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AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS
Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra In English Letters
By GURUH DWI RIYANTO Student Number: 05 4214 091
ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2010
INFLUENCES OF HEIDEGGER’S ONTOLOGY AND NIETZSCHE’S OVERMAN IN SARTRE AS SEEN IN THE MAIN CHARACTER OF SARTRE’S THE FLIES
AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS
Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra In English Letters
By GURUH DWI RIYANTO Student Number: 05 4214 091
ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2010
truths are illusions of which we have forgotten that they are illusions” (On Truth and Lies in Non-moral Senses. Mereka yang Dilumpuhkan. it exists because there are things which must not be spoken of” (Macherey. my parents.“Kalau semua sekolah tinggi hanya menghasilkan bangsat-bangsat saja. and which.235) “Diniati” (A man in a gas station) For me. anthropomorphisms. Nietzsche) Everything happens for a reason (which is made for an interest) “He who climbs upon the highest mountains laughs at all tragedies. a movie) “An ideology is made of what it does not mention. translation. Charlie Chaplin) “To choose is to invent” (Sartre) “Put your passion into action” (Before Sunset. my aunt. canonical. in short a sum of human relations which have been subjected to poetic and rhetorical intensification. akan runtuhlah manusia ini”(Yang Sakit. after they have been in use for a long time. metonymies. v . Pramoedya Ananta Toer) “Truth? A mobile army of metaphors. my brothers. Postcolonial Studies Reader. real or imaginary”(Zarathustra. strike a people as firmly established. and Paryanti. and decoration. ya.pg. and binding. Nietzsche) “Desire is the theme of life” (Lame Light.
Orong-orong (the most anarchistic community I have ever joined) and Kajian Jumat Malam for the discussions. Kolese S. For the criticism. I am very thank you to Mrs. IIEF for the journey that has permitted me to get the materials I need. especially the D class and they who were involved in In Love with Madonna. Elisa. and Marx for his specters. Guruh Dwi Riyanto vi .ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the following people for helping me to accomplish this study. Pramoedya for his struggle. They are Natas and PPMI that have grown me up. Mr. Canista community for teaching me to love education. Nietzsche for encouraging me to live passionately. She also paid the expensive tuition fee each semester.T Ignatius Library for providing the sources. All that I have mentioned have supported me to accomplish this undergraduate thesis. Being community for introducing me with Heidegger. Thank to students of 2005. This includes my aunt who gave her “arisan” reward pay the expensive entrance tuition of Sanata Dharma University.Putu. I give thanks also to individuals. I also thank my parents and brothers who have given me my being-in or dwelling and constructed my being-in-the-world.Tatang and Mrs. My greatest gratitude goes to my family. communities and institutions that have supported me. especially for the suggestion on problem formulations. My gratitude also goes to Sartre for opening the horizon of freedom and responsbility.
.........................................v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................................................................................................................................................................7 C...........................................iii LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH .......................................................................10 B............................................................................................................................................................... 14 vii ................................vi TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................ Problem Formulation..........................8 CHAPTER II: THEORITICAL REVIEW......ii MOTTO PAGE..............................1 A.........xi CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION...................... Review of Related Studies......................................................................................i APPROVAL PAGE........ Background of the Study......................................................... Definition of Terms................................................................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT..................iv DEDICATION PAGE........................ Objectives of the Study................................................................................................ viii ABSTRAK.................................. Review of Related Theories...............................................................................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE................................1 B.........7 D.........................................................................................................................................................................................................10 A......
.......132 viii ................................. 3........................................................ Orestes’ departure from Heidegger’s Ontology and Nietzsche’s overman........................... 2.........................15 Theory of Nietzsche’s Overman..... Object of the Study..... The Characterization of Orestes Character.............................. Method of the Study..................................................................................................................98 D............127 BIBLIOGRAPHY................................................................... Approach of the Study.........................................................................................................14 Theory of Heidegger’s Ontology........1............... Theoritical Frameworkd................. Theory of Character and Characterization................49 B...............................................47 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY A.....53 C...........................................................27 C...................................................... Influences of Heidegger’s Ontology in Orestes.................................... Influences of Nietzsche’s Overman in Orestes..........57 B......................86 C..................................120 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION Conclusion........54 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS A....
mainly books. Nietzsche revolutionized ethics. especially e-book and periodicals. what are influences of Heidegger’s ontology in Orestes? Third. Third.ABSTRACT GURUH DWI RIYANTO: Influences of Heidegger’s Ontology and Nietzsche’s Overman in Sartre as Seen in the Main Character of Sartre’s The Flies. and printed materials. how the main character. individual. and liberating. outcast. This study proves that Heidegger’s ontology influences Orestes’ point of view. as distinctive being and that the awareness of the radical duality brought man to the state of authenticity. is characterized? Second. Second. he is characterized as brave. rebellious. 2010. First. before and after his awareness of freedom. Orestes saw his human being. bonded. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters. what are influences of Nietzsche’s overman in Orestes? Fourth. dasein. Through those two steps the study has been accomplished. Second. especially existentialism. responsible. and Heidegger strived to bring back ontology to its radix. Faculty of Letters. in this case human’s nature while overman is the ideal man according to Nietzsche who succeeds in overcoming humanity. free. This study is guided by four problem formulations. Nietzsche and Heidegger are chosen because they are considered to give immense influences on western philosophical tradition. First. Orestes. submissive. Sanata Dharma University. he is characterized as bondless. embracing such issues as the nature of existence and the categorical structure of reality. Moral philosophical approach is employed in this study to explore the philosophical influences of Heidegger and Nietzsche. and ambivalent. seeing The Flies through influences of Heidegger’s ontology and Nietzsche’s overman. This work discusses influences of Heidegger’s ontology and Nietzsche’s overman in the main character in Sartre’s The Flies since interpretations of this play are dominated either by relating it to its historical background or to existentialist philosophy. creative. Ontology is the science of being in general. men were in the condition of being abandoned. This study attempts to take another point of view. how does the character of Orestes depart from Heidegger’s ontology and Nietzsche’s overman? This study applies library research and moral-philosophical approach. dangerous. The study shows that Orestes is characterized in two different ways. First. men were being who ix . Library research includes data from internet.
and intelligent. First. Nietzsche’s overman influences in building Orestes’ characters. actions and his relationship with society. individuality. Orestes’ self mastery freed him from resentment. noble. x . Fourth. he had the characters of overman. Orestes in his society was outcasted. If Orestes considered himself as an equal and his goal was in society. Fourth. Sixth. strong. Orestes.always projected to the future. departed from Heidegger’s ontology and Nietzsche’s overman. Fifth. Fifth. Third. Orestes was anthropocentric encouraging men should be permanently authentic while Heidegger was Being-centric believing authenticity as a temporal state. Orestes’ act of rebellion was highly Nietzscheian in his creativity. Nietzsche’s overman established order of rank and the belief that the goal of society should lie in its crystallization. the birth of overman. his remedy for Argos was the remedy of overman. and goodness. Yet. men were constituted in their being-in-theworld. Orestes had been slave morality. however. human’s ontological mood was basically unhappiness which should be faced to be authentic. Second. he carried their pollution and heaviness.
pencipta. sebelum dan sesudah dia menyadari kebebasanya. dan Heidegger berjuang membawa kembali ontologi ke akarnya. Yogyakarta: Jurusan Sastra Inggris. berbahaya.ABSTRAK GURUH DWI RIYANTO: Influences of Heidegger’s Ontology and Nietzsche’s Overman in Sartre as Seen in the Main Character of Sartre’s The Flies. dasein. 2010. Melalui dua langkah itulah kajian ini diselesaikan. Nietzsche. Nietzsche dan Heidegger dipilih karena mereka dianggap memberi pengaruh besar pada tradisi filsafat barat. karena sebagian besar penelitian atas The Flies jika tidak menghubungkanya dengan latar sejarahnya maka menghubungkanya dengan filsafat eksistensialisme. sedangkan adimanusia adalah manusia ideal bagi Nietzsche yang berhasil melampaui kemanusiaan. Universitas Sanata Dharma. Empat rumusan permasalahan memandu kajian ini. Penelitian ini mencoba mengambil sudut pandang lain. Penelitian pustaka meliputi data dari internet. memiliki ikatan. Kajian ini menunjukan bahwa penokohan Orestes dibagi melalui dua cara. apakah pengaruhpengaruh ontologi Heidegger pada Orestes? Ketiga. ditokohkan? Kedua. bebas. Apakah pengaruh-penaruh adimanusia Nietzsche dalam Orestes? Keempat. kebanyakan dari buku. dia ditokohkan sebagai tak terikat. Karya ini membahas pengaruh-pengaruh ontology Heidegger dan konsep adimanusia. Fakultas Sastra. Orestes. bagaimakah tokoh Orestes berangkat dari ontologi Heidegger dan adimanusia Nietzsche? Kajian ini menerapkan penelitian pustaka dan pendekatan moral-filosofis. dan mendua.Pertama. Kedua. pemberontak. utamanya eksistensialisme. Pertama. Ontologi adalah ilmu perihal keberedaan secara umum. dalam kasus ini hakikat manusia. seperti disebutkan oleh Kaufmann. bagaimanakah tokoh utama. dan sumber tercetak. Kajian ini membuktikan adanya pengaruh-pengaruh ontologi Heidegger pada sudut pandang yang dikenakan Orestes. yaitu melihat The Flies melalui pengaruh-pengaruh ontologi Heidegger and adimanusia Nietzsche. khususnya buku elektronik dan terbitan berkala. mencakup isu-isu seperti hakikat ada dan struktur kategori kenyataan. dan membebaskan. bertanggung jawab. dia ditokohkan sebagai pemberani. terbuang. individualis. Oreses melihat manuisa. Pendekatan moralfilosofis diterapkan dalam kajian ini guna menggali pengaruh-pengaruh filosofis dari Heidegger dan Nietzsche. sebagai makhluk berbeda dan bahwa kesadaran akan perbedaan radikal xi . Pertama. pasrah. memberi revolusi pada etika.
tindakan pemberontakan Orestes sangatlah bernuansa Nietzsche dalam penciptaanya. berbeda dari ontologi Heidegger dan adimanusia Nietzsche. adimanusia Nietzsche mengkukuhkan tatanan tingkatan dan kepercayaan bahwa tujuan masyarakat terletak pada pengkristalanya. dan kebaikanya. manusia dibangun dalam berada-dalam-dunia-nya. Keenam. Kedua. Pertama. dia memiliki sifat-sifat adimanusia. manusia selalu membayangkan dirinya ke masa depan. Orestes terasingkan dalam masyarakatnya. Keempat. suasana hati manusia pada dasarnya adalah ketidakbahagiaan yang harus dihadapai agar seseorang menjadi diri yang asli. kedirianya. Orestes terlebih dahulu bermental budak. kelahiran adimanusia. kekuatan. dan kecerdasan. Namun. Pengaruh-pengaruh adimanusia Nietzsche ada dalam membangun tindakan dan karakter Orestes serta hubunganya dengan masyarakat. Orestes. dia menanggung beban dan limbah mereka. Ketiga. Keempat. Kelima. Kedua. Orestes adalah antroposentris (anthropocentric) yang percaya bahwa keaslian harus selalu dijaga sedangkan Heidegger Ada-pusat (Being-centric) yang percaya keaslian hanyalah bersifat sejenak. bagaimanapun juga. keberadaan manusia adalah terabaikan. penebusanya untuk Argoas adalah penebusan adimansuia. Jika Orestes menganggap dirinya setara dan tujuan akhirnya ada pada masyarakat. xii . kebanggan. Ketiga. Kelima. pengendalian diri Orestes membebaskanya dari kebencian.tersebut membawa manusia pada keadaan asli.
a pioneer of existentialism which was very famous after Word War II. Sartre succeeded in translating abstract philosophical elaborations into a concrete manifestation that can be understood by many people. He was granted Nobel Prize for literature in 1964 although he declined for ideological reason. 1983 : 567). Background of the Study Jean Paul Sartre. William Barret.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. If No Exit speaks about intersubjectivity or the subject relation to others. The Flies. in On Contemporary Literature writes “Of his plays too. mainly written in Being and Nothingness. 1 .are his best. along with existentialism’s popularity.” (Barret. The Flies speaks about freedom and its place in human ontology. In his literary work. conceptualizes and popularizes existentialist themes through his philosophical treatises and literary works. However. he gains his popularity. They are at any rate the things to recommend to the reader who wishes to get the concrete drift of Sartre’s philosophy but has no stomach for the elaborate dialectic of Being and Nothingness. and the ethical dimension of such ontology. manifests Sartre’s philosophy about human ontology. it may be said that his two earlier and shorter ones-The Flies and No Exits. mostly from his celebrated literary works. which he had never published in the form of a philosophical treatise till his death. as one of Sartre’s literary works.
that obviously contains anti-Nazi messages” (Palmer. 2003:11) Because there are only a few readings take another perspective. there will be new meanings and perspectives to the reading of The Flies. Palmer introduces The Flies as Sartre’s protest against Nazi. Berdyaev. The Flies was written and first performed during German occupation in France and. It explores the influence of those two philosophers to Sartre’s The Flies. 2 Critics usually read The Flies in two dominant ways. The second dominant reading sees The Flies in its sociohistorical context. thus becoming heavy with his own guilt. Even in Sartre for Beginner. The first understands The Flies in its existentialism dimension. By this reading. He writes that in the play Sartre’s main argument was that in discharging human freedom. a brief introduction of Sartre’s life and philosophy. Camus. The example is Barret’s reading. this study strives to place The Flies in the contexts of tradition of western philosophy. specifically in relation to Friedrich Willhem Nietzsche and Martin Heidegger. Nietzsche’s translator. . it can be read as a protest against German occupation. (Barret. man also wills to accept the responsibility of it. Kaufmann. Palmer writes that Sartre writes a play titled The Flies. it can also correlate Sartre’s philosophy itself in the context of history of western philosophy. Furthermore. Why are Nietzsche and Heidegger chosen? Why are the other existentialists such as Kierkegaard. therefore. and Jasper excluded? The main reason lies in the fact that both Nietzsche and Heidegger play radical and influential role in the school of existentialism. 1983:568). He argues that the play told about freedom and responsibility.
In Being and Time. Moreover. famous of his radical ontology.” (Heidegger. To fulfill his attempt. a dogma has been developed which not only declares the question about the meaning of Being to be superfluous. but then. This question. in its very Being. 1962:32) Dasein is the only entity that possible to quest Being because of the Being of the Dasein. He wrote “it is ontically distinguished by the fact that. His attempt was to unveil the question about Being to probe an interpretation of Being. those two philosophers are rooted from the same tradition with Sartre. For him. determines to bring ontology into its radix by asking the question of Being. Being is written in capital letters to distinct it from being which means entity. and Heidegger was well-known as the radical ontologist. that Being is an issue for it”(Heidegger. which was western philosophy. 3 argues that Nietzsche has revolutionized ethics. 1962:32) . Thus. the Being of Dasein is special among other beings or entities. not the existence itself. Heidegger. he writes. but sanctions its complete neglect” (Heidegger. they can be compared one to the others. “On the basis of the Greeks’ initial contributions toward an interpretation of Being. the interpretation of Being covered by dogma. had been asked but then forgotten in the history of philosophy during two millennia. “Dasein is ontically distinctive in that it is ontological. Heidegger argues that Greeks had strived to interpret Being. according to him. 1962:21) From the quotation above. Being is what makes being exists. he chooses the Being of Dasein (human in Heideggerian term).
Nietzsche. It says that freedom is not only a characteristic of human. We have killed him” (Nietzsche. The dead God opens the possibility for man to be overman. “I am my freedom” (Sartre.T. God will always stay dead. king of waves of the sea. He became the symbol of rebellion. Sartre. In youth Nietzsche was very popular as a philosopher who was very cynical toward religion. In The Flies. In it. Therefore. In philosophy his influence of rebellion appears obviously in Sartre and Camus. S.30) The phrase also reoccurs in Zarathustra. Nietzsche declared at the first time in The Gay Science that “God is dead. human is set free and he becomes the master of himself. although never called himself existentialist. who was famous to misread Heidegger. But you are not the king of man” (Sartre. but human is freedom. he has already prepared the idea of overman to replace God. . The Flies places freedom as the heart of human existence. Orestes said to Zeus “You are the king of gods. 1976:117). Sartre wrote. However. Sunardi wrote that the strongest influence of Nietzsche was felt in France. king of stones and stars. Sartre placed human in a distinctive way among other beings or entities. 1996:119). his masterpiece. (Sunardi. has been a foundation of existentialism. for many times. 1995:. 4 Sartre is influenced by such ontology in Sartre’s understanding about human. 1976:117) For Sartre took Heidegger also for his dictum that human’s existence precedes the essence. Nietzsche has already predicted the modern age where human no longer have certitude. was also possible to read it correctly but modify to set up his own dictum. By the death of God.
He understood that the modern optimism was in its decline toward nihilism. however. stigmatized this age as nihilistic”(Kaufmann. which was the modern optimistic spirit. which was the decline of modern optimistic world. Heidegger and Sartre lived in the time which Nietzsche predicted as a godlessness world. Here. 5 Nietzsche. However. or spirit of an age. Heidegger did not stand for certain ethical position. “explicitly presents existentialism as an ethical doctrine”(Honderich. In Being and Time Heidegger seems to be pessimistic when he said that anxiety was the fundamental mood of human being. and Heidegger reacted to the same zeitgeist. The destroyed modern spirit was marked by the World War I and World War II. Kaufmann explains that at that time. European people experienced great loss in material and spiritual aspect. Nietzsche. Sartre. he foresaw what other people during his age did not see. Nietzsche. Sartre in several senses adopted Nietzscheian solution for his nihilistic age where people no longer sure where to go. which included overman in it. He even “denied that the authentic-inauthentic distinction has any ethical content”(Honderich. in 1927 after the World War I which broke out from 1914 to 1918. is the man who conquered the remorse spread by the god. Although Nietzsche wrote during the end of nineteenth century. we got the same pattern of Nietzsche’s overman . Being and Time. 2005:280). and optimism was common. Orestes in The Flies. 2005:280). The purpose of the remorse is to control man. “science and technology were making the most spectacular advances. Sartre. which in the play represented by Zeus. as a way to cope with nihilism.1969:96). therefore. Here. Heidegger published his major work. offered his philosophy. unlike Heidegger.
All Too Human. Problem Formulations 1. Orestes? How does Orestes depict Sartre’s departure from Nietzscheian overman and Heideggerian ontology? This works is an attempt to answer those questions. there will be a different in emphasis. B. All too Human. to research on Sartre’s ontological and ethical dimension also at once provides information about people of his era. Michele Vian. Sartre was considered to be a voice of his era since he has represented the spirit of France people toward the social condition of the post-war era. describes that ‘it is not his (Sartre’s) fault if people like us. 1999). How is the character of Orestes characterized? 2. who were not philosophers. Jonathan Ree. 6 and Sartre’s Orestes. who were not thinkers. a France philosopher comments in Human. However. took him as a prophet. in a documentary movie by BBC on Sartre titled Human.”(Wardle. Sartre’s philosophy about freedom has opened a new opportunity to break with past and start a new one. His philosophy was considered to be a hope for the post-war era. Sartre believed the existence of free-will and emphasized freedom of choosing. He was so popular that fifty thousands of people followed his coffin. Therefore. 1999).. How do those two contribute to Sartre in building his main character in The Flies.”(Wardle. Sartre’s Friend.depended on old generations were collapsing and Sartre’s idea was fantastic moral opportunity. that “everybody realizes that the old France with its values.. What are influences of Heidegger’s ontology in Orestes? . His popularity was born by the need of his era.
Discussion on influences of Heidegger’s ontology precedes influences of Nietzsche’s overman because ontology bases the axiology. including the ethics. these definitions of the terms are written to restrict the meaning of the terms to specify the context. influences of Heidegger’s ontology are described. Further explanation can be found in chapter II. Definition of Terms In philosophy. Objectives of the Study The main objectives of the study are to see influences of Heidegger’s ontology. After that. 1976:631) . 7 3. 1. What are influences of Nietzsche’s overman in Orestes? 4. How does the character of Orestes depart from Heidegger’s ontology and Nietzsche’s overman? C.”(Sartre. the last objective. Thus. it seems that each philosopher has their own language games. influences of Nietzsche’s overman are described. D. and Sartre’s departure from theirs in The Flies through its main character. the way Sartre’s philosophy in the character of The Flies departs from their influence can be answered by considering the second and third objectives. Essence “Sartre calls it man’s past. Since there is no pre-established pattern for human nature. The objective is fulfilled by describing the character of Orestes. These definitions have over simplified the concepts. Finally. each man makes his essence while he lives. After that. Nietzsche’s overman.
The Will to Power Will to power is “Nietzsche’s formula for what he took to be the basic disposition manifested in all that transpires in human life and in all other phenomena as well. resentment is the mark of ‘slave morality’ (Honderich. 2005:814 ) 5. 4. he judges ‘what harms me is harmful in itself’.e. make itself.”(Honderich. humiliation or oppression.” 6. a bitter but frustrated response to slights. he knows himself to be that which in general first .’ In Nietzsche’s view.1969:632) 3. he does not need to be approved of. Master Morality “determiner of values. the vengefulness of the impotent. 2005:958). Freedom “The very being of for-itself which is “condemned to be free” and must forever choose itself-i.. Slave Morality “Slave morality is a reactive morality originating in resentment of the powerful on the part of the powerless. “’to be free’ does not mean ‘to obtain what one has wished’ but rather ‘by oneself to determine oneself to wish’ (in the broader sense of choosing). ‘submerged hatred. In other word.”(Sartre. Resentment It is “a ‘reactionary’ emotions. success is not important for freedom. 8 2.
dispensing with all other-worldly hopes and illusion. Everything he knows to be part of himself.1981:20) 10. in contrast to ‘all too human’ about it. Overman “human life enhanced and transformed in a manner sufficient to render it worthy or affirmation. Character “the persons represented in a dramatic or narrative work. 2005:670) 9.”(Nietzsche. and overcoming all disillusionment. he creates values. Characterization “The process by which an author creates a character”(Roherberger. Ontology “is the science of being in general.1977:76) 7. he honors : such morality is self-glorification. 1971:20-21) . who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with particular moral. 9 accords honor to things. embracing such issues as the nature of existence and the categorical structure of reality”(Honderich.”(Honderich. 2005:903) 8. intellectual. and emotional qualities by inferences from what the persons say and their distinctive ways of saying it—the dialogue—and from what they do—the action”(Abrams.
Clytemnestra the French collaborator. The first discusses the allegory of The Flies and the second the existentialism. In 1943. major interpretations on Sartre's The Flies either relate the play to Nazi occupation or Sartre’s existentialism. the play had resonances that are lost to a spectator or reader today.1969:17). (McCall. Sartre uses allegory in order to hide his provocation from Nazi censorship. as an example of the first group.CHAPTER II THEORITICAL REVIEW A. and Orestes the resistant. Review of Related Studies As mentioned earlier. Zeus stands for their "moral" commandments that the Nazis and their collaborators sought to impose on the French people as absolute law. He said that “When Sartre wrote The Flies. This part reviews a sample of each major interpretation. 10 .1969:15). The Flies can be read on one level as a kind of allegorical piece in which Aegistheus is the German invader. in The Theater of Jean Paul Sartre saw Sartre's The Flies as a call for revolt through understanding the play as allegory of Nazi occupation. the French were suffocating under Nazi occupation and the cult that Hitler's collaborators tried systematically to instill in them” (McCall. McCall. Electra represents those who rebelled against the Vichy mentality but lacked the will to translate their rebellion into action. McCall compared the characters with the situation of the occupied France as follow: Within the context of the Occupation.
. Nazi desired a status quo so that they might rule longer. Aegistheus built a statue of Zeus in Argos to remind the people of their remorse. Although Electra and Orestes both represent the rebellion of French people. Nazi took the power by invasion and Aegistheus by murdering Agamemnon. both diverse in the radicalism. the wife of Agamemnon or the former king. did not have enough heart to fight against their oppositions. the ideas that Nazi deserved the occupation and French people were weak and inferior toward Nazi were echoing through the propaganda of that time. Like Clytemnestra. the former king of Argos. the compromised French rebels. Similar to Argos. Clytemnestra also stayed beside Aegistheus to justify the Aegistheus as king of Argos by marrying him as the French collaborator stayed beside Nazi. After taking control. Electra changed her mind when Zeus persuaded her to repent. who collaborated with Aegistheus to betray the former king. the French collaborator helped Nazi to defend the status quo. 11 As Aegistheus in the play. which reflect the source of French rebellion’s' conflict. they also became tyrant and sought absolute control. as Orestes. Zeus symbolizes the morality imposed by Nazi in the sense that both seek justification for the ruling regime. They created suffer through their power. The radical in France. Yet. did not compromise the ruler. Zeus’ morality and the propaganda of Nazi played the same role during occupation. Nazi and Aegistheus both ruled their area illegally. Both helped the ruler to build and prolonged the control. as Electra. and the French compromised instead of confronting.
Timothy William's essay titled Sartre. Vol 49: 377). Vol 49:379). neither from men nor gods”(The Midwest Quarterly. as an example of the second group of dominant reading. William examines mainly the character development of Orestes which shows Sartre's existentialist position. which seemed undefeatable. who was a god. believe that their life and values are . At first. even writes that “The Flies as 'manifesto' of existentialism”(The Midwest Quarterly. as Orestes did. He. At last. That Orestes could defeat Zeus. he realizes his freedom.”(The Midwest Quarterly. 12 The murder of Aegistheus and Clytemnestra delivers Sartre's message of rebellion. Sartre through The Flies suggested a radical rebel against Nazi. He argues that The Flies represents Sartre's existentialist philosophy about how existential freedom relates to values. The first Orestes who grounds all his values on Zeus shows attitude of common people. French Christian existentialist. Orestes grounds all his values and decisions on the direction of Zeus. They. After that. and declares that he will no longer take orders. as quoted by Timothy William. Vol 49:377). William further writes that “reading The Flies possibly is the best introduction to the philosophy of Sartre. The Flies. analyses The Flies from its existentialist philosophy. by killing his collaborator. symbolized that French could defeat Nazi. as Orestes does. According to William. Marcell. suggested people of France to fight against Nazi and the French collaborator and defeated them. Orestes is “emboldened by his new-found freedom. Gabriel Marcell. he clings to his freedom and rebels against Zeus's authority.
In other words. one needs to adjust one self to the new realization. 13 determined by external objective factors. Orestes has been able to accept the freedom and faces the absurdity of existence. All Orestes experiences. one finds nothing or no one can justify but one own. At this point. Thus. he still does not realize his existential freedom. a sudden awareness that he is totally alone in an indifferent universe” (The Midwest Quarterly. In short. Sartre suggests this self-creation as alternative of the nihilistic world that one finds when realizing the total freedom. This. As he finds that no one can justifies him but himself. Third. one still does not know what to do with the freedom. Hence. Because human finds one selves as completely free. As a result. according to William. Sartre argues that human is completely free and that he should justify his own freedom. is how Sartre defines a human being finding one selves as completely free. Orestes asked Zeus' wisdom to guide his life when he faces confusion whether he gets to leave Argos or not. he creates his own values through doing the opposite thing of what Zeus commands him to do. according to William.Vol 49:389). is “an enlightenment. he is sure of what he is doing while rebelling against Aegistheus and Zeus. Orestes can create his own justification that grounds his values. Zeus shows him a sign and finally Orestes decides to go. human creates his own meaning and nature by choosing and creating values as expression of his freedom through doing. However. Then. the study of Orestes by William shows Sartre's existentialist philosophy. In other words. Orestes starts to acquaintance with his existential freedom. In second phrase. .
who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with particular moral. Review of Related Theories 1. their socio economic status. Theories on Character and Characterization Abram’s Glossary of Literary Term defines characters as “the persons represented in a dramatic or narrative work. and emotional qualities by inferences from what the persons say and their distinctive ways of saying it—the dialogue—and from what they do—the action”(Abrams. Barranger in Understanding Play explains that characters have “complex personalities. such as kings or servant”(Barranger. 14 B. 1971:20-21). following Foster. Barranger writes “in drama characters are traditionally defined by their physical characteristics. Round characters are complex in temperament and motivation. they can even be described in one sentence. Flat characters are those “built around a single idea or quality” and without much individualization.1994:338). A character may remain stable.1981:20). She offers four ways of how a character is . Thus. Thus. into flat and round character. either through a gradual development or as the result of extreme crisis’ Abram divides character. speech.1994:339). Roherberger and Samuel Wood in Reading and Writing about Literature defines characterization as “the process by which an author creates a character”(Roherberger. they can hardy be described and they might surprise the reader. and their moral or ethical choices”(Bararanger. and dress. intellectual. They also signify human predicament from the writer’s historical and philosophical perspective. their psychological make up. they represent a class of individual s. or undergo a radical change.
Heidegger describes beings as all that we breath.1962:26) We are surrounded by beings. air. Being (sein) and beings/entities (Seindes) Heidegger makes an ontological difference to mark the distinction between Being and beings or entities. Beings can be concrete and abstracts. and we do so in various senses. capital letter is used to distinguish those two terms. Heidegger describes that “there are many things that we describe as beings. The realm of Being is ontological and the realm of beings or entities is ontic.1994:339) 2. God. is being. this writing. Third is by noting general types-physical and psychological. Everything we talked about. . Theory of Heidegger’s Ontology a. There is activity meaning contained in the Partizip I in German. and so is how we are. Second is by hearing or reading what characters say about one another in dialogue. 2003:45) Beings or entities are not merely things or concrete perceptual and material stuff. and we are being. everything we have in view. First is what the playwright says about them in stage direction. Fourth is by construe the moral or ethical choices (Barranger. tree. (Hardiman. everything toward which we comport ourselves in any way. If sein is an infinitive. Poetically. Being is commonly written in singular to refer to Being of certain being or sometimes Being as concept without referent or without further a do. all are beings. Number. just like English ing-form. gods. 15 characterized. The German world for Being is sein. Because in English both are the same.”(Heidegger. what we are is being. Seind is Partizip I.
Presence-at-hand. or tools-and being without further ado (tout-court). that is. things. Thus. It always refers to the Being of certain thing. the only way to reach the idea of Being is through beings. 16 Being is described shortly in Heidegger’s division one of Being and Time. 1962:25) There is a vivid remark about Being written by Kaelin in his Heidegger’s Being and Time. The first is Being of being. then entities themselves turn out to be what is interrogated. “The Being of entity or beings “is” not itself an entity. It “Being determines beings as entities”(Heidegger. 1962:25) Being is not a group of beings or certain among of beings. It only talks the meaning or concepts of Being without certain reference to certain entity or being. Kaelin notes that Heidegger uses Being in two ways. When this term is used. and “Being” means the Being of entities. Dasein Although Being is the asked about. Being is beyond the beings. He writes that “in so far as Being constitutes what is asked about. 1962:26). 1987:299) Here.” (Heidegger.” (Heidegger. it will always relate to certain modes of Being. He writes that Being of enteritis-be they persons. b. Being props beings and Being makes possible the being to be. to investigate the Being . The second is Being as its own concept. ready-to-hand. or Dasein. Here the meaning of Being is transcendent pure and simple. to which Heidegger refers as the transcendent pure and simple. that which in every case transcends the entity that displays it. but which itself is not an entity and so cannot be treated as an object of ontological analysis in the same way entities are (Kaelin.
This mode of Being is what human do not use or cannot use for purpose. and when this is done. the analyst is describing a state of Being of those entities. For instance. distinguishes him from the rest of beings. however. hammer is used to hit nail. To start the investigation. Kaelin summarizes Heidegger’s argument of human’s unique mode of being as follow: “in term of categories fitting the subject. 17 of Dasein is through investigating Dasein. Instead.1987:28) . ready-to-hand. The investigation reveals the structure of being-in-the-world as the Dasein’s constitutive element. This happens because of Heideggerian technical terms of existence. present-at-hand. Heidegger says that only Dasein exists. For example. Trees are. but trees do not exist. Third is existence. and only those. as a mode of Being solely belongs to Dasein. Given this technical use of the term. The toward-which cannot be served. In other word. He urges people to use existence with interpretation of the context of existence. the mode of ready-to-hand has been changed into present-at-hand. this mode of Being is the way tools are. it should now be apparent that only human beings can be said to exist in this sense”(Kaelin. Existence. As a result. that exist as projections upon their possibly. Heidegger analyzes three modes of being. present-at-hand usually reveals when ready-to-hand occurs malfunction. does not signify neutral pure being without Dasein’s contamination toward it. First is ready-to-hand. and existence. but God does not exist. This being. hammer which is too heavy cannot serve Dasein’s purpose. Second is present-at-hand. Ready-to-hand serves Dasein’s purpose or toward-which. God is. useful beings for Dasein.
Dasein discloses its future self.. Worldhood is . i..1988:98). and why he can be conscious of them. In “here” Dasein projects into “there.. Dasein always exists in his fleeing in the space between “here” and “there”. Kaelin writes “the da of Dasein. In-the-world will be obvious after the worldhood has been explicit. although must be seen as a whole. earth. the German word for existence or human being in Heidegger’s restricted sense. 18 The existential nature of man is the reason why man can represent beings as such. Worldhood in this sense is a world as not a literal world.” In short. Thus.” This mode of Being is associated by Heidegger through his diction to label human being as Dasein. meaning both “here” and “there”(Kaelin. While Sein means Being. Because of the ambiguity and the nuance it takes. is ambiguous. Dasein is always becoming. Heidegger defines Dasein. the term is usually not translated. Da is an ambiguous sense in German language. Dasein literally means Being “here” and “there. and entity or being (seind). Dasein’s basic state is being-in-the-world. Heidegger argues that “here” means the present condition and “there” means the projected situation. Being–in-the- world. being-in. and. First.. Only human is conscious about his future. From this ontical condition. has three constitutive elements.” The “here” and “there” of da should be interpreted in Heideggerian temporality and spatiality. therefore. he is the only being “exists. Being-in-the-world and the Falling of Dasein For Heidegger. in-theworld.
totality of significance, the system of ready-to-hands constructed in their towardwhich. This constitutes a world where Dasein lives and inside the signification. The example is the world of motor sport where a racer spends her life and concerns about. It is impossible to separate a racer from the world of motorsport. Every world has its own ready-to-hand which is different from other world. This determines toward-which of entities. For example, a table, its toward-which of the ready-to-hand is to place plate and glass, can be interpreted as an altar, its towardwhich of the ready-to-hand is to have ceremony, for culture which does not recognize table. However, world is not always cultural. It is also personal world, where we know that a world of a person is different from another. Man always finds himself in-the-world. He is thrown into the world. Second, Being-in is important constitutive elements in being-in-the-world. Heidegger describes the “in” as “derived from ‘innan’-‘to reside’, ‘to dwell.’...’An’ signifies ‘I am accustomed’, ‘I am familiar with’, ‘I look after something’(Heidegger,1962:80). From the etymology, “in” means dwelling in certain place where on is accustomed or familiar. The Being of Being-in, according to Heidegger, is concern. In such activity like interrogating, Dasein has its own concern. Third, entity which in every case has Being-in-the-world as the way in which it is. Heidegger argues that Dasein is the only entity that has Beingin-the-world. This happens because Dasein has care as its Being. The essence of a man lies in his Being-in-the-world. As man cannot be separated from his world, to understand man means to understand the Being-inthe-world. This idea seems to provoke a possession of a world by everyman. It is
true. Yet, Being-in-the-world is not merely possession of a Dasein. It is Dasein itself. Dasein is, without being united, Being-in-the-world. In projecting his Being-there, Dasein creates and always creates endlessly his Being-in-the-world. Dasein’s being-in-the-world indeed is inescapable. Being-in-the-world is designed by Heidegger to refuse human as metaphysical soul and body or rational being separated from the world that can see the world from outside. Heidegger stands that being-in-the-world is unitary phenomena between Dasein and what it encounters. Here, the essence of Dasein is not separated from the existence. Dasein in any situation cannot find shelter. Dasein cannot hide from its Being-inthe-world as long as he lives. By creating term Being-in-the-world Heidegger includes Dasein as being which has no difference with other beings. Although Dasein is a unique, but he should not be separated from other beings. When Dasein’s basic is Being-in-the world, Dasein can also be being-inthe-midst-of-the-world or falling. In this falling, Dasein becomes inauthentic because it flees from himself and it is absorbed into das man or the One/the They. When it happened, Dasein does not stand face to face with its Being because it flees from it in order to be absorbed in falling. Das man in German language means mankind or man as a species. It does not refer to particular man but man in general. Olson mentions that “what Heidegger had in mind in choosing this term was the German expression Man Sagt, which means in English ‘one says’ or ‘they say’”(Olson,1962:136). “They” is not unity of all individual nor particular man taking rule. “They” is impersonal and anonymous. Heidegger says “Everyone is other, and no one is
himself”(Heidegger,1962:165). The subject of they “nobody to whom every Dasein has already surrendered itself in Being-among-one-
other”(Heidegger,1962:163). Nobody creates certain values because they share it together. Heidegger mentions five characteristics of falling. First, Being-amongone-another dissolves Dasein’s into merely Others, and Dasein enjoy as They enjoy the world. He writes “we take pleasure of enjoying ourselves as they take pleasure; we read, see, and judge about literature and art as they see and judge”(Heidegger, 1962:164). They prescribe the kind of Being of everydayness. Due to there is no personal choice, as if there is no responsibility for Dasein. There is also no self-reflection because the falling man thinks that is just how the decision should be taken. Second, falling conditions people as if they have already understood everything. This gets rid of doubt and hide ontological question such as “who I am.” Hence, Dasein tries to escape his personal anxiety, which in fact is inevitable. Third, since there is no doubt, Dasein is alienated from his own true possibility. Fourth, the authentic possibly for human action is closed. Fifth, the fall of the self into essentially foreign world is turbulent (Kaelin, 1987,114-115). Dasein may also become inauthentic in activity of concern. This condition happens when Dasein works and its existence melts with the ready-to-hand. For example, when hammering, people do not feel separation between himself and hammer. The hammer is he and he is hammer because of the routine activity. This happens mostly in factory industry. In short, there is no self-awareness of existence at all.
One of the moods is anxiety which he uses to deepen his analysis into ontological structure of Dasein. When dasein searches for the source of values. ii.. Yet. . Anxiety. Abandonment is “a term used by Heidegger. This condition of having no external justification brings man to anxiety. 2005:01). dasein meets nothing because in fact those cannot justify its decision. and for the most part it remains so” (Heidegger 1964:167) Most of Dasein’s time is spent in falling. Dasein seeks for ethical justification which may come either from religious belief or certain concept of the nature of world. and Care Heidegger argues that a mood always fills our being-in-the-world. Heidegger even “denies that the authentic-inauthentic distinction has any ethical content”(Honderich. raises Dasein from his falling. 2005L280). To be inauthentic is not important to avoid.. Anxiety. which is inevitable for Dasein.to describe the absence of any sources of ethical authority external to oneself”(Honderich. Thus. Being authentic for a very short time and inauthentic in most of the time is a natural condition of Dasein. Authenticity. dasein finds itself abandoned. as Dasein’s Being. falling is “its everydayness and its averageness”(Heidegger. Heidegger states that “Dasein is ‘they’. dasein starts to feel its anxiety. In its abandonment. and discloses care.1964:168). 22 Inauthenticity for Heidegger is Dasein’s everyday condition.
. 23 Heidegger contrasts fear and anxiety to begin his analysis. Unlike fear that has object. Fear is fear toward being-within-the-world. Yet. If fear is fear of something. ‘nowhere’. Fear is ontical mood that has an object. Dasein does not always feel the anxiety. Anxiety also raises Dasein into authenticity from falling in the world of everyman. anxiety either cannot be recognized or it is misinterpreted as fear. one might fear of chicken or darkness. As a result.. Anxiety ‘does not know’ what in the face of which it is anxious is. it is inauthentic way of Being-in-the-world. anxiety does not have object. However. Anxiety individualizes Dasein. Heidegger takes the case of death as how anxiety brings Dasein into individual realm. Anxiety is covered in routine and certainty imposed by the One. in falling. Heidegger writes about the threat that results anxiety as follow: “That in the face of which one has anxiety is characterized by the fact that what threatens is nowhere. does not signify nothing: this is where any region lies.1964:231) Anxiety lies not in front of object within-the-world. face to face with its Being. this nothing is in fact the every structure of Dasein.it is so close that oppressive and stifles one’s breath. and there too lies any disclosedness of the world for essentially spatial Being-in. What threat Dasein in anxiety is indefinite. however. It is Being-in-the-world that stands in front of anxiety. it can be concluded that Dasein has anxiety in its Being. Heidegger says that “Being-in-the-world itself is that in the face of which anxiety is anxious”(Heidegger. Although fear is distinctive. As mentioned earlier that Being-in-the-world is Dasein.1964:232). In the other word. it is always directed toward something. . and yet it is nowhere” (Heidegger. For example. anxiety is anxiety of nothing.
Dasein is an entity for which. Dasein disclose its Being and it is called into authenticity by recognizing Dasein’s Being. in its Being. “in” its Being-in-the-world. 1964:234). Dasein also contains Being-toward-Death. that Being is an issue. Dasein cannot always feel comfortable everyday. Dasein always faces death alone. Rather. is an ontological moment that is irreplaceable. in its ontologico-existential manner. Anxiety reveals uncanniness. Dasein cannot succeed in covering its anxiety. Yet. 24 Death. it does not mean that Dasein tries to escape its Being-in-the-world. Heidegger uses the word care. Dasein flees its Being-in-the-world. Dasein’s projection always ahead from its Being- . its not Being-in-the-world. unovertakeable. Dasein faces its nothingness. Through its projection dasein can be aware of the Being. according to him. and is a threat to its everyday lostness in the “they. In anxiety. for Heidegger. Once thrown into Being-in-the-world. Although one always says that death is unavoidable and natural as living being so that we do not have to worry about it. projects itself toward its Being which is there. However. In death. possibility of death may come without preparation. However. Dasein cannot know for sure when death comes. and indefinite”(Kaelin1987:163). Dasein is always abandoned from its throwness.” though not explicitly” (Heidegger. Dasein. Being-ahead of itself means that Dasein is self-projective Being towards its very potentiality-for-Being. However. Heidegger writes that “this uncanniness pursues Dasein constantly. Heidegger urges that “is an issue’ should be denoted as Being-ahead of itself. Heidegger writes that “Dasein’s Being reveals itself as care”(Heidegger.1964:227). certain. death is “nonrelational. As a result.
Dasein is always ‘beyond itself’. Authenticity is characterized by freedom. 1987:117). In addition. Authentic Dasein will live his personal Being-in-the-world. in its very Being. . In recognizing itself. Authentic Dasein will also full of inspection of its self-reflection. 25 in-the-world. Dasein decides its authentic choice and decision. Dasein does not try to escape anxiety but accept it.1964:237). Dasein still can comport itself into inauthenticity. To make it explicit and simple care can be described as “ahead-of-itself-Beingalready-in-(the-world)”(Heidegger. but this potentiality-for-Being is itself. not something we must suffer”(Kaelin. The uncanniness from anxiety calls Dasein toward authenticity. Yet. Kaelin writes that according to Heidegger “caring is something that we do. When realizing the Being. Although Heidegger conceptualizes authenticity and inauthenticity. Dasein feels anxious because of the awareness of the uncanniness. he does not posit it in moral dichotomy. However. Dasein is in freedom toward his Being which is there. He pursues his personal life. In this care lies the existentialontological condition for possibility of Being-free for authentic existentiell possibilities. To project toward its Being means that Dasein is always ahead of itself. Dasein realizes and lives its anxiety. Dasein is inauthentic “for the most part”(Heidegger.1962:137). 1964:238). Olson writes about Heidegger and authenticity that Dasein gains authenticity when “consciousness of through anguish of the radical duality between the human and non-human and by recognizing the difference between being-in-the-world and being-in-the-midst-of-the-world”(Olson.
Therefore. Authentic dasein is a real subject that is not absorbed into the They or concern. “man is rather ‘thrown’ from Being itself into the truth of Being.” Being depends on Dasein but beings do not. Dasein accepts that “what throws in projection is not man but Being itself.1978:210). Heidegger encourages everyone to create their own Being-in-the-world. 26 From that point. instead of Being-in-the-midst-of-theworld. so that.. Heidegger encourages Dasein to be able to be “shepherd of Being.. Dasein is claimed by Being. dasein does not flee from itself but face it. Dasein becomes authentic when it is out of the One. When being illuminated with Being. Olson writes that “he [Heidegger] does not believe man invents meaning and truth. but in the different way. whiter and how God and the gods or history and nature come forward into the lighting of Being. Man does not decide wither or how beings appear. authentic chooses in personal decision. which sends man into the ek-sistence of Dasein that is his . The Dasein’s projection toward is indeed a personal projection. Authentic Dasein may do the same action as inauthentic Dasein. in order that beings might appear in the light of Being as the beings they are.1962:138). and these do not deserve the title”(Olson. The authentic Dasein according to Heidegger is also characterized by its illumination with Being.he might guard the truth of Being. Heidegger argues that Being is more prior than man the world. come to presence and depart. The advent of beings lies in the Destiny of Being”(Heidegger. Man can invent only pragmatic truths.
there is a chance or possibility to change when the relationship between the active and the reactive changes. The will wills itself. Here. it decides the active force that dominates the reactive force. as the determiner of quality of forces. A body is not a mediate because everything in the world is forces. Surrender itself needs an activity. 2002:50). Through the body. Theory of Nietzsche’s Overman a. The dominated force is active in sense that it decides itself to be dominated. The will to power. 27 essence”(Heidegger. The Will to Power The will to power. that changes itself with the conditioned and determines itself in each case along with what it determines”(Deleuze. commands the forces in dominating relationship one to the other. It also seeks expansion and development of power through the expansion of body. but Being. is not determined. which indeed determined by the will to power. The body can be chemical. the dominated force does not reflect passivity because a force needs a will to power to surrender to the other force. As a result. or social. political. the center in Heidegger’s thinking is not Dasein. He explains that “it [the will to power] is an essentially plastic principle that is no wider than what it conditions. a . Inside the body. constitutes a body. These relationships of forces. However. The will to power determines the quality of a body.1978:217). which is determiner of force. It is self-determination or in Deleuze's language a plastic principle. 3.
not all beings are capable to increase the power. they try to expand their power over others. b. human can reach a goal that is only possible for human being. His famous suggestion is to say “yes” to life. To actualize will to power means to expand and maximize the power in the being. 1996:87). This shapes the world into changing. can increase the power. and become king of themselves. their mediocre humanity. Their basic characteristic is selfegoism. master and slave morality. not according to their social position but by their moral quality. Nietzsche encourages people to affirm their life. The unique ability belongs to human. 1968:186). Nietzsche defends monism in writing that “the innermost essence of being is will to power”(Nietzsche. self-overcoming. 28 being strives to dominate one to the other. and Transvaluation of Values Nietzsche divides human morality into two. Finally. Affirming life means people maximize the will to power. and. Therefore. Human being can exercise “its power in schemes of self-overcoming”(Welshon. In other word. Slave Morality. men overcome their obstacles. men can overcome their all-too-human. One enjoys not in possession but its increase”(Kaufmann. The master morality can be found in low class of society while the slave morality also can be found in . Through this power. Therefore. Human being can maximize the power because human wills the power. Related to the ethics.1967:369). thus. the nature of human and all beings. The will to power means the will to increase power in a body because power “is enjoyed only as more power. However. Master Morality.
Nietzsche finds that the word good in German and Latin etymologically was related with noble and aristocrat class.1956:162). and spiritually distinguished while bad meant . 29 aristocratic society...”.1956:170). While explaining the idea of those two moralities. than among the newspaper-reading demi-monder of the spirit. The superior. turning “good and evil' into “good and bad. the first essay of The Genealogy of Morals examines historically the origin of slave and master morality and what Nietzsche calls as the “slave revolt in morals”(Nietzsche. class minded and sense. maintain” (Nietzsche.among the lower orders and especially among peasants.1972:184).high “powerful/beautiful/happy/favored-of-the-gods. (Nietzsche. Nietzsche argues that “all noble morality grows out of triumphant self-affirmation”(Nietzsche. mighty. They could be powerful because they affirmed natural drive. exercise and expand their power.1956:160)” . they were the exclusive and small in number compared to the herd or mass. Good for the aristocrats mean “noble in highly hierarchal sense. and the aristocrat class created the good to justify themselves.1956:170). placed. They valued the world based on good and bad which they created.1956:167). the cultured “(Nietzsche... The master morality was the character exclusively belonged to aristocratic class..(Nietzsche. The aristocrat posits the highest place in society and they were the most powerful class and the ruling class of society. However. Nietzsche offends slave morality and defends master morality through suggesting the transvaluation of values.. In Beyond Good and Evil he said that it is possible to find “relative nobility of taste and reverential tact. ruler.
war game. low-minded. As the result of the exuberant of energy.. only the suffering. 1956:172). challenge. they gather in a community and value everything useful and practical for the community as good.1956:167). who leaves revenge to God. The priest's goodness for the aristocrat was bad because it did not expand and exercised their power. like us. health and power. sick. humble. Such life was weak and not energetic. the dance. standardized altruism as good. Second. and. who keeps himself hidden as we do. The aristocrat's goodness. “only the poor. competition.. They put the goal of humanity in community not in individuality. they love combat. common (Nietzsche. who does not requite. The priests valued their impotence. plebeian (Nietzsche. and ugly"(Nietzsche. . 1956:160). who avoids evil and desires little from.1956:179)” were good. such as war game. competition. and just" (Nietzsche. which considered bad for aristocratic values. who harms nobody. the powerless. therefore. reactive. Nietzsche sometimes also called slave morality as the morality of the mob or the herd. . which expanded and exercised their power. the patient. They were “fully active. 30 “base. life. were considered evil by the priests since such goodness was harmful for them. as good. First. and dangerous life. who does not attack. Hence.. they educated the next generation firmly. dangerous life. adventures. Thus. “who does not outrage. The priests’ revolt converted the aristocratic values upside down. passivity. as a protection. In addition. they also exercised their power and expanded it through their goodness. energetic people”(Nietzsche. and create the term evil to replace bad. 1956:160).
The man of resentment. is symbolized by camel in Zarathustra's Of the Three Metamorphosis. while the master morality opposed good with bad. Third. Thus. Deleuze writes that “a reaction alone cannot constitute resentment “(Deleuze. He cannot by active force produce reaction because the man of resentment’s reaction is based on reactive force and the resentment inside him. their opposition is “good and evil” instead of “good and bad. As the result. For the . which characterizes slave morality. Reactive type is not a type composed of a completely reactive forces. He always associates whatever he perceives with his resentment. and he confuses it with other stimulation. Resentment originates in a strong unpleasant experience. The reactive type originates resentment. he keeps the pain inside without being able to forget it. Both concepts are connected one to the other to explain the origin and the characteristics of slave morality. for the heaviest. 31 depends on the translators. The man of resentment only uses his reactive type to relate the stimulus from outside. or a quick sharp reply. or the slave morality. The revenge haunts the man consciously or not in memory. 2005:111). like the case of bloodhound which can only recognize the smell of trace.” Deleuze explains Nietzsche's ideas of slave morality by relating resentment and reactive as the key concepts. The man of resentment cannot “react” to the outside world no matter what the excitations are. they create the term evil to oppose good. Camel is animal that “longs for the heavy.and wants to be laden”(Nietzsche.. The man of resentment receives too great pain without being able to react because he does not have enough power to form a riposte. 1969:54).
begins by saying no to an ‘outside. in fact. In short... deny the drive of power inside them.’ an ‘other. hence. also dominates the feeling of slave morality. only the herd exists and individuality is repressed. are dominated by the existing values. This herd morality oppresses desire and drive. and. Because of their denial toward the world. They act based on their fear of God and their submissive longing.” promise of the Judgment day. Like all Christian. Slave morality takes the people to say “no” to the outside world because they are dominated by the resentment. Nietzsche writes “slave ethics. they live in the “afterworld.1969:54). discourage creativity and spontaneity. They. in fact. who for Nietzsche are the men of resentment.” In “thou shalt” there is no individuality. Fear. and ascetics that dwarf their power. Drive and desire are taboo for slave morality. moreover. they bend for order and heavy job.1969:24). Camel submits to “all values has already been created”(Nietzsche. the no does not maximize the human potential. Those two endanger the surrender and contradict the impotence of power since desire and drive haunt fulfillment. Fear motivates their attitude. Camel bents in front of tradition. People holding slave morality will be tame instead of energetic. He. austere life. all values are received instead of created through his power. and that no is its creative act”(Nietzsche. People submit their life because they cannot create value and they. “the feeling of the absence of power “(Nietzsche. bents down receiving the command “thou shalt. 32 camel. .’ a non-self. 1956:171).
(Sunardi. However. hatred. the reactive forces and active forces work in their own proper part where the reactive can be acted by the active. a sacred Yes”(Nietzsche. In active type. patient and self-overcoming principle. a new beginning. a first motion. By affirming their life. a sport. people turn into animal. in that condition the creativity emerges. as in the case of asceticism. They say yes to the world in all its sense. they cannot express themselves and stop growing. Here. Related to their desire. Sunardi describes Nietzscheian sublimation as a meeting between passion and geist. They affirm their fate and love it. Nietzsche in Zarathustra employs child as metaphor of the master morality characterized as “innocence and forgetfulness. and envy. When doing all the desire without geist. when people repress all the desire through the medium of geist.1969:55). the people of master morality accept the world and say yes to life. When tested by eternal recurrence. Innocence refers to the conscious succeeds to free itself from resentment. they express it and act in accord with what they want. Yet. forgetfulness denotes the ability to forget which shows the active type. they enjoy the blissfulness of life. Nietzsche states that the meeting is never in peace but turbulence and strain. a selfpropelling wheel. When they want one joy. In the contrary. they will accept all the pains that go with the joy as the consequences. they would embrace the doctrine willfully. the instinct drive is managed into creative act used to turn back to organize the drive. amor fati. Here. doing their drive to expand and exercise their power does not mean that they just do anything they want wildly. 33 In contrast with slave morality which denies the world.1996:70). This results in self that can .
The masters. As discussed earlier that truth supports the believer practically. they control their emotion and do not let the outer forces determine theirs. The self-propelling wheel and first motion show how master morality determines oneself. Nietzsche suggests to reveres the good into “bad” and the evil into “good. A sacred Yes means a Yes that knows how to say no. Thus. since being active instead of reactive. and thus the people of master morality avoid it. For instance. The transvaluation that Nietzsche offers means a re-reversal of the priests’ revolt on morals. . influence and create instead of being influenced and formed so that they can express their desire and expand their power. He urges master morality to gain the triumph against slave morality. The phrase a new beginning might also means the ability to destroy values when those values signify tendency to be absolute.1969:55) in which the child create values and “wills its own wills”(Nietzsche.” Sport reflects joyfulness and will to play. human will not be able to expand the power and potency in maximum degree. the absolute truth in fact functions the opposite. A sport points the playfulness characteristics of master morality where “thou shalt” is replaced with “I will.” Otherwise. 34 perpetually refresh itself and get rid of from contamination of resentment. a new beginning always exists. Nietzsche explains the sport as “the sport of creation”(Nietzsche. 1969:55). The camel's Yes is not sacred because of their inability to say no.
argues that overman can only be achieved by the harmony of these aspects: Power. Overman is a man whose power is over so that he can say the holy “yes. overman has left his conformity. intelligence. Overman is a man of power who can will and increase the power. Overman as A Master Morality Nietzsche offers overman to face the most extreme form of nihilism. think. Kaufmann writes that “the lack of reason.” His intelligent is a mean to overcome the nature. In relation to church. that “the man who would not belong to the mass needs only to cease being comfortable with himself. 1976:37). as summarized by Fuad Hassan. 1968:231). Only overman has characteristics that are strong enough to face reality. he condemns church because church was . and affirm life completely in the whole integration. or spirit is a lack of power”(Kaufmann. Overman for Nietzsche is the solution for the extreme nihilism. Overman represents the most successful of self-actualization of master morality. overman defends individuality. He writes. By being different. In other word. he should follow his conscience which shouts at him: “Be yourself! You are not really all that which you do. (Hassan. or in Nietzsche’s term to follow one’s conscience. intelligent. as quoted by Kaufmann. 35 c. and Nobility. For Nietzsche. Nietzsche. 1968:158) To actualize one self completely. 1968: 309). everyone by the vey nature is unique. means to be different among the mob. Kaufman argues that for Nietzsche overman appears as “symbols of repudiation of any conformity to a single norm: antithesis to mediocrity and stagnation”(Kaufmann. and desire now” (Kaufmann.
Kaufmann summarizes Nietzsche's concept of self-overcoming as “he who has overcome his animal nature.a rope over an abyss”(Nietzsche. Zarathustra says that “man is a rope. overman “can perform his unique deed of self- . and given style to his characters”(Kaufmann. What have you done to overcome him?”(Nietzsche).1968:316). 1968:231). sublimated his impulses. In short. sublimated his impulses. As a transition. Nietzsche writes that “he who cannot obey himself will be commanded” (Nietzsche. the overman level. although has the animal instinct. In Zarathustra's prologue Nietzsche tells ontological position of overman. Overcoming oneself means being able to control and to be powerful toward one self. he preaches to the people “I teach you the superman. Thus. fastened between animal and superman. Human has possibility to get move to animal and overman. When animal is controlled by instincts. Man is something that should be overcome. has the potency to overcome human's animal instincts. overman is a condition where human can overcome humanity completely. Nietzsche encourage people to overcome man. When Zarathustra comes to meet the crowd in market place. including himself. Intelligent is an important mean to increase power. This also means potency to overcome humanity that contains animality. There was nothing controlling one life but one’s own. Man plays transitional between animal and overman. overman will be noble because he never sees himself in contempt since he can affirm the world. organized the chaos of his passions. After that.1969:137). human. As a result. human being can move into higher level. 36 “against the intelligent ones”(Kaufmann. 1969:43).
When “God is dead”. and changes human orientation from after-worldly into the earth. Overman has ability to create values and give meaning to all by himself. values. human has been the new sources of value. the law-breaker-but he is the creator”(Nietzsche. overman becomes the locus of meaning. 1969:46). overman creates himself through creating his active selfdestruction. The dead god erases all transcendental sources of value. Hence.1968:316). All the integrated self is united to be given one meaning.. he bears his woe and sees them as inseparable from his strength. Overman “smashes their [the herd] tables of values. because it is more of a knot” (Nietzsche. desire. that will bring overman into joyfulness. Overman sees all his characters as a whole instead of separated one by one. This destruction and creation work hand in hand. Zarathustra preaches that “the superman is the meaning of the earth”(Nietzsche. human finds that the world is meaningless. Yet. and self-mastery” and becomes “truly human or Zarathustra would say. By Self-creation. All his passions'.1969:52). .. Zarathustra says “one virtue is more than two. overman needs to destroy his old self in which his values lay. Human can be the source of value to justify their own selves when they have been able to overcome their own self. without relying on transcendental being. self-creation. the breaker. 37 integration. and drives are integrated into one by the virtue. As the herd holds tradition and old values.1969:42). Consequently. Self-integration means that overman can integrate his characters.superman”(kaufmann. and truth. overman does active destruction to create the new order. Hence. To build a new.
The meaning of the existence refers to the truth. Thus. He is like a child who can destroy and create values. and tradition. Thus. It does not mean that the goal. Overman can overcome obstacles that entangle himself. In addition. overman declines the values. He writes “I want to teach men.1969:49). Nietzsche highly suggests man to actualize his unique individuality. Kaufmann writes that. Nietzsche encourages men to be brave to . overman creates truth of meaning based on the needs and the context.it loves to fly away!-then my pride too fly with my folly!”(Nietzsche. refers to universal meaning of existence. the tradition and stable values weaken power. Nietzsche hesitates to decide which is the most universal human characteristics: fear or laziness”(Kaufmann. 38 The values and law of tradition comforts people in peace. related to the practical truth. he refers the word meaning as the self-meaning. the meaning of their existence: which is the Superman”(Nietzsche. as means for self-actualization. When Nietzsche says overman as meaning of men existence. Moreover. “the reason why most men fail to heed the voice of their true self is twofold. The goal is the most supreme actualization of one individual. 1968:158).1969:53). 1968:309). a sport of values. By that means. He writes “and if one day my wisdom should desert me-ah. overman can “realize his own unique individuality”(Kaufmann. law. in order to create a new set of values. overman. the old must be destroyed. Overman declares war not also to build the new values but also to exercise the power.
in addition. related to his ethics. However. They. is a concept of sublimation of animalistic instinct. Although Nietzsche insists that the hypothesis of eternal recurrence is “the most scientific of all possible hypothesis”(Nietzsche. the universe will have no other choices but repeating . Eternal recurrence argues that the world reoccurs again and again infinitely with exactly the same occurrence infinitely. 39 actualize themselves. the Stoic school. as discussed in the part of master morality. and Pythagoras (Sunardi. love their virtue. He is like the metaphor of self-propelling wheel. Overman can manage his drive. d. When all combinations have occurred. Unlike fear which marks the lack of power. and become master of his own self. 1969:46).1967:36). they who work and invent that may build a build the house for overrman. (Nietzsche. Overman and Eternal Recurrence Eternal recurrence has been uttered since old Greek by Anaximander. Self-mastery. Then. He says that they who live for knowledge and will for knowledge will let overman lives. the idea gets a new emphasize and context in the philosophy of Nietzsche. When Zarathustra looks at people he tells how to be overman. the ethical implication plays more important role than the cosmological one. bravery signs the abundance of power to face an obstacle.1996:111). Heraclitus. and firstmotion. Nietzsche justifies eternal recurrence by the ideas that the combinations of universe are finite in number but the time of the universe is infinite.
one is considered cannot affirm life when one throws one selves down and gnash one's teeth and curse the demon .1967:548) due to the extremely long past of history of the universe. it is certainly not constructed for one purpose”(Nietzsche. Everything is always in changing and it never reaches a “state of equilibrium. However. In short. eternal recurrence is a kind of test whether one can affirm life or not (Honderich. This always happens again and again eternally. Heidegger writes that “All Being is for Nietzsche a Becoming”(Heidegger. He believes that the world is an eternity that always becoming. 2005:269). within its joy and pain.goal” because “this state must have been reached”(Nietzsche.. it means you have been able to say holy Yes to life. 1974:167).1984:07). the one can be classified as accepting and affirming life in the time the one is still willing the moment to reoccur eternally. Consequently. In The Greatest Weight in The Gay Science Nietzsche tells a parable about a demon that suddenly just comes and tells the idea of eternal recurrence. the universe is becoming without ending in eternal recurrence. Nietzsche also justifies this as consistent idea with principle that argues energy is eternal. When the idea is considered divine. 40 the already happened combination. When one undergoes a moment.. He wrote “beware of believing that this world is a machine. it is the most nihilistic world ever thought. Ethically. in the middle of and endless becoming universe. Nietzsche urges not to draw any teleological meaning of the eternal recurrence of the world.
overman is one can overcome man that s/he is being able to affirm the worst possibility. In addition. If overman is a being enjoys his state of joy because of his abundance of energy. Thus. Only overman can affirm life as a whole through and in the eternal recurrence. then he also wants all the woes that always accompany the joy because things are connected one to the others. instant.1974:274). the most destructive idea. overman. desiring the joy means wanting the woes. . as a form of complete acceptance. 1969:32). . It means you still cannot affirm life. Nietzsche writes “if you wanted one moment twice. the eternal recurrence. faces the earth. When the slave morality who is poor in power looks to heaven for salvation. Overman integrates what he wants with everything entwined under one meaning. overman has great power in himself to affirm life and preserve the joyfulness. In other word. Because all things are chained and entwined together. then you said Yes to all woe as well. Eternal Recurrence and Overman have similarity because both play extreme role in Nietzsche's philosophy. All things are chained and entwined together”(Nietzsche. moment!' then you wanted everything to return!”(Nietzsche. eternal recurrence is the most and complete nihilistic. the two ideas can be easily depicted in one section. is like master. the eternal recurrence. overman wants. In one hand. wanting to re-experience a joy equals to desiring all to return. if ever you said: 'you please me.1969:332). By his self-integrity and self-creation. In the other hand. you are terribly afraid and then get angry to the demon. 41 (Nietzsche. Related to power. happiness. Nietzsche writes that “did you ever say Yes to one joy? O my friends.
. He have willed even his tragedy. There is no goal and purpose of the universe. overman does not regret his past nor fall into a remorse. As explained earlier that overman can affirm life completely. By his integration. as a whole instead of in little chunk. Thus.1968:309). Overman uses supra historical point of view in time. overman bears the eternal recurrence. It is not also the world where everything is in process of going somewhere. Then. 1968:324). 1968:319). He “gives meaning to his own life by achieving perfection and exulting in every moment “(Kaufmann. Instead of considering salvation in the process. his goal is achieved in every moment because every moment is eternity occurring in unlimited time. Through this way overman redeems his woes. 1974:273). eternal recurrence for him is bearable. 1969:161). but giving meaning to all. Kaufman says that overman “redeeming even the ugly by giving it meaning in a beautiful totality”(Kaufmann. overman never feels any guilt because he is the salvation of his own selves. the world is not in progress nor regress. Thus. he redeems the past by willing the past to happen as it happened. he unifies all the moments in joy. The world of eternal recurrence is “finished in every single moment and its end attained”(Kaufmann. In eternal recurrence. even in the “loneliest loneliness” (Nietzsche. 42 He does not give meaning to even one by one. he feels every moment as a joy. “to redeem the past and to transform every ‘it was’ into an ‘I wanted thus!’. By giving one meaning as a “knot”.that alone do I call redemption”(Nietzsche. As overman affirms every moment of time. Nietzsche in Zarathustra writes.
Thus. tend to comfort the people and dwarf their power. Overman. He willed his life in a beautiful totality. or individual. overman loves to create. both are tied in a complex relation. 43 In short. they form mutual exploitation for several reasons. Although overman and society contradict one to the other in characters. Overman the individual. Yet. he always creates new things. and Inequality The scenes of Zarathustra mostly take place with other people. they impose certain values such as “obedience. Moreover. in the names of tradition and preservation of culture. e. For example. new means evil and old means good. society. Moreover. Society for Nietzsche stands as opposition of overman. Society. patriotism. and society calls them evil. Society. only overman can bear eternal recurrence. In the eye of society. or society. Overman moves individually due to his need to grow. they do not want to develop power. loves war and anti-stagnancy so that he creates environment to develop power. When society longs for preservation. By his self-destruction he creates the new. duty.1967:382). and loyalty”(Nietzsche. he leaves his mountain after ten years to descend to people. Then. Overman also needs war to exercise and expand his power while society wants peace and comfort. on the contrary. . He does not negate life and can strongly affirm even his deepest woe. the place where herd live together. is conservative. They defense themselves against something new because it disturbs their comfort. Society originates in the multiplicities of individuals who lack of courage. Society wants to maintain peace condition because most of the herd is impotence.
society tends to hate overman. attacks conformity. 44 Due to those different characteristics.-or under neat”(Nietzsche. the good and the just hate you and call you their enemy and despiser. Moreover. Nietzsche symbolizes the preacher of this belief as poisonous tarantula. The old and tradition protects them in conformity while the new. Nietzsche writes. He strictly says “one must have no choice: either on the top. and they call you a danger to the people”(Nietzsche. He says “too many here hate you. 1969:90). the faithful of the true faith hate you. The attitude of society toward overman is delivered through the mouth of buffoon who kills a rope dancer. . naturally men are unequal and they should not be equal. The preservation and conformity. The herd “want to do harm to those who now posses power”(Nietzsche:1969:123). “they [society] would like to crucify those who devise their own virtue-they hate the solitary” (Nietzsche.1967:404). In other word.1969:123). However. the herd still wants to be in higher position although they are powerless. To be solitary disdains themselves and their values. symbol of movement in dangerous. motivated by revenge. thus from you thru tyrant-madness of impotence cries for 'equality': thus your most secret tyrant-appetite disguises itself in words of virtue”(Nietzsche.1969:49). that for overman exercises his power and increases it. it threat them so that they condemn the individual. He writes “you preachers of equality. This creates revenge which motivates them to create the belief of equality so that the weak can rule. also hide behind the term equality. The individuality of overman has questioned and challenged the mob. Society condemns overman for his individuality which they regards as a crime.
Justice. argues that equality comes from moral point of view. he explains further that quanta of power determines the order of rank. Nietzsche writes “I feel impelled to re-establish order of rank”(Nietzsche. Then. I need hands outstretched to take it”(Nietzsche. what would your happiness be. however. I am weary of my wisdom.1967:457). the mob demands freedom and justice. the mob can decide the “truth” and turn up side down the value of “good” and “bad. 1969:39). overman is also possible to stand up in high place.” The mob also uses equality to fight against the value of the noble. he says 'Great star. Based on the equality. in addition. needs rank to compete to place himself in high place. Thus. is paraphrase of demand for equal power and freedom from power's demand. It is important to note that overman needs people in society not because of his lack. Overman. In more poetic language. Thus. Although society and overman are in opposition. He descends because of his abundance like shown in Zarathustra's saying “Behold. like a bee that has gathered too much honey.1967:411). they justify their impotence before the same right. and war is what overman loves to exercise his power. Society with rank in it has more sever war. “all moralities know nothing of an 'order of rank' among men”(Nietzsche. In such society. for Nietzsche. overman descends to society because of his abundance of power and his need to self-destruction. Nietzsche. the judgment of the mob can win and they defeat the master morality. if you had not those for whom . By this belief. 1967:457). 45 The mob insists for equality so that “everyone may sit in judgment on everyone and everything”(Nietzsche.
Zarathustra says that “I should like to give it away and distribute it. After he has been empty again. still worthy for society. To avoid himself being destructed by his own abundance. The herd sees overman as criminal because he wants to break the old system. or “the cups wants to overflow”(Ibid). values. 1969:39). It illustrates how the herd defense and attack the overman. society indeed also gain advantage from this process. the society also take advantage when the noble rules. however. In the form of monarchy society. overman involves society as receiver. overman descends to society “to be man again”(Ibid). In other word.1969:79). . In fact. overman endangers himself by going down to society to give his abundance. Overman does what Deleuze says about Nietzsche as active selfdestruction. overman does not feel revenge and he does not blame them because of their weakness. However. They also punish “for all your virtues. As society hates overman. until the wise among man have again become happy in their folly and the poor happy in their wealth”(Nietzsche. Fundamentally they forgive you only-your mistake”(Ibid). and tradition. To do this. What has been overflows in overman is. he will fill again his cup. 46 you shine”. Nietzsche even uses metaphor poisonous flies that “weary “and make “bloodily torn in hundred places” (Nietzsche. Although being used. he uses society as mean. overman can never fulfill what society wish but he contributes to society his wisdom and abundance. Because he loves to exercise and develop his power through war and conflict. he uses the society to “empty his cup” or to spend his abundance in order to develop his power.
Second. The overman by the war exercises his power and the society by that change into a more dynamic so that it can be more beneficial than what the herd think of. This analysis will be highly indebted from the analysis . there are some steps to apply the theories. Theoretical framework In applying the theories. Yet. overman could be “a sea. These two theories are used in order to answer the first problem formulation. How Orestes sees the world and how he reacts against domination will be central points of the discussion without ignoring total analysis of his character.1969:41). This theory will discuss intrinsic elements of this character. theory of character and characterization are applied to analyze Orestes character. Being-in-the-world and Dasein’s Being within its raising into authenticity and falling into inauthenticity will be seen in Orestes’s way of understanding himself and his being-with others. Heidegger’s ontology will be discussed in building the character of Orestes. In summary. indeed. Then. to receive polluted river and not be defiled”(ibid). The overman tends to grow and the society tends to be stagnant. First. because society and overman contradict in character. D. Heidegger’s analysis on Being and entity as well as the mode of Being will be compared with how Orestes sees the nature of the world where he lives. 47 When man was “a polluted river”(Nietzsche. they are in war one to the other. benefits both the overman and the society. Heidegger’s theory is employed to see his influence on The Flies. this relationship.
Orestes’ action to change his world will be seen in the eye of Nietzscheian transvaluation of values to reach overman stage. the writer will analyze the departure of Orestes from Heidegger’s ontology and Nietzsche’s overman from the point of view of their theories. analysis of Heidegger’s ontology in Orestes will answer the second problem formulation. the theory of overman will be used to see the influence in Orestes. The slave morality and master morality will be used to see how Orestes before and after his revelation in which Sartreian world view is. 48 of character and characterization of Orestes. this elaboration answers the third problem formulation on Nietzsche’s overman influences on Orestes. . The theories of both philosophers which do not exist in Orestes will be compared. the characteristics of Orestes’ action will be related with ideas of overman. Third. After that. the influence of Nietzsche’s overman will be seen in Orestes’ decision and action. Then. Therefore. We will see in what aspects Orestes has built his own philosophy. The theories of Nietzsche’s overman will answer the problem formulation number three of how Nietzsche’s overman influence Orestes. Fourth. Thus.
including The Flies. till he passed away he never completed his promise. although he declined for the reason of ideology. The Flies is unique because Sartre has embodied freedom and its the ethical consequences. the play is still presented widely.CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY a. Object of the Study The Flies was first performed in 1943. This study uses Gilbert’s translation in No Exit and Three Other Plays. in the last part of Being and Nothingness promised to devote his later work on ethics. This play is still performed because it still echoes the theme of freedom and liberation until now. Yet. The book was published by Vintage International in 1989. This theme also what motivated Swedish Nobel committee to grand literature Noble in 1964 to Sartre. The English translation of The Flies itself appeared for the first time in 1946. The Flies says what Being and Nothingness does not say because Being and Nothingness is an ontological book. Sartre. In The Flies. The Harvard-Radcliffe Dramatic Club (HRDC) presents The Flies on fall 2009 for instance. Sartre in showing the consequences of freedom also talks about his values. the same year when the play was published. Until now. The Flies and No Exit are considered to be Sartre’s highest achievement as a playwright. three years after its French publication. 49 . four of Sartre’s plays are compiled in No Exit and Three Other Plays. However. In 1989.
50 The Flies. In Act I. Sartre’s attempt in offering his way has already been prepared by Heidegger and Nietzsche. however. which Gabriel Marcell calls as the manifesto of existentialism. the former king. Zeus camouflaged to persuade him to leave Argos. The Flies can also be read as an attempt to set up the new values. Aegistheus. Orestes came to Argos after his tutor revealed him his true identity as the son of Agamemnon. settings. All people of Argos wore black clothes and they were always in mourning. Those two works bring up existentialist reaction toward what Nietzsche names as the coming of nihilism. is built through certain ideas of what and how freedom is. Zeus also told the story of Aegistheus and his throne. Afraid that Orestes would claim his throne. Thus. The central theme of the flies is how to embrace absolute freedom and all its consequences to live the freedom. That existentialism was very popular at that time marked a new direction for Europe after the world war. Only through this existential freedom social liberation is possible. He told the condition of Argos as a half-dead city where all of its people were repenting in remorse of what they did toward Agamemnon. Flies were everywhere as a symbol of their guilt. by analyzing The Flies we are analyzing an attempt of re-construction of values in European society. The central theme. and characters are introduced. Once. and also a reading of a new direction in European culture after the great destruction of two world wars. the main character of the play. the background of the stories. This idea is mainly uttered and embodied by Orestes. was written at the same time with Being and Nothingness. who was .
He introduced himself as Philebus. on the contrary protested the condition of Argos. Yet. She was wearing a white to oppose the remorse of Argos. However. Agamemnon’s wife. and order from Zeus. Fortunately. Afterward. Orestes’ and Electra’s mother and the wife of Agamemnon. in the palace. was . Yet. scene one and two. who wanted to help Electra to escape from Argos. She dreamed to leave but she did not dare to run away alone. She introduced herself as Clytemnestra. The impolite greeting of Argos people toward Orestes justified Zeus’ suggestion for Orestes to leave. Zeus doomed her attempt. assassinated Agamemnon by the help of Clytemnestra. the god of remorse. Orestes after conversed with Zeus decided to go away from Argos. symbolized by the black clothes they always wear. the people of Argos who had believed her for a moment turn their attitude against her. a woman came to them. He just left Orestes in the forest and reported to Aegistheus that Orestes had been killed. In addition. Aegistheus also enslaved Clytemnestra. Aegistheus could not punish her at that moment because the custom of Argos forbade punishment in Dead Men’s Day. She told him that she was the princess who had been enslaved by the killer of her father. Aegistheus took over Agamemnon’s position as king of Argos and Clytemnestra’s husband. 51 the brother of Agamemnon. As a result. Sartre divides the act II into two. Aegistheus ordered to kill the three years Orestes in the forest. Orestes who should have served the ceremony since she was the princess. he accidentally met a girl whose name was Electra. Orestes. the executer felt pity and canceled the murder. Scene one told Electra’s rebellion on the Dead Men’s Day and Orestes’ awareness of freedom. Agamemnon’s daughter.
and the motivation of the characters. declined Zeus’ persuasion to take Electra and Orestes to bow under his law. 52 rejected by Electra. Electra and Orestes hided themselves in the shrine of Apollo because Furies chasing them. he leaved Argos followed by the flies. Electra admitted that he was really Orestes. like the ending. Zeus met Aegistheus to persuade him to kill Philebus. Then. which was added by Sartre. After that. Unlike Orestes who refused to take Zeus’ law. After that. he decided to free Argos and Electra had decided to support him. Scene two told the murder of Aegistheus and Clytemnestra. Orestes faced them gently and he revealed the truth about the freedom through his murder. She still waited for Orestes to save him. Meanwhile. Aegistheus was tired of his role as the king of repent people. Sartre changes the tragedy into the tragedy of freedom. She even insisted Orestes to leave Argos. She still believed that Philebus was not Orestes even though Orestes had opened to her his true identity. Aeschylus . In Act III. people of Argos had stood outside the shrine to stone Orestes as a result of his murder of their queen and king. Both versions are almost similar in chronology. there is no character of Zeus. However. Orestes was aware of his freedom in the midst of his confusion. Therefore. unlike Electra. He ended his life in the sword of Orestes. Electra fell down to Zeus. In Aeschylus. In the end of this act. Before Orestes came into the room of Aegistheus. Orestes. However. but different in some details. Argos had been free from old order based n remorse. Orestes argued with Zeus about the nature of man. The Flies was originated from Sartre’s re-written of a Greek tragedy titled The Oresteia which was written by Aeschylus.
Freedom has been a wide and never ending polemic in philosophy. For example. C. On the contrary. in Sartre’s version Orestes assassinated Aegistheus to free his people and he did not feel guilty. and Orestes was punished. In Aechilus’ version Orestes was motivated by revenge to kill Aegistheus and he. this approach is suitable because of the intention of this research aims to see the influence of philosophical thoughts of Nietzsche and Heidegger in The Flies. after that. As the major theme discussed in the play are freedom within its consequences. Approach of the Study This study applies moral-philosophical approach. He wanted to show to people of Argos that human was free. it is necessary to apply moral-philosophical approach. Hence. felt a deep remorse. 53 created Orestes as guilty for the murder in the end of the play. the basic position of such critics is that “the larger function of literature is to teach morality and to probe philosophical issues”(Gueirin. the polemic of freedom versus determinism has been discussed since old Greek tradition. To study philosophical problems including philosophical influences.1979:25). This approach argues that all work of art has philosophical and moral ideas. In addition. This approach is . absolutely free. nobody could punish himself. moral-philosophical approach is considered suitable to analyze The Flies. Its basic assumption is that literature is a mean to pose philosophical ideas and to teach moral. According to Guerin.
the writer takes Heidegger’s idea about the ontology of Dasein. This internet provides periodicals used in this study. the writer can approach the work to result what the study needs. D. . These primary sources are supported by secondary sources-which are more explicit and obvious-from Kaelin’s Heidegger’s Being and Time. Moreover. the primary sources are Heidegger’s Being and Time and Letters on Humanism. Although many parts of Being and Time discusses the being of dasein to analyze Being in general. Internet research. For Martin Heidegger. 54 suitable because according to this approach. supports the library research. Method of the Study The main sources of this study are collected from library and internet research. The main source of the study is the text of The Flies itself. By focusing of the aspect of moral-philosophical. Only moral-philosophical approach focuses on philosophy and moral revealed in the work of literature. and Budi Hardiman’s Heidegger dan Mistik Keseharian (Heidegger and Daily Mysticism). Library research provides the data needed for the object of the study. literary works always have certain values or and philosophical belief that wanted to be shared to its reader. What makes this approach unique and chosen rather than the others is its stress on philosophical issues. the theories applied come from library research. in addition. philosophical influences and ideas from Nietzsche and Heidegger to Sartre’s The Flies.
The study would be conducted under the guidance of problem formulations. The influences of Heidegger would be seen in Orestes’ characterization from the way Orestes saw the world and ontology implied from his action. This step would be done from the very basic ontology. and values that lied behind the action. Next. First. It . Then. it could be gained what the influences of Heidegger. The rest of the answer of the problem formulations would be based on the answer of problem formulation one. we would get elaboration of how Orestes reacted and expressed effects of his ontology. what the writer uses for most are Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Genealogy of Moral. the writer uses Oslon’s Existentialism: An introduction. psychologist. the analysis would continue to more specific ontological study focused on human being. The writer would analyze Orestes not only to scrutinize what he did but also his motive. The secondary sources are from Sunardi’s Nietzsche and Kaufmann’s Nietzsche: Philosopher. from the result of the first problem formulation. For existentialism in general. anti-Christ as well as Deleuze’s Nietzsche and Philosophy. Nietzsche’s ideas of overman would be examined in Orestes to see the influence of Nietzsche. which was Being in general. The Will to Power. character of Orestes would be examined in term of characterization. Because Nietzsche’s style of writing is sporadic and aphoristic. the writer uses Nietzsche’s books where he talks about overman and his morality. the attempt to answer the second problem formulation can begin. worldview. 55 In discussing Nietzsche. and Beyond Good and Evil. From the answer of first problem formulation. From there. By seeing Orestes in the eye of Heidegger’s theory.
56 could be found what the freedom implied. This would answer the question about the departure of Orestes based on the answer of the first and second problem formulations. . Then. both we would see the differences between Orestes and the theories of Heidegger and Nietzsche. This also might be found in Orestes’ action and the implications. to inspect Sartre’s departure.
uttered most of Sartre’s philosophy. his characterization after he had been aware of freedom. I’ve come from Corinth”(sartre. Orestes introduced the name Philebus. First. On the contrary. Orestes. Third.1989:62). 57 . As stated earlier that characters “are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with particular moral. and emotional qualities by inferences from what the persons say and their distinctive ways of saying it”(Abrams. most of the other characters. Therefore. To most of people he had just met. In short.1989:56). even when he met Electra. Orestes was known as Philebus in Argos. Orestes played central role in this play and analyzing this character has been considerably important and prior. his past life including his historical and philosophical background before he was aware of freedom. intellectual. When introducing himself to Zeus. he answered “Philebus.CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS A. at first. he says “Philebus is my name. Asked his identity by Electra.1981:20). the characterization is discussed into several parts. The Characterization of Orestes Character Orestes. to elucidate Sartre’s opinion. characterization that the writer found exists from before and after Orestes was aware of his freedom. the main character employed by Sartre to be his speaker. second. stood on his opposition. and I hail from Corinth”(Sartre. introduced himself as Philebus from Corinth.
If Orestes refused to be bonded in his first phase. in order to take his throne. Aegistheus. the name Philebus saved Orestes from Aegistheus’ desire to kill Orestes. When he had been submissive before. Thus. Some rich Athenians found him there and took him home”(Sarte. Clytemnestra. 58 Orestes needed to foreground his name as Philebus for his safety because of the threat from Aegistheus. However. he is characterized as a creative man. Orestes in fact was the son of Agamemnon. Orestes felt ambivalence before deciding his own path. After that. later he willed to be bonded. king of Argos who was assassinated by his own brother. Aegistheus ordered his servant to take the three year Orestes to forest to be killed and he also placed Electra who had been teenagers as position of servant in the castle. The story went that the man ordered to kill the child had pity on him and left him in the forest. the one who should have killed Orestes felt pity. Orestes was characterized differently before and after his awareness of freedom. To avoid the revenge of Agamemnon’s two children. there was a rumor in Argos that a passing merchant adopted Orestes when they found him in the forest. the queen of Argos and the wife of Agamemnon. helped Aegistheus. in this case with Argos. Yet. In the assassination.1989:56). Moreover. who created his own path and he walked through it certainly. he is characterized as a . Orestes later was characterized as a rebellious man. Yet. he finally lied to Aegistheus that he had already killed the baby. Zeus told this story to Orestes “some say he’s alive. Aegistheus had determined to kill Orestes when Orestes was still three years old. she married Aegistheus to justify his thrown.
no religion. the tutor denied that any of them was right by refusing to be committed. the smiling skepticism I taught you”(Sartre. “So. He was not only skeptical toward truth but also refused to bond himself with certain truth. commitment. a. In other word. Orestes was considered to be free from being involved in any society. Orestes’ Characterization before His Awareness of Freedom Bondless The philosophical background of the tutor influenced Orestes so much before Orestes had been aware of his freedom. By not being bonded. The refusal appeared in his attitude toward commitment. 59 responsible. you are free to turn your hand on everything. which the Tutor accused as bonds. the tutor did not teach Orestes to bond himself on certain position. all my percepts. good looks. your mind is free from prejudice and superstition. The tutor was skeptical and nihilist philosopher. But you know better than to commit yourself-and there lies your strength” (Sartre. Orestes did not . dangerous. and no calling. and outcasted man after his awareness of freedom. liberating.1989:57). “Have all my lessons. The tutor said to Orestes. and wealth. you have the wisdom of far riper year. and family. calling. according to the tutor. 1. was in his condition of not being bonded to any commitment. In this philosophical position. along with youth.1989:59) Orestes’ strength. you have no family ties. To bond one’s life means to believe that a certain way of life was more valuable than the others. Although he encouraged Orestes to know and understand the infinite diversity of men’s opinion and variety of human creeds and customs.
Orestes submitted himself to the tutor’s will. The impolite greeting of Argos justified Orestes’ attitude not to be bonded. Thus. Orestes was still dominated by the philosophy of the tutor. he refused to bond his life with certain values. He said “well. he had decided that Argos was not his world to live.1989:60). and it gave me many sleepless nights. worried the tutor so much. He said to Orestes “During these last months-to be exact. Orestes. the condition of not being bonded even strengthened its beholder. His tutor persuaded Orestes to leave Argos and avoided to be involved in the cursed city. 60 encourage himself to cling to certain truth. the town of his birth.1989:60). We’ve no business to be luxuriating in others’ heat”(Sartre. I was afraid” (Sartre. Although the influence of tutor had started to be eroded. Furthermore. which was identical with his tutor. his philosophical position. As a result. could be characterized from his tutor’s position. therefore. b. ever since I revealed to you the secret of your birth-I could see you changing day by day. Submissive Orestes was characterized as submissive since he avoided risking his life in conflict and he submitted his position toward the tutor’s opinion and decision. felt that he wanted to leave Argos because of the tutor’s consideration. He said . He still felt Argos belonged to others. let’s be off. Moreover. or path in Orestes’s language. my worthy pedagogue. Orestes in fact was still under the influence of his tutor’s philosophy. and position with Argos. Although Orestes’ determination to come to Argos.
such as family. 61 Orestes:…. It was important to note that his decision to go through Argos was to rejoice the tutor. and historicity. “I was born here” (Sartre. from what he said to the tutor about Argos. that’s talking sense. His past life was frozen in Argos. In one hand. I too was born there”(Sartre.now I am going to say something that will rejoice you. Orestes disagreed with such bond. He had emotional connection that he belonged to Argos.1989:50) and about the palace. “This is my palace. religion. Ambivalent Orestes indeed had ambiguous position in deciding his path. And it’s there a whore and her paramour foully butchered him. nor my door. he was the son of the former king. Thus. he did what the tutor considered right. Orestes’ decision to come to the town showed a doubting attitude toward the tutor’s teaching about the bound of life. he measured and understood his life with his tutor’s belief.1989:58). bear. Nevertheless. For what would you have gained by living in Argos? By now your spirit would be broken. Following his tutor path. Orestes’ attitude toward people of Argos also shows his ambivalence.” His tutor also had imposed himself no to be bonded on everything by his teaching. c. “I do not witness. he did not grow up nor understand Argos. had gradually changed. I don’t even know any of their name. In other word. as the tutor said. The Tutor: Ah. And there is nothing to detain us here. This is not my palace. Argos had been a part of his history. Yet. it was possible for Orestes to take place in Argos for he had reasons for that . you’d be wallowing in repentance. My father’s birthplace. He. When Orestes in this position.
62 decision. . Yet. He had planned to depart from Argos before the meeting. Orestes’ Characterization after His Awareness of Freedom Brave For many times in the play. however. which in several occasions risked his life. he bravely went out of his safety and started to wander his mind. When faced with dangerous possibilities. He started to build his own philosophy. he took a risk when refusing his tutor’s philosophy.1989:58). Orestes showed that he was a brave man through taking the dangerous possibility. was still dominated by his nihilist and cynical tutor. Philebus alias Orestes.”(Sartre. Orestes faced possibilities which gave him a fatal risk. a. He was also tied emotionally because his sister and his mother still lived in Argos. and life but himself. Orestes did not have any source to direct his values. who had been adopted by reach Athenians and taught philosophy. Orestes finally decided to leave Argos and submit to the will of his tutor. It is important to note that he finally stayed in Argos was because he accidentally met Electra. By leaving his previous teaching. He declared to his tutor. there was ambiguity in himself on his attitude toward the tutor’s teaching and Argos. In his ambivalence. “A truce to your philosophy! It’s done me too much harm already. Argos was his origin where he was born. In short. First. 2. truths. Since that.
for Electra. Electra had already warned him because he. He risked his life by committing the murder. he faced Zeus and refuted Zeus’ Truth in the last scene. he faced Argos people who wanted to kill him after he went out from his hiding place. and they’re armed.1989:190).” and “they will stone you. was feared by all people and gods. the thirstier of your blood”. When he said that he was going to murder Aegistheus and Clytemnestra.1989:199). Instead of fearing. Zeus.1989:199) while another man cursed Orestes by yelling “I’ll pluck out your eyes”(Sartre. he had to face Zeus’s anger. At that time. Fourth. 63 Second.”(Sartre. He was the king of universe although he could not reign over people realizing their free will. Orestes dared to infiltrate to the palace to murder Aegistheus and Clytemnestra. The people determined to kill him. In anger Zeus proclaimed “men like you I hold in abhorrence”(Sartre. too weak”(Sartre. An Argive shouted to Orestes “I’ll tear your gizzard”(Sartre. the people were very angry. The tutor expressed what he had just watched to Orestes as follow: “I can’t say which are the fiercer. Knowing the murder. However. “they are waiting behind it. Third. As a result of Orestes’ disobidience.1989:199). he firmly and bravely insisted the tutor to open the door o face the mad people. was “too young. as the highest god. the guards were still patrolling around to keep the palace. Soon after the Argieves had seen Orestes. In spite of all the dangerous. He and Electra entered and murdered Aegistheus and Clytemnestra. Orestes . they yelled and cursed him. he proved that he was not weak by the murder.1989:92).
In short. he refused to regard freedom as separated from human being. he faced fearlessly the anger of Argos’ people. since his awareness of his freedom. His awareness of freedom had changed the rest of his life. b. Orestes’ freedom did not enslave.1989:119). When Zeus insisted he consider himself as not being free because freedom had enslaved him. Orestes even went further by saying that freedom was his fundamental characteristic. Because for Orestes human was free. nor became his tool since freedom was no subordinate to human. consistently believed that he was free. 64 challenged Zeus by answering. Orestes. he acted in accord with his as shown in his murder. For Orestes. his action in facing dangerous characterized himself as a brave man. As a result. he was a brave man. Orestes answered “neither slave nor master. I am my freedom”(Sartre. Being free plays central role in Orestes’ characterization. he was the only one chose for himself. Therefore. Then. .1989:117). He had been brave to build his own philosophy. Unlike Electra who covered her life again in the veil of Zeus. Finally. since it was not his master nor God. “those words were confession of your weakness”(Sartre. the God of gods. Free Orestes is characterized as the only one who can stand to be free. After that. he also faced Zeus. Orestes stood for total freedom.
they’d send my palace up in flames. the ruler saved and preserved their power. and you do : Why.1989:118). (Sartre. human being was free. By covering their freedom. The bitterness of knowing men are free.. He later explained to Zeus how he could feel another path. why were not all people aware of their freedom but Orestes? The gods and the king had already recognized it but they had designed a system that mask people’s power. they would have overthrown Aegistheus. Zeus had already created men in free condition. Since human was free. which was their freedom from them. But now it has turned against its giver. If they knew it. When other beings were not free.1969:105). He said. 1989:118) He declared “Freedom has crashed down on me like a thunderbolt”(Sartre. you should not have made me free. But your subjects do not know it. Yes. Zeus: I gave you freedom so that you might serve me. Orestes . Aegistheus. Orestes’ awareness of freedom originated from his abandonment. Orestes: Perhaps. yes. And neither you nor I can undo what has been done (Sartre. the ruler had imposed their illusion on the people so that they did not believe that they were free. Consequently. His freedom was motivated by Zeus’ forlornness.1989:100) Aegistheus Had the people of Argos known they were free. Orestes:. 65 If this basic reality could not be avoided. you blundered. For fifteen years I’ve been playing a part to mask their power about them. Orestes argued that his existence had different character from other beings. In a word. they are free. men ruled their own selves. Although not everybody was aware of freedom. “you forsook me”(Sartre. Zeus : The bane of gods and kings.
In the story. In Orestes’ own word. beyond remedy. “Foreign to myself-I know it. he elucidated his condition of freedom to Zeus as. Because man was free. it was told that Zeus could control everything but man. This quotation shows Orestes had acted in accord to freedom. Orestes acted to take no one’s order. only he could reedem himself when he considered himself sinful. For instance. His powerlessness came from the existence of man’s free will. c. 66 stated “you are the king of gods. Responsible Because Orestes accepted his very condition of freedom. free will was distinctive character of human being. But you are not the king of man”(Sartre. Only Men could reign over themselves. Orestes was responsible for his decision to himself. Therefore. he replied “from now on I’ll take no one’s orders. he had no excuse in saying that others caused himself. He accepted his condition to be free. they who accepted Zeus’ law considered that they were responsible toward Zeus. king of stones and stars. But I shall not return under your law. Hence.1989:117). except what remedy I find within myself. In other word. The word responsible here does not mean responsible in the sense of “having to look after of sth/sb or do sth as a . Outside nature.1989:90). against Nature. neither man’s nor god’s”(sartre.” he meant that he solely caused his decision. without excuse.1989:119). king of waves of the sea. I am doomed to have no other law but mine”(Sartre. When Zeus persuade him to take the order of Zeus. When Orestes explained his existence as “without excuse.
. he had an excuse that he was doing Zeus’ Good instead of Orestes’ own goodness.We planned this crime together and we should bear its brunt together. .1969:634). but you carried it our. Because he was the only cause of himself. For Orestes. This characterization occurred in his dialogue with Electra: Orestes:. In other word. Orestes denied excuse.. Unlike Electra.I dreamt the crime. you murdered your own mother. Orestes had got no excuse since he willed his action freely. Excuse would escape his responsibility by believing that his action was not cause by his freedom. When he had taken Zeus’ law. one must carry all the responsibility of one’s action. for you had put me in the world to fulfill your purpose. As a result. and the world was an old pander prating to me about . he should bear all the consequences rising from his decision. He acknowledged that he had been the cause of the world he chose since in freedom men always choose without compulsion. He told his past to Zeus that “yesterday. You were my excuse for being alive. However.. I had an excuse. Since nothing and no one could cause what one did. Electra: You dare to say I planned it with you? Orestes: Can you deny it? Electra: Of course I deny it. one avoided the fact that one wanted to act in the way one did. 67 duty”(Oxford: 2004:366) but as “being the cause of sth”(ibid). In remorse. one denied what one had chosen. Being and Nothingness defines responsibility as. indeed. Orestes refused the attitude of getting rid of responsibility. he must accept consequences of his action because of being the cause of the action. “conscious (of) being the incontestable author of an event or an object”(Sartre.
and I need no god to teach me. “I am no criminal. You were hidden here and you heard the words of Zeus. he “regret nothing”(Sartre. All they acted in facet was based on their own freedom to choose with has no justification but themselves. he believed what he had done was his right thing. and to free the people of Argos from your evil influence. He even said to Zeus that “your whole universe is not enough to prove me wrong”(Sartre. day out”(Sartre. therefore. Second. Because of that. which meant taking Zeus’ standard to measure Orestes’ action. Past was something that could not be .1989:117).1989:117) Orestes also did not regret his past action. Orestes: Remorse? Why should I feel remorse? I am only doing what is right.1989:113). Orestes: What do I care about Zeus? Justice is a matter between men. at last! So this is your excuse? Orestes: I am not excusing my self. He kept his own values and path. Zeus: Ah. man denied that his nature that he could not have another source of values but himself.1989:113). and you have no power to make me atone for an act I don’t regard as a crime”(Sartre. he said to Zeus. It is right to stamp you out. Aegistheus: What is right is the will of God. Although Zeus insisted him to atone for what Orestes had done. he could not excuse himself anymore. day in. (Sartre. like the foul brute you are. 68 your goodness. Since he caused all about himself. He had already stated it to Aegistheus before he murdered Aegistheus.1989:103) In the eye of Orestes. All he chose were his own will.1989:118). Orestes proposed to accept past. he did his good although they called his action as evil. Orestes firmly resisted and. By excusing himself. First. It is right to restore to them their sense of human dignity (Sartre.
Literally. Philebus. But now I am weary and my mind is dark. In freedom men create their own values and nature by action. The shift happened soon after he realized that he was free.make plain your will by some sign.yet this you know: that I have always tried to act aright.. he could create his own values.. Creative Orestes was characterized as a creative person because he could create his own path. In short. And at one with my self”(Sartre. Freedom results an inevitable act of self-creating. McCall relates this scene with Orestes’ alias. is it truly your will that a king’s son. our Lord and King of Heaven.. who was not quite aware of his freedom and he still belonged to Zeus.. Orestes condition was “free. He searched for the Good or Right Thing according to Zeus’ will. beyond anguish.. 69 changed. Orestes.I need a guide to point my way. hounded from this city.. McCall argues that Sartre alludes Philebus from Plato’s dialogue has its own significance. should meekly school himself to banishment and slink away his ancestral home like a whipped cur?. He had not been able to create his values and begged Zeus for guidance. Zeus. Free. Tell me.1989:89) The quotation depicts Orestes’ desire for a sign leading him to the right thing to do. begged Zeus’ for direction and values. He believed it was the Good... It was also not an accident because one willed it. beyond remorse. He beseeched Zeus : “If I only knew which part to take! O Zeus. written in capital to signify the objective and the truly Good.1989:111) d. not often have I called on you for help. Socrates leads his questioner to the . Philebus. for no longer I can see my path”(Sartre. He writes that in “the Platonic dialogue.
.1969:105). but he merely called as idle dream.’ That’s what’s wanted. The thunderbolt hit and thorn a big stone into pieces. Orestes had declined the will of Zeus. Zeus lighted his thunderbolt to give sign for Orestes to leave. …even if I had to kill my own mother-‘ The tutor: Hush! For heaven’s sake. Their Right thing ”(Sartre. Yet. I see. if. very still” (McCall. Orestes [thoughtful]:..But.] The Right Thing. hush! . Unpredictably. Always to say ‘Excuse me. Orestes interpreted “that is the Right Thing. he had already desired to free Argos. “So that is the Good. what Gilbert translates as Right Thing is translated into the Good by McCall. even by a crime. Suddenly. something to give me the freedom of this city.1969:09). Orestes changed his mind. if there were something I could do. 70 revelation of the highest Good. It was only their Right Thing. Before realizing that human was free. He knew that the Right Thing was not absolute. He later declared “Freedom has crashed down on me like a thunderbolt”(Sartre.1969:09). Soon after realizing Zeus’ sign. The Good is written in capital for the initial represents the objective and only good. mind you. This signed what the Right Thing or The Good was. Therefore.’ and ‘thank you. Philebus still searched for Zeus’ law which signified that he did not realize his very condition of freedom in which man should choose and create values. He believed there was the Good or the Right Thing. Be submissive. The dialogue ends with Socrates' libations to the savior Zeus” (McCall. he had decided that there was another way that he could chose. he was aware of his freedom. To live at peace-always at perfect peace.1989:90). there was no objective ethical goodness which was there. eh? [He stares at the stone in silence for a moment. He translates. Thus.
he planned to do what he believed had been forbidden and merely idle dreams. In freedom. this act of creation caused uncertain resulted. By choosing. and everyman must find out his own way”(Sartre. they created their own future. Basically it has been the nature of man to create. He said “there is another path”(Sartre. they created their own way of life and values which inevitably brought them to be individual. (Sartre. Let’s be off.. Thus. man invents their future self. “for I. Zeus. he walked his own path. In other word. and you too. Those were no longer based on objective Good.1989:119). Yet. 71 Orestes: Yes. nor anyone to give me orders. am a man. Therefore. Yet. abhor mankind”(Sartre. man had to choose his own path. no right or wrong. In this nihilistic world without right or wrong.1989:119). Orestes argued to Zeus. But it is my path” (Sartre. 1989:90) Since men were free. Orestes encouraged men to create their own way. Yet.”(Sartre.1989:105). “Today I have one path only. god of gods. Because of the abhorrence. that man for Orestes must find our and choose his own way signed acceptance of freedom. Here. he was sure because he chose it by his free will. Orestes spoke. these are idle dreams. not everyone admits . In choosing. Orestes emphasized that to be a man equal to be individual by finding out one’s own way of life.1989:61) Soon after Orestes realized that human was free. The reason of that condition is that “nature has abhors man. and heaven knows where it leads.1989:118). he saw that there “was nothing left in heaven. As a result. man has been abandoned from nature and god. Orestes accepted the uncertain result of his action.
and we must make our patient way toward them. they should have had an image of what they were going to be in the future and they tried to bring the image into reality. People hold that they must have the remorse and responsibility to Zeus. (Sartre. 72 the freedom. Here.1989:121) In other word. people hold on Zeus’ law. In this mask. For them. Orestes expressed his plan to Electra: Electra: Where? Orestes: I don’t know. They bent under the law of Zeus. Therefore. indeed was designed by the plan of Zeus. This idea that was used by Zeus to control people assumed that men were not free. it was the truth. Orestes persuaded Electra to meet their own self in the future. They took what was good and bad according to the custom and religion. As a result. Rebellious Orestes rebelled against the mask that gods and king had made human being to wear. Because Orestes embraced his freedom. people created their future by their action. The values they clang to were not resulted from their own self. Orestes affirmed his condition and he consciously created his own future self. e. Although Agamemnon was murdered by . people fell into their guilt. people disbelieved that they were free. The belief that men were not free. Thus. They created their image in the future by their action. they should suffer from remorse of disobeying the law of Zeus at the moment of Agamemnon’s death. Beyond the rivers and mountains are an Orestes and an Electra waiting for us. Toward ourselves. which Orestes fought agaisnt.
Zeus: Yes. so as to hear the better. They buzzed to . Zeus: Yes. they went to other city to watch public excecution which gave them amusement. sir. the murder itself was directed by Zeus. although only by heart. He’s a pretty lad. When Aegistheus murdered Agamemnon. He made Argieve live in repent and became his good folk to teach other cities and towns to obey his command. don’t talk about that. most heartily I repent. .. Agamemnon was screaming so loud that all people in Argos could hear that.I bolted my door. Though Agamemnon was their king.. According to Zeus... In explaining this.. for thinking of his original sin. you are quite old enough to have heard those huge cries that echoed and re-echoed for a whole morning in the city streets. What did you do about it? Old woman:. Hence.. It’s your one hope of salvation. and my son-in-law offers up a heavier every year. while you peeped behind the curtains and held your breath. Argieve people disliked Agamemnon’s decision to ban execution before the public. but you left your window not quite closed. and.......and he always behaves as good as gold. Zeus utilized the murder to blame Argieves and made them lived constantly under their remorse. Zeus sent the flies to Argos. Zeus: Good. Old Woman: Oh.. and my little grandson has been brought up in a spirit of repentance.didn’t you enjoy it? . If you only knew how I repent.. I do repent. 73 Aegistheus... In fact. wanted Agamemnon’s to die so that they could watch public excecution without going to another place. they experienced happiness for the murder.You’re in mourning for your murdered King. Since then. They.. he never plays or laughs. Old Woman: Whisht! For God’s sake. Zeus explained to Orestes that the flies were symbol of remorse.. that’s as it should be-and be sure you die in a nice bitchy odor of repentance. and my daughter too. Zeus questioned an old woman : Zeus: . Though he’s only a seven..
the living were haunted by the death in that day. Then. On the contrary. Otherwise. all the dead man would go out for a day and they would live besides the living. Under such situation. the dead could experience them. He taught people to obey his rule through his manipulation in Argos. This also signed the throne of Zeus’ power to people of Argos. Therefore. Zeus used this condition to point a moral lesson. . This was the condition of dead city. 74 remind Argives of their sin and called them to repent. All people based their good on the goodness of Zeus. All were trapped and they could not escape. Argieve people were imposed by Aegistheus to live under the Good of Zeus and did not recognize that they were free. the high priest of Argos read the pray and opened the big stone that close a deep hole. Every Argos people must repent and think in the same way. They repented toward Zeus and bowed themselves before the order of Zeus. All their memories were detained in the object of their remorse. Even their child had to suffer and felt the remorse. Aegistheus by the order of Zeus arranged a Dead Men’s Day to weight more the remorse of Argieve. they would be cursed and evil. In this ceremony. This intensified their remorse more and more because they should repair their past actions toward the death. Zeus also spoke a lie that their salvation would be gained only through obeying the law of Zeus. the living Argieve could not perceive the death. along with their remorse. which according to people ended in Hell. None of them could see their future without the burden of their past. that they were sinner. Nonetheless. In short. Argieve people plunged down into a deep remorse.
He said to the Tutor. the savior she had been hoping for years. please Philebus. Electra insisted Orestes to go and continue his journey. deep in her heart Electra still did not believe Philebus was Orestes. …even if I had to kill my own mother-‘”(Sartre.1989:61). Bonded Orestes finally committed to be bonded with Argos. As stated earlier that Orestes experienced ambivalence.1989:87). She also asserted him to go to other city where “some pretty girls waiting for”(Sartre. Thus. This philosophy was his tool to rebel against the old system. if. On . go away”(Sartre. 75 Orestes fought to replace an old system which was built deliberately even by a crime. something to give me the freedom of this city. they. Orestes murdered Aegistheus and Clytemnestra because they represented Zeus and his law. She said to Orestes. mind you. even by a crime. therefore. He encouraged people of Argos to create their own way. if there were something I could do.. On one hand.1989:88). will be freed from the tyrant of Zeus. “[thoughtful]:. “no Philebus. he offered them his philosophy of freedom to liberate the remorse of the city. Although Orestes had already opened his true identity. f. In high emotion she again insisted him to go. “please. and. He wanted to free Argos from the tyranny of Zeus.But.1989:88).. Zeus would no longer have power upon them because they did not surrender their life to Zeus. by his murder Argos might be free. I could never lay such a load upon a heart like yours”(Sartre. Orestes’ ambivalence sharpened after Electra’s failure in Dead’s Men Day. Moreover.
dropping his fatigue and staring dully at the ground a foot in front of him-why. . “ “I want to be a man who belongs to some place. warm. He wanted to love Argos since love for Orestes was a form of selfsurrender. I could acquire their memories.1989:89) When facing such important decision. his life would be for nothing. Orestes knew himself that he had been weary to leave Argos. I shall not go”(Sartre. Although Electra requested Orestes to go. When he had just realized his freedom. As stated earlier that Orestes’ position toward Argos was ambivalent. His desire to be bonded to Argos had strengthened. Orestes bound himself through his act of liberation by murdering the king and the queen. He said to Electra. He finally had bonded himself to take part in the history of Argos. Even the slave bent beneath his load. a man among comrades. and fill with these the void within me. or a leaf upon the three. He was surrounded by anxiety of choosing. Orestes expressed his condition as emptiness. Argos is all around him. Electra. He clarified to Electra that he needed to surrender his life. Yes. He has bonded himself to fill his life. if there were something I could do. He said. I’d gladly be that slave and enjoy that feeling of drawing the city round me like a blanket and curling myself upon it. Orestes insisted to stay in Argos to accomplish his mission.1989:61). their hopes and fears. Otherwise. even that poor slave can say he’s in his town. as a tree in a forest. as hatred was. something to give me the freedom of the city. compact. even by a crime. yes. and comforting. (Sartre. Orestes explains analogically. Orestes asked sign from Zeus. even if I had to kill my own mother-“(Sartre. He searched whether it was right or not to be engaged with Argos. “mind you. Only consider.1989:88). No. 76 the other hand. his murder had proved his commitment to be bonded in Argos.
all of you. as far eye can reach”(Sartre. there is a bound of blood between us”(Sartre. we will tread heavily on our way. He had determined his life.1989:123). They were no longer inseparable from him. For you are living. bowed beneath our precious load.1989:90). In his own word. After the murder. In this case. and that city is my city. He felt as if his life was empty without meaning and direction. Soon after the murder. You shall give me your hand and we shall go”(Sartre. like carriotwheels in turf. now our feet sink into the soil. he had chosen to be an Argieve. among you.1989:90). “now I am one of your kind. What emptiness! What endless emptiness. By giving weight Orestes also bund himself to give his life a meaning. My sister [He takes his arm]”(Sartre. [He goes up to Electra. In the other part he re-stated it again by saying that “we were too light. at the bottom of a pit. Orestes put weight on his own shoulder.] Your are my sisters. he said to the people. However. the reason to save Argos in fact was because he wanted to be one with people of Argos. . 77 “something has just died. Thus.1989:121). Orestes had seen people of Argos as a part of his life. Through this decision. Orestes by engaging himself to Argos had filled his void. He stated “I must go downdo you understand?-I must go down into the depths. So come with me. my subjects. When Orestes said to Argos people that he murdered the king and the queen for their sake. soon Orestes realized that he alone could create his own meaning of life by action which expressed his bond. Electra. he also meant that it was for also his shake since they have been bound. This weight directed Orestes to be what he wanted. Electra.
he .1989) g. Before Orestes murdered Aegistheus. a new order and condition that freed people. a passion for order”(Sartre. Orestes appeared as dangerous for Zeus and Aegistheus. and it was for your sake that I killed.why not fell him with a thunderbolt?”(Sartre.” my people I love you. Zeus and Aegistheus were alike.1989:109). the gods are powerless against him”(Sartre. they wanted to keep order. Dangerous Because of the freedom. Aegistheus. He will infect my whole kingdom and brings my work to nothing.. In his last speech before leaving Argos. you in Argos. He called them. Each keeps order.1989:123). Yet. 78 Although Argos people refused him. Zeus could not do anything since “once freedom lights in a man’s heart. You. “I made you in my image.. thus.1989:112) Many times he called them. “my people”(Sartre. they shared a common as Zeus explained to Aegistheus.1989:101). Orestes wanted to make something new in Argos. He had been dangerous because according to Aegistheus. and. Orestes and Electra threatened their order. Orestes called the people of Argos in the possessive diction.1989:109). “free man in a city acts like a plague-spot.1989:100) and “we have the same passion. For your sake” (Sartre. The people of Argos was an end instead of a mean for Orestes.. he did all his action of murder for them. he uttered his motivation. Here. Zeus reminded Aegistheus to command soldiers to kill Orestes. have like me. “my true and loyal subjects?”(Sartre. I in heaven and on earth”(Sartre.
who stood for his morality. even your sister is forsaking you. foreign to yourself. foreign to my nature. Zeus persuaded him: “Remember Orestes. you once were of my flock. Zeus described the misery in Orestes as follow: “Your eyes are big with anguish. Orestes would be different from his folk and thus he would be an exile. the old order would dismiss. Zeus reminded that Orestes had been isolated and abhorred because of his rebel. Orestes appeared to be dangerous for them. When most of people bowed under the same law. I am forgetfulness. the murder. For Zeus. the ruler of Argos. you were. Orestes in Zeus’ word “take pride in being an outcast” (Sartre. man could only be ruled if he let himself to be so. it means exile. Unfortunately. Zeus needed Orestes’ consent to take his law so that he would fall into remorse about his crime. Although people did . Orestes bravely walked alone in his path. 79 should be killed. Orestes’ freedom freed him from Zeus’ power. You vaunted freedom isolates you from the fold. h. Orestes and Electra had done evil for disobeying Zeus.think of your loneliness.. Outcasted Orestes was characterized as an outcast because he had believed in freedom.1989:116). your face is pale and drawn. to be alone represented a great misery. In freedom. However. which was Zeus. you fed in my pastures among my sheep. I am peace”(Sartre. Come back.1989:118-119) Here. Therefore. If Orestes and Electra succeed in killing Clytemnestra and Aegistheus. The disease you’re suffering from is inhuman. Orestes alone stood on his own feet. As Zeus could not use his power against them who did not take his rule.”(Sartre. According to the Good. he had no other way to take Orestes back to his law but through assuring Orestes.1989:118-119).
of the usurer who bled his victims white? Surely once I am plagued with all those pangs of conscience. For him. the tutor had already reminded Orestes to get rid of Argos before he was contaminated. i. He explained to Zeus that. by relieving the sin of people of Argos. he proposed a new way for them.1989:119). of the tradesman who let his mother die. man could not have another way but to be his own source of value. He believed it as the real condition of man. Supposing I set out to win the name of “guilt stealer. Liberating Orestes could be characterized as a liberating character from his liberation to Argos people. First. Next. In act I.1989:119). men were alike with gods. Orestes said “As for me. Orestes strived to save Argos from the flies.” and heap on myself all their remorse. He proposed their relationship to be like two boats moving separately. Through his action. Orestes decided to contaminate himself so that the people of Argos might be clean and they could start a new life. Although he had denied Zeus as his source of value. He wanted to liberate Argos through two ways. he would still cling to his own values. For Orestes. innumerable as the . he carried the burden of their guilt. “supposing I take over all their crimes. he did not hate Zeus. 80 not join him. as representative of Zeus’ morality. I did not hate you”(Sartre. He told Electra. They had their own remorse. “I am doomed to have no other law but mine”(Sartre. that of the woman unfaithful to her husband. to free people of Argos. However. He murdered the king and the queen. Orestes carried the remorse of Argieve people.
Orestes also said that he had accomplished his mission. Before he was aware of the freedom.1989:58)” Now. The freedom had brought Orestes to live the weight differently. your night-fears. Orestes had determined to carry them because he needed them. I take them all upon me”(Sartre. Thus. “your sins and your remorse. 81 flies of Argos. and the crime Aegistheus committed-all are mine.so heavy as to drag me down. While he relieved Argos by carrying their weight..1989:105). the people of Argos might start a new life. stones. In short. the flies. “the heavier it is to carry. Orestes sought the burden to weight his life which was too light so that he could touch the ground. for that burden is my freedom”(Sartre.1989:123) Although the remorse and the sin of Argos put burden on Orestes..1989:123). the better pleased I shall be. pillars-stones. surely than I shall earned the freedom of your city. stones! Why with all those stones in my head? Am I not heavier?(Sartre. statues. The symbol of the remorse. Orestes said before committing the murder. he also used the weight. He expressed “I am still too-too light.”(Sartre. “have left you [Argieve people] and came to me [Orestes]. . Orestes had complained about the burden “the palaces. I must take a burden on my shoulder. as Orestes explicitly said to people of Argos.1989:91). The movement of the flies marked that Orestes had succeeded in liberating people of Argos. “(Sartre. There is a significant clue to understand Orestes’ action of murdering his mother .1989:91-92) In his last speech before leaving Argos. His way of “stealing guilt” was through murdering the king and the queen. right down into the abyss of Argos”(Sartre..
“mind you. Orestes wanted to open the veil and brought people of Argos to awareness of their freedom. This clue also relates to his final attitude toward Argos. 82 and Aegistheus in the beginning of the play. However.” In choosing they . even by a crime. (Sartre.61) This wish indeed was Orestes’ personal wish. “What do you propose to do?”(Sartre. something to give me the freedom of the city.. After that. Zeus questioned Orestes’ objective of his liberation of Argos. Orestes raised their spirit to create.1989. . He asked to Orestes. hush!”(Sartre. 1989:119) Orestes answered.even if I had to kill my own mother-“(Sartre.1989:102) After they eyes were opened from the veil of Zeus.1989:61).” the folk of Argos are my folk. he would let the people of Argos to choose their own path. Zeus put the veil to cover people of Argos from their freedom. The salvation of Orestes lied on “what they choose. Zeus : What will they make of it? Orestes: What they choose. (Sartre. They’re free. Although Orestes wanted to free Argos people. He wandered to his tutor. if there were something I could do. I must open their eyes. In this part. Orestes had planned his will although his tutor soon reacted “hush! For heaven’s sake. Orestes believed that men should choose their own path.. they at first reacted in resistance. 1989:119). at last people accepted Orestes’ idea. After living for so long under the veil of Zeus that covered freedom. As stated earlier. people of Argos were afraid to face their freedom and its responsibility.
despair was the real condition of human existence for Orestes. he countered Argos’ people opinion about salvation. he proposed them to accept all their crimes as their own. Then. Yet. “human life begins on the far side of despair”(Sartre. thus. signed by the remorse. there should be no more remorse in them.1989:102). 83 created their path. As a result. who felt remorse after he murdered Agamemnon . As uttered by Orestes that there was no remedy but remedy find within one selves (Sartre.1989:116). they should have been Zeus’ most obedient fellow. By the statement above. “A crime that its doer disowns becomes ownerless-no man’s crime. In case of murder. they needed Zeus to save their life. Second. In other word. He said “the most cowardly of murders is he who feels remorse”(Sartre. Orestes liberated Argos by motivating the people of Argos to accept their very existence. To start life one must begin from despair. Aegistheus’ inability to accept the consequences. This quotation refers to Aegistheus. Argieve people had believed that salvation was only in Zeus. he proposed the murderer to accept the consequences. Orestes encouraged People of Argos to create their own remedy. to carry the responsibility of their action. and. freedom. Orestes also suggested people to accept their action as what they wanted to liberate them from their despair. . In other word. Yet. they were free from the Good. represented the kingdom he reigned.1989:119). He stated that despair lived their life by saying that. Orestes wanted to motivate them to live side by side with their despair. one begins the real life. Thus. Related to freedom. Orestes rhetorically questioned. by that.
from myself! Do not leave me lonely and I will give up my whole life to atonement. the thirstier for your blood…they’re waiting behind it. and you can neither punish me nor pity me. their crime was merely not based on their own will. Zeus. In the tutor’s word to Orestes. for all to know. to accept freedom and face her very condition of life scared herself.1989:123) Orestes’ gift. (Sartre. his own sister. I repent. They really wanted to murder Orestes. and shelter me. from my brother.1989:121) She refused to accept despair since freedom led her to misery and squalor. carry me from this place. That is my I fill you with fear. All you have to offer me is misery and squalor. defended himself against his idea. And they are armed” (Sartre. He clarified his meaning by saying “you see me. isn’t it? More like an accident than a crime?(Sartre. my life’s work. 1989:129). my king. She said to Orestes angrily I won’t hear any more from you. king of gods and men. got Argos people to be scared. I will obey your law.. be responsible toward his world. 84 that’s how you see it. however. he “cannot say which are the fiercer. it is my glory.”(Sartre. she felt as if she did not create and. By obeying Zeus. For her. In freedom she understood herself as being unprotected and unshelterd. take me in your arms.. I bitterly repent. I claim it as my own. I will be your creature and your slaves.Help! Zeus.1989:123) For people of Argos. I will embrace your knee. men of Argos. This reaction also appeared in the people of Argos when Orestes was going to get out of Apollo’s shrine. Now save me from the flies. thus. you understand that my crime is wholly mine. However. Orestes taught that men should be responsible toward their own action. they should atone and they also should be responsible toward Zeus. . Even Electra.
Zeus said. freed them from the veil. “nothing of course-provided that it is black”(Sartre. should I deny them the despair?”(Sartre. once again Orestes refused the will of Zeus. and barren life led people of Argos to resistance of Orestes’ desire to open their eyes. decided to go out from Argos. foul and futile. Orestes considered that he had a reason to that action. of loneliness and shame. “I’ll see that you two occupy the throne of Argos”(Sartre. and they will see their lives as they are. Zeus ordered him to take the throne of Argos. People of Argos would be afraid if they saw the very fact of their lives. Orestes stated that he was the son of Agamemnon and that day was his “coronation day”(Sartre.1989:123) Orestes. He said. and you would have none of me because I was not of your kind. or the obedient of Zeus law. He referred to the same killing 15 years a before the time to rise a king. He answered to Zeus’ warn in rhetorical question “it is their lot.1989:123). however.1989:102). his murder. However. there is a bond of blood between us. He warned Orestes that “poor people! You gift to them will be a sad one. The foul. his murder of Aegistheus and Clytemnestra was also to raise him to be a king. He claimed his kingdom where everyone was aware of their freedom: I had come to claim my kingdom. On the contrary. (Sartre. In his last speech. the responsible one. Now I am of your kind. and I have earned my kingship over you. futile. 85 The defensive reaction of Argos people had been foreknown by Zeus.1989:115). this murder led to the veil of freedom.1989:115). However. . However.1989:102). my subjects. Then. You will tear from their eyes the veils I had laid on them. a barren boon”(Sartre. The black color of the king’s wearing signified the remorse.
1. too. a life without the flies. Influences of Heidegger’s ontology in Orestes Historically. it should now be apparent that only human beings can be said to exist in this sense”(Kaelin. All here is new. Heidegger employs his own term of existence that suits only human being. Sartre had once studied Being and Time. 86 Therefore. Given this technical use of the term.1989:123). In daily language. And for me. argued that existence should be referred only to “those that exist as projections upon their possibility. as summarized by Kaelin. all must begin a new. As discussed earlier. only dasein can be aware of its Being because dasein’s Being permits Being to be an issue for it. This part does not explain too much Heidegger’s ontology since it had been discussed in chapter two. Heidegger’s Magnum Opus. a new life is a beginning” (Sartre. This period was exactly before Sartre began to write The Flies. he last his last message before going to the Argos of people to start their new life. Heidegger declared that only dasein exists. intensively when he was being imprisoned by Nazi. Heidegger. only dasein . Heidegger puts the existence of man in a unique place among other beings. Trees and God are but they do not exist. Human as a Distinctive Being Basically. B. Orestes follows Heidegger’s positioning of the existence of human being among other beings. Moreover. This part focuses on what Heidegger’ ontological influences in Orestes are.1987:28). Orestes said “Farewell my people try to reshape your lives.
can reflect to its own self and see its future self. Even Being depends on man although beings do not depend on man. The awareness of radical duality brought human to the state of authenticity. Like Heidegger, Orestes saw the world in the system where human being had unique existence. Orestes saw that only human could reign over themselves. He called this unique quality as freedom. Zeus persuaded Orestes to bow under his knee. He proved his mighty to Orestes by showing him that he controlled the whole universe. His law regulated all the planets so that they did not crash one to the other. Zeus offered the idea to Orestes that human being was only one of his creations and, human, therefore, was neither unique nor special. As his other creations, human being should bow himself under Zeus’ law because Zeus was the almighty of all. Zeus imposed that he could control everything. However, Orestes understood Zeus’ agitation as merely a lie. Orestes was not only aware that he was free but also understood the nature of freedom. Thus, he should not have bowed under Zeus’ law. On the contrary, he reigned over himself and created his own law. Orestes said to Zeus,
Orestes:”you are the king of gods, king of stones and stars, king of the waves of the sea. But you are not the king of man.[the walls draw together. Zeus comes into the view, tired, and dejected, and he now speaks in his normal voice]” (Sartre,1989:117). Zeus’ tiredness and dejection showed his inability to assure Orestes’ to wear his veil. He knew that Orestes had already known the real condition of human existence. Heidegger influences Orestes in the belief that the awareness of the radical
difference between man and other beings led Orestes to an authentic life. Heidegger argues, as summarized by Oslon, that Dasein gains authenticity when “conscious through anguish of the radical duality between the human and nonhuman and by recognizing the difference between being-in-the-world and beingin-the-midst-of-the-world”(Olson,1962:137). Orestes was conscious that human, who was not ruled by Zeus, had completely different character with the inhuman, or the universe in Orestes’ own word, in which Zeus reigned. After that, this awareness of the distinction brought Orestes between the personal individual path of life and the path of the mob. The personal individual path, the “my path,” in fact was the different style of saying one’s being-in-the-world, and the “their path” of Being-in-the-midst-of-the-world. The first is more prior, and suggested by Orestes as a way of life to people of Argos, than the second. When Orestes chose his path, he had lived the authentic way of life. In short, Orestes’ attitude toward the existence of human was the same with Heidegger’s attitude. Both placed human in the unique position. The being of human for both was distinctive ontically. Furthermore, the awareness of the radical difference brought man to the authentic life.
2. The Abandoned Dasein Heidegger argues that dasein is abandoned when it seeks ethical justification from external authority. The external authority might come from religious belief or the understanding of certain nature of the world. Dasein was thrown. Furthermore, dasein finds that there is in fact no external authority that justifies its ethical decision.
In The Flies, Orestes, following Heidegger’s concept of dasein, also said that men were abandoned. The presence condition of man was originated from his abandonment. In Orestes, the abandonment resulted men’s freedom. Men should choose and take care of their own self. It was told in the story that Orestes explained this condition to Zeus. He said, “nature has abhors man, and you too, god of gods, abhor mankind”(Sartre,1989:119). The abhorance of nature for Orestes had brought human to be free since there was no pre-destined or given way of life to be fulfilled. Thus, men for Orestes, as Heidegger argues, was thrown without any given nature. When Zeus created men in freedom, he had hoped that this condition would take men to serve him better than he had created men as a determined being. Orestes said to Zeus, “you forsook me”(Sartre,1989:118). Orestes recognized his very condition as being thrown into the world. Human abandonment, which made human forlorn, for Orestes was caused by the mistake of Zeus
Orestes:.. you blundered; you should not have made me free. Zeus: I gave you freedom so that you might serve me. Orestes: Perhaps. But now it has turned against its giver. And neither you nor I can undo what has been done (Sartre, 1989:118)
In free condition, men could only justify their own way of life. In other word, there is no a must in life. Man is alone to create his own path, without given meaning.
3. Dasein Orestes’ understanding of human being, which tells Sartre’s, also based on Heidegger’s concept of Dasein. As explained earlier, Heidegger coined the word dasein to refer to human being. In German, “the da of dasein,…, is ambiguous, meaning both here and there”(Kaelin,1988:89). The idea of dasein denotes that human existence moves from here to there. In other word, men project themselves to their future, and, thus, build themselves. Yet, man will always project without stopping until their death. Hence, only dasein exists because his being is there. Orestes, when asked by Electra about where he was going to take her, answered that he was going to take Electra to meet their future selves Electra: Where? Orestes: .... Toward ourselves. Beyond the rivers and mountains are an Orestes and an Electra waiting for us, and we must make our patient way toward them. (Sartre,1989:121)
Orestes explained the idea of dasein to Electra. Human for Orestes was ahead of itself. He was aware that the action of Orestes, including his murder, was
accomplished in order to construct his own future being. This awareness stresses that human being or dasein always directed to the future self. He acted in projecting himself ahead. This dialog states the fundamental concept of dasein, which is projection.
4. Being-in-the-world as Constitutive Elements Heidegger’s Being-in-the-world influences Sartre’s in building Orestes’ as seen in Orestes’ attitude toward Argos. Indeed, the idea of Being-in-the-world
plays a fundamental role in the self-conflict in Orestes. At the first time of his appearance, the tutor had argued to Orestes that human could be not bonded. In the tutor’s point of view, it was possible for human not to have a bond. The tutor said to Orestes, “you have no family ties, no religion, and no calling; you are free to turn your hand on everything. But you know better than to commit yourself-and there lies your strength”(Sartre,1989:59). From the point of view of Being-in-theworld, the tutor’s desire not to being-in (dwell) in any world represented his refusal of the human’s very condition of Being-in-the-world. He refused the basic category of human life that men always dwell, or being-in in Heideggerian term, in certain worldhood. Men in fact comfort themselves and they are tied and bonded inside certain world. Thus, he was being-alongside with his world. Orestes, until his first time in Argos, took the path of his tutor in regard of attitude toward dwelling. Orestes still believed that he should not be bonded like other people. In ignorance he even said the heat of Argos as “other’s heat” (Sartre,1989:60). If we use Heideggerian term, the heat was not ready-to-hand for Orestes. The heat was only present-at-hand. This shows not only Orestes’ denial of the world of Argos but also his denial of the human’s existence as being-in-theworld. He declined to be in any world, as the tutor had suggested him to be. However, Orestes finally refused his tutor’s idea about being bonded. He even acted offensively by saying, “Truce to your philosophy! It’s done me too much harm already!”(Sartre,1989:58). For Orestes, the meaning of men laid inside their Being-in-the-world. Orestes saw that man was inseparable from his worldhood. Therefore, he disclosed the world of Argos for him to build his
92 meaning of life. toward-which. there are in order to.1989:60). Argos would not have served him in fulfilling his desire. his conflict was between his two projections that would constitute what Heidegger mentioned as “signification” that built his world. The first possible world was the world without Argos. let’s be off. He only wanted to fulfill his military mission and he did not care of Argos. he explained his desire to Zeus soon after he met Electra and Clytemnestra. Thus.1989:61). Hence. If he had taken this path. I am not leaving Argos”(Sartre. We could understand this possibility from his reason when he was nearly going to go from Argos. In Heideggerian term. he might have been in Sparta among the armies. Orestes had said. The conflict of Orestes was indeed the conflict of his decision toward two worldhoods. it was not important if Harry Potter gains a unique phenomenon in book’s marketing. and useful. anyone could suffer from the heat of . worth to notice. In a more fundamental analysis. my worthy pedagogue. In other word. His being-in did not lay in Argos. Before he set up his mind for dwelling in Argos. Argos was omitted from his world. “I’ve changed my mind. “but what purpose would it serve? These folks are no concern of mine”(Sartre. Literally.1989:71). If he had chosen this decision. “Well. People live their own world and this world determines whether or not something is applicable. For a biologist who lives in scientific world. We’ve no business to be luxuriating in others’ heat”(Sartre. and finally for the sake of that determines signification in a world. he would not consider Argos as ready-tohand. well. One only cares what serves their purpose.
Orestes doubted of his decision. he still could not resolve his ambivalence. warm. or Being-in. Argos served his purpose. This ambivalence appeared . Orestes’ wanted to be bonded with Argos. he called it “others heat. Thus.1989:89). or in Heidegger’s language Orestes’ “for the sake of”. element that builds the worldhood of one’s life. he wanted to give Argieve people a little sense of freedom which would claim his kingdom in Argos. Orestes explicated his desire: “I want to be a man who belongs to some place. or a leaf upon the three. soon after Electra was doomed and she insisted him to go. he chose to live in with Argos as a part of his world. His desire was to comfort or dwell. I shall not go” (Sartre. Although Orestes had decided to stay in Argos. even that poor slave can say he’s in his town. he was emotionally tied with Electra and Argos. The heat did not serve his in order to. dropping his fatigue and staring dully at the ground a foot in front of him-why. compact. No. in a world. I’d gladly be that slave and enjoy that feeling of drawing the city round me like a blanket and curling myself upon it. However. In this world. He finally decided to disclose the world of Argos.” The second possible world was the world where Argos was inside. Argos is all around him. He had a desire to be in some place. as a tree in a forest. Orestes did not concern of that heat because it did not belong to his world. However. Electra. After making his decision and deciding his values. 93 Argos. a man among comrades. Yes. Only consider. Furthermore. and comforting. Even the slave bent beneath his load. While he watched the Dead Men’s day festival where Electra rebel.
Through this action. in order to fulfill his projection Orestes should dismiss the plague of remorse. after he had decided his right thing. Orestes strived to be salvation of Argos by dismissing remorse of the people through murdering the representations of the law of Zeus in Argos. He wanted to know whether the right was to commit and bond himself with Argos or just leave it. Thus. our Lord and King of Heaven.1989:90). not often have I called on you for help. But now I am weary and my mind is dark.for no longer can I see my path. Orestes stated his world through his possessive word. hounded from this city. or in philosophical term his Being-in-the-world. the situation of Argos took his concern. and you have shown me little favor. Orestes: .. this you know: that I always have always tried to act aright. “you are my sister. led Orestes to his final self-conflict. Electra.1989:89) His options led Orestes’ to uncertainty.. should meekly school himself to banishment and slink away from his ancestral home like a whipped cur?. However. which was to be engaged with Argos. between being bonded or not in Argos. The conflict was so intense that he could not resolve it by himself. Clytemnestra and Aegistheus. the existence of remorse supported by Aegistheus and Clytemnestra prohibited him to fulfill his projection. is it truly your will that a king’s son..Tell me. and that city is my city”(Sartre. he had resolved his selfconflict. He beseeched to Zeus in this confusion. Since Orestes had decided Argos as a part of himself. Zeus. The heat of Argos no longer belonged to others but him... When he proposed to give sense of freedom to Argieve people. (Sartre. Orestes decided to murder Aegistheus and Clytemnestra to serve his purpose. . yet.if I only knew which part to take! O Zeus. 94 This ambivalent.
He told Argieve . Orestes. which means everything and everywhere. he had decided to fill his void. If fear is directed toward something. The Fundamental Mood of Human Being. taking the same position as Heidegger. Here. Heidegger puts that nothing refers to Being-in-the-world or the whole of dasein’s existence. Heidegger argues that there is always mood in Being-in-the-world. The most basic and fundamental mood that men cannot avoid is anxiety. By being in the world of Argos. He also defined himself as people of Argos. In other word. Sartre took the idea of Heidegger that the essence of man lays in his existence. the real condition of men. fear has an object and anxiety has not. 95 Therefore. Therefore. the way Orestes determined his meaning was through his being-in-the-world of Argos. Anxiety existed as long as man lives because its object is Being-in-the-world. anxiety is a fundamental mood. Orestes was inseparable with his world. 5. encouraged men to accept the mood and be authentic. Orestes. When he speaks about anxiety of nothing. This also reflects the unity of dasein with its being-in-the-world. Orestes opened the human condition which was misery. considered that this mood brought up human into authenticity. He wanted to be an Argieve by disclosing Argos for himself. Falling. anxiety is anxious of nothing. He had been an Argieve. Thus. and authenticity Heidegger also inspires Sartre to build Orestes’ philosophy on ontology that basically states that men have an unhappy mood. like Heidegger. and Argos had been in his heart.
Heidegger argues the inauthentic lives the life as others live it. on the contrary. They do not create values but share it together. Orestes depicted this uncertainty when he said “I have one path only. human was futile because his desire could never be fulfilled. men could not feel certain of the result from their action. Heidegger encourages his readers to accept it. presupposed the existence of desire which could never be fulfilled. Rather. he would no have desire and he would be not free anymore. “foul and futile. and heaven knows where it leads”(Sartre.1989:105). As a result. Both Heidegger and Orestes classify human into two. Orestes mentioned that human was in despair. In choosing. The authentic dasein does not flee from itself. Because there was no hope. Although the real condition of man was misery. is in falling. The authentic. Thus. who drowned themselves in the One or in their concern. s/he faces the very condition of the self. Freedom. final fulfillment and certainty of choosing. The authentic dasein accepts the summon of anxiety to face its own self. The authentic. The inauthentic. a barren boon”(Sartre. they who face and flee from this fundamental mood. Although the authentic might choose the decision had already been chosen . If men had been fulfilled and not lack anymore. which was offered by Orestes as salvation. 96 people that in fact they were free. the authentic dasein experiences life in a more personal life. brings itself out from the imposed values. through facing its life condition.1989:102). detaches from everyday falling to face oneself through the anxiety. This fact of freedom brought much unpleasant consequences. Zeus told the human nature that would be disclosed by Orestes to the Argieve people as.
Orestes also encouraged the people of Argos to accept their life. they would free themselves from Zeus when they could accept the freedom. its life was not completely unique. man would start to live by the ability of creating values. this freedom led one to be authentic and individual. Moreover. along with its despair. which was lost in Argos and was going to be given back by Orestes. which Orestes labeled as despair. In Heideggerian word. which was freedom. the despair individualizes man. The authentic would choose its own way. Thus. This despair finally would bring a person to his or her individuality. 97 before by another. The pattern of Sartre which was depicted in the character of Orestes about human fundamental mood was influenced from Heidegger. was to accept despair as the fundamental mood of human being. and. the bad emotion. thus. would bring everyone to the awareness of freedom. It could choose personally only if the authentic faces its own life. In accepting despair. Even the pattern of coming into the authenticity of dasein reoccurred in the salvation of Orestes. including its anxiety. men accepted freedom as their condition. men become authentic because they had live according to their basic condition. He even stated that “human life begins on the far side of despair”(Sartre. It did not mean that they who did not feel despair did not live. Next. To start living with “human dignity”. Orestes encouraged Argieves peopleof Argos to accept their very condition which .1989:102). After man had accepted his very condition of freedom and had been authentic. the authentic choose the decision through its awareness. In other word.
and self-mastery” (Nietzsche. self-creation. C. Orestes. 98 was freedom to gain authenticity. there can be overman if one overcomes one’s slave morality. 1968:316). seen from his actions. Furthermore. which each represents Nietzscheian moral dichotomy. Second. he applied the selfintegration in Orestes’ attitude toward the past. Slave Morality as Orestes’ Starting Point . as a character undergoing a radical change. can be understood from two perspectives. Orestes transformed his self qualities into master morality by his overcoming. In Nietzscheian term. First. the understanding concerns Orestes before his change that represents Nietzscheian slave morality. the analysis on Orestes would show that Nietzsche influences Sartre’s axiology through the idea of overman was immense. The first gains its necessity to analyze because slave morality is what overman overcomes. 1. Sartre transformed overman’s selfmastery into Orestes’ idea about freedom. Influences of Nietzsche’s Overman in Orestes Although Sartre rarely admits Nietzsche’s influence in his philosophical work. Sartre applied those three items to construct Orestes. Orestes self-creation played important rule in his rebellion. Orestes has been constructed consciously or not mostly from the idea of overman. The second would permit us to see how far Sartre adopted Nietzsche’s overman in building the character of Orestes. If overman can be described as he who “can perform his unique deed of self-integration. In addition.
In short. who harms nobody. who does not requite. Orestes as slave morality also can be seen from his obedient toward his tutor’s teaching. During his learning time.…. Thus. His tutor’s value also led him when he was going to live Argos. Orestes was still young and inexperienced. creating takes more power than just receiving and the slave morality does not have enough to do so. Thus. The slave is also marked by resentment in it. . Orestes’ impotence weakened Orestes’ more because he did not have enough courage to exercise his power by creating. The tutor was a man full of knowledge and experience. who does not attack. 99 Overman is originated from overcoming slave morality. they experience life as a heavy that should be carried out. Orestes agreed his tutor’s teaching. In Nietzschian worldview. who keeps himself hidden as we do. slave morality signifies impotence because of the lack of power. who leaves revenge to God. Thus. the obligation and duty. He had not been able to create his own values. in literal language. Therefore.1956:179). On the contrary. he had his own values. humble. and just" (Nietzsche. who avoids evil and desires little from life. his decision considered the tutor’s will heavily. He was obliged to take his tutor’s will. they long for the burden. Like the spirit of camel. he was submissive. he was obliged ane he felt heavy because he took other’s path. there was no courage in Orestes to do so.” The slave is submissive because there is no need for him to be a leader. the slave morality are they “who does not outrage. In other word. As explained in Chapter II. Following other’s path and applying their values also marked the impotence of slave morality. the patient. Moreover.
Orestes still understood his life as a heavy life which he did not desire for. The Tutor: Ah. gloriously aloof”(Sartre. statues. stones! Why with all those stones in my head? Am I not heavier?” (Sartre. pillars-stones. This is not my palace. of being gloriously aloof.1989:60) As a result. you’d be wallowing in repentance. In short. We have no business in luxuriating in other’s heat The Tutor: Ah. thank God. or in a more precise phrase. For what would you have gained by living in Argos? By now your spirit would be broken. He must carry his life as a burden heavily and unwillingly. his being not bond. stones. Orestes was still burdened by his tutor’s philosophical teaching about freedom. “I suppose you it strikes as vulgar-the joy of going somewhere definite……I could never make them my memory. Orestes was like the camel spirit who felt weary. how you’ve eased my mind! (Sartre.now I am going to say something that will rejoice you. that’s talking sense. 100 Orestes:…. and servants. Orestes:…let’s be off. Orestes lived a heavy life. nor my door. At his first appearance in Act I. Ironically. This quotation is important in telling the self-conflict of Orestes before he had decided his own choice in living his freedom. my young lord. “the palaces. the burden originated from his attitude toward freedom. My mind is my own. He explained about his freedom as follow. When Orestes and the tutor talked about the memory of his past and what he had better react on it. cattle.1989:58) The metaphor of stone emerged how Orestes thought himself as a man having a heavy life. fields. he complained to his tutor. And there is nothing to detain us here. Although Orestes wanted to go somewhere definite. Whereas I-! I’m free as air.1989:59). He desired for a meaning in his . For memory are luxurious reserved for people who own houses.
the heaviest”(Nietzsche. which represents traditional . Zeus.should meekly school himself to banishment and slink away his ancestral home. not often have I called on you for help.. Orestes searched for his “thou shalt” or his obligation. 101 freedom..?. Orestes felt the freedom as a burden because he in fact did not want such attitude toward freedom completely.I need a guide to point my way. To live at peace-always at perfect peace.. the Right Thing represents the traditional value of absolute and objective morality instead of relativity. Since it was imposed instead of being created by oneself.1961:154). by experiencing boundlessness in his freedom.make plain your will by some sign.yet this you know: that I have always tried to act aright But now I am weary and my mind is dark. Thus.…. taking these values mean obligation not a willed decision. The “thou shalt” was presented by the Right Thing. is it truly your will that a king’s son.. He interpreted. Like a camel in the Of Three Metamorphosis... Orestes found that Zeus gave him the sign he asked. His inability to create results in Orestes’ thought about obligation. our Lord and King of Heaven. Tell me.. “ Zeus. “that is the Right Thing.” (Sartre. Orestes’ strength “longed for the heavy. That the Right Thing was written in capital letters for the initial of each word points the essential and only righteousness...1961:54) by obeying the “all values have already created and all created values”(Nietzsche.. This slave morality attitude is obvious in Orestes when he said. The values of Zeus. In one word.1989:89) After that.1989:90). for no longer I can see my path” (Sartre. I see..
and nobility (Hassan. Thus. are also the goof of slave morality explained by Nietzsche. Nietzsche argues. Orestes interpreted the sign as “so. had been strengthened by Zeus by giving his sign when Orestes questioned the Right Thing.1989:89). This motivation. to live at peacealways at perfect peace. Orestes had been submissive. that overman can only be achieved through the harmony of strength. By saying “let’s be off. although finally being cancelled. . Influences of Overman’s Characteristics in Orestes’ Sartre had employed the characteristics of overman to construct Orestes’ characteristics. a character of slave morality. that is the Right Thing.1973:37). Orestes’ motivation to leave power marked his refusal to exercise his power. 102 value. intelligence. conflict in Nietzscheian worldview was the good for the master morality and the evil for the slave morality. There are mainly two characteristics built in creating Orestes.” Orestes wanted to leave Argos and wander peacefully. As discussed before. as summarized by Fuad Hassan. Furthermore. Avoiding conflict and living in peace for Nietzsche shows impotency and refusal of one’s will to power. through his act of avoiding conflict. To love at peace-always at perfect peace”(Sartre. He did not want to harm any body. a character of slave morality. 2.
His choice was different from others. said “A man was to come. Orestes had such a strong memory that he could remember what he experienced quite well. in his amaze. Besides. to announce my decline. Intelligent The term intelligence may refer to many descriptions. Electra encouraged him to leave Argos and he was confused. But seeing you .1989:90). He solved his problems and deciding what to do appropriately. it seems. “[he steps back]. And you’re that man. That’s the Dorian style. Zeus admitted Orestes’ intelligence in refuting his hegemony. He said to the tutor “why not remind me of the three hundred and eighty-seven steps of the temple at Ephesus? I climbed them.1989:60). When facing problems and choices. He could argue to defend his thought in his last debate against Zeus. and I remember each”(Sartre. His intelligence was expressed in his eloquence. Intelligent people can relate and see the pattern based on the strong memory. isn’t it?”(Sartre. intelligent people solve the problem in a brilliant way. he could decide originally.1989:58). In the end of the debate. He solved it by arguing that “there is another way”(Sartre. Hence. one by one. he had the base to be intelligent.2005:438). He. Oxford Guide to Philosophy’s defines intelligent people as “one in whom the memory and the capacity to grasp relations and to solve problems with speed and originality are especially pronounced”(Honderich. He also could recognize style of architecture soon after he saw the object. When puzzled with what he was going to do after seeing Electra was going to be condemned. 103 a. Let’s see. he faced various possibilities.
he had been sure to murder the king and the queen to free Argieve people. bravery only belongs to the strong who wills to increase power. After realizing his freedom. as summarized by Kaufmann. he did not consider himself criminal since he did what good for him. and attitude of people. Nietzsche argues. b. This scale of power is implemented in the manner. His argument strengthened his position and his assurance of his decision. His intelligence worked in supporting his strength. Instead. character. As a character. 104 yesterday-you with your girlish face-who’d have believed it?”(Sartre. In his last speech before he went from Argos. he influence Argieve so that they cancelled their desire to stone and kill Orestes. Through his strength. bravery can be seen in the point of view of power. people are classified according to their power. they open their way to let Orestes went out.. Thus.the negative aspect of our will to power: Fear is the negative motive which . However. For Nietzsche. Strong In Nietzscheian worldview. he said to Zeus. and you have no power to make me atone for an act I don’t regard as a crime”(Sartre. 1989:120) In addition. “fear is nothing but our attitude toward power-. this intelligence had not been in harmony with his strength and nobility until his awareness of freedom. There are only the weak and the strong. It also built his nobility through assurance that he had taken his right path..1989:113). his eloquence redeemed the anger of Argieve. his intelligence worked hand in hand with his strength. “I am no criminal.
the will to power is the positive which would make us strive for something”(Kaufmann. Orestes foresaw that he would face heavy obstacles. Only the strong has bravery to face troubles and difficulties. He also had already known before that what he would do against the law of Zeus. . With his bravery. Orestes. Indeed. However. Orestes had already possessed enough power so that he was brave enough to take his decision. he bravely accepted the challenge of Electra and risked his life. In killing Aegistheus and Clytemnestra. However. fear tells that one has no power to face the obstacles. In contrast. he should pass the guards who were patrolling in the palace. He bravely faced his difficulties in his attempt to free Argos. 105 would make us avoid something. Therefore. only difficulties can give the weak possibility to be strong. the strong. Before murdering. When one is strong. in Nietzscheian way of thinking. She said ‘In taking this decision. In short. s/he believes s/he can solve those difficulties and troubles. could exercise and increase his power. the weak fears those challenges. Electra had ever warned him of the dangerous. Ironically. Orestes’ bravery marked his strength. Thus. Unlike the strong one. fear marks the absent of power and bravery marks the present of power. 1969:190). he bravely encountered with his obstacles because he had the power against them. Bravery marks the abundance of power. he must encounter his heavy obstacles which he had chosen.
106 c. as most Argieve people who bowed themselves under Zeus and felt the remorse. He. Even when Zeus teased him to repent and fill his heart with remorse by promising the throne of Argos by saying. ”if you repudiate the crime. Orestes should have felt remorse. He said to Zeus.1989:123). as the symbol of morality of the herd’s morality. and. refused to value himself as a criminal. furthermore. and you can neither punish me nor pity me. and you have no power to make me atone for an act I don’t regard as a crime”(Sartre. Orestes kept considering himself as a noble because he was sure of what he had done. Nevertheless. This nobility is highly related with his formulation of amor fati. he encourages people to see himself as a noble one. my life’s work. When overman has the capacity for selfevaluation. Zeus. “I am no criminal. Noble Nietzsche refuses to see man as a contempt being. There are two kind of judgment about Orestes’ act of murder.1989:116). “the most cowardly of murders is he who feels remorse “(sartre.1989:113). For that reason. I’ll see that you to occupy the throne of . he. regarded Orestes as a criminal since he did not stand on their own values and he had broken their values. he defended himself by saying “it is my glory. This idea influences Orestes’ characterization in the way he regarded himself. That is my I fill you with fear. he declined the will of Zeus that brought him to remorse.”(Sartre. He insisted on his nobility by glorifying his work of murder. was no longer a noble man. he will not let society affect his judgment. In Zeus’s valuation. Hence. Orestes said. therefore. When Orestes was going to be tortured and stoned by the Argives.
This goodness. The goodness of slave justifies their impotence. in one hand. a.1989:115).T. which considered submissive as the Right Thing. Orestes for sure declined the will of Zeus. By choosing conflict. He became the symbol of rebellion. which was considered good by Orestes but evil by Zeus. (Sunardi. In short. exercised their power. In philosophy his influence of rebellion appears obviously in Sartre and Camus. against the order of Zeus and Aegistheus. The Influence of Overman’s Rebellion in Orestes’ Rebellion against Zeus S. was highly Nietzscheian. there are two kinds of goodness. This rebellious influence also apparently contains in the character of Orestes. 1996:119). Overman’s Goodness Orestes declared a rebellion. In the other had. The war and conflict were considered good by the master. however risky. Thus. Both stand in opposition one to the other. he also had become master morality because the good was the conflict and denial to be submissive. the good for the slave was peace and submissive because the slave was incapable of conflict due to their impotence power. Sunardi wrote that the strongest influence of Nietzsche was felt in France. he had overcome his slave morality. . On the opposite. In Nietzsche’s theory. 107 Argos”(sartre. he kept his nobility. which motivated his rebellion. the master’s goodness and the slave’s one. what Orestes considered good. 3.
However. Orestes had decided for him that the good was to refuse his comfort. Thus. as Zeus said. If he had left Argos. he had also refused his comfort. As overman who rejects comfort for his good. For him.1989:100). Orestes rebelled against the system by showing that the single norm was not absolute. 108 By choosing to rebel. This system prolonged the order and made stagnancy. he might have been a command in a good army. the collective. Thus. According to the law of Zeus. Orestes proved that there was not only one Right Thing. In other word. This forms the same characteristics in society. the murder was . Since in choosing man decides what is good and bad for him. Single norm means one norm hold by everyone. Zeus and Aegistheus determined to keep order by creating a single norm for their people to believe. they were not shaped to rebel the system. When people fall in believing into one norm. the murderer was sinful and he should feel remorse. The people had been impotent since they were unable to think and act differently. murdering a king was an evil action. They could not create and grow. or a system of norm. 1968: 309). Kaufmann summarizes Nietzsche’s overman as “symbols of repudiation of any conformity to a single norm: antithesis to mediocrity and stagnation”(Kaufmann. Orestes refused the comfort. they would have sent his palace up in flames (Sartre. they could easily be controlled because they did not think of another way. First. the single norm may also refer to the morality of the herd. Moreover. he would have felt remorse by his murder. Aegistheus said that if his people had known they were free to choose another way. the people believing in one norm had been weakened. if the single norm was absolute.
Yet. In fact. It stresses in making an existence which has not existed yet. “production of human intelligence”(Hornby. he also agitated Argieve people through his long speech in the last part. 2005:183). Compared with invention which means “create or design (sth) not existing before”(Hornby. but also had been symbol “of repudiation of any conformity to a single norm”(Kaufmann. He said.”if you repudiate the crime. Orestes had not only overcome his mediocre life-his slave character before he was aware of his freedom. 109 a good action instead of a crime because he freed Argieve people by killing the representation of the old system. “why should I feel remorse? I am only doing what is right. I’ll see that you to occupy the throne of Argos”(sartre. Orestes’ statement that he only did what was right showed that there was a no Right Thing. Creativity and Individuality Oxford Guide to Philosophy simply defines creation as “the bringing of something into existence”(Honderich. he refused Zeus’ offering since he declined to prolong the morality of Zeus. the word “create” in . he got no remorse which signed the truth of Zeus.1974:449). Orestes broke up the stable norm. b. Second.”(Sartre. creation does not refer to newness. He assured them that there was another way and they had been free to start their new life.1989:115). Zeus said to Electra and Orestes. Zeus also commanded Orestes to take the position of his victim. 1968: 309).1989:102). In Oxford Advanced Dictionary creation is also written as. Third. Through his actions.1974:201). Therefore.
. In his last speech. choosing .. It seems that the common idea of creating as something original comes from Christian creatio ex nihilo. For himself. mediated his creativity.. all people can choose their path. Overman can perform “his unique deed of . There was nothing enforced man to choose but himself. By clinging to their own individual truth. Thus. to cling to their own individual truth. Thus. as overman. Orestes’ destruction. 110 this section has nothing to do whether it is new (original) or not.. had smashed “their [the herd’s] tables of values.. As a consequence. or rebel.selfcreation.” kaufmann.1969:52). Orestes had suggested individuality in his final project. For the people of Argos. His kingdom was a new system which he opened through the murder. the law-breaker-but he [was] the creator”(Nietzsche. Like overman.. they would free themselves from the remorse. the old system would be broken. Nietzsche might have said that Orestes. he encouraged them to create their own way of life. he created a new way which they may take as a point of departure. Since he proposed everyone to have their own values. the breaker. he said that the day was his coronation day. Moreover. Orestes did not use the term kingdom in common sense. In his new system based on freedom. man for Orestes equaled to freedom. He freed himself through his rebel against Zeus while in his rebel against Aegistheus he freed Argieve people. For these reasons Zeus had already anticipated Orestes because Zeus considered Orestes as dangerous.1968:316). he had created his own values and evaluation based on freedom rather than the law of Zeus.
On the contrary. to be overman means to be individual. am a man. They’re free” (Sartre. being individual is inevitable if one wants to be overman. no bad taste. He even commanded them to disdain Zarathustra. The way refers to definite. Therefore. but my taste. supports his pupils to stand on their own path and to choose their own values. and objective way which traditional way of thinking encourages this to be discovered. which I no longer conceal and of which I am no longer ashamed ‘This-is now my way: where is yours?’ Thus I answered those who asked me ‘the way’. to fall into the one single set of values imposed by society means ignoring the freedom of individual. 111 their own way fitted their very condition. the representation of overman in Thus Spoke Zarathustra.1989:102). However. Zarathustra. For Nietzsche. Orestes did not impose his values but he motivated the people of Argos to make their own values. Since men were free. Orestes replied “what they choose. That individual was highly valued was also what Nietzsche’s overman suggested.1989:119). This humanity took part in following an individual anthropocentric values as said by Orestes “for I. “not good taste. Nietzsche. To give Argieve people the sense of freedom equal to restore them their human dignity. When Zeus questioned where Argieve people would direct their life after Orestes salvation. absolute. They set up their own values and self-justification. there was no determiner that determines but their own selves. Zeus.1989:213). the truth is there is no such way. In other part. and everyman must find out his own way”(Sartre. through the mouth of Zarathustra (the preacher of . Nietzsche echoes this relativity through Zarathustra’s mouth. For the way-does not exist (Nietzsche.
1989:45). he created his own path. He said to Zeus.But none of these was mine. Yes. as quoted by Fuad Hassan.” Orestes.. the haulers’ tracks along the riverside. they would be released from their remorse. “there was nothing left in heaven. for they were other men’s roads. When Argieve people. 112 overman) preached. Inasmuch Orestes had his own values.it is my path.1989:63). Orestes. I tried them all. there would be no “thou shalt” but “I will. just thus do I like it. Today I have one path only.1989:118). offered the sense that life was constructed in a willed way... He accepted the truth that there was no objective value but what subjectivity. “this is my good. He said that Thousands of roads I tramped that brought me nowhere. Zeus and his whole universe are not enough to prove that Orestes was wrong.. they would will everything that happened to them since they alone had chosen.”(Sartre.1989:105). Therefore. Orestes affirmed overman’s echoes that there was no the way. to be individual. no right of wrong”(Sartre. this I love. like overman. Orestes also had remained faithful to the earth instead of escaping to transcendental source of values. found their own way. Orestes . If Argieve people took this idea.. clung to the belief that there was only subjective values. including their past. Orestes admitted that basically there was no objective values. based on the idea of freedom. Therefore. only thus do I wish the good”(Nietzsche. Similar to Nietzsche who writes that. that creation-that is the great redemption from suffering (Hassan. the mule-paths in the mountains.. Having one’s own path consequences to creating one’s own values. as suggested by Orestes.
In Of Three metamorphosis. But I shall not return under your law. When Zeus persuaded Orestes by saying that he had been enslaved by his freedom. therefore. they would be free from the tyrant of Zeus. a self-propelling wheel. . Unlike Schopenhauer. I am my freedom”(Sartre. Men solely cause themselves. who has the characters of “a new beginning. Overman’s Self-mastery in Orestes Orestes’ principle of freedom also brings Orestes to his self-mastery. When they could create and. 4.. he insisted that “From now on I’ll take no one’s orders. to be individual. Orestes had been aware of the fact that men could only have self-mastery and he bravely accepted this fact. a sport. Orestes by saying that freedom was man had released himself from such the dichotomy. He declared. Orestes refused distinction between freedom and slave to repudiate Zeus.1989:90).1989:119). If men equals to freedom. they rule their own self.. I am doomed to have no other law but mine”(Sartre. “neither slave nor master. 113 suggested this self-creativity to people of Argos to free them.without excuse. who make distinction between self and passion and argues that self was the slave of passion. neither man’s nor god’s”(Sartre. overman was symbolized by a child. “. a main character of overman. Orestes answered. beyond remedy. Orestes’ self-mastery also appeared in his description of human situation. The condition of man who bowed under the law of Zeus meant a lie to one own condition. Therefore. a first motion”(Nietzsche.1989:117). except what remedy I find within myself.1969:55).
However. he did not hate Zeus. . in any condition. 5. men choose freely their goodness. which in Nietzscheian cosmology marks slave morality. Aegistheus questioned Orestes. or you with me? We shall glide past each other. I do not hate you. like ships in a river. men do what they think is good because of their own will based on his freedom.1989:102) . the fact that he did not hate Zeus showed his quality to control himself without controlled by resentment. dominated by resentment. “Remorse? Why should I feel remorse? I am only doing what is right”(Sartre. cannot control himself but obeying his resentment. 114 This self-mastery appears in Orestes’ ability to control himself. The resentment would have dominated only if Orestes could not control himself. He freed himself from resentment. When Orestes said. As discussed in Orestes’ attitude about freedom. Because human was free. “Is it true you feel no remorse?”(Sartre. Orestes did not remorse because he always had done what was good for him.1989:102) Orestes answered. remorse signified his acceptance of freedom. Knowing this fact of freedom. Men always choose the good. You are God and I am free. Clytemnestra and Aegistheus. Orestes’ Attitude toward Past: Overman’s Redemption for Argieve People After Orestes had struck Aegistheus with Orestes’ sword. What have I to do with you. This scene depicts Orestes’ condition that he had no remorse. “as for me. In other word. without touching. Although he murdered the representatives of Zeus’ law.1989:119). Slave morality. each of us is alone”(Sartre.
which was their remorse. Their remorse made them smell reek. bitter regret for wrongdoing”(Hornby. The people of Argos felt deep remorse because of their attitude toward their past. Thus. they through choosing their decision inevitably had decided the good for them. or their will. his point was highly related with attitude toward past and what one had willed from the past. They felt “deep. 115 In remorse. the gods sent the flies to them to remind them of their sin. . Orestes explained that there was no accident in life by refusing the way Argos people understood the murder of Agamemnon. They felt they were sinful because they followed the order of gods other than their own. We had willed everything. In this perspective.1987:715). everything happened because they willed it by considering that they were the only cause of their action and decision. Orestes explained the idea that personal choose was impossible for choosing the bad. He said “that’s it how you see it. Orestes’ invitation to accept their life as their own construction. and that deed was good”(Sartre. “I have done my deed Electra. was paraphrasing the holy Yes of the overman. Thus. For Orestes. They had denied that they had been the cause of their decision.1989:105). Moreover. Then. they blamed themselves for what they had chosen as good. From the standard of the gods. they assumed that they had not chosen the good for them. isn’t it? More like an accident than a crime?”(Sartre.1989:123). They covered themselves on the idea that their decision was not based on their free will. even the worst possibility. people had hoped other that what had happened. Although his salvation lied in the philosophy of freedom. but on other external cause that determined their life and decision but themselves.
1989:113). Therefore. They should accept their past. I regret nothing”(Sartre. People cannot undo their past as Orestes said to Zeus. In other part. he said. Orestes: Who except yourself can know what you really wanted? Will you let another decide that for you? Why distort a past that can no longer stand up for itself? And why disown the firebrand that you were. 116 There would be holy Yes only if one willed everything exactly as it had happened. Overman would say the holy Yes. When Zeus threatened him to atone and take the law of Zeus. vivid with hatred.1969:115) . had resembled the doctrine of eternal recurrence that constited overman. Thus. once we choose.1989:104). the holy Yes of the overman. that I loved so much? (Sartre. Orestes said to Electra. to redeem the remorse resulting the feeling of sin for the people of Argos was through acceptance. “neither you nor I can undo what has been done”(Sartre. Thus. “torture me to your heart’s content. without any negation. Orestes had already taken this path because he felt no remorse for his past decision in any occasion. we choose it for ever because our decision will return again and again infinitely. In eternal recurrence. the glorious young goddess. even if the world happened again and again eternally. What Orestes offered as salvation. in fact. Orestes challenged Zeus by saying. eternal recurrence marked the highest acceptance. There was no remorse at all in the self of Orestes even if he would suffer for his decision.1989:117). they should not only accept the past but also regarded the past as what they had willed. because they had created willingly. “I shall not repent of what I have done”(Sartre.
Orestes’ relationship to Argos: Embodiment of Overman as the Unpolluted Sea and the outcast Orestes’ relation with the people of Argos also contained the trace of overman’s relation with society.” Orestes integrated and accepted his past because he had chosen it. Although Sartre does not apply in a completely exact way-as discussed in fourth part of this chapter. Orestes encouraged the people of Argos to accept their past and willed their past. Orestes’ salvation implemented Nietzscheian amor fati. Under the umbrella of freedom. which was represented as the people of Argos. 6. Accepting freedom for Orestes played the position of beautiful totality. Electra’s goddess faces. However. he was no longer divided in between. 1968:319). He also did not regret his past action. Thus. which was to redeem the sin of society. He spread his formulation of salvation to Argos so that they could be free from Zeus and their remorse. His ability to say the holy Yes proves his selfintegration. society. Orestes had been able to affirm his life and say a holy Yes as overman. Through freedom as his “beautiful totality.. which reflected the beauty of freedom. In short. He had been sure of his path even when being threatened by Zeus. There was no longer ambivalence in himself as he had been before he took his own path. had perished since remorse contaminated her. 117 In the play. he employed the function of overman in society. Kaufman says that overman “redeeming even the ugly by giving it meaning in a beautiful totality”(Kaufmann. hated and considered overman as a crime because of his individuality. .
Thus.” Supposing I set out to win the name of “guilt stealer. innumerable as the flies of Argos-surely then I shall have earned the freedom of your city”(Sartre.” and heap on myself all their remorse. which contaminate themselves.1969:41). to receive polluted river and not be defiled”(ibid). that of the woman unfaithful to her husband. overman redeems the “pollution” of their abundance. contains of man. Nietzsche metaphorically writes that overman could be “a sea. Due to their lack of power. The people of Argos represented the man in common. Their sin had polluted themselves and invited the flies to come through the reek.1989:91-92) . 118 Society for Nietzsche is metaphorically polluted and overman has function to redeem their pollution. He explained. Man for Nietzsche represents mediocre quality that should be overcome. worked in redeeming their guilt. of the usurer who bled his victims white? Surely one I am plagued with all those pangs of conscience. where the mob lives together. These mediocre characteristics construct the society where overman lives.1989:92). and hatred. Overman carried the sin of the man. Thus.” I’d house your penitence”(Sartre. The people of Argos were heightened by their remorse. or the average quality of the mob who cannot redeem their own self. Orestes materialized the relationship of the polluted society with the overman as a redeemer. He said. most people in society are full of resentment. Orestes. of the tradesman who let his mother die. as the liberator of the people of Argos. He carried the burden of Argieve people. In other occasion. he said that his way of liberating Argieve people was to let them plagued him. Society. In Zarathustra Nietzsche writes that man is “a polluted river”(Nietzsche. Sartre manifested the polluted river in the sin and the flies of Argos people. reactivity.
. Oh. Orestes’ action to liberate Argos’ people shows the function of overman in society. they are very grateful to their savior!. and they call you a danger to the people”(Nietzsche. as the representation of the slave morality. To be solitary disdains themselves and their values. (sartre.. the good and the just hate you and call you their enemy and despisers. most cowardly of murderers. Like the way society regards overman’s individuality as a crime. “they [society] would like to crucify those who devise their own virtuethey hate the solitary” (Nietzsche. 119 In short. Zeus. Nietzsche writes.All the good folk of Argos are waiting there. the solitude you’re doomed to. a place where Orestes was sheltering. compared Orestes like a leper. 1969:90). cling to his own values. They were going to express their hatred to Orestes by stoning him to dead. Zeus:. and outcast because of Orestes. you take pride in being an outcast. The mob regarded the solitary as a crime. as the representation of the morality of the mob.. a contempt man for society.You are lonely as a leper Orestes: Yes Zeus: so. Orestes: the most cowardly of murders is he who feels remorse. the people of Argos had regarded Orestes as a crime.1969:49).1989:116) Zeus. The reaction of Argieve people was uttered by Zeus when they were going to enter the Apollo shrine. alone. sinful. . Waiting to greet you with stone and pikes and pitchforks. do you? But. Orestes had not only been overman in his redemption but also in the way society regarded his individuality as a crime. they hated it. the faithful of the true faith hate you. He says “too many here hate you. is the solitude of scorn and loathing.
this refusal brought Orestes to consider the very condition of man not as Heidegger do. 120 swore to Orestes. 1. He affirmed Zeus. Orestes was pride although people of Argos regarded him as a crime because he had done what was right. D. He says. He was ready and strong in accepting the outcast. he. “yes. He also reminded Orestes that Orestes had been an outcast. he had different perspective as overman did. it means exile. Being and Freedom Orestes views man as freedom.”(Sartre. Orestes defines himself as .1989:117). exile”(sartre. “I am my freedom” (Sartre. Furthermore. For Nietzsche.1989:118). “your vaunted freedom isolates you from the fold. Although he owed much to Heidegger. Orestes’ departure from Heidegger’s Ontology and Nietzsche’s overman Sartre did not only take the ideas of both Nietzsche and Heidegger to create Orestes but also developed and refused some of their philosophies. refused Heidegger’s Being as the central point of the ontology. By declaring that he is his freedom. as reflected by Orestes. However. Thus. he does not only say that man is free but he goes further by saying that man is freedom. although Orestes was nearly to be overman. The discrepancy lies on the way they viewed the existence of society.1989:118). Orestes had been ready to accept the consequences of his decision. The existence of man equals to the existence of freedom. as generally known.
if we want to use Heideggerian term. The locus “am”. While Orestes shows that the Being of man is freedom. . answered by Orestes as freedom. he would not have taken care about the heat and the people of Argos. If Orestes had decided to leave Argos. There is no longer distinction between the being of man and his freedom. he cares about the people and the heat of Argos. instead of freedom. as to be. Even though they agree if the authentic means they who face the very condition of the self and the inauthentic are they who flee from facing it. they disagree about the fundamental character of human being. Orestes goes further in saying that freedom is more fundamental than care. Heidegger describes care as the Being of man. was written in italic to stress that the Being of man is freedom. Since he has chosen to be engaged with Argos. 121 freedom. which determines the categories of being-present-at-hand and being-ready-to-hand that determines signification and the world. Orestes argues that the authentic people are they who accept freedom as the fundamental condition of self whereas Heidegger that the authentic are they who accept Being as their guidance. Orestes shows that his decision creates what he does and does not care. what is is? The “to be” of man is.1964:227). The disagreement about the fundamental condition of human being also distinguishes Orestes and Heidegger about the authentic man. In short. What one cares. depends on the freedom. “dasein’s Being reveals itself as care”(Heidegger. Heidegger writes that. Heidegger’s question of Being can be apparent in his question about what to be is. In a more rhetorical style. although Heidegger and Orestes agree that human being is distinctive.
1962:138).1989:119). choose their own right or wrong and reigns over himself. except what remedy I find within myself. Heidegger writes. The determiner of truth and meaning is Being. the authentic men arises when they admit that they are free. I am doomed to have no other law but mine”(Sartre. Heidegger takes that man does not invent the truth. in contrast with Orestes.1978:210). Man can invent only pragmatic truths. For Orestes. They created their own truth. Man does not decide wither or how beings appear. It is the task of Being. Orestes never outlined what they should choose in authenticity. and these do not deserve the title”(Olson. he refers to his condition that there is no outside cause that determines himself so that he can blame and make excuse. in order that beings might appear in the light of Being as the beings they are. Oslon writes that Heidegger. he insisted that “From now on I’ll take no one’s orders. This anthropocentric view can be found in many part of the play. For Orestes. beyond remedy. believes that the authentic men are they who are illuminated to Being. Heidegger is not so because he is Being-centric.1989:90). “does not believe man invents meaning and truth. the authentic man reigns over himself. Therefore. When Orestes says “I am not excusing my self”(Sartre. .1989:117).. 122 If Orestes’ authenticity means anthropocentric. whiter and how God and the gods or history and nature come forward into the lighting of Being.he might guard the truth of Being. Unlike Orestes.. This human-centrist appears stronger in his statement that the authentic men admit their condition as “. “man is rather ‘thrown’ from Being itself into the truth of Being. But I shall not return under your law. so that. Heidegger.without excuse.. come to presence and depart. neither man’s nor god’s”(sartre.. The advent of beings lies in the Destiny of Being”(Heidegger.
nature. Yet. gods appear. The different ways to be authentic indeed have been based on their different conception on the nature of human. They disagree about how long man can be the state authentic. the authentic men are they who illuminate and melt themselves with Being. including the history. and for the most part it remains so” (Heidegger 1964:167) Most of Dasein’s time is in falling. they move to two different direction. Moreover. Man does not determine their world. Heidegger states that “Dasein is ‘they’. Heidegger seeks for a direction and belives in Being to direct human life.1964:168). 123 The quotation above should not be interpreted literally since Heidegger. Heidegger explains that most of the time human is inauthentic. Inauthenticity for Heidegger is Dasein’s everyday condition. Therefore. In this sense. Heidegger and Orestes are also in opposition with the duration of authenticity. Heidegger. For Heidegger. does not impose this dichotomy as a moral position. human has no nature to command and guide his life. falling is “its everydayness and its averageness”(Heidegger. . Since for Orestes human equals to freedom. Moreover. unlike Orestes. The existence of truth and how beings are not the decision of man. although encourages dasein to be authentic. to be the shepherd of Being is the duty of dasein. although writing philosophical treatise employs poetical language that is highly metaphorical. Thus. the nature of man according to Heidegger means the Being of man. human was left alone without nature. the authentic dasein has clear way of where the authentic should go. In other word. Heidegger states that Being determines beings. Thus.
Zeus explains the authentic condition of Orestes as. without excuse. beyond remedy. Naturally there was rank that the slave morality wanted to destroy.1989:119). Orestes warns her. he can still be on that condition for a long period of time. He argues that most morality denies the existence of rank because most are slave morality. When Zeus persuades Electra to have a little penitence to him. “once freedom lights in a man’s heart.is very similar.1989:114). on the contrary. the gods are powerless against him”(Sartre. the purpose. Electra. and the reason behinds are different. Nietzsche in The Will to Power explains “I feel impelled to reestablish order of rank”(Nietzsche. 2. The slave insists equality . 124 Orestes. Orestes also strongly recommends the people of Argos to be authentic because the authentic is the salvation. Once a man has been authentic. context. he shall not return under Zeus’ law (Sartre. Nietzsche views hierarchy as a natural inevitable phenomenon of moral which was needed by overman. It is dangerous to be inauthentic because it will weight the soul.1967:457). encourages people to be authentic and remains so. Although Orestes was foreign to himself. The condition of Orestes cannot be changed easily. The significant difference lies in their attitude and their view about society. “take care. except what remedy he finds within himself. Equality and Rank Although Nietzsche and Sartre both create their hero and ideal men whichas shown early.1989:109). That trifle will weigh like a millstone on your soul”(Sartre.
“it is their lot. Orestes said to Zeus. Overman in society having order of rank will have war and competition. He does not exclude nor discriminate which one should be able to invent and impotent. Furthermore. He does not classify man and puts them in order of rank which Nietzsche considers as a natural phenomenon. “what they choose. his goal was directed to himself. Overman needs rank where there are war and competition. on the contrary. the goal of society.1989:102). Overman views society as tool to gain his goal. Nietzsche defends hierarchy instead of equality. The benefits are only side effect. Orestes wants everyone to be free in his kingdom. Orestes. by the existence of rank. For Orestes. When he said. for . he declines to be a king in common sense term. They’re free”(Sartre. For instance. 125 because they want peace and they are weak so that they do not want to get involved in competition for the rank. The pronoun “they” refers to anyone in Argos. When Orestes sees that despair as a way out into authentic life. believes that all men are equal and should be liberated. Orestes suggests everyman to take his or her own path.1989:102). one of his project in transvaluation of values is to re-establish the order of rank. He will have chance to exercise his power and grow stronger. Therefore. Thus. He uses re-establish because naturally there have been rank. He. he needs the mob so that he can be above them. can stand on above of the herd because he has high quality. Although he benefits society. to exercise his power. Orestes and overman also disagree about the relationship with society. everyone has right to be authentic without Nietzscheian order of rank. Moreover. should I deny them the despair?”(Sartre.
the overman. 126 Nietzsche. The idea of overman relies heavily on the conception of the will to power. life is not bonded. . he is the embodiment of the will to power. It seems that the character of the tutor and his philosophy. to contrast the decisions of Orestes. Moreover. Overman always wants to increase his power. is an allusion to Nietzscheian conception of life. Orestes decides to “give little sense of freedom” to the people of Argos not because he wants to be more powerful in Nietzscheian term but in order to get himself to be one of Argieve people. Here. takes that it is possible to put society as the goal. his motive is to give meaning to life instead of increasing power. The question of Zeus to Orestes at that time is what Orestes is going to propose to Argos. The will to power also motivates the action of overman. The motives behind the action for them are also different. what he wills is power. He even considers society as his part of life. The key concept of overman is the abundance of power. lies in the crystallization of their great man. Argos refers to the people of the city in general. Only a few men can be overman and most people will still be the mediocre. on the contrary. he creates and destroys himself. For Orestes. Man. should bond his life by his decision to give his life a meaning. Overman is the man who can maximize the power. Thus. the meaning of life of someone comes from one’s rationalistic decision which manifests in one’s actions. Orestes wants to free Argos because for him it is the good. Orestes. Thus. It is a doom to hope that everyman will be overman. according to Orestes.
in Nietzscheian term. He denied to be 127 . passive nihilist. He was also brave because he had risked his life. and brave man. He was welleducated since there was always a tutor accompanying and educating himself. it is concluded that the influences of Heidegger’s ontology and Nietzsche’s overman on the main character of Sartre’s The Flies are immense. he finally decided to bond himself with Argos. This includes his notion about being bonded. his philosophical proposition led him to nobility. His philosophical background was. Thus. strong.CHAPTER V CONCLUSION From the research. His bravery revealed his strength. The research concludes that Orestes is highly constructed on the idea of Heidegger’s ontology in the way Orestes’ see the nature of the world and Sartre owes heavily on Nietzsche’s conception of overman to build Orestes’ axiological dimension. noble. Orestes was an intelligent. Orestes was a character undergoing a change. he built his own philosophy. Although he had been weary because he follows his tutor. He could be included into round character. He departed from his tutor’s teaching and he stood against the mainstream morality. he develops himself to build his own philosophy and act in accord with that. However. Finally. He took risk in his attempt to save Argos. He refused to be bonded.
the representation of Zeus’ law. He was. as metonymically labeled in remorse and symbolized by the flies. In his philosophy. First. Third. He disclosed a world and he defined his nature . as he had experienced. Thus. he distinguished radically between human being and other beings. Orestes viewed his life as always directed ahead. Thus. as Heidegger said. In action he constructed his being which was there and. Second. Human being was ontically distinctive. Orestes followed Heidegger in understanding the condition of human being as an abandoned being. he freed people of Argos by murdering Aegistheus and Clytemnestra. one must know and accept the consequences of the decision. 128 bonded and he felt his freedom wearily. men could only follow their own values which only they could choose. of taking one’s own personal path in acting to be in accord with human’s freedom. inevitably engaged in a world. When choosing. he wanted to open the veil of Zeus from the people of Argos. when men took other’s path-in this case the path was created by Zeus. Because he was intelligent and brave. This is the influence of Heidegger’s concept of Dasein. he offered his own philosophy. like how everyone existed. Orestes’ ontology after he had been aware of his freedom was influenced immensely by Heideggerian ontology. Henceforth. Thus. According to Orestes. furthermore his life was always ahead. Orestes believed that men were free. Fourth. man had to find out his own way. he would fall into weariness. Orestes succeeded in building his own philosophy and accomplished his mission. Because Orestes believed everyone was free. Human being was forlorn in the universe. Heidegger influenced Orestes in the way he understood his life as being-in-the-world.
What Orestes offered was based on self-mastery resulted from freedom. Sartre took the ontology of human being from Heidegger to construct Orestes. supported by his bravery and intelligent. Nietzsche calls Orestes’ style as overman’s active destruction. Second. First. Orestes declared war against the old and he began the new. which Heidegger named as falling. Orestes proposed this remedy as salvation to the remorse of Argos people. his characteristics which are intelligent and brave were elaborated as the basis of Orestes’ morality and action. life had been willed without any negation anymore for the people of Argos. The acceptance of the existence of this emotion would lead men to be authentic and the denial to be inauthentic. Third. this self-mastery and individuality resulted in the remedy of the past. Nietzsche argues that only overman can overcome himself completely. Overman’s Individuality and Self-mastery appeared in Orestes’ struggle and his salvation for Argos. . Orestes offered individual good to replace the Good. In his philosophy. In short. Finally. In addition. The attitude of willing the past was also highly Nietzscheian. including in the relationship with the past. 129 according to the worldhood where he lived. Orestes’ rebel. This creativity was what Orestes considered as his good. Fifth. turn the values of the mob upside down showed his creativity through activity of destroying. an important characteristics of overman. To fulfill his mission. and become super human. Thus. Orestes took Heidegger’s idea about the existence of unhappy mood in life. Nietzsche’s philosophy of overman influenced in creating Orestes. He created and destroyed at once. He had smashed their values and strived to create the new ones.
as represented by Orestes. This departure also marks that The Flies was written not mainly to explain Heidegger’s ontology and Nietzsche’s overman. and . Although the curse of the people reflects the influence. The title of the play itself The Flies signifies that the main idea is about freedom. including in The Flies. Orestes was influenced by Heidegger’s ontology in the way he saw the world and Nietzsche’s overman in his action. Sartre. puts freedom as the central theme. Orestes said it was they who did not propose any good but the personal authentic decision. He was a part of them. it is because Sartre has constructed his thought. Yet. When Heidegger puts Being and Nietzsche the will to power as the central theme. While Heidegger considered the authentic are they who are melted with Being. which distinguished him from Heidegger. based on the tradition of western philosophy. Orestes’ motive distinguished him from overman. Unlike overman. Orestes also departed from Nietzsche’s overman seen from his relationship with society. Orestes. This freedom has been considered as Sartre’s unique in the tradition of western philosophy. In short. departed from Heidegger’s ontology. If there are immense influences of both thinker’s. by focusing on freedom as human’s very condition. he departed from them in the theme of authenticity. 130 Although the character of Orestes owes heavily to Heidegger’s ontology and Nietzsche’s overman. there are also elements that mark Orestes’ departure from both of them. Orestes understood himself as equal inside the society. If Heidegger believes that authenticity will not and should not stay for a long period of time in life. as represented by the remorse. Orestes stands on the contrary. This study has described what the influences are.
Oresteia and The Flies. Such comparative study. one in ontology and the other in action and morality. To learn how she was represented in such a way would open the horizon of gender representation in the tradition of western history. which distinguished him from Nietzsche’s overman. In summary. Electra was weak psychologically and principally. study about gender in The Flies would have a great significance. 131 Orestes’ motive and equality with society. will give two perspectives at once about the changing concept of gender in tragic play from two different ages. In both versions of the story. both Heidegger’s ontology and Nietzsche’s overman contributed heavily in Orestes and they completed each others. granted that this play has been rewritten. . In researching The Flies.
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