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K.Mukund*, M.Arun, N.Bharath Srinivas, A.S.Appushame, R.Rudramoorthy Department of Production Engineering, PSG College of Technology Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India-641004 * Corresponding Author Email Address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Improving engine performance is one of the highest priorities of major automotive manufacturers due to stringent emission norms and need for fuel economy. The overall vehicle performance is affected by the efficiency of the Internal Combustion Engine. Simulation of IC Engines remains one of the most challenging applications of CFD modeling. Dynamic mesh model has to be used to simulate the performance of the IC engine. The objective of this study reported in this paper is to predict and analyze the flow around poppet valves in IC Engine using dynamic mesh and hence find its volumetric efficiency. The flow field is solved using the commercially available software FLUENT. These cold flow simulations for IC engines can provide valuable design information to the engineers. Keywords: Moving Mesh, IC engine, Poppet Valve, Volumetric Efficiency, CFD
1. Introduction The most significant airflow restriction in an internal combustion engine is the flow through the inlet and the exhaust poppet valves. Typically the minimum cross sectional area in the intake and exhaust system occurs at the valve. Only considerable success has been realized by modeling the gas flow through the valves as one-dimensional quasi-steady compressible flow. The equations of fluid mechanics, which were known over for a century, are solvable for a limited number of flows. The known solutions are extremely useful in helping to understand fluid flow but rarely can they be used directly in engineering analysis and design. The engineer has traditionally been forced to use other approaches. In the most common approach, simplifications of equations are used. Flow around valves is very difficult to solve analytically because of the complex geometries involved. Therefore, use of CFD greatly improves our level of understanding the flow around the valves and helps us in design optimization . The objective of this study reported in this paper is to predict and analyze the flow around poppet valves in IC Engine using dynamic mesh and hence find its volumetric efficiency. The flow field is solved using the commercially available software FLUENT. These cold flow simulations for IC engines can provide valuable design information to the engineers. 2. Governing equations and solution procedure The governing equations of fluid flow represent mathematical statements of the conservation laws of physics. The governing equations for the flow around valves are the unsteady mass, momentum and energy conservation equations. The flow field can be predicted by solving continuity and momentum equations in the given domain of interest. It is well known that velocity components are governed by momentum equations. However, the real difficulty in the calculation of the velocity field lies in the unknown pressure field. The pressure gradient forms a part of the source term for momentum equation. The
2. The dynamic mesh model can be used to model flows where the shape of the domain is changing with time due to motion on the domain boundaries. 3. A displacement at a given boundary node will generate a force proportional to the displacement along all the springs connected to the node.difficulty associated with the determination of pressure has led to several methods in solving pressure from the governing equation. Three mesh motion methods are available in the commercial software to update the volume mesh in the deforming regions subject to the motion defined at the boundaries: 1. Discretisation by substitution of the approximations into the governing flow equations and the subsequent mathematical manipulations. you need to provide a starting volume mesh and the description of the motion of any moving zones in the model. 3. On zones with a triangular or tetrahedral mesh. The initial spacing of the edges before any boundary motion constitutes the equilibrium state of the mesh. Local Remeshing In the spring-based smoothing method.1. This will invalidate the mesh (e. Spring-based smoothing 2. the cell quality can deteriorate or the cells can become degenerate. The standard k. will lead to convergence problems when the solution is updated to the next time step. The numerical solution techniques  that form the basis of the solution procedure involves: 1.. Selection of the physical and chemical phenomena that need to be modeled. you can use dynamic layering to add or remove layers of cells adjacent to a moving boundary. the edges between any two-mesh nodes are idealized as a network of interconnected springs. the spring-based smoothing method is normally used. 4. Dynamic layering 3. In prismatic (hexahedral and/or wedge) mesh zones. 3. which is widely adopted. 5.model is a semi-empirical model based on model transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (k) and its dissipation rate ( ) and is used to model turbulence in this problem. The mesh was generated using GAMBIT software and primarily consisted of triangular and quadrilateral elements. Definition of fluid properties. Approximation of the unknown flow variables by means of simple functions. The first stage is the preprocessing stage. . To use the dynamic mesh model. The motion can be described by using either boundary profiles or user-defined functions (UDFs). which consists of 1. The model after meshing is as shown below in Fig. One such procedure. based on the height of the layer adjacent to the moving surface. result in negative cell volumes) and consequently. Solution of algebraic equations. Details of geometry and mesh generation The two dimensional model of the IC engine was created using commercially available software. Definition of geometry. is SIMPLE (semi-implicit method for pressure-linked equations). The update of the volume mesh is handled automatically at each time step based on the new positions of the boundaries.g. Specifications of the boundary conditions. When the boundary displacement is large compared to the local cell sizes. 2. Grid generation.
2). 7. Crank period-720 deg.Fig.1 Mesh Generation The parameters used for the analysis are given below. crank angle was plotted as shown below and given as input to the software as profiles  (Fig.34 m. Connecting rod length-0. Starting crank angle-360 deg.25 deg. 1. 2.13 m. These parameters were measured from a real working engine.0005 m Valve lift for both inlet and exhaust valve (m) vs. Piston stroke-0. Crank Shaft speed – 1500 rpm. The total crank period is 720 degrees ((1080-360)-in figure)) . 5. Crank angle step size-0. 4. Minimum valve lift – 0. 8. 6. 3.
Fig.3 Velocity profile at crank angle = 545 degrees . Fig. Valve lift vs crank angle 4. Results and Discussion The following diagrams show the velocity profiles at various crank angles.2.
6 Velocity profile at crank angle = 710 degrees Three parameters that are used to characterize the large-scale fluid motion in the cylinder are swirl. squish and tumble. Tumble is the vortex motion induced by the inlet valve [4. 5].Fig. This type is called large-scale mixing since the characteristic length of the fluid motion is about the combustion chamber diameter.50 degrees Fig.50 degrees Fig.5 Velocity at crank angle = 657. whereas the small-scale vortices due to turbulence are much smaller.4 Velocity profile at crank angle = 597. .
. 1995. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.02/1000X3.0 REFERENCES 1.25 cm2 = 1234. 1988. The performance of the engine can be improved by optimizing the design parameters. Ferguson and Allan T. J.B. Piston redesigning. 2001.Ferizer and M. 2. The simulation results give clear idea about the flow around the poppet valve. Still.Versteg and W. Total volume of the air injected into the cylinder = Area under the mass flow history graph X area of inlet manifold = Mass flow rate X time of flow X area of the inlet manifold = 2.K.5(approx) X 0.14/4X3X3X106 Volume of the cylinder = 3. 1996. Fluent 6. H.0 CONCLUSIONS The flow around the poppet valve is analyzed using the FLUENT package. Valve positioning are some of the design changes that can be incorporated and simulated to get a real picture of how these design changes affect flow behavior.H. Volumetric efficiency of the engine can be found out by approximating the 2d inlet into 3d inlet by multiplying by the surface area of the inlet. 6. Longman Group Limited. McGraw Hill International. The simulation of IC engine using dynamic mesh closely approximates real life engine motion without which realistic simulation of flow inside the combustion chamber is not possible.1 Manuals. J.The tumble downstream of the intake valve is indicated by the vortex motion. In general. It also helps to assess the effect of design changes on volumetric efficiency. As the valve opens (Fig. 4.805X100 5.25/1234. From the mass flow history of inlet valve.Peric.5 and 6) as the distance from the valves keeps on increasing. John Wiley & Sons.Malasekara. Internal Combustion Engines. An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics – the Finite Volume Method.Heywood. Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics.3 & 4) some amount of air enters the center of the combustion chamber and some air sticks on to the wall and then gets separated from the wall (Fig. the downstream behavior of the jet is the greatest interest as far as cylinder mixing is concerned.6 % Hence volumetric efficiency = 353. Springer. the flow structures in and near the wall must be carefully examined since they impact directly the nature of the downstream jet. Colin R. The volumetric efficiency obtained was very low in this case (28 %).Kirkpatrick. 5.14/4X13X112 = 353.805 cm2 = 28. 3.
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