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1.4.1 Aeroacoustic measurements by Thomas J. Mueller
He observed the Aeroacoustic response of the microphone used when its directivity is in
the form of angle of flow cone. Initial tests were on drive fan, air ducts then further carried over
propellers. Determining the background noise, they tested in closed environment where the test
and setup were in a semi-anechoic wind tunnel.
Carried out the test with a duct inside closed environment. For a propeller, we placed the
microphone in linear direction and recorded the sound through software’s.Plotted graphs even
for radial positions around the propeller. Preferred to project in a fully anechoic chamber.
Using various types of propellers, we determined frequency response with respect to the
distance from axis. Each and every propeller had different size, shape. We required a 3-blade
propeller and 2-blade propellers. Where the 2-blade propellers size varies.
Plotting the frequency graphs were based on the post processing method that is FFT.
Varying the positions in an axis and distance gives the directivity information for the propeller.
Through this we were able to determine the sensitivity of the microphone which we used for test
and experiment purpose.
Aeroacoustic study of fluid-mechanically-generated sound (aero sound) has become an
important research endeavor because of the growing need to control aircraft and automobile
noise. Research in aeroacoustics has expanded with the development of special wind tunnels
designed for experimental simulations. Government, industry and university researchers have
developed new laboratories and modified existing facilities to study aircraft and automotive
noise. Because both closed-test section and open-jet wind tunnels are used to simulate noise
generating vehicles in motion, the opportunity exists for acoustic measurements both in airstream
and out of airstream.
In this we discuss the methods for using microphones in wind tunnels to measure sound.
Acoustic measurements require low background noise and minimal acoustic reflections for
accurate results, requirements that are difficult in most wind tunnels. Typical sources of wind
tunnel background noise are described including drive fans, apparatus support struts, shear
layers, microphones. Techniques for minimizing microphone self-noise and analyzing acoustic
data are described. Propagation effects in flow and through open-jet shear layers are discussed
along with methods to scale and extrapolate model data.
Related to the problem of microphone self-noise is the classic challenge of recording
voice communications that are masked by wind noise. This discusses the methods to deal with
this problem by using technologies developed to minimize flow noise on microphones in wind
1.4.2 Design of fully Anechoic chamber by Roman Rusz
In this book the design and fabrication of anechoic chamber were to be considered. They
used Wedge shaped foam with large thickness for gaining less sound pressure level. We
preferred pyramidal shaped foam with less thickness to obtain less sound pressure level.
This documented to design fully anechoic chamber according to acoustics laws and
customer requirements. The fully anechoic chamber will be used for measuring sound and
vibration quantities.
This work is divided into two main parts. The first part deals with the general anechoic
chamber theory and all its related design aspects. The second part, practical part, focus on
specific design according to requirements. The design of the chamber was performed using
advanced design methods.
The design of anechoic chamber contained the minimal requirements which satisfied
those aspects with the use of wood materials in low cost. The internal room contains the sound
proofing system where the foam used to be was acoustic in nature even fire retardant.
Probably the best natural testing environment is outside with no boundaries to cause
reflections. However, temperature, pressure, humidity, wind and external noises may
significantly and unpredictably disturb the uniform radiation of sound waves. To eliminate or to
control a fore mentioned difficulties the special acoustic room, called anechoic chamber, has to
be designed.
The anechoic is defined as “free from echoes or reverberation”. An ideal chamber would
contain no reflections from its walls, ceiling, or floor and an acoustical free-field condition
would exist. 99% of sound waves are absorbed by the specially designed absorption lining.
In order to increase the measurement precision, the background sound pressure level
inside the anechoic chamber should be very low. To fulfill the background sound pressure limit,
the chamber needs to be insulated from external noises which implies an excellent walls, floor,
ceiling and absorption lining design.
A practical anechoic chamber is expected to provide not only an acoustical free field, but
also an environment which meets other requirements, including the control of temperature,
pressure, humidity and ambient sound pressure level. Inside a well-designed and executed
anechoic chamber it is possible to make precise acoustical measurements of the sound output and
frequency content of a source and its directivity pattern.
The measurement of sound and vibration is not an easy task and the special acoustic
conditions have to be fulfilled to perform the correct measurement. In order to meet the special
requirements for sound and vibration correct measurement, the anechoic chamber has to be
The most important assumption for precise sound and vibration measurement,
consequently, the most important design parameter in anechoic chamber design is the acoustic
free field condition. The acoustic free field condition depends on many aspects, which should be
take into consideration in anechoic chamber’s design. In this thesis not only, acoustic laws had to
be followed but also customer requirements had to be satisfied.
Acoustic pyramidal design is one of many design parameters to which the special
attention should be paid. For the pyramidal design the Finite Element Method was used. Finally,
the mineral wool was chosen for foam manufacturing.
After the design of the other elements of the chamber, such as inlets, electrical wiring,
lights, etc. the chamber is going to be built and validated.

1.4.3 Handbook of Noise Measurement by Arnold P.G. Peterson

This book gives the details of sound, noise, vibration then about the microphones and
sound level meters are also obtained with the techniques, precautions and calibrations. Which
sets to develop and test the setup with post processing methods.
During the past decade more and more people have become concerned with the
Problemof noisein everyday life. Thereis dangerof permanenthearinglosswhenexposure to an
intense sound field is long and protective measures are not taken.This is important to millions of
workers, tomost industrial corporations, laborunions, and insurance companies. The
noiseproblemnear manyairports has become so serious that manypeoplehave moved out of
nearby areas that wereonce considered pleasant. The din ofhigh-powered trucks, motorcycles,
and "hot" cars annoys nearly everyone, andone cannot so readily move away from them as from
the airport, because they arealmost everywhere.

The increasingly largenumberof peopleliving in apartments, and the relativelylight

construction of most modern dwellings, has accentuated the problems ofsound isolation. In
addition, some of the modern appliances, for exampledishwashers, are noisy for relatively long
periods, which can be very vexing, if itinterferes with a favorite TV program.Lack of proper
sound isolationand acoustical treatment in the classroommaylead to excessive noiselevels and
reverberation, with resulting difficulties in communication between teacher and class. The school
teacher's job may becomeanightmare because the design was inadequate or altered to save onthe
initial costof the classroom.

High-power electronic amplifiers have brought deafening "music" within thereach of

everyone, arid many youngpeoplemayeventuallyregret the hearing lossthat is accelerated by
frequent exposure to the extremely loud music they findstimulating.Of all these problems, noise-
induced hearing loss is the most serious. Thosewho are regularly exposed to excessive noise
should have their hearing checkedperiodically, to determine if they are adequately protected. In
addition, for this problem as well as theothers mentioned, reduction of noise at its source is often

The furtherstep of providing direct protection for the individual may also be
needed.Much can be done by work on noise sources to reduce the seriousness of thesenoise
problems. It is not often so simple as turning down the volume control onthe electronic amplifier.
But good mufflers are available for trucks, motorcyclesand automobiles; and household
appliances can be made quieter by the use ofproper treatment for vibrating surfaces, adequately
sized pipes and smootherchannels for water flow, vibration-isolation mounts, and mufflers. The
engineering techniques for dealing with noise are developing rapidly, and every designershould
be alert to using them.

In many instances, the quieter product can function as well as the noisier one,and the
increased cost of reducing the noise may be minor. But the aircraft-noiseproblem is an example
where the factors of safety, performance, and cost must allbe considered in determining the
relativebenefitsto the public of changesmadeto cut down the noise.

In any of these, sound-measuring instruments and systems can help to assess the nature of
the problemandthey canhelpin determining what to do to subdue the troublesome noise.
The study of mechanical vibration is closely related to that of sound, because sound is produced
by the transferof mechanical vibration to air. Hencethe process of quieting a machine or device
often includes a study of the vibrationsinvolved.

Conversely, high-energy acoustical noise, such as generated by powerful jet orrocket

engines, can produce vibrations that can weaken structural members of avehicle or cause
electronic components to fail.Other important effects of vibration include: human discomfort and
fatiguefrom excessive vibration of a vehicle, fatigue and rupture of structural members,and
increased maintenance of machines, appliances, vehicles, and other devices.Vibration, then, is a
sourcenot only of noise, annoyance, and discomfort, butoften of danger as well.

The present refinement of high-speed planes, ships, andautomobiles could never have
been achieved without thorough measurement andstudy of mechanical vibration.The instruments
used in sound and vibration measurement are mainly electronic. Furthermore, some of the
concepts and techniques developed by electronics engineers andphysicists fordealing
withrandom orinterfering signals (forwhich they haveborrowed theterm"noise") are nowusedin

The purpose of this book is to helpthosewho are faced, possibly for the firsttime, with the
necessity of making noisemeasurements. It attempts to clarifytheterminology and definitions
used in these measurements, to describe the measuring instruments and their use, to aidthe
prospective user in selecting the properequipment for the measurements he must make, and to
showhow these measurements can be interpreted to solve typical problems.

1.4.4Aircraft Noise by Dr. K. Srinivasan, Department of Mechanical

Engineering IIT Madras
This book reported the difference of sound and noise is then further simplified as the
impact of noise by classifying them according to the plot that is the frequency Vs PSD graph.

Types of jet noise are Turbulent Mixing Noise (Broadband in nature) and Shock
Associated Noise. There will be other two noise they are Broadband Shock Associated Noise
(BSAN) and Discrete Frequency Screech. The rest all are noise from small scale turbulence that
is due to boundary layer formation.
Impacts of noise depends on intensity, frequency and duration or exposure. Creates
interference, hearing loss which may be permanent or temporary. Induces stress, cardio vascular
problems. Determining sound pressure level gives external damage which is minute or minimal.

Commonly measured acoustic quantities are sound pressure, directivity, sound intensity,
sound power, acoustic impedance. Sound power measurement is of two ways one is direct and
other is indirect. We construct anechoic chamber to determine sound pressure and sound
intensity in the free field.

Reverberant field is different from free field and hence the anechoic chamber is designed
in free field fabricated with pyramidal shape acoustic foam or sound proof foam. Anechoicity
depends on pyramid’s shape, material then volume of the room and placement of source or
microphone location.