708 0.709 0.710
4,000 0.711 0.712 0.713 0.714 0.715 0.716 0.717 0.718 0.719 0.719
5,000 0.720 0.721 0.722 0.722 0.723 0.724 0.725 0.725 0.726 0.726
6,000 0.727 0.728 0.728 0.729 0.729 0.730 0.731 0.731 0.732 0.732
7,000 0.733 0.733 0.734 0.734 0.735 0.735 0.736 0.736 0.737 0.737
8,000 0.738 0.738 0.739 0.739 0.740 0.740 0.740 0.741 0.741 0.742
9,000 0.742 0.742 0.743 0.743 0.744 0.744 0.744 0.745 0.745 0.745

SUS
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000

10,000 0.746 0.749 0.752 0.755 0.758 0.760 0.762 0.764 0.766 0.768
20,000 0.770 0.771 0.773 0.774 0.776 0.777 0.778 0.779 0.781 0.782
30,000 0.783 0.784 0.785 0.786 0.787 0.788 0.789 0.790 0.790 0.791
40,000 0.792 0.793 0.793 0.794 0.795 0.795 0.796 0.797 0.797 0.798
50,000 0.799 0.799 0.800 0.800 0.801 0.802 0.802 0.803 0.803 0.804
60,000 0.804 0.805 0.805 0.806 0.806 0.807 0.807 0.807 0.808 0.808

SUS SUS SUS SUS

70,000 0.809 100,000 0.819 1,000,000 0.879 10,000,000 0.930


80,000 0.813 200,000 0.838 2,000,000 0.895 20,000,000 0.944
90,000 0.816 300,000 0.849 3,000,000 0.904 30,000,000 0.952
400,000 0.856 4,000,000 0.911 40,000,000 0.957
500,000 0.862 5,000,000 0.915 50,000,000 0.961
600,000 0.867 6,000,000 0.919 60,000,000 0.965
700,000 0.870 7,000,000 0.923 70,000,000 0.968
800,000 0.874 8,000,000 0.925 80,000,000 0.970
900,000 0.877 9,000,000 0.928 90,000,000 0.972

13-27
Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Table 13-8 Factors for Volume Blending of Viscosities at 130 °F corresponding to values of
Saybolt Furol Seconds (SFS) at 122 °F.

SFS at
122 °F 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

20 0.558 0.561 0.563 0.566 0.568


30 0.570 0.572 0.574 0.576 0.578 0.580 0.582 0.584 0.585 0.587
40 0.588 0.590 0.591 0.593 0.594 0.595 0.597 0.598 0.599 0.600
50 0.601 0.602 0.604 0.605 0.606 0.607 0.608 0.609 0.610 0.610
60 0.611 0.612 0.613 0.614 0.615 0.616 0.616 0.617 0.618 0.619
70 0.619 0.620 0.621 0.622 0.622 0.623 0.624 0.624 0.625 0.626
80 0.626 0.627 0.627 0.628 0.629 0.629 0.630 0.630 0.631 0.632
90 0.632 0.633 0.633 0.634 0.634 0.635 0.635 0.636 0.636 0.637

SFS at
122 °F 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

100 0.637 0.642 0.646 0.649 0.653 0.656 0.659 0.661 0.664 0.666
200 0.669 0.671 0.673 0.675 0.676 0.678 0.680 0.681 0.683 0.684
300 0.686 0.687 0.688 0.689 0.691 0.692 0.693 0.694 0.695 0.696
400 0.697 0.698 0.699 0.700 0.701 0.702 0.703 0.703 0.704 0.705
500 0.706 0.707 0.707 0.708 0.709 0.710 0.710 0.711 0.712 0.712
600 0.713 0.713 0.714 0.715 0.715 0.716 0.716 0.717 0.718 0.718
700 0.719 0.719 0.720 0.720 0.721 0.721 0.722 0.722 0.723 0.723
800 0.724 0.724 0.724 0.725 0.725 0.726 0.726 0.727 0.727 0.727
900 0.728 0.728 0.729 0.729 0.729 0.730 0.730 0.730 0.731 0.731

SFS at
122 °F 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

1000 0.732 0.735 0.738 0.741 0.743 0.746 0.748 0.750 0.752 0.754
2000 0.755 0.757 0.759 0.760 0.761 0.763 0.764 0.764 0.766 0.767
3000 0.769 0.770 0.771 0.772 0.773 0.773 0.775 0.775 0.776 0.777

4000 0.778 Notes:


5000 0.784 Values from this table are for 130 ºF, although the Saybolt Furol seconds are at
6000 0.790 122 ºF. This table alone must not be used for any other temperatures. Values
7000 0.795 from this table may be used interchangeably with values for kinematic and
8000 0.798 Saybolt Universal viscosities if the latter are for 130 ºF.
9000 0.802
For SFS at 210 ºF, assume SUS – 10 x SFS and use the Saybolt Universal table.

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Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Table 13-9: Flash Point Blending Index Numbers.


Flash Point,
°F 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 168,000 157,000 147,000 137,000 128,000 120,000 112,000 105,000 98,600 92,400
10 86,600 81,200 76,100 71,400 67,000 62,900 59,000 55,400 52,100 49,000
20 46,000 43,300 40,700 38,300 36,100 34,000 32,000 30,100 28,400 26,800
30 25,200 23,800 22,400 21,200 20,000 18,900 17,800 16,800 15,900 15,000
40 14,200 13,500 12,700 12,000 11,400 10,800 10,200 9,680 9,170 8,690
50 8,240 7,810 7,410 7,030 6,670 6,330 6,010 5,700 5,420 5,150
60 4,890 4,650 4,420 4,200 4,000 3,800 3,620 3,441 3,280 3,120
70 2,970 2,830 2,700 2,570 2,450 2,330 2,230 2,120 2,020 1,930
80 1,840 1,760 1,680 1,600 1,530 1,460 1,400 1,340 1,280 1,220
90 1,170 1,120 1,070 1,020 978 935 896 857 821 786
100 753 722 692 662 635 609 584 560 537 515
110 495 475 456 438 420 404 388 372 358 344
120 331 318 305 294 283 272 261 252 242 233
130 224 216 305 200 193 186 179 172 166 160
140 154 149 144 138 134 129 124 120 116 112
150 108 104 101 97.1 93.8 90.6 87.5 84.6 81.7 79.0
160 76.3 73.8 71.4 69.0 66.7 64.5 62.4 60.4 58.4 56.5
170 54.7 52.9 51.3 49.6 48.0 46.5 45.1 43.6 42.3 40.9
180 39.7 38.4 37.3 36.1 35.0 33.9 32.9 31.9 30.9 30.0
190 29.1 28.2 27.4 26.6 25.8 25.0 24.3 23.6 22.9 22.2
200 21.6 20.9 20.3 19.7 19.2 18.6 18.1 17.6 17.1 16.6
210 16.1 15.7 15.2 14.8 14.4 14.0 13.6 13.3 12.9 12.5
220 12.2 11.9 11.6 11.2 10.9 10.6 10.4 10.1 9.82 9.56
230 9.31 9.07 8.83 8.60 8.37 8.16 7.95 7.74 7.55 7.85
240 7.16 6.98 6.80 6.63 6.47 6.30 6.15 5.99 5.84 5.70
250 5.56 5.42 5.29 5.16 5.03 4.91 4.79 4.68 4.56 4.45
260 4.35 4.24 4.14 4.04 3.95 3.86 3.76 3.68 3.59 3.51
270 3.43 3.35 3.27 3.19 3.12 3.05 2.98 2.91 2.85 2.78
280 2.72 2.66 2.60 2.54 2.48 2.43 2.37 2.32 2.27 2.22
290 2.17 2.12 2.08 2.03 1.99 1.95 1.90 1.86 1.82 1.79

Flash Point,
°F 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

300 1.75 1.41 1.15 0.943 0.777 0.643 0.535 0.448 0.376 0.317
400 0.269 0.229 0.196 0.168 0.145 0.125 0.108 0.094 0.082 0.072
500 0.063 0.056 0.049 0.044 0.039 0.035 0.031 0.028 0.025 0.022

13-29
Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Table 13-10: Aniline Point Blending Index Numbers.


Aniline Point, 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9
°F
-10 20.0 17.4 14.9 12.6 10.3 8.10 6.06 4.17 2.46 1.00
0 49.1 46.0 42.8 39.8 36.8 33.8 30.9 28.1 25.3 22.6
Aniline Point, 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
°F
0 49.1 52.4 55.6 58.9 62.3 65.7 69.1 72.6 76.1 79.6
10 83.2 86.8 90.5 94.2 97.9 102 105 109 113 117
20 121 125 129 133 137 141 145 149 153 157
30 162 166 170 174 179 183 187 192 196 200
40 205 209 214 218 223 227 232 237 241 246
50 250 255 260 264 269 274 279 283 288 293
60 298 303 308 312 317 322 327 332 337 342
70 347 352 357 362 367 372 377 382 388 393
80 398 403 408 414 419 424 429 435 440 445
90 451 456 461 467 472 477 483 488 494 491
100 505 510 516 521 527 532 538 543 549 554
110 560 566 571 577 582 588 594 599 605 611
120 617 622 628 634 640 645 651 657 663 669
130 674 680 686 692 698 704 710 716 722 727
140 733 739 745 751 757 763 769 775 781 788
150 794 800 806 812 818 824 830 836 842 849
160 855 861 867 873 880 886 892 898 904 911
170 917 923 930 936 942 948 955 961 967 974
180 980 986 993 999 1,006 1,012 1,019 1,025 1,031 1,038
190 1,044 1,050 1,057 1,064 1,070 1,077 1,083 1,090 1,096 1,103
200 1,110 1,116 1,122 1,129 1,136 1,142 1,149 1,156 1,162 1,169
210 1,176 1,182 1,189 1,196 1,202 1,209 1,216 1,222 1,229 1,236
220 1,242 1,249 1,256 1,262 1,269 1,276 1,283 1,290 1,297 1,303
230 1,310 1,317 1,324 1,331 1,337 1,344 1,351 1,358 1,365 1,372
240 1,379 1,386 1,392 1,400 1,406 1,413 1,420 1,427 1,434 1,441
Mixed Aniline
Point, °F 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 -736 -730 -723 -716 -709 -703 -696 -689 -682 -675
10 -668 -660 -653 -646 -639 -631 -623 -616 -608 -600
20 -593 -584 -577 -569 -561 -552 -544 -536 -528 -519
30 -511 -503 -494 -486 -477 -468 -460 -451 -442 -433
40 -425 -416 -407 -398 -389 -380 -371 -361 -352 -343
50 -334 -324 -315 -306 -296 -287 -277 -267 -258 -248
60 -239 -229 -219 -210 -200 -190 -180 -170 -160 -150
70 -140 -130 -120 -110 -100 -89.6 -79.4 -69.2 -58.9 -48.6
80 -38.3 -27.9 -17.5 -7.06 3.39 13.9 24.4 35.0 45.5 56.1
90 66.8 77.4 88.1 98.8 110 120 131 142 153 164
100 175 186 197 208 219 230 241 252 263 274
110 285 297 308 319 330 342 353 364 376 387
120 399 410 422 433 445 456 468 479 491 503
130 514 526 538 550 561 573 585 597 609 620
140 632 644 656 668 680 692 704 716 728 741

13-30
Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Table 13-11: Pour Point Blending Indices for Distillate Stocks


ASTM 50% Temp

300 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 525 550 575 600 625 650 675 700
Pour
Point
70 133 131 129 128 127 125 123 120 118 115 113 110 108 105 103 100
65 114 111 109 107 105 103 101 98 96 94 91 88 85 82 79 76
60 99 94 92 90 87 85 82 80 77 74 72 69 67 64 62 60
55 88 79 77 75 73 71 68 66 63 61 58 56 53 50 48 46
50 72 68 66 63 61 59 56 54 52 49 47 44 42 39 37 35
45 60 56 54 52 50 48 46 44 42 40 38 35 33 31 29 27
40 52 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 21
35 44 41 39 37 35 33 32 30 28 26 24 23 21 19 18 16
30 37 34 32 31 29 27 26 24 23 21 19 18 16 15 14 13
25 32 29 27 26 24 23 21 20 18 17 15 14 13 12 11 10
20 27 24 23 21 20 19 17 16 15 14 12 11 10 9.1 8.3 7.5
15 23 20 19 18 17 16 14 13 12 11 10 9.0 8.1 7.2 6.4 5.8
10 20 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 9.8 8.8 8.0 7.1 6.3 5.6 5.0 4.5
5 17 15 14 13 12 11 9.7 8.8 7.9 7.1 6.3 5.6 5.0 4.4 3.8 3.5
0 14 12 11 10 9.6 8.7 7.9 7.1 6.3 5.6 5.0 4.4 3.8 3.4 3.0 2.7
-5 12 10 9.5 8.7 8.0 7.2 6.5 5.8 5.1 4.5 3.9 3.4 3.0 2.7 2.4 2.1
-10 10 8.8 8.0 7.3 6.6 5.9 5.3 4.7 4.1 3.6 3.2 2.8 2.5 2.2 1.9 1.6
-15 8.8 7.4 6.8 6.1 5.5 4.9 4.4 3.9 3.4 3.0 2.6 2.2 1.9 1.7 1.4 1.2
-20 7.5 6.3 5.7 5.1 4.6 4.1 3.6 3.2 2.8 2.4 2.1 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.1 0.94
-25 6.4 5.3 4.7 4.2 3.7 3.3 2.9 2.5 2.2 1.9 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.90 0.72
-30 5.5 4.5 4.0 3.6 3.2 2.8 2.4 2.1 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.1 0.96 0.80 0.67 0.56
-35 4.6 3.7 3.3 2.9 2.6 2.3 2.0 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.90 0.75 0.62 0.51 0.43
-40 4.0 3.2 2.8 2.5 2.2 1.9 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.86 0.73 0.62 0.51 0.41 0.33
-45 3.3 2.7 2.4 2.1 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.1 0.98 0.82 0.68 0.58 0.48 0.38 0.31 0.25
-50 2.8 2.3 2.0 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.1 0.93 0.78 0.66 0.56 0.47 0.38 0.31 0.25 0.20
-55 2.5 1.9 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.1 0.90 0.77 0.65 0.55 0.46 0.37 0.30 0.24 0.19 0.15
-60 2.1 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.87 0.74 0.62 0.52 0.43 0.36 0.30 0.24 0.19 0.14 0.10
-65 1.8 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.85 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.41 0.34 0.28 0.23 0.18 0.14 0.10 0.07
-70 1.5 1.1 0.99 0.84 0.71 0.60 0.50 0.42 0.36 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.11 0.08 0.05

From Gary & Handwerk

Online Blending
• Many refineries today can use computer-controlled in-line product blending. This
saves on storage tanks that would otherwise be used for blending.
• Inventories of blending stocks, together with cost and physical property data are
maintained in the computer.
• When a certain volume of a given quality product is specified, the computer uses
linear programming models to optimize the blending operations (select the optimum
volume of blending components) to produce the required product at the lowest cost.
• To ensure that the blended streams meet the desired specifications, stream analyzers,
such as boiling point, specific gravity, RVP, and RON and RON are installed to
provide feedback control of blending streams and additives (if necessary).
• Blending components to meet all critical specifications most economically is an
iterative procedure which is easily handled by a computer.
• Nonlinear programming is preferred over linear if sufficient data are available to
define the equations because components blend non-linearly.
• Optimization programs (like PIMS for example) permit the computer to provide the
optimum blend to minimize cost and maximize profit

13-31
Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Figure 13-5: Refinery online blending facilities

Figure 13-6: Schematic representation of the online blending system for diesel product

Figure 13-7: Tank farm in a petroleum refinery with floating roof tanks

13-32
Petroleum Refining – Chapter 13: Blending Prof. Tareq Albahri 2018 Kuwait University Chemical Engineering

Problems

1. Using values from Table 12.1, calculate the number of barrels of n-butane that have to be added to a
mixture of 1250 barrels of HSR gasoline, 750 barrels of LSR gasoline, and 620 barrels of C 5 FCC
gasoline to produce a 9 psi Reid vapor pressure. What are the research and motor octane numbers of the
blend?
2. For the blend of components in problem 1, what would be the posted octane number of the 9.0 psi RVP
gasoline if 10 vol% MTBE was added to the gasoline mixture?
3. Calculate the amount of n - butane needed to produce a 12.5 psi RVP for a mixture of 2730 barrels of
LSR gasoline, 2490 barrels of 94 RON reformate, 6100 barrels of heavy hydrocrackate, and 3600 barrels
of C 5 + FCC gasoline. How much ETBE must be added to produce a 90 RON product? Calculate the
RVP of the final blend.
4. What is the flash point of a mixture of 2500 barrels of oil with a flashpoint of 120°F, 3750 barrels with
a flashpoint of 35°F, and 5000 barrels with a 150°F flashpoint?
5. Calculate the pour point of the following mixture:

ASTM 50%
Component Barrels temp., °F Pour point, °F
A 5,200 575 10
B 3,000 425 50
C 6,500 500 65
D 3,250 550 45

6. What is the viscosity of a blend of 2000 barrels of oil with a viscosity of 75.5 cSt at 130°F, 3000 barrels with
225 cSt at 130°F, and 5000 barrels with 6500 cSt at 130°F?
7. Calculate the octane numbers of the final blend and amount of n-butane needed for producing a 9.5 psi RVP
gasoline from 5100 BPSD of LSR gasoline, 3000 BPSD light hydrocrackate, 4250 BPSD alkylate, 10,280
BPSD heavy hydrocrackate, 14,500 BPSD FCC C 5+ gasoline, 14,200 BPSD of 96 RON reformate, and 2500
BPSD of polymer gasoline.
8. Recommend the best method for increasing the clear posted octane number of the pool gasoline in
problem 7 by 3 numbers. Estimate the cost involved. Assume any necessary processing units are
available and have the necessary capacity.
9. Calculate the number of barrels of n-butane that have to be added to a mixture of 1000 barrels of light
thermal gasoline, 1000 barrels of polymer gasoline, and 1000 barrels of C 4= alkylate to produce a
gasoline product having 10 psi Reid vapor pressure.
10. What is the posted octane number and Reid vapor pressure of the gasoline product of problem 3?
11. Calculate the clear octane numbers (RON and MON) and the amount of butane needed for a 12.0 psi RVP
gasoline produced from the following:

Belding component BPSD


LSR naphtha 4,200
Light hydrocrackate 1,800
C 5+ alkylate 4,500
Heavy hydrocrackate 9,150
Reformate (94 RON) 11,500
C 5+ FCC gasoline 15,600

12. Recommend the best method (lowest capital cost) for increasing the posted octane number of the pool
gasoline in problem 11 by 5.5 octane numbers. Estimate the size of the unit and its 1994 construction cost.

HW solve problems 3, 5, 6, 10

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