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CE-4101, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203

CE 4101
Project Planning and Construction Management
Management:
A set of activities (including planning and decision making, organizing, leading and control) directed at
an organisations’ resources (human, financial, physical and information) with the aim of achieving
organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner (R. W. Griffin).
Management is the process for determining utilization of scare resources.

Project:
A Project is usually a one-time activity with a well-defined set of desired end results, complex enough
that the subtasks required careful coordination and control in terms of timing, precedence, cost and
performance.
A number of definitions of the term ‘project’ have been proposed, and some are presented below.
 The Project Management Institute (PMI), USA, define a project as ‘a temporary endeavour
undertaken to create a unique product or service’.
 The UK Association for Project Management defines a project as ‘a discrete undertaking with
define objectives often including time, cost and quality (performance) goals’.
 The British Standards Institute (BS6079) defines a project as ‘a unique set of coordinated
activities, with definite starting and finishing points, undertaken by an individual or organisation
to meet specific objectives with defined schedule, cost and performance parameters’.
From the above definitions, it may be concluded that a project has the following characteristics:
o It is temporary, having a start and a finish;
o It is unique in some way;
o It has specific objectives;
o It is the cause and means of change;
o In involves risk and uncertainty;
o In involves the commitment of human, materials and financial resources.

Distinct Stages of Project:


- Planning
- Implementation
- Co-ordination
- Monitoring
- Completion

Characteristics of a Project:
A project must have
- Specific Objective

Md. Khalekuzzaman, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203


CE-4101, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203

- A start and end date


- A budgetary constraints
- An ‘owner’/’sponsor’
- Produces specific deliverables
- Legal and contract obligations
It can vary vastly in size, complication and duration
It may be a phase within a large project or a phase within a program
Project management is therefore managing within these constraints.
It also involves
- Managing information
- Problem solving
- Managing risk
- Managing resources
- Monitoring & Controlling
Each project has a beginning and an end, and hence it is said to have a life-cycle. A typical life-cycle is
defined by Wearne (1995) and shown in Figure below. The durations of the stages vary from project to
project, and delays sometimes occur between one stage and the next. Stages can also over-lap. Figure
below shows the sequence in which the stages should be started. This is not meant to show that one
must be completed before the next is started. However, the objective of the sequence should be to
produce a useful result, so that the propose of the each stage should be to allow the next to proceed.

Figure: Project Life Cycle

Md. Khalekuzzaman, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203


CE-4101, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203

Project Management:
Project Management is the act of directing and coordinating human and material resources throughout
the life of a project to achieve predetermined objectives of Scope, Quality, Effort, Risk and Time.

Quality

Effort Time
Project

Scope Risk

Figure: Project Management


The definition of project management stems from the definition of a project, and implies some form of
control over the planned process of explicit change.

 The PMI defines project management as ‘the art of directing and coordinating human and
materials resources through the life of a project by using modern management techniques to
achieve pre-determined goals of scope, cost, time, quality and participant satisfaction’.
 The UK Association for Project Management defines it as ‘the planning, organization, monitoring
and control of all aspects of a project and the motivation of all involved to achieve project
objectives safely and within agreed time, cost and performance criteria’.
 The British Standards Institute (BS6079) defines it as ‘the planning, monitoring and control of all
aspects of a project and the motivation of all those involved to achieve the project objectives on
time and to cost, quality and performance’.

Objective of Project Management:


 To ensure that the various project elements are effectively coordinated.
 To ensure that all the work required (and only the required work) is included.
 To provide an effective project schedule.
 To identify needed resources and maintain budget control.
 To ensure functional requirements are met.
 To development and effectively employ project personnel.
 To ensure effective internal and external communications.
 To analyze and mitigate potential risks.
 To obtain necessary resources from external sources.

Md. Khalekuzzaman, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203


CE-4101, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203

Levels of Management:
In organizations, there are generally three different levels of managers: first-level managers, middle-
level managers, and top-level managers. These levels of managers are classified in a hierarchy of
importance and authority, and are also arranged by the different types of management tasks that each
role does. In many organizations, the number of managers in every level resembles a pyramid, in which
the first-level has many more managers than middle-level and top-level managers, respectively. Each
management level is explained below in specifications of their different responsibilities and likely job
titles.

 Top-Level Managers: Typically consist of Board of Directors, President, Vice President, Chief
Executive Officers, etc. These individuals are mainly responsible for controlling and overseeing
all the departments in the organization. They develop goals, strategic pans, and policies for the
company, as well as make many decisions on the direction of the business. In addition, top-level
managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources and are for the most
part responsible for the shareholders and general public.
 Middle-Level Managers: Typically consist of General Managers, Branch Managers, Department
Managers, etc. These individuals are mainly responsible to the top management for the
functioning of their department. They devote more time to organizational and directional
functions. Their roles can be emphasized as executing plans of the organization in conformance
with the company’s policies and the objectives of the top management, and most importantly
they inspire and provide guidance to lover level managers towards better performance.
 First-Level Managers: Typically consist of Supervisors, Section Officers, Foreman, etc. These
individuals focus more on the controlling and direction of management functions. For instance,
they assign tasks and jobs to employees, guide and supervise employees on day-to-day
activities, log after the quantity and quality of the production of the company, make
recommendations, suggestions, and communicate employee problems to the higher level
above, etc. In this level manager’s are the “image builders” of the company considering they are
the only ones who have direct contact with employees.

First-Level Managers:

 Basic supervision.
 Motivation
 Career planning.
 Performance feedback.

Middle-Level Managers:

 Designing and implementing effective group and intergroup work and information systems.

Md. Khalekuzzaman, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203


CE-4101, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203

 Defining and monitoring group-level performance indicators.


 Diagnosing and resolving problems within and among work groups.
 Designing and implementing rewards systems that support cooperative behaviour.
 Like the guy from the show “The Office”.

Top-Level Managers:

 Broadening their understanding of how factors such as competition, world economies, politics,
and social trends influence the effectiveness of the organization.

Md. Khalekuzzaman, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203


CE-4101, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203

The Principles of Management:


Management principles are guidelines for the decisions and actions of managers. They were derived
through observation and analysis of events faced in actual practice.
The Principles of Management are the essential, underlying factors that form the foundations of
successful management. According to [Henri Fayol]

in his book General and Industrial Management (1916), there are fourteen
'principles

of management'. These can be used to initiate and aid the processes of change, organization, decision
making, skill management and the overall view of the management function.

Division of Work
The specialization of the workforce according to the skills of a person, creating specific personal and
professional development within the labor force and therefore increasing productivity; leads to
specialization which increases the efficiency of labor. By separating a small part of work, the workers
speed and accuracy in its performance increases. This principle is applicable to both technical as well as
managerial work. This can be made useful in case of project works too. Planning is to decide what to do
before.

Authority and Responsibility


The issue of commands followed by responsibility for their consequences. Authority means the right of a
superior to give enhance order to his subordinates; responsibility means obligation for performance.
This principle suggests that there must be parity between authority and responsibility. They are co-
existent and go together, and are two sides of the same coin. and the authority must be commensurate
with responsibility

Discipline
Discipline refers to obedience, proper conduct in relation to others, respect of authority, etc. It is
essential for the smooth functioning of all organizations. This will also help shape the culture inside the
organization. Discipline is absolutely necessary functioning of all enterprises.

Unity of Command
This principle states that every subordinate should receive orders and be accountable to one and only
one superior. If an employee receives orders from more than one superior, it is likely to create confusion
and conflict. Unity of Command also makes it easier to fix responsibility for mistakes.

Md. Khalekuzzaman, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203


CE-4101, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203

Unity of Direction
All those working in the same line of activity must understand and pursue the same objectives. All
related activities should be put under one group, there should be one plan of action for them, and they
should be under the control of one manager.
It seeks to ensure unity of action, focusing of efforts and coordination of strength.

Subordination of Individual Interest


The management must put aside personal considerations and put company objectives first. Therefore
the interests of goals of the organization must prevail over the personal interests of individuals.

Remuneration
Workers must be paid sufficiently as this is a chief motivation of employees and therefore greatly
influences productivity. The quantum and methods of remuneration payable should be fair, reasonable
and rewarding of effort. Remuneration is paid to worker as per their capacity and productivity. The main
objective of an organization is to maximize the wealth and the net profit as well. For this purpose, the
organization has paid wages, salary, and benefit to their staff properly and scientifically so that
organizational efficiency can be ensured.

The Degree of Centralization


The amount of power wielded with the central management depends on company size. Centralization
implies the concentration of decision making authority at the top management. Sharing of authority
with lower levels is called decentralization. The organization should strive to achieve a proper balance.

Scalar Chain
Scalar Chain refers to the chain of superiors ranging from top management to the lowest rank. The
principle suggests that there should be a clear line of authority from top to bottom linking all managers
at all levels. It is considered a chain of command. It involves a concept called a "gang plank" using which
a subordinate may contact a superior or his superior in case of an emergency, defying the hierarchy of
control. However the immediate superiors must be informed about the matter.

Order
Social order ensures the fluid operation of a company through authoritative procedure. Material order
ensures safety and efficiency in the workplace. Order should be acceptable and under the rules of the
company

Equity
Employees must be treated kindly, and justice must be enacted to ensure a just workplace. Managers
should be fair and impartial when dealing with employees, giving equal attention towards all employees.

Md. Khalekuzzaman, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203


CE-4101, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203

Stability of Tenure of Personnel


The period of service should not be too short and employees should not be moved from positions
frequently. An employee cannot render useful service if he is removed before he becomes accustomed
to the work assigned to him.

Initiative
Using the initiative of employees can add strength and new ideas to an organization. Initiative on the
part of employees is a source of strength for organization because it provides new and better ideas.
Employees are likely to take greater interest in the functioning of the organization.

Esprit de Corps
This refers to the need of managers to ensure and develop morale in the workplace; individually and
communally. Team spirit helps develop an atmosphere of mutual trust and understanding. Team spirit
helps to finish the task on time.

Key Roles
Fayol also divided the management function into five key roles:

 To organise
 To plan and forecast
 To command
 To control
 To coordinate

Role of the Project Manager


The role of the Project Manager encompasses many activities including:
 Planning and defining scope
 Activity planning and sequencing
 Resource planning
 Developing schedules
 Time estimating
 Cost estimating
 Developing a budget
 Controlling quality
 Managing risks and issues
 Creating charts and schedules
 Risk analysis
 Benefits realization
 Documentation
 Team leadership
 Strategic influencing

Md. Khalekuzzaman, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203


CE-4101, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203

Key factor for successful project:


 Well defined scope
 Extensive early planning
 Good leadership, management and first line supervision
 Positive client relationship with client involvement
 Proper project team chemistry
 Quick response to changes
 Engineering managers concerned with the total project, not just the engineering elements.

Key factor for unsuccessful project:


 Poor defined scope
 Poor management
 Poor planning
 Poor Sponsorship
 Poor Monitoring/Measurement
 Poor Change Control
 Ineffective communication
 Unrealistic scope, schedules and budgets
 Many changes at various stages of progress
 Lack of good project control
 Inappropriate/Insufficient skills
 Unclear assignment of responsibility/accountability.

Results of Poor Project Management


 Original objectives not met
 Project cost overruns
 Schedule overruns
 Project may not be completed Personal misunderstanding and differences, often resulting in
conflict
 Poor quality project outputs
 Failure to deliver anticipated business benefits, leading to dissatisfied management and project
members
 Insufficient resources.

Md. Khalekuzzaman, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203


CE-4101, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203

Civil Engineering Projects:

Building Project

1. Residential building town planning etc.


2. Other building –
Academic building such as institutes, university and schools, hospitals, temples, government and
private offices, commercial complexes, recreational building such auditorium, cinema hall,
theaters, stores, warehouse, light manufacturing plants.

Transportation systems

Bridges and flyover, roads, railways, airport, urban mass trnsit system such as mono railway and
ropeways, town planning, port and harbor, tunnel etc.

Hydraulic structures

Dan, barrage, canal, hydroelectric power plant, tunnel, embankment, flood control system etc.

Water and waste project

1. Water treatment plant


2. Water distribution system – pipe, water tanks
3. Sewage and storm water collection system
4. Sewage treatment plants
5. Sewage disposal system etc.

Md. Khalekuzzaman, Department of Civil Engineering, KUET-9203