O n

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree






This is to certify that the re-port entitled "SEMINAR REPORT BASED







(06412007) of S.H.M Engineering College, Kadakkal to the University of Kerala in
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of technology in Electronics & Communication Engineering is a bonafide record of the seminar presented by him.

Department Head


M.Madhusoodanan Nair (Head of the Department. ARUNSHARMA. S.S. Suja Paulose (Staff In Charge) for their kind co-operation for presenting the seminar.M.G. K.P . I express my sincere thanks to Prof.John(Principal. Engineering College) Prof. I also extend my sincere thanks to all other members of the faculty of Electronics & Communication and Engineering Department and my friends for their co-operation and encouragement.H. Lect. S. Electronics & Communication Engineering.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all I thank the almighty GOD for providing me with the strength and courage to present the seminar.H. Engineering College).



Cloud computing services often provide common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser. Users need not have knowledge of. . expertise in. while the software and data are stored on the servers.ABSTRACT Cloud computing is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. or control over the technology infrastructure in the "cloud" that supports them. The concept generally incorporates combinations of the following: y y y y Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) Platform as a service (PaaS) Software as a service (SaaS) Other recent technologies that rely on the Internet to satisfy the computing needs of users.

INTRODUCTION Cloud computing is a art of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the internet. We can¶t say cloud computing as a new technology. In these systems instead of storing applications inside a pc the client computers access data and applications from a server computer. The main difference between these two is in cloud computing the servers lie on the internet. Cloud computing is a combination of grid computing and Utility computing. The client computers login to the servers using an interface and access data¶s information and even processing power from these servers. It is an extension of our already existing LAN systems. .

. The term cloud had already come into commercial use in the early 1990s to refer to large Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. A common depiction in network diagrams is a cloud outline. Ill-fated startup General Magic launched a short-lived cloud computing products in 1995 in partnership with several telecommunications company partners such as AT&T. As a result of this arrangement. thus utilizing their overall network bandwidth more effectively. Telephone companies were able to offer VPN based services with the same guaranteed bandwidth as fixed circuits at a lower cost because they could switch traffic to balance utilization as they saw fit. just before the consumeroriented Internet became popular. the term "cloud computing" began to appear more widely. Because these virtual instances are spawned on demand. and cloud computing is conceptually somewhat similar. Up to the 1990s. it is impossible to determine how many such VMs will run at any given time. it was impossible to determine in advance precisely paths traffic would be routed over. The term "telecom cloud" was used to describe this type of networking. they are location inspecific as well. data circuits (including those that carried Internet traffic) were hard-wired between destinations. The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to 1960. indeed it shares characteristics with service bureaus that date back to the 1960s. much like a cloud network. although most of the focus at that time was limited to SaaS. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility". Cloud computing relies heavily on virtual machines (VMs). Subsequently. which are spawned on demand to meet user needs.HISTORY The Cloud is a term that borrows from telephony. As VMs can be spawned on any given computer as conditions demand. long-haul telephone companies began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) service for data communications. By the turn of the 21st century.

and other system elements that can be virtualized across an enterprise.com was established by Marc Benioff. security mechanisms. and a number of universities embarked on a large scale cloud computing research project.In 1999. servers. Google. Microsoft extended the concept of SaaS through the development of web services. Parker Harris. By mid-2008." . Gartner Research observed that "organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" and that the "projected shift to cloud computing will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and in significant reductions in other areas. IBM detailed these concepts in 2001 in the Autonomic Computing Manifesto. In the early 2000s. Salesforce. They also provided the concept of "On demand" and SaaS with their real business and successful customers. IBM. The key for SaaS is that it is customizable by customers with limited technical support required. which described advanced automation techniques such as selfmonitoring. and self-optimizing in the management of complex IT systems with heterogeneous storage. and numerous related events took place. cloud computing gained popularity in the mainstream press. and their associates. In 2007. self-configuring. They applied many technologies developed by companies such as Google and Yahoo! to business applications. having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements. providing access to their systems through Amazon Web Services in 2005 on a utility computing basis. Business users have enthusiastically welcomed the resulting flexibility and speed. self-healing. applications. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers after the dot-com bubble and. networks. it was a hot topic. In August 2008. around the time the term started.

A TYPICAL CLOUD COMPUTING SYSTEM Consider you are an executive in a large corporation. Buying computers for everyone aren¶t enough. FIG 1. Your particular responsibilities include making sure that all of your employees have the right hardware and software they need to do their jobs. . The company that owns these servers are called cloud computing service providers. The company or computers that access these services are called clients.WORKING In cloud computing the client computers login to a server that resides on internet and access files and application from there.

So here the cloud computing comes to help you. . Whenever you have a new hire. that requires more computational needs then you have to buy software and hardware to meet that. But after that project your company may didn¶t receive any project for a long time or the current project doesn¶t requires that much computational needs like the former one. basic os . Let¶s imagine your company is using all the resources that it needed online. In such case each user that has a computer with basic configuration (like a processor having low processing power. The company that owns those servers are called cloud computing service providers and the computer that login to those servers are called clients.you also have to purchase software or software licenses to give employees the tools they require. By this the client company can largely cut down their investment. In that case all the hardware and software resources that you bought for you former project will be in vain. a keyboard and a mouse)with having only one application installed in it which will allow you to login to a server in the internet and access all the data¶s and application that you needed from that server.

The user will be charged by the cloud service provider according to his usage.THE ASTRANOS OPERATING SYSTEM LOGIN SCREEN .CLOUD COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE Cloud computing system can be divided into two sections. This application program is much like a browser that act as an interface between the cloud system and the user side.  Front End  Backend Front End Front End is the user end. FIG 2. This end consists of a computer with basic configuration and a single application program installed in it. The user will login to the servers by using a username and a password that is unique to the user.

This part consist of the all the applications for the clients and the all the services that requires to satisfy users computational needs. Most of the time. It follows a set of rules called protocols and uses a special kind of software called middleware. New protocols like XMPP (Extensible messaging and presence protocol) are used. Back End Back end is the heart of the cloud. . That means there's unused processing power going to waste. servers and data storage systems that create the "cloud" of computing services. He can access all the applications from that platform. monitoring traffic and client demands to ensure everything runs smoothly. A central server administers the system. servers don't run at full capacity. At the back end cloud computing system uses a number of technologies like the following  GRID COMPUTING  SERVER VIRTUALIZATION  UTILITY COMPUTING In a grid computing system. It's possible to fool a physical server into thinking it's . In theory.After login the user will get a screen that is similar to his desktop. That means various computers. Middleware allows networked computers to communicate with each other. each application will have its own dedicated server. a cloud computing system could include practically any computer program you can imagine. We can¶t say that the current protocols fully support the cloud system. from data processing to video games. Thus there is a significant work load shift. Local computers no longer have to do all the heavy lift when it comes running the applications. networked computers are able to access and use the resources of every other computer on the network. Usually.

By maximizing the output of individual servers. each running with its own independent operating system.actually multiple servers. server virtualization reduces the need for more physical machines. Utility computing is a business model where one company pays another company for access to computer applications or data storage. The technique is called server virtualization. .


II.CLOUD COMPUTING APPLICATIONS The applications of cloud computing are practically limitless. The services that a cloud provides computer comes under three sections. Software as a service Hardware as service Platform as a service FIG 5. III. I.CLOUD COPMPUTING APPLICATIONS . With the right middle ware the cloud computing system could execute all the programs a normal desktop computer can run.

Clients can access these service from anywhere FIG 6. The client companies access these softwares by paying price. The companies doesn¶t have to bother about the cost. No need for any softwares at the client side. updates and maintenances of the softwares.SOFTWARE AS A SERVICE(SaaS) Saas is method of providing softwares on line as a service.PREWIEW OF SaaS .

such as Infrastructure as a service. The client company can use these service on a pay and use method. as a service. The client just needs a computer with basic configuration.For example: y y y y y Full virtualization (GoGrid. Skytap) Grid computing (Sun Cloud) Management (RightScale) Compute (Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud) Platform (Force. Cloud infrastructure.com) . is the delivery of computer infrastructure. typically a platform virtualization environment.HARDWARE AS A SERVICE(HaaS) HAAS is a method of accessing hardware resources online.

facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. the delivery of a computing platform.PLATFORM AS A SERVICE(PaaS) A cloud platform.NET (Azure Services Platform) y Non-Code Based Web Application Framework o WorkXpress y y Web hosting (Mosso) Proprietary (Force.com) . and/or solution stack as a service. such as Platform as a service. For example: y Code Based Web Application Frameworks o o o o Java Google Web Toolkit (Google App Engine) Python Django (Google App Engine) Ruby on Rails (Heroku) .

It might mimic the user interface of traditional computer operating systems . Operating systems interact directly with computer hardware and serve as a platform for other applications. a term gains widespread acceptance even if some people believe it's misleading or inaccurate. Linux. people invent new words to describe its features and applications. Sometimes. Whether it's Windows.WEB OPERATING SYSTEM A Web OS is a User Interface (UI) that allows people to access applications stored completely or in part on the Web.WEB OS As the Web evolves. Unix or Mac OS X. your computer depends on its OS to function. A Web OS is a user interface (UI) that allows people to access applications stored completely or in part on the Web. Such is the case with Web operating systems.It uses flash and AJAX technologies. That's why some people object to the term Web OS. FIG 7. An operating system (OS) is a special kind of program that organizes and controls computer hardware and software.

there may be a single ambitious programmer behind the project. A client is software that accesses information or services from other software. users must download a program that creates a system-specific client. What sort of services do they provide? Web operating systems can give users access to practically any program they could run on a computer's desktop. There are dozens of Web operating systems available. the same can't be said of Web operating systems. Common applications include: y y y y y y y y y Calendars E-mail File management Games Instant messaging programs Photo. but on the Web. With some systems.like Windows. people access the applications using Web browsers like Firefox or Internet Explorer. In either case. The provider runs a system of computers that include application servers and databases. video and audio editing programs RSS readers Spreadsheet programs Word processing programs . Web operating systems are interfaces to distributed computing systems. a company provides computer services to users through anInternet connection. Some are free to download. With other systems. users access programs that are stored not on their own computers. The user must still have a traditional OS on his or her computer. In some cases. In these systems. but it doesn't interact directly with the computer's hardware. What exactly do Web operating systems do? Keep reading to find out. and others charge a fee. While there aren't many computer operating systems to choose from. Some of them offer a wide range of services. Other Web operating systems are the product of a large team effort. Web operating systems can come in all shapes and sizes. while others are still in development and only provide limited functionality. particularly cloud or utility computing systems.

GOOGLE DOC . you'd have to install applications to your own computer. FIG 8. runs on top of your computer's OS.in fact. But programmers design Web operating systems to look and act like a desktop OS. they depend on traditional computer operating systems to work. The applications would exist on your computer's hard disk drive.With traditional computer operating systems. They would run by accessing the processing power of your computer's central processing unit (CPU) by sending electronic requests to your computer's OS. Web operating systems can't replace your computer's native OS -. whether it's a Web browser or a system-specific client. but it doesn't manage your computer's hardware or software. The user side of Web OS software. A Web OS might look a lot like a traditional OS.

Google doc is an example for this. from any where. The client have to pay according to the space they use.CLOUD STORAGE CONCEPT .CLOUD STORAGE Cloud Storage comes under HaaS. Users can store their personal data in cloud storage. access and updates this. FIG 9.

g.. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and minimal or no IT skills are required for implementation. You wouldn't need to buy the fastest computer with the most memory. users can connect from anywhere. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. then the client could take advantage of the entire network's processing power.. electricity. y Cost is greatly reduced and capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. y y Clients wouldn¶t have to worry about the patches and updates of softwares. mobile). y It could bring hardware costs down.) o Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) . y Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.ADVANTAGES y Clients would be able to access their applications and data from anywhere at any time. etc. y Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: o Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet. PC. Agility improves with users able to rapidly and inexpensively re-provision technological infrastructure resources. They could access the cloud computing system using any computer linked to the Internet. y Since the cloud computing system's back end is a grid computing system. This lowers barriers to entry.

y Scalability via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a finegrained. but accessing the audit logs themselves can be difficult or impossible. and IT and business managers can at times do little when they are affected. computers and associated infrastructure are major consumers of energy. and consistent and loosely-coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. Performance is monitored. and carbon neutrality. more efficient systems. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. Security is often as good as or better than under traditional systems. y y Sustainability comes about through improved resource utilization. Providers typically log accesses. without users having to engineer for peak loads. many major cloud computing services have suffered outages. Nonetheless. increased securityfocused resources. y Reliability improves through the use of multiple redundant sites. self-service basis near real-time. . Security typically improves due to centralization of data]..]Nonetheless. etc. which makes cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.o Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10±20% utilized.

He stated that cloud computing is "simply a trap aimed at forcing more people to buy into locked. it limited both freedom and creativity. Richard Stallman. ‡ Similarly. by which users connected through "dumb" terminals to mainframe computers. etc) sites and their maintenance. Typically. The Times argues that cloud computing is a regression to that time. and some critics have alleged that is only possible to use applications or services that the provider is willing to offer. defense. Commercial sites using tools such as web analytics may not be able to capture right data for their business planning etc. Overall. institutional. such as a USB flash drive or hard disk) it does leave responsibility of data storage and control in the hands of the provider. users had no freedom to install new applications and needed approval from administrators to achieve certain tasks. ‡ ‡ ‡ Privacy and Security Bandwidth Since cloud computing does not allow users to physically possess the storage of their data (the exception being the possibility that data can be backed up to a user-owned storage device. ‡ Cloud computing has been criticized for limiting the freedom of users and making them dependent on the cloud computing provider. proprietary systems that would cost them more and more over time.CLOUD COMPUTING CONCERNS The main concerns that cloud computing faces are. believes that cloud computing endangers liberties because users sacrifice their privacy and personal data to a third party. The London Times compares cloud computing to centralized systems of the 1950s and 60s. Thus. It would be a challenge for hosting/deploying intranet and access restricted (for Govt." ‡ Further to Stallman's observation.. . founder of the Free Software Foundation.

‡ Bandwidth ‡ ‡ Bandwidth is also a main problem that cloud computing faces. The cloud service providers have to protect data from unauthorized access.Privacy & Security ‡ ‡ Perhaps the biggest concern about cloud computing is security and privacy. . The idea of handling over important data to another company of course worries the clients. ‡ Data security is another main problem. It requires high band width above 16mbps.

.Cloud Computing holds a lot of promise and believes that it is likely to be a major influence on hosting and application development.Market researches . financial analysis. all wantto assess its potential markets and business impact.CONCLUSION Cloud computing is still in early development.

howstuffworks.REFERENCES ‡ ‡ ‡ www.wikipedia.com Info kairali computer magazine .com www.

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