SAP2000®

Integrated Finite Element Analysis and Design of Structures

CONCRETE DESIGN MANUAL

COMPUTERS & STRUCTURES INC.

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Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA

Version 7.4 Revised May 2000

COPYRIGHT
The computer program SAP2000 and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from:

Computers and Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Tel: (510) 845-2177 Fax: (510) 845-4096 E-mail: info@csiberkeley.com Web: www.csiberkeley.com

© Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978–2000. The CSI Logo is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc. SAP2000 is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.

DISCLAIMER
CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF SAP2000. THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. IN USING THE PROGRAM, HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM. THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ THE MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS. THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Design of Beams . .Table of Contents CHAPTER I Introduction 1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . 3 CHAPTER II Design Algorithms 5 Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strength Reduction Factors . . . . . . . 9 P-. . . 6 Design and Check Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Design of Columns . . 14 CHAPTER III Design for ACI 318-99 Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Special Considerations for Seismic Loads . . Check Column Capacity . . . . . . . Determine Section Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Choice of Input Units . . . . . . . . 7 Identifying Beams and Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Moment Magnification Factors Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Element Unsupported Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Factored Moments and Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 17 20 21 21 23 23 23 25 26 27 i . . . Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . 2 Recommended Reading . . . . . . . . . . Column Design . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Shear Force and Moment . . . . . . . . . . . Strength Reduction Factors . . . . . . 71 74 74 75 75 77 77 77 80 81 81 83 ii . . Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Beam Shear Reinforcement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Check Column Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . . . . . Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . . . . . Design Beam Shear Reinforcement. Determine Moment Magnification Factors Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . Check Column Capacity . . . . . . . . Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Factored Moments and Forces. Determine Moment Magnification Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beam Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Shear Force and Moment . . . . . . . . . . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Section Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 30 30 31 31 31 38 38 40 40 CHAPTER IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 46 47 47 48 50 50 51 52 53 54 55 55 59 59 59 60 66 66 67 67 CHAPTER V Design for CSA-A23. . . . . Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . . . . Column Design . . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . . Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . Column Design . Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . . Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . Strength Reduction Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Factored Moments and Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beam Design. . . . . . . . . Determine Section Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-94 Design Load Combinations . . . . .

Design Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Factored Moments and Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Code Total Moments . . . Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . . Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . . . 146 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Check Column Capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . Determine Additional Moments . . . . Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Column Design . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . Check Column Capacity. . . . . . . Beam Design. . . . . . . . Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Shear Force and Moment . . Beam Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Beam Shear Reinforcement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 101 104 104 105 106 107 107 109 110 111 111 112 112 117 CHAPTER VII Design for Eurocode 2 Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . Beam Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 119 122 123 123 125 125 125 127 128 132 133 133 133 139 CHAPTER VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 143 Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Factored Moments and Forces . . . . . . Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . 84 87 87 87 88 95 96 97 98 CHAPTER VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989 Design Load Combinations .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Column Design . . . . . Check Column Capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beam Design . Dynamic Moment Magnification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Strength Reduction Factors. . . . Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 175 176 177 179 References Index 183 187 iv . . . . . . . . . . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement. . . . Determine Section Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphical Display of Design Output Tabular Display of Design Output . . . . . . . . . . . . Member Specific Information . . . . . Determine Factored Moments and Forces . . . . 146 147 147 149 149 150 152 152 153 154 155 157 160 160 160 161 168 168 169 170 CHAPTER IX Design Output Overview . . . . . . Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Shear Force and Moment. . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . . . . Determine Moment Magnification Factors . . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement. . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

analyze and design structural models. the program provides a set of default load combinations for each design code sup- Overview 1 .Chapter I Introduction Overview SAP2000 features powerful and completely integrated modules for design of both steel and reinforced concrete structures (CSI 1998a. and update the design without re-analyzing the structure. The program currently supports the following design codes: U. make appropriate changes. all from within the same user interface. modify. The design is based upon a set of user-specified loading combinations. 1997). AASHTO 1997). such as member size revisions. Canadian (CSA 1994). European (CEN 1992). and New Zealand (NZS 3101-95).S. The program provides an interactive environment in which the user can study the stress conditions. A single mouse click on an element brings up detailed design information. The program provides the user with options to create. Members can be grouped together for design purposes. 1998b. The program is structured to support a wide variety of design codes for the automated design and check of concrete frame members. The output in both graphical and tabulated formats can be readily displayed and printed. British (BSI 1989). (ACI 1999. However.

The presentation of the output is clear and concise. 2 Organization . In the design of the columns. The information is in a form that allows the engineer to take appropriate remedial measures in the event of member overstress. column and beam design procedures. Each chapter describes the design loading combination. Chapter VI gives a detailed description of the British code (BSI 1989) as implemented in SAP2000. Chapter V gives a detailed description of the Canadian code (CSA 1994) as implemented in SAP2000. However the user may specify the longitudinal steel. If the default load combinations are acceptable.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual ported in SAP2000. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used to define the model geometry and to specify design parameters. Organization This manual is organized in the following way: Chapter II outlines various aspects of the concrete design procedures of the SAP2000 program. Chapter IV gives a detailed description of the AASHTO LRFD concrete code (AASHTO 1997) as implemented in SAP2000. Every beam member is designed for flexure and shear at a user defined number of stations along the beam span. Each of six subsequent chapters gives a detailed description of a specific code of practice as interpreted by and implemented in SAP2000. and other special consideration required by the code. This chapter describes the common terminology of concrete design as implemented in SAP2000. the program calculates the required longitudinal and shear reinforcement. Backup design information produced by the program is also provided for convenient verification of the results. no definition of additional load combinations are required. in which case a column capacity ratio is reported. Chapter III gives a detailed description of the ACI code (ACI 1999) as implemented in SAP2000. The column capacity ratio gives an indication of the stress condition with respect to the capacity of the column.

Recommended Reading 3 . Chapter VIII gives a detailed description of the New Zealand code (NZS 1997) as implemented in SAP2000. A concrete design tutorial is presented in the chapter “Concrete Design Tutorial” in the SAP2000 Quick Tutorial manual. Finally the user should read “Design Output” in Chapter IX for understanding and interpreting SAP2000 output related to concrete design. Recommended Reading It is recommended that the user read Chapter II “Design Algorithms” and one of six subsequent chapters corresponding to the code of interest to the user. It is recommended that first time users follow through the steps of this tutorial before reading this manual. Chapter IX outlines various aspects of the tabular and graphical output from SAP2000 related to concrete design.Chapter I Introduction Chapter VII gives a detailed description of the Eurocode 2 (CEN 1992) as implemented in SAP2000.

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this chapter provides a background which is common to all the design codes. AASHTO LRFD 1997 (AASHTO 1997). CSA-A23. The concrete design and check may be performed in SAP2000 according to one of the following design codes: • The 1995 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. NZS 3101-95 (NZS 1995). BS 8110-85 R1989 (BSI 1989). Design of Concrete Structures. • The 1997 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.3-94 (CSA 1994).C h a p t e r II Design Algorithms This chapter outlines various aspects of the concrete design and design-check procedures that are used by the SAP2000 program. EUROCODE 2 (CEN 1992). 5 . • The 1992 European Committee for Standardization. • The 1995 Standards New Zealand Concrete Structures Standard. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999). • The 1994 Canadian Standards Association Design of Concrete Structures for Buildings. Details of the algorithms associated with each of these codes as implemented in SAP2000 are described in the subsequent chapters. • The 1989 British Standards Institution Structural Use of Concrete. However.

For referring to pertinent sections of the corresponding code. – References to the ACI 318-99 code has the prefix of “ACI” – References to the Canadian code carry the prefix of “CSA” – References to the British code carry the prefix of “BS” – References to the Eurocode 2 carry the prefix of “EC2” – References to the New Zealand code carry the prefix of “NZS” Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are used for determining the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed/checked. For multi-valued load combinations involving response spectrum. Similarly. The load combination factors to be used vary with the selected design code. The load combination factors are applied to the forces and moments obtained from the associated load cases and are then summed to obtain the factored design forces and moments for the load combination. The program has an option to request that time history combinations produce sub combinations for each time step of the time history. Also an option is available to request that moving load combinations produce sub combinations using maxima and minima of each design quantity but with corresponding values of interacting quantities. 6 Design Load Combinations . For example. time history. When a design combination involves only a single multi-valued case of time history or moving load. further options are available. Separate combinations with negative factors for response spectrum cases are not required because the program automatically takes the minima to be the negative of the maxima for response spectrum cases and the above described permutations generate the required sub combinations.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual In writing this manual it has been assumed that the user has an engineering background in the general area of structural reinforced concrete design and familiarity with at least one of the above mentioned design codes. all references to the AASHTO code are preceded by the word “AASHTO”. the program automatically produces multiple sub combinations using maxima/minima permutations of interacting quantities. square-root of the sum of the squares or absolute) where any correspondence between interacting quantities is lost. a unique prefix is assigned for each code. moving loads and multi-valued combinations (of type enveloping.

all cases declared as live load are assumed additive. each element is designed or checked at a number of locations along the length of the element. each static load case declared as wind or earthquake. The user is cautioned that if moving load or time history results are not requested to be recovered in the analysis for some or all the frame members. live load. time history. etc. the user must provide the appropriate design combinations. Design and Check Stations For each load combination. For other loading conditions involving moving load. Similarly. snow load. Design and Check Stations 7 . The number of segments in an element is requested by the user before the analysis is made. Also wind and static earthquake cases produce separate loading combinations with the sense (positive or negative) reversed. If these conditions are not correct. The locations are based on equally spaced segments along the clear length of the element. and/or dynamic response spectrum earthquake load the program has built-in default loading combinations for each design code. then all default combinations will automatically be updated by the program any time the design code is changed or if static or response spectrum load cases are modified. the user must define design loading combinations either in lieu of or in addition to the default design loading combinations.. separate consideration of roof live load. The user can refine the design along the length of an element by requesting more segments. The default load combinations are included in design if the user requests them to be included or if no other user defined combination is available for concrete design.Chapter II Design Algorithms For normal loading conditions involving static dead load. These are based on the code recommendations and are documented for each code in the corresponding chapters. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. is assumed to be non additive with each other and produces multiple lateral load combinations. then the effects of these loads will be assumed to be zero in any combination that includes them. The default load combinations assume all static load cases declared as dead load to be additive. or response spectrum cases. However. and earthquake load. wind load. pattern live loads. If any default combination is included in design.

and the determination of the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. But design of beams and columns requires separate treatment. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. the steps involve the determination of the factored shear force. Special considerations for seismic design are incorporated in SAP2000 for ACI. in general. and other criteria which are described in detail in the code specific chapters. the beam is first designed as a singly reinforced beam.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Identifying Beams and Columns Since SAP2000 is a general purpose analysis and design program. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined number of stations along the beam span. Canadian. load combination factors. then the required compression reinforcement is calculated. the steps involve the determination of the maximum factored moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel. For the design of flexural reinforcement. all beams and columns are represented as frame elements. Effects due to any axial forces. shears. If the beam section is not adequate. Identification for a concrete element is done by specifying the frame section assigned to the element to be of type beam or column. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set of loading combinations at a particular station due to the beam major shear. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.or a T-beam. SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments. 8 Identifying Beams and Columns . Design of Beams In the design of concrete beams. the determination of the shear force that can be resisted by concrete. and New Zealand codes. minor direction bending. Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular. The beam section is de+ signed for the maximum positive M u and maximum negative M u factored moment envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment at a particular section of a particular beam.

Axial compression +P0 Pmax Curve #1 Curve #2 M bx 1 3 2 Pbx Pby Curve #NRCV M by Mx My -P0 Axial tension Figure II-1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface Design of Columns 9 . the program calculates the required longitudinal steel. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: • Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. the column stress condition is reported in terms of a column capacity ratio. or if the longitudinal steel is specified.Chapter II Design Algorithms Design of Columns In the design of the columns. which is a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. A typical interaction surface is shown in Figure II-1.

These stress and strain distributions and the assumptions vary from code to code.0. The generation of the interaction surface is based on the assumed strain and stress distributions and some other simplifying assumptions. • Design the column shear reinforcement. Varying Linear Strain Plane −ε 0 εc Reinforcement Bars +ε DIRECTION 1 εc −ε 0 εc +ε Varying Linear Strain Plane Neutral Axis Direction εc DIRECTION 2 Reinforcement Bars Neutral Axis Direction 3 2 a a 1 0 εc +ε −ε Varying Linear Strain Plane εc DIRECTION 3 Neutral Axis Reinforcement Direction Bars Figure II-2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Surfaces 10 Design of Columns .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each end of the column. This step is also used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none was specified) that will produce a capacity ratio of 1. A typical assumed strain distribution is described in Figure II-2.

as shown in Figure II-3. British and European codes. AASHTO and New Zealand codes.Chapter II Design Algorithms Here maximum compression strain is limited to e c . and vice versa. For example. However. The capacity check is based on whether the design load points lie inside the interaction volume in a force space. e c = 0. The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that for beams. These are described in the chapters specific to the code. The details of the generation of interaction surfaces differ from code to code. and e c = 0.0035 for Canadian. Axial Compression Lines Defining Failure Surface C L P My Mx o MX MY Axial Tension Figure II-3 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratio Design of Columns 11 . the value of e c varies from code to code. this assumed distribution remains valid.003 for ACI. the column capacity is adequate. For most of the design codes. except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear capacity needs to be considered. If the point lies inside the volume.

For lateral drift effects. and New Zealand codes or with additional moments as in the British and European codes. The user can turn the P-D analysis ON and set the maximum number of iterations for the analysis. then the additional forces computed for P-D will not be accurate. The user is also cautioned that SAP2000 currently considers P-D effects due to axial loads in frame members only. The users of SAP2000 should be aware that the default analysis option in SAP2000 is turned OFF for P-D effect. Canadian. The P-D effects are considered differently for “braced” or “nonsway” and “unbraced” or “sway” components of moments in columns or frames. In SAP2000. For the braced moments in columns. The two unsupported lengths are l 33 and l 22 . If significant forces are present in other type of elements. The length l 33 corresponds to instability about the 3-3 axis (major axis). The default number of iteration for P-D analysis is 1. The moments and forces obtained from P-D analysis are further amplified for individual column stability effect if required by the governing code as in the ACI.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual P. huge axial loads in shear walls which are modeled as shell elements. AASHTO. 12 P-D Effects .Effects The SAP2000 design algorithms require that the analysis results include the P-D effects. Whereas. Canadian. These are the lengths between support points of the element in the corresponding directions. “unbraced” or “sway” moments are contributed from all other types of loads. Forces in other types of elements do not contribute to this effect. SAP2000 assumes that the P-D analysis is performed and that the amplification is already included in the results. For unbraced components. and New Zealand codes. “lateral drift effects” should be considered in addition to individual member stability effect. the effect of P-D is limited to “individual member stability”. it is assumed that “braced” or “nonsway” moments are contributed from the “dead” or “live” loads. For the individual member stability effects. the moments are magnified with moment magnification factors as in the ACI. and l 22 corresponds to instability about the 2-2 axis (minor axis). For further reference. the user is referred to SAP2000 Analysis Reference manual. for example. Element Unsupported Lengths To account for column slenderness effects the column unsupported lengths are required.

If the beam frames into only one direction of the column. such as member connectivity. however. i. Therefore. Therefore. allows users to assign several elements to be treated as a single member for design.e. extraneous joints. as shown in Figure II-5. This can be done differently for major and minor bending. that affect the unsupported length of an element are automatically taken into consideration. The user has options to specify the unsupported lengths of the elements on an element-by-element basis.. the beam is assumed to give lateral support only in that direction. the unsupported length of a column may actually be evaluated as being greater than the corresponding element length. the distance between END-I and END-J of the element. the unsupported element length is equal to the length of the element. See Figure II-4. the program recognizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths. The program. Figure II-4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length Element Unsupported Lengths 13 . The program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the corresponding unsupported element length.Chapter II Design Algorithms Normally. In determining the values for l 22 and l 33 of the elements. diaphragm constraints and support points.

The Canadian code requires that the concrete frame must be designed as either an Ordinary. Nominal. Elastically responding. Canadian. and New Zealand codes. the current implementation of the British code and the Eurocode 2 in SAP2000 does not account for any special requirements for seismic design. or Special moment resisting frames. The Special moment resisting frame can provide the required ductility and energy dissipation in the nonlinear range of cyclic deformation. or Zone 4. Zone 2. But the codes are based on a specific system of units. Zone 3. The AASHTO code requires that the concrete frame must be in either Zone 1. Figure II-5 Unsupported Lengths and Interior Nodes Choice of Input Units English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. or Ductile moment resisting frame. Intermediate. Unlike the ACI. frames with Limited ductility. All equations and descriptions presented in the subsequent chapters correspond to that specific system of units unless otherwise 14 Special Considerations for Seismic Loads . where Zone 4 is designated as the zone of severe earthquake. or Ductile moment resisting frame. AASHTO. The New Zealand code also requires that the concrete frame must be designed as either an Ordinary.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Special Considerations for Seismic Loads The ACI code imposes a special ductility requirement for frames in seismic regions by specifying frames either as Ordinary.

By default. any system of units can be used to define and design the structure in SAP2000. However.Chapter II Design Algorithms noted. the ACI code is published in inch-pound-second units. all equations and descriptions presented in the chapter “Design for ACI 318-99” correspond to inch-pound-second units. For example. Choice of Input Units 15 .

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For the ACI 318-99 code. But the code is based on Inch-Pound-Second units. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in the following sections. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For simplicity. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Inch-Pound-Second units unless otherwise noted. SAP2000 provides options to design or check Ordinary. and Special (high seismic risk areas) moment resisting frames as required for seismic design provisions. Intermediate (moderate seismic risk areas). Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table III-1.C h a p t e r III Design for ACI 318-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the ACI 318-99 Design Code (ACI 1999). if a Design Load Combinations 17 .

sq-in Area of compression reinforcement.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Acv Ag As As¢ As (required ) Ast Av a ab b bf bw Cm c cb d d¢ ds Ec Es f c¢ fy f ys h Ig I se k L Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. in Effective width of flange (T-Beam section). dependent upon column curvature. in Coefficient. sq-in Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. in Width of web (T-Beam section). used to calculate moment magnification factor Depth to neutral axis. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.000 psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. assumed as 29. sq-in Depth of compression block.000. in Concrete cover to center of reinforcing. in4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. in Thickness of slab (T-Beam section). in Depth of compression block at balanced condition. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement. in Table III-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI code 18 Design Load Combinations . psi Dimension of column. sq-in Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. neglecting reinforcement. in Width of member. in Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. sq-in Gross area of concrete. in4 Effective length factor Clear unsupported length. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. in Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions.

lb Factored shear force at a section. lb Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity. lb Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Moment magnification factor for sway moments Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor Table III-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI code (continued) Design Load Combinations 19 . lb Critical buckling strength of column. lb-in Larger factored end moment in a column. lb-in Factored moment at section. lb-in Factored moment to be used in design. lb Radius of gyration of column section. lb Shear force caused by earthquake loads. lb Shear force from span loading. lb Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. lb Factored axial load at section. in Shear resisted by concrete.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 M1 M2 Mc M ns Ms Mu M ux M uy Pb Pc Pmax P0 Pu r Vc VE VD +L Vu Vp a b1 bd ds d ns ec es j Smaller factored end moment in a column. lb-in Factored moment at section about X-axis. lb-in Nonsway component of factored end moment. lb-in Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions. lb-in Factored moment at section about Y-axis. lb Maximum axial load strength allowed. lb-in Sway component of factored end moment.

2. 20 Strength Reduction Factors .2) (ACI 9.2) (ACI 9. 1.4 DL + 1. = 0. in addition to the dead and live loads. and axial compression and flexure (spirally reinforced column). the stress check may need only one load combination.2). = 0. axial force.3 * 1.1).7 (ACI 9.4 DL + 1.2.2) (ACI 9. Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. = 0.3.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.7 LL 0.1) WL) * 1.2. and axial compression and flexure (tied column).1) (ACI 9.3) for axial compression.3. However. are applied on the nominal strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.4 DL + 1.7 LL ± 1.4 DL 1.3 WL 0. then the following load combinations have to be considered (ACI 9. if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads.75 (ACI 9.9 DL ± 1.2.2.70 j = 0.2.7 LL 0.85 for shear and torsion. for axial compression.3.1 EL) (ACI 9.2) (ACI 9.3. j .3) ± 1.1 EL 0.75 (1.90 for axial tension. shear.2.2.4 DL + 1.75 (1.9 DL ± 1. and torsion are as follows: j j j j = 0.3.90 for axial tension and flexure.2. namely 1. and j = 0.2. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2) (ACI 9.7 LL (ACI 9.3.7 These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the ACI 318-99 code is used.90 for flexure. The j factors for flexure.

1). or circular column section. the program checks the column capacity. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column.003 (ACI 10. the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting frames (ACI 21. e c . • Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 Column Design The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section.9. See Figure II-2.4. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending. Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user.3). The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (ACI 10. Column Design 21 . the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement  1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ACI 10. A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure II-1. However.3). • Design the column shear reinforcement. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II-1. if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user. When the steel is undefined.3. at the extremity of the section to 0. and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular. square. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: • Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model.2. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area.

where j j j j Pn(max) = 0.5. The effects of the strength reduction factor.4). 0.3. with a stress value of 0.5.003 d' c εs1 εs2 1 Cs C 2 Cs a= 1c εs3 εs4 Ts3 Ts4 (i) Concrete Section (ii) Strain Diagram (iii) Stress Diagram Figure III-1 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular. such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder. = 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns.2) 22 Column Design . The maximum compressive axial load is limited to jPn(max) . (ACI 10.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity.85 f'c εc = 0.85 f c¢ ( Ag . (ACI 10.1). See Figure III-1. e s E s .Ast ) + f y Ast ] spiral column. See Figure III-1.Ast ) + f y Ast ] tied column.3. f y (ACI 10. The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone.80 j [ 0.2.2. and = 0. are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces.70 for tied columns. and is limited to the yield stress of the steel. The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column.85 j [0.7. j .1) Pn(max) = 0.85 f c¢ ( Ag .85 f c¢ (ACI 10.

3.2). lies within the interaction volume. M ux . moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken Column Design 23 .9 (ACI 9. The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway”.and M uy . • Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments.6 + 0.3. In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular station. d ns .9 as the axial load decreases from the smaller of Pb or 0. Also the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are in general different. Determine whether the point. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give Pu . if required.03 h) inches. Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall stability effect). Check Column Capacity The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each check station of each column. j is always 0. In cases involving axial tension. • Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments. therefore.and M uy . Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to all the load cases.9 based on the axial load. The program assumes that a P-D analysis has been performed in SAP2000 and. M ux . For low values of axial load. where Pb is the axial force at the balanced condition.12. to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0.2.1 f c¢ Ag to zero. where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (ACI 10.2). d s and for non-sway (individual column stability effect). The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. j is increased linearly from j min to 0. giving Pu .Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 The value of j used in the interaction diagram varies from j min to 0. defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set. The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns.

The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads.7 live load)/j . and are related to the cause of side sway. d ns . The moment magnification factors for sway moments.3).75 (1. d ns .12. where j is the understrength factor for stability which is taken as 0. and EI is associated with a particular column direction given by: 24 Column Design . For individual columns or column-members in a floor.13. and M 2 is the larger factored and amplified end moment. The non-sway moment magnification factor. where Pc = k is conservatively taken as 1. ( kl u ) 2 p 2 ³ 1. For the P-D analysis the load should correspond to a load combination of 0.75 (ACI 10. The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway ( M s ) and the non-sway (M ns ) components.75 Pc EI .2). d s . the magnified moments about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as M = M ns +ds M s .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual as unity (ACI 10.12. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts.12.3) d ns = Cm Pu 10. as follows: Mc = d ns M 2 .5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor. See also White and Hajjar (1991).13. is taken as 1 because the component moments M s and M ns are obtained from a “second order elastic (P-D) analysis” (ACI R10.3) M c is the factored moment to be used in design.13). however SAP2000 allows the user to override this value.10. (ACI 10.3) The factor d s is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway. where (ACI 10. The non-sway components which are identified by “ns” subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity load.4 dead load + 1. associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (ACI 10.0 . The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability effect (ACI 10.

Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to 0. or for any other case.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 0. the column is overstressed. See Figure II-4.3. and maximum factored axial total load Ma Mb ³ 0. if the point lies outside the interaction volume. and M b is numerically larger than M a . The two unsupported lengths are l 22 and l 33 corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element.12. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions.75Pc . The point (Pu . a failure condition is declared.4 (ACI 10. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member.and M uy . respectively. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. bd = maximum factored axial dead load . C m = 0. If the point lies within the interaction volume. must be a positive number and greater than one.4 . If transverse load is present on the span. This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. a capacity ratio is calculated. M a M b is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. M uy ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure II-3.1) M a and M b are the moments at the ends of the column. M ux . d ns . the user can explicitly specify values of d s and d ns .6 + 0. Therefore Pu must be less than 0.4 E c I g 1 + bd EI = .75Pc . Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. however. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outColumn Design 25 . The magnification factor. the column capacity is adequate. C m = 1. The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. M ux . C m can be overwritten by the user on an element by element basis. or the length is overwritten. The above expression of C m is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports. the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain Pu .

V c .and M uy set and associated load combination number. The capacity ratio. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames). In designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling Pu . Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column. OL See Figure II-3. Note that Pu is needed for the calculation of V c . respectively. 26 Column Design . • If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. • Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored forces acting on the section. that can be resisted by concrete alone. If the reinforcing area is not defined. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. • If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation. in addition to the factored moments.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual wards) will intersect the failure surface. M ux . Pu andV u . OC • If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity. • Determine the shear force. the shear design of the columns is also based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members. CR. is given by the ratio .

Pu . in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the SAP2000 analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.0). the design shear force in a column.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 Determine Section Forces • In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 . M J- = L = Column Design 27 . the factored axial load.4. is then given by (ACI 21. Therefore.1) where. • In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (seismic design) the following are checked in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames.+ M J+ . M I+ . Then.5. V u . and the column shear force.5.1) Vu =V p + V D+ L (ACI 21. M u and M u . and Clear span of column. where L = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames.V u . namely.4. of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force Pu is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction. the + positive and negative moment capacities. in a particular direction is also calculated from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column. where V P1 = V P2 = M I. Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. the column axial force. and L M I+ + M J. V u . the forces for a particular load combination. The design shear force. V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions. is calculated.0). For each load combination. Pu . M I- M J+ .

5.4.1.10).1).2) The term Pu must have psi units. is calculated as follows: • If the column is subjected to axial compression.2) where.1. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames. Acv is the effective shear area which is shown Ag shaded in Figure III-2. the shear force carried by the concrete. V c = 2 f c¢ ç 1 + ç è æ Pu 500 Ag ö ÷ ÷ ø Acv ³ 0 (ACI 11.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual For Special moment resisting frames a is taken as 1. The design shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (j = 1.3.3. V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads. (ACI 11. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames.3.25 (ACI R21. For most of the columns. Pu is negative. except that a is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.3) 28 Column Design .2) Pu 500 Ag ö ÷ ÷ ø 3. f c¢ Vc £ £ 100 psi.V c . • If the column is subjected to axial tension.2. the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the design nominal shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads. • For Intermediate moment resisting frames.5 f c¢ Acv . Pu is positive.2. V c = 2 f c¢ ç 1 + ç è æ Pu 2000 Ag ö ÷ ÷ ø Acv . The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21. i.0) moment capacity and factored shear force.3). (ACI 11. it is zero.e. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set Pu andV u . and æ ç1+ ç è (ACI 11.25 (ACI R21.10.

4.5. is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force over the length of the member V u (V E ³ 0. including the earthquake effect is small ( Pu < f c¢ Ag / 20) and if the shear force contribution from earthquake. Acv Column Design 29 .5 V u ) (ACI 21.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 • For Special moment resisting concrete frame design.2). d' DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE d Acv b RECTANGULAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE A cv b SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE Acv CIRCULAR Figure III-2 Shear Stress Area. V E . Pu . V c is set to zero if the factored axial compressive force.

2. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. Effects due to any axial forces. f ys d £ (ACI 11. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments. The maximum of all the calculated Av values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination label.85 (ACI 9.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given V u and V c .3).5.6. the strength reduction factor. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check/design stations along the beam span. Here j . and other criteria described below. shears.2) (V u / j . is 0. Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. s.V c ) 8 f c¢ Acv (ACI 11. minor direction bending. is given by Av = (V u /j . The beam design procedure involves the following steps: • Design beam flexural reinforcement • Design beam shear reinforcement 30 Beam Design . the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties within a spacing.3.9) Otherwise redimensioning of the concrete section is required.6.V c ) s . Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.5. The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon shear strength consideration. load combination factors.

Beam Design 31 . The design procedure used by SAP2000. hence all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular section. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. + The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M u and maximum negative M u factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.3).2). Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. or Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams.3. or the grade of concrete.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (ACI 10. Intermediate. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure III-3 (ACI 10. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this designed balanced condition.3).Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations along the beam span. Furthermore it is assumed that the compression carried by concrete is less than 0.and T-beams) is summarized below. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. the following steps are involved: • Determine the maximum factored moments • Determine the reinforcing steel Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special. In such cases the beam may be designed as a Rectangular. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.3.or a T-beam.1f c¢ Ag (ACI 10. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. the width. Negative beam moments produce top steel. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section.

(i.3. where.75 b1 c b .e.85 .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design for Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.1) in the above and the following equations. the value of j is 0.85f'c A's Cs d' c a= 1c d As (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tc (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure III-3 Design of Rectangular Beam Section where.2. designing top or bottom steel) the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure III-3). 87 000 + f y (ACI 10.1) 32 Beam Design . 1000 ÷ ø - 0.85 f c¢ j b .05 ç ç è = e c Es e c Es æ f c¢ 4000 ö ÷. (ACI 10.90 (ACI 9.0.4) The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by a max = 0.7.2.3) cb +fy d = 87 000 d. 10.2. Also b1 and c b are calculated as follows: b1 = 0.003 b 0.2.65 £ b1 £ 0.3.85.2. ε = 0. M u .7. a = d - d2 - 2 Mu 0. (ACI 10.

the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by Mu f æ y çd è a 2 .d¢ ) j ¢ = 0.d¢ ) j Beam Design 33 . – Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M us = Mu - M uc .85 f c¢ ba max .3) and is calculated as follows: – The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by C = 0. • If a > a max .max ê 2 ë . – So the required compression steel is given by As¢ f s¢ = M us . ö ÷ ø This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M u is positive. and ù ú û j the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by As 2 = M us .7.d¢ ù ê ë c ú û .Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 • If a As = j £ a max .003 E s é c .3.2. where f s ( d .2.1) the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is M uc æ =C ç d è a max 2 ö ÷ j ø . or at the top if M u is negative. (ACI 10. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10. and (ACI 10. f y ( d .4) – The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is As1 = M uc a f y é d .

As is to be placed at bottom and As¢ is to be placed at top if M u is positive.7. 0. M u . Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a max .1) ε = 0. the total tensile reinforcement.2.e. the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above. designing top steel).85f'c 0.. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design.75 b1 c b . in this case the width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis. See Figure III-4. However. the depth of the compression block is given by a = d - d2 - 2Mu . and vice versa if M u is negative. and total compression reinforcement is As¢ . Design for T-Beam In designing for a factored negative moment. bf ds (ACI 10.e.003 0.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual – Therefore.85f'c d' As' c d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure III-4 Design of a T-Beam Section • If a £ d s . 34 Beam Design . (i. i. If M u > 0 . As = As1 + As 2 .85 f c¢ j b f The maximum allowed depth of compression block is given by a max = 0. no T-Beam data is to be used.

The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b w and d.85 f c¢ j b w • If a1 As 2 = £ a max . As1 = given by M uf = C f æ ç è Cf fy and the portion of M u that is resisted by the flange is d - ds 2 ö ÷j ø . the value for j is 0. and ö ÷ ø As = As1 + As 2 . calculation for As is done in two parts. M u to be carried by the web is given by M uw = M u - M uf . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. C f is given by Cf ¢ = 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam. • If a1 > a max . the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by M uw æ y çd è j f a1 2 . Therefore.1) Beam Design 35 . 0. Therefore. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.b w )d s . C f .7.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 • If a > d s . as shown in Figure III-4.90. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1 = d - d2 - 2 M uw .85 f c ba max . Again. the balance of the moment.85 f c ( b f .3) and is calculated as follows: – The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by C ¢ = 0. C w .3.2. (ACI 10.

d¢ ) j – The total tensile reinforcement. As = As1 + As 2 + As 3 . Minimum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ³ max í ï î ì3 ï f c¢ fy b w d and ü 200 ï b w d ý or fy ï þ (ACI 10.003 E s é c .3) 36 Beam Design .4) – The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As 2 = M uc a f y æ d .d¢ ù ê ë c ú û . – Therefore.d¢ ) j ¢ = 0. and the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M us = M uw - M uc .5. (ACI 10. and total compression reinforcement is As¢ . As is to be placed at bottom and As¢ is to be placed at top.5. where f s ( d .2. 3 (ACI 10.1) As ³ 4 As (required ).SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual – Therefore the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is M uc æ =C ç d è a max 2 ö ÷j ø .max ç 2 è . and ö ÷j ø the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is As 3 = M us . the compression steel is computed as As¢ f s¢ = M us . f y ( d .

1).1) As(min) ³ 4 As (required ) .4. the beam design would satisfy the following conditions: • At any support of the beam.5. the beam positive moment capacity (i.2.10.2).4.2. For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design). 3 (ACI 10.3.10.3) • The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by As ³ 0. the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table III-2 for comprehensive listing) : • The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both at the top and bottom.5. the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (ACI 21.1). • Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21.2). As(min) ³ max í ï î ì3 ï f c¢ fy b w d and ü 200 ï b w d ý or fy ï þ (ACI 10.2. (ACI 21.3.3.1) • At any end (support) of the beam.e.025 b w d .3.1). associated with the top steel) at that end (ACI 21. Beam Design 37 . Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As (min) (ACI 21. • Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design). associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than ½ of the beam negative moment capacity (i.e.2.

the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors.V u . the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored shear force.3. • Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular loading combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear. Determine Shear Force and Moment • In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. V u . is calculated from the probable moment capacities of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. where 38 Beam Design . that can be resisted by the concrete.4. The design shear force V u is then given by (ACI 21. See also Table III-2 for details.1) where. V c . The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Column Design” on page 27.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user defined number of stations along the beam span. respectively.4. in addition to the factored load design. • In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design). Therefore. the shear design of the beams is also based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members.1) Vu =V p + V D+ L (ACI 21. V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 . The shear force. This check is done in addition to the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames). The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the probable shear due to the probable moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity load.3. V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. • Determine the shear force.

V P1 = V P2 = M I- M J+ = M I+ = M J- = Moment capacity at end J. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. Moment capacity at end I.0).10). Beam Design 39 .0). with bottom steel in tension.25 (ACI R21. The procedure for calculating nominal (j = 1. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the design nominal shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads. with bottom steel in tension. Moment capacity at end J.4.0).3. • For Intermediate moment resisting frames. See also Table III-2 for details. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. with top steel in tension.3). For Special moment resisting frames a is taken as 1. where L = Moment capacity at end I.0). and L = Clear span of beam. The design shear force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and factored shear force. except that a is taken equal to 1 rather than 1. The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 M I. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. which is described earlier on page 28. is also the same as that for columns.1). and L M I+ + M J.+ M J+ . The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.25 (ACI R21.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames. V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.10. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. with top steel in tension.

j . The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based purely upon shear strength considerations. Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given V u and V c .4.3).3.85 (ACI 9.e. the strength reduction factor. is 0.5. (ACI 11.2) The shear force resisted by steel is limited by V u /j - Vc £ 8 f c¢ bd . Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6. V E ³ 0.2). obtained from each load combination.V c is set to zero if both the factored axial compressive force including the earthquake effect Pu is less than f c¢ Ag / 20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake V E is more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the member V u (i.3.3. f ys d (ACI 11. the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calculated as Av = (V u /j .1.V c ) s .6.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by V c = 2 f c¢ b w d . 40 Beam Design .5.5 V u ) (ACI 21.9) where. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.2.1) For Special moment resisting frame concrete design. The maximum of all the calculated Av values. (ACI 11.

M u4 1 ³ max M u. M u4 Column Shears NLD Combinations a Beam Design Flexure NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations + M uEND ³ Beam Min.0 plus VD+L Vc = 0 a NLD = Number of specified loading Table III-2 Design Criteria Table Beam Design 41 .25 and ϕ = 1. M u5 1 ³ max M u+ .0 and ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 Type of Check/ Design Column Check (interaction) Column Design (Interaction) Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (non-Seismic) Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) Special Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Column Capacity ϕ = 1.25 NLDa Combinations r £ 0.r ³ r³ fy fy 1 M uEND 2 1 ³ max M u+ .025 3 fc¢ 200 .0 NLDa Combinations α = 1.0 1% < ρ < 6% NLDa Combinations and Column shear capacity ϕ = 1..0 plus VD+L NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (VP ) with α = 1.0 and α = 1. Moment Override Check No Requirement + M uSPAN M uSPAN - 1 M uEND 3 1 ³ max M u+ . M u5 + M uEND ³ { { } } END + M uSPAN { } END END M uSPAN { } END Beam Design Shear NLDa Combinations Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Beam Capacity Shear (VP ) with α = 1.

.

2. The details of the design criteria used for the different seismic zones are described in the following sections. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table IV-1. 3. For simplicity. But the code is based on Inch-Kip-Second units. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. 43 . SAP2000 provides options to design or check moment resisting frames of Zones 1 (low seismic activity). English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Inch-Kip-Second units unless otherwise noted.C h a p t e r IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the AASHTO LRFD 1997 Design Code (AASHTO 1997). But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should help satisfy requirements for the design of most bridge type structures. and 4 (high seismic activity) as required for seismic design provisions.

in Thickness of slab (T-Beam section). in4 Effective length factor Clear unsupported length. in Concrete cover to center of reinforcing. in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. in Coefficient. sq-in Gross area of concrete.000 ksi Specified compressive strength of concrete. in Effective width of flange (T-Beam section). sq-in Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement. ksi Dimension of column. in Width of web (T-Beam section). in Width of member.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Acv Ag As As¢ As (required ) Ast Av a ab a max b bf bw Cm c cb d d¢ ds Ec Es f c¢ fy f yh h Ig I se k L Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. in Depth of compression block at balanced condition. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. ksi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. used to calculate moment magnification factor Depth to neutral axis. sq-in Depth of compression block. in Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions. sq-in Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. in Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis. ksi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. in Table IV-1 List of Symbols Used in the AASHTO code 44 . in4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section. neglecting reinforcement. dependent upon column curvature. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement. assumed as 29.

kip Euler buckling strength of column. kip Factored shear force at a section.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 M1 M2 Mc Mb Ms Mu M ux M uy Pb Pe Pmax P0 Pu r Vc VD +L Vu Vp a b b1 bd q ds db ec es j Smaller factored end moment in a column. kip Factored axial load at section. kip Maximum axial load strength allowed. kip-in Factored moment at section. kip-in Sway component of factored end moment. kip-in Factored moment to be used in design. kip Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity. kip Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. kip Radius of gyration of column section. kip-in Factored moment at section about X-axis. kip-in Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions. kip-in Larger factored end moment in a column. in Shear resisted by concrete. kip-in Factored moment at section about Y-axis. kip-in Nonsway component of factored end moment. kip Reinforcing steel overstrength factor is a factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load An angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses with the longitudinal axis of beam or column Moment magnification factor for sway moments Moment magnification factor for nonsway (braced) moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor Table IV-1 List of Symbols Used in the AASHTO code (continued) 45 . kip Shear force from span loading.

and live load surcharge (LS). horizontal earth pressure load (EH). Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.40 WL ± 1. If the structure is subjected to structural dead load (DL).0 EL 1. There are more different types of loads specified in the code than are considered in the current implementation of the default load combinations.90 DL ± 1. live load (LL).50 DL 1. wind load (WL). vertical earth pressure load (EV). 1.25 DL ± 1.4. downdrag (DD). There are six types of dead loads: dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments (DC). and earthquake loads (EL). vehicular centrifugal force (CE).SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.35 LL 0.25 DL + 1. vehicular dynamic load allowance (IM).5 LL (Strength-IV) (Strength-I) (Strength-III) (Strength-III) (Strength-V) (Extreme-I) (Extreme-I) ± 0.4 WL 1. Each type of dead load case requires a separate load factor.75 LL 0. dead load of wearing surface and utilities (DW).4 WL 1. pedestrian live load (PL). the user has full control of the definition of loads and load combinations. 46 Design Load Combinations .0 EL These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the AASHTO LRFD 1997 code is used. There are six types of live loads: vehicular live load (LL). All these load cases require the same factor and do not need to be treated separately. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.90 DL ± 1. vehicular braking force (BR). earth surcharge load (ES).25 DL + 0.1). However. the following default load combinations have been considered for Strength and Extreme Event limit states (AASHTO 3.25 DL + 1. The user is expected to define the other load combinations as necessary.

shear. = 0.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.4. (AASHTO 5. if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user.9 (AASHTO 5. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II-1.1) (AASHTO 5.11.2. j .4.75 (AASHTO 5.4.10.1) (AASHTO 5. or axial compression and flexure.2.2.11.75 to 0.2. axial force. For low values of axial load.50 The value of j involving axial compression and flexure varies from 0.2.5.75 to 0.1) for axial compression only. the program checks the column capacity.4. When the steel is undefined.4.2. In cases involving axial tension.9 as the axial load decreases from 0. For seismic design in Zones 3 and 4. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: • Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. = 0.4.10. or axial compression and flexure in seismic zone 3 and 4.2. j is increased linearly from 0.1b). the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column.90 for shear and torsion.1b) j = 0. j is increased linearly from 0.4.5. 5.5 to 0.5.5. The j factors for flexure. For low values of axial load.5.4. are applied on the nominal strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.9 based on the axial load.1) for axial compression only.2 f c¢ Ag to zero (AASHTO 5.3.1) (AASHTO 5.1 f c¢ Ag to zero (AASHTO 5.1). If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user.5.5. the value of j involving axial compression and flexure varies from 0.90 for axial tension and flexure.5 to 0. = 0.9 based on the axial load. However. and = 0. Column Design The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section.4. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement ratio (Ast Ag )  Strength Reduction Factors 47 .90 for axial tension.4.5.9 as the axial load decreases from 0. (AASHTO 5.1). and torsion are as follows: j j j j j = 0.90 for flexure.2. j is always 0.

• Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column.01 to 0. e s E s . The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (AASHTO 5. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. The target capacity ratio is taken as 1. and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular. the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations.10. See Figure II-2.4.1a).003 (AASHTO 5. The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column.7.7. A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure II-1.7).7.11. 48 Column Design . f y (AASHTO 5. such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain. See Figure IV-1. e c .06 for ductile moment resisting frames in seismic Zones 3 and 4 (AASHTO 5.1). or circular column section.4. The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity.0 when calculating the required reinforcing area.1).135 f c¢ f y to 0.2) and 0. square. at the extremity of the section to 0.08 for moment resisting frames (AASHTO 5. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending.2.2. and is limited to the yield stress of the steel. Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. • Design the column shear reinforcement.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual 0.

2.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 0.85.65 £ b1 £ 0.0.2) (AASHTO 5.003 d' c εs1 εs2 1 Cs C 2 Cs a= 1c εs3 εs4 Ts3 Ts4 (i) Concrete Section (ii) Strain Diagram (iii) Stress Diagram Figure IV-1 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular (AASHTO 5.4. (AASHTO 5.1) The interaction algorithm provides a correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone.4. (AASHTO 5.3.7. and The limit of f c¢ is taken to be 10 ksi for all seismic regions: f c¢ £ 10 ksi.1) The limit of f y is taken to be 75 ksi for all frames: fy £ 75 ksi. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to Pmax . 5.85 . where b1 = 0.2) 0. The effects of the strength reduction factor. j . where Column Design 49 . See Figure IV-1.4).05 ( f c¢ . (AASHTO 5. The depth of the stress block of b1 c. with a stress value of 0.2.1.2).2. are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces.7.85 f'c εc = 0.1).2.7.2.85 f c¢ (AASHTO 5.7.

the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give Pu . (AASHTO 5. For seismic design in Zones 3 and 4.2. • Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments.7.and M uy .9 as the axial load decreases from 0.4.2. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. lies within the interaction volume.9 (AASHTO 5. j is increased linearly from 0.80 j [ 0. M ux .9 based on the axial load. Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to all the load cases. For low values of axial load.85 j [0. In cases involving axial tension.4.1b).9 based on the axial load. Determine whether the point.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Pmax = 0. j is always 0. Check Column Capacity The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each check station of each column.75 to 0. (AASHTO 5.and M uy . giving Pu . 50 Column Design .2 f c¢ Ag to zero (AASHTO 5.85 f c¢ ( Ag .4) Pmax = 0.1).1).Ast ) + f y Ast ] spiral column.10.5. defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set. For low values of axial load.9 as the axial load decreases from 0.1 f c¢ Ag to zero (AASHTO 5. In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular station.7. j is increased linearly from 0.11. the value of j involving axial compression and flexure varies from 0.5 to 0.4.5 to 0.5.4) The value of j involving axial compression and flexure varies from 0. • Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.4. M ux .75 to 0.4. The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the identification of the individual column as either “braced” or “unbraced”.Ast ) + f y Ast ] tied column. The computed moments are further amplified by using “Moment Magnification Factors” to allow for stability effects.85 f c¢ ( Ag .

2. Also the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are in general different.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall stability effect).2b) k is taken as 1.2.1). The program assumes that a P-D analysis has been performed in SAP2000 and. and Column Design 51 .2b) The factor d s is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway.5.5. The non-sway or braced components which are identified by “b” subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity load.5.25 dead load + 1.5.7.2. The sway components are identified by “s” subscripts.3.2b).4. d s .3). the magnified moments about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as M =db M b +ds M s . associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (AASHTO 4. ( kL) 2 2 (AASHTO 4.2. and for nonsway or braced (individual column stability effect). 5.35 live load) /j . The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads. db = Cm P 1. and are related to the cause of side sway. where j is the resistance factor for axial compression which is taken as 0. moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity (AASHTO 4.3). See also White and Hajjar (1991).0 .5 for seismic zones 3 and 4 by default (AASHTO 5. where (AASHTO 4.3. (AASHTO 4. The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway ( M s ) and the nonsway ( M b ) components. and as 0. For individual columns or column-members in a floor.75 for seismic zones 1 and 2. d b . The nonsway moment magnification factor.2.4.5. For the P-D analysis the load should correspond to a load combination of (1.u j Pe p ³ 1.3.5. therefore.3. d ns .2b) Pe = EI .6. This factor is taken as 1 because the component moments M s and M b are obtained from a “second order elastic (P-D) analysis”.5.2. however SAP2000 allows the user to override this value (AASHTO 4.

the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain Pu . See Figure II-4.4 (AASHTO 4. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions.5 1 + bd . M ux .3) C m = 0. If the point lies within the interaction volume. The above calculations use the unsupported lengths of the column. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. C m can be overwritten by the user on an element by element basis.3.4. and M b is numerically larger than M a . Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. the user can explicitly specify values of d s and d b .4. 52 Column Design . M a M b is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending.3) bd = maximum factored dead load moment . or for any other case. respectively. If transverse load is present on the span. C m = 1. the column is overstressed. a capacity ratio is calculated.4 . d b . Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. (AASHTO 5. M ux . the column capacity is adequate. and maximum factored total load moment Ma Mb ³ 0.2. Therefore Pu must be less than jPe . The magnification factor. or the length is overwritten. The point (Pu . If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member. however. M uy ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure II-3. The two unsupported lengths are l 22 and l 33 corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element. must be a positive number and greater than one. if the point lies outside the interaction volume.7.5. The above expression of C m is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports and the member is braced against side-sway. a failure condition is declared.6 + 0.and M uy .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual EI is associated with a particular column direction given by: EI = E c I g 2.2b) M a and M b are the moments at the ends of the column. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to jPe . (AASHTO 5.7.

OC • If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. the shear design of the columns is also based upon the overstrength moment capacities of the members in addition to the factored moments (AASHTO 3. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling Pu . The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. Column Design 53 .and M uy set and associated load combination number. • Determine the shear stress. • If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate.3). CR. that can be resisted by concrete alone. M ux . • Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation. OL The capacity ratio. For moment resisting frames in seismic Zones 3 and 4. In designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction. is given by the ratio . the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored forces acting on the section.10.4. This point is determined by three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface. Pu and V u . See Figure II-3. v c . Note that M u and Pu are needed for the calculation of v c . Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column. • If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. If the reinforcing area is not defined. SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. Point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. M u .9.

= Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column obtained by multiplying the nominal resistance by 1. is calculated.3). V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated overstrength ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions. M J+ .3) where.+ M J+ .3. is then given by (AASHTO 3. of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force Pu is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.10. V u .4. the following are checked in addition to the requirement for the moment resisting frames in Zones 1 and 2. V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 . In the design of moment resisting concrete frames in seismic Zones 3 and 4. 54 Column Design . the column axial force. Pu .= Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column obtained by multiplying the nominal resistance by 1.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Section Forces • In the design of the column shear reinforcement of moment resisting concrete frames in seismic Zones 1 and 2.9. M u and M u . the design shear force in a column. the + positive and negative moment capacities. and the column shear force.10. M J. Therefore.3. V u . and L = Clear span of column. Pu . • In the shear design of moment resisting frames in seismic Zones 3 and 4 (seismic design).4. in a particular direction is also calculated from the overstrength moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column (AASHTO 3. where M I. and V P1 = L V P2 = M I+ + M J.4. For each load combination. The design shear force. M I.9. where L M I+ .9. namely. the forces for a particular load combination. V u .10.3) Vu =V p + V D+ L (AASHTO 3. the factored axial load. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the SAP2000 analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. Then.

3.8.11.8.3. v c is taken as zero if axial force is tensile.8. it is zero. v= Vu . • The average shear stress. It is a function of stress condition and its approximate value is 2. It is computed from AASHTO Table 5. including the earthquake effect is small ( Pu £ 0.25 f c¢ .1c).8.3.4.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.0 (AASHTO 5. Pu andV u .3. is limited to a maximum limit. v c is linearly interpolated between zero and that given by AASHTO 5.2-1 through an iterative procedure. • For designing moment resisting concrete frames in seismic Zones 3 and 4.8.3.1 f c¢ Ag ) (AASHTO 5.1 f c¢ Ag ) (AASHTO 5. This provision is applied to all locations of the column irrespective of whether it is in the end region or not. (AASHTO 5. the effective shear area which is shown in Figure IV-2.8. Pu .4. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set M u .4. the shear capacity provided by the concrete alone.3) Column Design 55 . if the factored axial compressive force. See also Table IV-2 for details.10. is calculated as follows: • For designing moment resisting concrete frames in any seismic zone.11. v c .3.1c).3) where.10. v max . b is a factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension. v. (AASHTO 5.3.1).4. bw d For other types of sections b w d is replaced by Acv . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement • The average shear stress is computed for a rectangular section as.0316 b f c¢ . v c is set to: v c = 0. v c is taken as that given earlier (AASHTO 5. For most of the columns.3) if compressive axial force is high ( Pu > 0. given by v max = 0.

1d) The maximum of all the calculated Av s values. (AASHTO 5.8) The limit of f c¢ is taken to be 10 ksi for all seismic regions: f c¢ £ 10 ksi.90 (AASHTO 5.3) = -j v c ) bw . is 0.8.3) Here q is an angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses.2.4.4.2. 5.2. obtained from each load combination. (AASHTO 5.1) In calculating the shear reinforcement for seismic moment resisting frames in Zone 3 and 4.4. a limit was imposed on the f ys as f ys £ f y. a failure condition is declared. f yh cot q else if v > v max .8. = 0.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed as follows: If v £j vc 2 .0316 f c¢ b w f yh vc (v j + 0. (AASHTO 5. (AASHTO 5.8. the strength reduction factor.2.3.1).0316 .11.3.0316 f c¢ cot q .4.3.4) < Av s else if Av s else if Av s =0. It is a function of current stress condition and its approximate value is 45 degree (AASHTO 5. is reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.1).3. 56 Column Design .2-1 through an iterative procedure. Here the default value of j .8.5. The limit of f yh is taken to be 60 ksi for all frames: f yh £ 60 ksi. f c¢ cot q (AASHTO 5.1.8.2. (AASHTO 5.5) j < v £j v max .4. (AASHTO 5. j vc 2 v £j vc + 0.8.8. It is computed from AASHTO Table 5.10.

in a column is taken as follows: Lhinge = max h .11.10.16 ê0. Any other minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of the program by the user.10.11.5 + ú f c¢ Ag û ë é Ag ù -1 ê ú ë Ac û f c¢ h core f yh 4 (Hoops) (AASHTO 5.25 Pu ù . Lhinge .11.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 For all columns and at any station.1c) The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon the above considerations.4. 18 ¢¢ (AASHTO 5.4.45 é Ag ù -1 ê ú ë Ac û f c¢ h core f yh 4 (AASHTO 5. as described later. 3 and 4.1d) (AASHTO 5.10. it is assumed in the current version of the program that any beam and column segment near the joint is a potential plastic hinge.30 f c¢ h core f yh f c¢ h core f yh (Stirrups) (AASHTO 5.4.10.5 + ú f c¢ Ag û ë (Stirrups) (AASHTO 5.25 Pu ù ³ 0.4.1d) In the above equations.1d) ³ 0. of Seismic moment resisting frames in Zones 2. b . The length of the plastic hinge. the following limits are imposed: é ê0.11.6) In potential plastic hinge locations.11.4.1d) é 1.7.4. the minimum area of transverse circular hoop reinforcement is imposed as follows: Av s ³ 0.4.11. ú ³ 10 f c¢ Ag û fy (AASHTO 5.1d) f yh £ For the definition of the potential plastic hinge.5 + ë 1.25 Pu ù ³ 0. the minimum area of circular hoops and transverse stirrups is imposed as follows: Av s Av s Av s é 1. l 6 .10. Column Design 57 .12 ê0.10.

Acv 58 Column Design .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual d' DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE d Acv b RECTANGULAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE A cv b SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE Acv CIRCULAR Figure IV-2 Shear Stress Area.

and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. shears. Beam Design 59 .Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. Negative beam moments produce top steel. The beam section is then designed for the maximum + positive M u and maximum negative M u factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular section. In such cases the beam may be designed as a Rectangular. SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments. the following steps are involved: • Determine the maximum factored moments • Determine the reinforcing steel Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of moment resisting concrete beams. and other criteria described below. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. load combination factors. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear.or a T-beam. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check/design stations along the beam span. Effects due to any axial forces. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: • Design beam flexural reinforcement • Design beam shear reinforcement Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations along the beam span. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. minor direction bending.

87 + f y 60 Beam Design .2.7. 0. or the grade of concrete.and T-beams) is summarized below.85.2.1) in the above and the following equations. (AASHTO 5.1 where.85 .1) (AASHTO 5. the value of j is 0. Also b1 and c b are calculated as follows: b1 = 0. is computed as.4. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement.90 (AASHTO 5. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.4.65 £ b1 £ 0. a = d - d2 - 2 Mu 0.1.85 f c¢ j b .3.4.7).42 d (AASHTO 5. All the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.05 f c¢ e c Es e c Es - 4 . When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this limiting condition.0.2.2.3. Furthermore it is assumed that the maximum depth of compression block is limited to 0. 5. (i.7. designing top or bottom steel) the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure IV-3). The design procedure used by SAP2000.2. In designing the beam flexural reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. (AASHTO 5.1) cb = +fy d = 87 d.5. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure IV-3 (AASHTO 5. (AASHTO 5.1). the width.3.7.1) 75 ksi. Design for Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.7. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the following limits are imposed on the steel tensile strength and the concrete compressive strength: f c¢ fy £ 10 £ ksi.2) (AASHTO 5.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.e. M u .

0.2. and (AASHTO 5. or at the top if M u is negative.85 f c¢ ba max .2. (AASHTO 5.7.7.2.1) ε = 0. ö ÷ ø This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M u is positive.3.3.7. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As = j Mu f æ y çd è a 2 .1).3.2) Beam Design 61 .7.3. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: – The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by C = 0.42d .7. 5.1).003 b 0. • If a > a max (AASHTO 5.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by a max = min b1 c b .3.85f'c A's Cs d' c a= 1c d As (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tc (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure IV-3 Design of Rectangular Beam Section • If a £ a max (AASHTO 5.3.

d¢ ) j .d¢ ) j – Therefore.7.1) – The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is As1 = M uc .2.e. the total tensile reinforcement. M u . (AASHTO 5.a 1 f c¢ )( d ¢ . and total compression reinforcement is As¢ . and a f y ( d .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual the moment resisted by concrete compression and bottom steel is M uc æ =C ç d è a max 2 ö ÷ j ø . 62 Beam Design . (ii) Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M u > 0. As = As1 + As 2 . – So the required compression steel is given by As¢ f s¢ = M us ( f s . i. where = 0.. Design for Flexure of a T-Beam (i) Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. – Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M us = Mu - M uc . f y ( d . (i. the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above. designing top steel).d¢ ù ê ë c ú û .max ) j 2 the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by As 2 = M us . the depth of the compression block is given by (see Figure IV-4). As is to be placed at bottom and As¢ is to be placed at top if M u is positive. and vice versa.003 E s é c . no T-Beam data is to be used.e.

3.85 f c¢ j b f a = d - d2 - (AASHTO 5.7. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously done for the rectangular section design.2. 0.5.2. 0.85 f c ( b f .2).2.2.1) (AASHTO 5. C f .85 f c¢ j b w Beam Design 63 .3. calculation for As is done in two parts. As1 = given by M uf = C f æ ç è Cf fy and the portion of M u that is resisted by the flange is d - b1 d s ö ÷j 2 ø . C w . The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b w and d.2).2.7.1) • If a £ b1 d s (AASHTO 5.0.7. the value of j is 0.3.7.2. M u to be carried by the web is given by M uw = M u - M uf .2) Therefore. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. • If a > b1 d s (AASHTO 5.65 £ b1 £ 0. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1 = d - d2 - 2 M uw . 0.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 2Mu . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.2. 5. the balance of the moment.7. (AASHTO 5.4.85.1) where.42d .7. As shown in Figure IV-4. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a max .b w ) b1 d s . Also b1 and c b are calculated as follows: b1 = 0.7.1) cb = The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by a max = min b1 c b .2. (AASHTO 5.85 .7.3. Cf ¢ = 0. However.90 (AASHTO 5.1) in the above and the following equations. 87 + f y - 4 . (AASHTO 5.05 f c¢ 87 d. Therefore. 0.2. in this case b f is taken as the width of the beam.3.

and 64 Beam Design . This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam.85 f c ba max .3. (AASHTO 5.7.003 0.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual bf ds ε = 0. • If a1 > a max (AASHTO 5.3.2. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: – The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by C ¢ = 0.1).85f'c d' As' c d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure IV-4 Design of a T-Beam Section • If a1 £ a max (AASHTO 5. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As 2 = j M uw f æ y çd è a1 2 .7.7.3.2) – Therefore the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is M uc æ =C ç d è a max 2 ö ÷j ø .85f'c 0.3. and ö ÷ ø As = As1 + As 2 .1).

Minimum and Maximum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum temperature and shrinkage flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section is given by: As ³ min í î ì 0.3.03 î ì f c¢ b w d and fy ü 4 As (required ) ý or 3 þ (AASHTO 5. As is to be placed at bottom and As¢ is to be placed at top.2) An upper limit of 0. and a max )j f y (d 2 the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is As 3 = M us . as follows: Beam Design 65 .d¢ ) j .2.8.1) – The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As 2 = M uc . – Therefore. f y ( d .2) The minimum flexural tensile steel provided to prevent premature flexural failure in a rectangular section is given by: As ³ min í0. where = 0.11 fy b w d and 0. the compression steel is computed as As¢ f s¢ = M us ( f s .3. upon request.10. and total compression reinforcement is As¢ . As = As1 + As 2 + As 3 .a 1 f c¢ )( d ¢ .04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed.0015 b w d ý or þ ü (AASHTO 5. (AASHTO 5.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M us = M uw - M uc .7.003 E s é c .d¢ ù ê ë c ú û £ fy .d¢ ) j – The total tensile reinforcement.7.

that can be resisted by concrete alone.10. M u and V u . v c . the following are checked in addition to the requirement for the moment resisting frames in Zones 1 and 2.3). For moment resisting frames in seismic zones 3 and 4.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual ì 0. the shear design of the beams is also based upon the overstrength moment capacities of the members in addition to the factored moments (AASHTO 3. is also calculated from the overstrength moment capacities of the beam (AASHTO 3. the design shear force in a beam. the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors.3).4. • Determine the shear stress. • Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.9.04 b d £í î0.4.10. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored forces acting on the section.04 b w d ì 0.4.9. • In the shear design of moment resisting frames in seismic Zones 3 and 4 (seismic design). In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular loading combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear.10. Determine Shear Force and Moment • In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of moment resisting concrete frames in seismic Zones 1 and 2. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps.9.3) 66 Beam Design . V u .04 b w d As As¢ Rectangular beam T -beam Rectangular beam T -beam Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user defined number of stations along the beam span. The design shear force V u is then given by Vu =V p + V D+ L (AASHTO 3. In the design of moment resisting concrete frames in seismic Zones 3 and 4.04 b d £í î0. Note that M u is needed for the calculation of v c .

Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 where V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated overstrength ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. Therefore, V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 , where V P1 = V P2 = M I- + M J+ , and L M I+ + M J, where L

M I+ , M I- = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the beam obtained by multiplying the nominal resistance by 1.3, M J+ , M J- = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the beam obtained by multiplying the nominal resistance by 1.3, and L = Clear span of beam.

V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads. See also Table IV-2 for details.

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
Given the design force set M u and V u , the shear capacity provided by the concrete alone, v c , is calculated as follows: • For designing moment resisting concrete frames in any seismic zone, v c is set to: v c = 0.0316 b f c¢ , (AASHTO 5.8.3.3)

where, b is a factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension. It is a function of stress condition and its approximate value is 2.0 (AASHTO 5.8.3.4.1). It is computed from AASHTO Table 5.8.3.4.2-1 through an iterative procedure.

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
• The average shear stress is computed for a rectangular section as, v= Vu . bw d

Beam Design

67

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual For other types of sections b w d is replaced by Acv , the effective shear area which is shown in Figure IV-2. • The average shear stress, v, is limited to a maximum limit, v max , given by v max
=

0.25 f c¢ .

(AASHTO 5.8.3.3)

• The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed as follows: If v
£j

vc 2 , (AASHTO 5.8.2.4)
<

Av s else if Av s else if Av s

=0,

j

vc 2

v

£j

vc

+ 0.0316

f c¢ cot q ,

=

0.0316 f c¢ b w f yh vc (v
j + 0.0316

, f c¢ cot q

(AASHTO 5.8.2.5)

j

<

v

£j

v max , (AASHTO 5.8.3.3)

=

-j

v c ) bw , f yh cot q

else if v > v max , a failure condition is declared. (AASHTO 5.8.3.3)

Here q is an angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses. It is a function of the current stress condition and its approximate value is 45 degrees (AASHTO 5.8.3.4.1). It is computed from AASHTO Table 5.8.3.4.2-1 through an iterative procedure. Here the default value of j , the strength reduction factor, is 0.90 (AASHTO 5.5.4.2.1). The limit of f yh is taken to be 60 ksi for all frames: f yh
£ 60

ksi.

(AASHTO 5.8.2.8)

The limit of f c¢ is taken to be 10 ksi for all seismic regions: f c¢
£ 10

ksi.

(AASHTO 5.1, 5.4.2.1)

68

Beam Design

Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 The maximum of all the calculated Av s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. The beam shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon the above considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

Beam Design

69

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

Type of Check/Design

Moment Resisting Frames in Zones 1 and 2 (non-Seismic)

Moment Resisting Frames in Zones 3 and 4 (Seismic)

j In Compression
Column Check (Interaction) Column Design (Interaction)

j = 0.75, if Pu > 0.10 fc¢
NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations 0.135 fc fy < r < 0.08 NLDa Combinations
¢

j = 0.50, if Pu > 0.20 fc¢
NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations 0.01 < r < 0.06 NLDa Combinations and Column capacity shear (VP ) with overstrength factor 1.3 vc = 0.0316 b fc¢ if Pu ³ 0.1 fc¢ Ag

Column Shears

vc = 0.0316 b fc

¢

vc = 0.0316 b fc¢

Pu ³ 0 otherwise 0.1 fc¢ Ag

Minimum volumetric shear reinforcement in potential plastic hinge only for Zone 2

Minimum volumetric shear reinforcement in potential plastic hinge for both Zone 3 and 4

Beam Design (Flexure)

NLDa Combinations

NLDa Combinations r £ 0.025 3 fc¢ 200 ,r ³ r³ fy fy 0.11 bw d , 0.0015 bw d , fy 0.03 fc¢ 4 , As,required ff 3

Beam Minimum Flexural Reinforcement

0.11 bw d , 0.0015 bw d , fy 0.03 fc¢ 4 , As,required ff 3

NLDa Combinations Beam Design (Shear)

NLDa Combinations Beam capacity shear (VP ) with overstrength factor 1.3 vc = 0.0316 b fc¢

vc = 0.0316 b fc¢

a

NLD = Number of specified loading

Table IV-2 Design Criteria Table

70

Beam Design

Chapter V

Design for CSA-A23.3-94
This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the Canadian code, CSA-A23.3-94 (CSA 1994). Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table V-1. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. SAP2000 provides options to design or check Ordinary, Nominal (moderate seismic risk areas), and Ductile (high seismic risk areas) moment resisting frames as required for seismic design. The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in the following sections. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted.

71

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

Acv Acore Ag As As¢ As (required ) Ast Av a ab b bf bw Cm c cb d d¢ ds Ec Es f c¢ fy f yh h Ig I st k L M1

Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sq-mm Area of concrete core, sq-mm Gross area of concrete, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (T-Beam section), mm Width of web (T-Beam section), mm Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate moment magnification factor Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, mm Thickness of slab (T-Beam section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Dimension of beam or column, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement, mm4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section, mm4 Effective length factor Clear unsupported length, mm Smaller factored end moment in a column, N-mm Table V-1 List of Symbols Used in the Canadian code

72

N-mm Nonsway component of factored end moment. N-mm Factored moment at section about X-axis. N Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. N Critical buckling strength of column.3-94 M2 Mc M ns Ms Mf M fx M fy Pb Pc Pr. N-mm Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions. N Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity. N Shear force from span loading. N-mm Sway component of factored end moment. N-mm Factored moment at section about Y-axis. N Shear force at a section resisted by steel. N Maximum axial load strength allowed. N-mm Factored moment at section. N Shear resisted by concrete. N Reinforcing steel overstrength factor is a factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension An angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses with the longitudinal axis of beam or column Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Factor for obtaining average compressive stress in concrete block Absolute value of the ratio of the maximum factored axial dead load moment to the maximum factored total load moment Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Moment magnification factor for sway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor for concrete Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Shear strength factor Table V-1 List of Symbols Used in the Canadian code (continued) 73 . N Factored shear force at a section. N Factored axial load at section.max P0 Pf Vc VD +L Vp Vf Vs a b q b1 a1 bd db ds ec es jc js jm l Larger factored end moment in a column.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23. N-mm Factored moment to be used in design.

and earthquake (EL) loads.25 DL ± 1.2) ± 1. other types of loads are present.3). Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. a member resistance factor.75 (CSA 10. then the following load combinations may have to be considered (CSA 8.4.3. In generating the above default loading combinations. Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor.3.2) (CSA 8.15.7 (1.3. (CSA 8. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. is used as an additional reduction factor in addition to j c and j s (CSA 8.60 for concrete and = 0. the importance factor is taken as 1.50 WL 1. For this code. j .00 EL) These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the Canadian Code is used.4. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.85 DL ± 1.50 LL 1.00 DL ± 1.50 WL 0.3): 1.1).50 LL 1. or pattern live loads are to be considered.25 DL + 1. In connection with buckling resistance.00 DL + (0. j m .85 for steel.25 DL 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL).3) In some special cases.25 DL + 0. 74 Design Load Combinations .4. j m is taken as 0. live load (LL). is material dependent and is defined as jc js = 0.2) ± 1.50 WL) (CSA 8.50 LL (CSA 8.50 EL 1.2 ) (CSA 8. wind (WL).

• Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (CSA 10.9. to 0. square. A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure II-1. • Design the column shear reinforcement. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement  1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Nominal moment resisting frames (CSA 10. the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column. at the extremity of the section. However. if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user. e c .1 and CSA 10.3). The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area. See Figure II-2. Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction surface is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated in the three-dimensional interaction failure space. Column Design 75 .9. When the steel is undefined. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain. or circular column section.3-94 Column Design The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section.1.4.0035 (CSA 10. and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular.2) and 1 to 6 percent for Ductile moment resisting frames (CSA 21.1).1). the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: • Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user. the program checks the column capacity.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II-1.3.

f y (CSA 8. The depth of the stress block is b1 c. and is limited to the yield stress of the steel.1.67 .67 b1 ³ 0. f c¢ .0.7) (CSA 10.0025 f c¢ . α1 f'c 1 Cs C 2 Cs a= 1c εc = 0.5.1. The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder). (CSA 10.97 .2).3.1) 76 Column Design . See Figure V-1.0.3.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity. See Figure V-1. e s E s .6.0035 d' c εs1 εs2 εs3 εs4 Ts3 Ts4 (i) Concrete Section (ii) Strain Diagram (iii) Stress Diagram Figure V-1 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular.2.0015 b1 = 0.7).85 .1) (CSA 21.1.1. where a 1 = 0. with a stress value of a 1 f c¢ (CSA 10.7) . The limit of f c¢ is taken to be 80 MPa for Ordinary moment resisting frames and 55 MPa for Nominal and Ductile moment resisting frames: f c¢ f c¢ £ 80 £ 55 MPa MPa (Ordinary) (Nominal and Ductile) (CSA 8. a 1 ³ 0.

10. • Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.16). The computed moments are further amplified by using “Moment Magnification Factors” to allow for “Lateral Drift Effect” and “Member Stability Effect”.10. lies within the interaction volume. Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are applied in two different stages.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23. defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set.4) Check Column Capacity The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each check station of each column.80 [ j c Pr. Although according to Column Design 77 . giving P f . In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular location. where the maximum factored axial load resistance is given by Pr. M fx .max .5. The effects of the strength reduction factors are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces. Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to all the load conditions.max = 0. and M fy .85 [ j c a1 a1 f c¢ ( Ag . (CSA 10. The sway components are amplified for lateral drift effect (CSA 10.Ast ) + j s f y Ast ] (spiral column). (CSA 8. First the moments are separated into their “sway” and “non-sway” components.1) The interaction algorithm provides a correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. and M fy .4) f c¢ ( Ag . M fx . • Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored loads obtained in the first step. (CSA 10. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps.max = 0.Ast ) + j s f y Ast ] (tied column).3-94 The limit of f y is taken to be 500 MPa for all frames: fy £ 500 MPa. Determine whether the point. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give P f . The maximum compressive axial load is limited to Pr.

therefore. in general. The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads. for braced frames.15. especially those related to the value of EI used in analysis (CSA 10. The sway components are identified by “s” subscripts. The moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway. These amplified moments are further amplified for individual member stability effect. and ³ r P f c¢ Ag f (CSA 10. SAP2000 treats all frames uniformly to amplify nonsway components of moments. the moment magnification factor for lateral drift effect is applied only to the “sway” moment in SAP2000.14. The moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions can. and are related to the cause of side sway.15.2) The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway ( M s ) and the nonsway ( M ns ) components. where j m is the strength reduction factor for stability and is equal to 0. for unbraced frames. moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity. be different. See also White and Hajjar (1991).0 if a P-D analysis is carried out (CSA 10.3. The user is reminded of the special analysis requirements. The multipli- 78 Column Design . SAP2000 analysis uses EI of gross cross-sectional area in conjunction with a multiplication factor.1).16. d sx and d sy .3).16. this amplification is significant for “unbraced” frames only and may be avoided for “braced” frames. (CSA 10.25 DL + 1. For the P-D analysis the load should correspond to a load combination of (1.10 M 1 M 2 .16. The program assumes that a P-D analysis has been performed in SAP2000 and. The non-sway or braced components which are identified by “ns” subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity load.5). the individual member stability effect is only significant if kL 25 . can be taken as 1. According to the code. Lateral Drift Effect For all frames.2) kL ³ r 35 P f f c¢ Ag .4) However.16.50 LL)/j m (CSA 10.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual the code. M = M ns +ds M s (CSA 10.1).75 (CSA 10. SAP2000 considers individual member stability effect for all compression column elements.

P f . or the length is overwritten. and M b is numerically larger than M a . and M c is the maximum moment occurring either at the end or at an interior point within the span of the column.3) (CSA 10.3) Pc (CSA 10. EI is associated with a particular column direction given by EI = 0.15.1) M a and M b are the moments at the ends of the column.3) = 0.4 .3-94 cation factors are defined in a section-by-section basis. from the analysis and a magnified factored moment. p Pc = EI . however the user can override the value. The magnified moment is computed as. for moments not causing sidesway associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by db = 1jm Cm Pf jm ³ 1. Member Stability Effects All compression members are designed using the factored axial load.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23.75 . The above expression of C m is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports.15. where (CSA 10.15. The moment magnification factor. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member. d b . (CSA 10. M c . If transverse load is present on the span. Mc =db M 2 ³ M2 .15.15.3) (CSA 10. (CSA 10.25 E c I g . and C m = 0. M a M b is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending.6 + 0. ( kL) 2 2 k is conservatively taken as 1.3.4 Ma Mb ³ 0. or for any Column Design 79 .0 . the user can explicitly specify values of d sx and d sy .15. so that effect of axial force and cracking can be modeled in a first order analysis.3) where M 2 is the column maximum end moment obtained from elastic analysis after considering minimum eccentricity and lateral drift effect.

if the point lies outside the interaction volume.3) The moment magnification factor.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual other case.15. such that C m M P f is at least (15 + 0. M fx . CR. a failure condition is declared. This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. M fy ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure II-3. if required. is given by the ratio . the column is overstressed. to obtain minimum eccentricities.3. respectively. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface.03 h ) mm about each axis separately.15. the column capacity is adequate. d b is taken as 1 for tension members. The pre-magnified factored moments are increased.2) . Therefore P f must be less than j m Pc . OC 80 Column Design . If P f is found to be greater than or equal to j m Pc . If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions. and M fy . The two unsupported lengths are l 22 and l 33 corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element.15. See Figure II-4. a capacity ratio is calculated. Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity.3). The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. CmM ³ P f 15 + 0. The capacity ratio is basically a factor which gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. C m = 1 (CSA 10. the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain P f . however. OL See Figure II-3. M fx . If the point lies within the interaction volume. d b . The point (P f . must be a positive number and greater than one. C m can be overwritten by the user on an element by element basis.03 h (CSA 10. The capacity ratio. the user can explicitly specify values of d s and d b . where h is the dimension of the column in mm unit in the corresponding direction (CSA 10.

SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity. that can be resisted by concrete alone. the column moment. P f and V f . Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps.9. Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column.2. namely. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling P f .2. and M fy set and associated load combination number.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23. and the column shear force. If the reinforcing area is not defined. M f .2. In designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction. the column axial force. • Determine the shear stress.7. the forces for a particular load combination. V f . M f . P f .3). For Ductile and Nominal moment resisting concrete frames. of the members in addition to the factored moments (CSA 21. • If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the SAP2000 analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. Determine Section Forces • In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. Note that M f and P f are needed for the calculation of v c . Column Design 81 . the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored forces acting on the section. the shear design of the columns is also based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities. • If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. • Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. respectively.3-94 • If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. 21. M fx . v c .

2). is then given by Vf = V p + V D+ L (CSA 21.7. where L = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1.0) moment capacities and the factored gravity load (CSA 21. it is zero. V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 .7. and Clear span of column. V f . in a particular direction is also calculated from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column (CSA 21. Then. the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the nominal shear due to the nominal (j s = j c = 1.3). In the design of Ductile moment resisting concrete frames. V f . and L M I+ + M J. the factored axial load.2. • In the design of Nominal moment resisting frames (seismic). M I- M J+ . in addition to the design checks required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. For most of the columns. where V P1 = V P2 = M I. Therefore.+ M J+ . V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • In the shear design of Ductile moment resisting frames (seismic design) the following are checked in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. For each load combination.0). M J- = L = For Ductile moment resisting frames a is taken as 1. Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1.9. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the 82 Column Design .2. of the column in a parf f ticular direction under the influence of the axial force P f are calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.2) where.0). V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads. the positive and negative moment capacities.25 (CSA 21. The design shear force. M + and M . is calculated. the design shear force.2. M I+ ..1). P f .

q is also computed from CSA Table 11-1 using the parameters e x and v ratio through an iterative procedure. is calculated using the “General Method” or “Compression Field Theory” as follows (CSA 11.6) v ratio V f bw d v lj c f c¢ (CSA 11.4 (CSA 11.2.0) rather than 1. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set M f . See also Table V-2 for details.5 V f cot q E s As = .1).4.5). l. is conservatively taken to be 0.4. (CSA 11. The design shear strength is enforced not to be greater than the factored shear force with the seismic load doubled (CSA 21. Column Design 83 . 21.9. It is computed from CSA Table 11-1 through an iterative procedure. It is a function of the current stress condition and its approximate value is 34 degrees with a range of 27 degrees to 45 degrees (CSA 11. In computing the b factor. is taken to be 1.4.0.3.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23.4). In a similar procedure to calculate the b factor.9.5) In the above equations d v .002 (CSA 11. the distance between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces.3.4): • For designing Ordinary and Nominal moment resisting concrete frames. dv = 0.3-94 same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Ductile moment resisting frames.5 N f + 0. b is a factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to resist shear.9d.9 d (CSA 11.0) Here q is an angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses.1 to 0. P f andV f . v c is set to: v c = 1. assuming normal density concrete (CSA 11. v c . the shear capacity provided by the concrete alone.25.3 lb f c¢ .4).6. 8.4. It is a function of stress condition and its average value is 0. 0£ex £ 0.1) where. the following two parameters are used: M ex = f dv + 0.2 usually with a range of 0. except that a is taken equal to 1 (CSA 21. The shear strength factor.4.

3.1) vc 2 < Av s else if Av s else if Av s jc v £ j c v c + j s 0.9d for rectangular sections.1 ).5) In the above equation d v . • The average shear stress.06 f c¢ b w f yh .4) 84 Column Design .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • For designing Ductile moment resisting concrete frames.2) = (v -j c js v c ) bw . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement • The average shear stress is computed for a rectangular section as. dv = 0.1b.3. f yh cot q else if v > j c v max . f c¢ cot q (CSA 11. vc 2 .4.9 times Acv . v = V f ( bw d v ) .3) • The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed as follows: If v £jc =0. which is shown in Figure V-2. a failure condition is declared.06 < v £jc v max . (CSA 11. (CSA 11.4. (CSA 11. is limited to a maximum limit.4.9 d (CSA 11.3.4) j c v c + j s 0. v c is computed based on the assumption that e x = 0.4.2. given by v max = 0.3.2. Otherwise the procedure for computing v c is the same as that for Ordinary and Nominal moment resisting frames. 11. is conservatively taken to be 0.0) For other types of sections b w d v is replaced by 0. (CSA 11. the distance between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces.8.002 (CSA 21.06 f c¢ cot q . v. = 0.25 f c¢ . (CSA 11.7. v max . the effective shear area.8.

Chapter V Design for CSA-A23.3-94
d' DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE d

Acv

b

RECTANGULAR d' d

DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE

A cv

b

SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR d' d

DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE

Acv

CIRCULAR

Figure V-2 Shear Stress Area, Acv The limit of f c¢ is taken to be 80 MPa for Ordinary moment resisting frames and 55 MPa for Nominal and Ductile moment resisting frames: f c¢ f c¢
£ 80 £ 55

MPa MPa

(Ordinary) (Nominal and Ductile)

(CSA 8.6.1.1) (CSA 21.2.3.1)

The limit of f yh is taken to be 500 MPa for all frames: f yh
£ 500

MPa.

(CSA 8.5.1)

Column Design

85

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual The maximum of all the calculated Av s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. For all columns and at any station, the minimum area of transverse circular hoop reinforcement is imposed as follows: Av s
³ 0.45 é ù -1 ê ú ë Acore û

Ag

f c¢ h core f yh 4

(CSA 10.9.4)

In potential plastic hinge locations, as described later, of Ductile moment resisting frames, the minimum area of circular hoops and transverse stirrups is imposed as follows: Av s Av s Av s Av s
³ 0.12

f c¢ h core f yh 4
é ù -1 ê ú ë Acore û

(Hoops) f c¢ h core f yh 4

(CSA 21.4.4.2)

³ 0.45

Ag

(Hoops)

(CSA 21.4.4.2, 10.9.4)

³ 0.09

f c¢ h core f yh
é ù -1 ê ú ë Acore û

(Stirrups) f c¢ h core f yh

(CSA 21.4.4.2)

³ 0.30

Ag

(Stirrups)

(CSA 21.4.4.2)

For the definition of the potential plastic hinge, it is assumed in the current version of the program that any beam and column segment near the joint is a potential plastic hinge. The length of the plastic hinge, Lhinge , in a column is taken as follows: Lhinge
=

max h , b , l 6 , 450 mm

(CSA 21.4.4.5)

The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon the above considerations. Any other minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

86

Column Design

Chapter V Design for CSA-A23.3-94

Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, shears, load combination factors and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam span. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: • Design beam flexural reinforcement • Design beam shear reinforcement

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at a user defined number of design stations along the beam span. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam for a particular section, the following steps are involved: • Determine the maximum factored moments • Determine the reinforcing steel

Determine Factored Moments
In the design of flexural reinforcement of Ductile, Nominal, or Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M + and maximum negative M -f factored mof ments obtained from all of the load combinations. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In such cases the beam may be designed as a Rectangular- or T-beam. Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section.

Beam Design

87

the width. where.2) in the above and following equations.1) The design procedure used by SAP2000 for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. and c b are calculated as follows: 88 Beam Design . In designing the beam flexural reinforcement.e. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition.1) where the value of j c is 0.7). or the grade of concrete.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. (i.3.1. a = d - d2 2 M a1 f fc ¢ jc b .6. (CSA 8.2. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible. b1 .60 (CSA 8.1) The limit of f y is taken to be 500 MPa for all frames: fy £ 500 MPa. hence all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.1) (CSA 21. the limit of f c¢ is taken to be 80 MPa for Ordinary moment resisting frames and 55 MPa for Nominal and Ductile moment resisting frames: f c¢ f c¢ £ 80 £ 55 MPa MPa (Ordinary) (Nominal and Ductile) (CSA 8.5. Also a 1 . (CSA 10. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure V-3 (CSA 10. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. M f . Design for Flexure of a Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.and T-beams) is summarized below.4. Furthermore it is assumed that the compression carried by concrete is less than that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10.1. designing top or bottom steel) the depth of the compression block is given by a.1. as shown in Figure V-3.4).

ö ÷ ø This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M f is positive.1.3-94 a1 b1 = 0.7) Figure V-3 Design of a Rectangular Beam Section • If a by As = £ a b (CSA 10. Beam Design 89 .0025 f c¢ ³ 0.5.7) (CSA 10.67 ³ 0.2) cb = 700 d. and (CSA 10.1.85 = 0.0015 f c¢ 0. (CSA 10.97 - 0.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23. 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by ab = b1 c b .5. . the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given M f js f y æd ç è - a 2 .2).67 .7) (CSA 10.1. or at the top if M f is negative.

– So the required compression steel is given by As¢ f s¢ = M (j s f s ¢ fs .d¢ ) .7) the factored moment resisted by the concrete and bottom steel is M fc æ =C ç d è ab ö ÷. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: – The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by C = j ca 1 f c¢ ba b .2). and total compression reinforcement is As¢ . the total tensile reinforcement. As = As1 + As 2 . and (CSA 10. 2 ø – The moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M fs = M f - M fc . where = 0.1.2 and CSA 10.5.j ca 1 f c¢ )( d ú û . and vice versa.d¢ j s . – Therefore.d¢ ù ê ë c £ fy . As is to be placed at the bottom and As¢ is to be placed at the top if M f is positive. (CSA 10.1.1.0035 E s é c . 90 Beam Design .3) – The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is As1 = M f æ yçd è fc ab 2 .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • If a > a b (CSA 10. and ö ÷ js ø the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is As 2 = M fy d fs .

(CSA 10.7) • If a £ d s .97 - 0. . designing top steel).Chapter V Design for CSA-A23. M f .7) (CSA 10. 700 + f y The depth of the compression block under balanced condition is given by ab = b1 c b .e.1.5.7) (CSA 10. C f . However. (CSA 10. and (CSA 10.7) Therefore. As1 = C fjc f yj s and the portion of M f that is resisted by the flange is Beam Design 91 . b1 . the contribution of the flange to the strength of the beam is ignored. and c b are calculated as follows: a1 b1 = 0.0025 f c¢ ³ 0. • If a > d s . The design procedure is therefore identical to the one used for rectangular beams except that in the corresponding equations b is replaced by b w .0015 f c¢ 0.67 . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.1.2) in the above and following equations. - = d d2 - 2M a1 f f c¢j c b f . the depth of the compression block is given by (see Figure V-4).3-94 Design for Flexure of a T-Beam (i) Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a b . Cf =a1 f c¢ ( b f .67 ³ 0. As shown in Figure V-4. calculation for As is done in two parts. Also a 1 .85 = 0. in this case the width of the beam is taken as b f . (i. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. (ii) Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M a f > 0.bw )d s .2) cb = 700 d.4. See Figure V-4.1.60 (CSA 8. C w .1) where the value of j c is 0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously done for the rectangular section design. (CSA 10.1.

Therefore. for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1 = d - d2 - 2M a1 fw fc ¢ jc bw . the balance of the moment.1) bf ds ε = 0. (CSA 10.0035 α1 fc' φc α1 fc' φc d' As' c d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw εs Strain Diagram Ts Tw Tf Beam Section Stress Diagram Figure V-4 Design of a T-Beam Section • If a1 £ a b (CSA 10. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As 2 = js M f fw æ y çd è a1 2 .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual æ ç è M ff = Cf d - ds 2 ö ÷ jc ø . The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b w and d. and ö ÷ ø 92 Beam Design . M f to be carried by the web is given by M fw = M f - M ff .2).5.

(CSA 10. Beam Design 93 . where = 0. As is to be placed at the bottom and As¢ is to be placed at the top.d¢ ù ê ë c fy .1.3) – The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As 2 = M f æ yçd è fc ab 2 . and ö ÷ js ø the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is As 3 = M f y (d fs . Total tensile reinforcement.5.0035 E s é c . 2 ø – The moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M fs = M fw - M fc . – Therefore.1. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: – The factored compressive force in the concrete web alone is given by C = j c a1 f c¢ ba b .1.2 and CSA 10. and (CSA 10. and total compression reinforcement is As¢ . the compression steel is computed as As¢ f s¢ = M (j s f s ¢ fs -j c a 1 f c¢ )( d ú û £ .Chapter V Design for CSA-A23. • If a1 > a b (CSA 10.2).d¢ ) .3-94 As = As1 + As 2 .d¢ ) j s . This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam. As = As1 + As 2 + As 3 .7) the factored moment resisted by the concrete web and tensile steel is M fc = C çd è æ - ab ö ÷.

5.1) 94 Beam Design .04 b d £í î0.1.3) In addition.1) • The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by As £ 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is arbitrarily imposed as follows: As As¢ ì 0.4 bw d fy (CSA 21.5.025 b w d .b w d s . As(min) ³ 1.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Minimum and Maximum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel required for a beam section is given by the minimum of the two limits: As ³ 0.2. or (CSA 10. 3 (CSA 10. the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table V-2 for comprehensive listing): • The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top and the bottom.2.2 f c¢ fy b w h.1.3. (CSA 10.3. (CSA 21.04 b d £í î0.004 b .3.1) An upper limit of 0.04 b w d ì 0.2) As ³ 4 As (required ) . Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As (min) . the minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a T-section with flange under tension is given by the limit: As ³ 0.04 b w d Rectangular beam T -beam Rectangular beam T -beam Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Ductile moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design).5.

3. • Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. M f and V f .1.1).2.1. the beam design would satisfy the following conditions: • At any support of the beam. associated with the top steel) at that end (CSA 21. the beam positive moment capacity (i. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user defined number of stations along the beam span. the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (CSA 21. Note that M is needed for the calculation of v c .3-94 • At any end (support) of the beam. For Nominal moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design).9.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23. f Beam Design 95 .2.9.2).2.9. the shear design of the beams is also based on the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members. associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than ½ of the beam negative moment capacity (i.3. • Determine the shear stress.2.e.2. For Ductile and Nominal moment resisting frames.e.2. that can be resisted by concrete alone. respectively (CSA 21.1.1).3). The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps.2). 21. • Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (CSA 21. • Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (CSA 21. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored forces acting on the section. v c .7. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular loading combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear.

the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the probable shear due to the probable moment capacities and the factored gravity load. See also Table V-2 for more details.0). V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 . M I.= Moment capacity at end I.= Moment capacity at end J.25 for Ductile moment resisting frames (CSA 21. where M I+ = Moment capacity at end I.1).1) where. with bottom steel in tension. the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors.V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Shear Force and Moment • In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame.+ M J+ M I+ + M JL . using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1. • In the design of Ductile moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design). M J. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacities is the same as that described for a column in section “Column Design” on page 82.7. The overstrength factor a is always taken as 1. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1.0).0). in addition to the design checks required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. where V P1 = V P2 = M I. 96 Beam Design . with bottom steel in tension. Therefore. with top steel in tension. V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions.0).2. and L = Clear span of beam. M J+ = Moment capacity at end J. and L. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1. with top steel in tension. The design shear forceV f is then given by Vf =V p + V D+ L (CSA 21.

0) Here q is an angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses. in addition to the design checks required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. is conservatively taken to be 0. is calculated using the “General Method” or “Compression Field Theory” as follows (CSA 11. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the nominal shear due to the nominal (j s = j c = 1. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set M f and V f . the shear capacity provided by the concrete alone.3).4): • For designing Ordinary and Nominal moment resisting concrete frames.5 V f cot q E s As = .9.1 to 0. It is a function of the stress condition and its average value is 0.4 (CSA 11.4).1) where. In computing the b factor.2 usually with a range of 0. 0£ex £ 0. dv = 0.2. the distance between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces. In a similar procedure to calBeam Design 97 . (CSA 11.3 lb f c¢ .002 (CSA 11.4.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23.4.4). The design shear strength is enforced not to be greater than the factored shear force with the seismic load doubled (CSA 21.9d. It is computed from CSA Table 11-1 through an iterative procedure.0) moment capacities and the factored gravity load (CSA 21. 21. It is a function of the current stress condition and its approximate value is 34 degrees with a range of 27 degrees to 45 degrees (CSA 11.25.3. See also Table V-2 for details. the following two parameters are used: M ex = f dv + 0.3-94 • In the design of Nominal moment resisting frames (seismic). b is a factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to resist shear. except that a is taken equal to 1 (CSA 21. v c is set to: v c = 1.4. v c .1) rather than 1.5) In the above equations d v .2.9.3.1). The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Ductile moment resisting frames.4.4.6) v ratio V f bw d v lj c f c¢ (CSA 11.9.9 d (CSA 11.

5) In the above equation d v . the distance between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces. which is shown in Figure V-2.4. is taken to be 1. b is taken as zero.9d. v.1 ). is conservatively taken to be 0.3.5).25 f c¢ .06 f c¢ cot q . 8. = 0.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual culate the b factor.8. assuming normal density concrete (CSA 11. (CSA 11.4) 98 Beam Design . is limited to a maximum limit. v= Vf bw d v .3. • The average shear stress.0.9 d (CSA 11.2. dv = 0. the effective shear area.06 f c¢ b w f yh .7. q is also computed from CSA Table 11-1 using the parameters e x and v ratio through an iterative procedure.9 times Acv . given by v max = 0.1a.3) • The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed as follows: If v £jc =0.0) For other types of sections b w d v is replaced by 0. v c is taken as zero. (CSA 11. The shear strength factor. and q is taken as 45 degrees (CSA 21. v max . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement • The average shear stress is computed for a rectangular section as. • For designing Ductile moment resisting concrete beams.4. (CSA 11.4.1) vc 2 < Av s else if Av s jc v £ j c v c + j s 0. (CSA 11.6. vc 2 .8. l. 11.2.

4.3. obtained from each load combination. (CSA 11. (CSA 11.3-94 else if Av s = j c v c + j s 0.5.2.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23.4) The limit of f c¢ is taken to be 80 MPa for Ordinary moment resisting frames and 55 MPa for Nominal and Ductile moment resisting frames: f c¢ f c¢ £ 80 £ 55 MPa MPa (Ordinary) (Nominal and Ductile) (CSA 8. Any other minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of the program by the user.2) (v -j c js v c ) bw .06 f c¢ cot q < v £jc v max . (CSA 8. The beam shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon the above considerations.6.3. f yh cot q else if v > j c v max .3.1.1) The limit of f yh is taken to be 500 MPa for all frames: f yh £ 500 MPa. is reported for the major directions of the beam along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. a failure condition is declared.1) The maximum of all the calculated Av s values. Beam Design 99 .1) (CSA 21.

04 r ³ 0.0 plus VD+L Strength based on b = 0 .0 Minimum hoop reinforcement Beam Design Flexure r £ 0. Moment Override Check No Requirement M uSPAN - 1 M uEND 3 1 ³ max M u+ .25 Strength based on ex = 0.0 and α = 1.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Type of Check/ Design Strength of materials Column Check (interaction) Column Design (Interaction) Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (non-Seismic) fc¢ £ 80 MPa Nominal Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) fc¢ £ 55 MPa Ductile Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) fc¢ £ 55 MPa fy £ 500 MPa NLDa Combinations fy £ 500 MPa NLDa Combinations fy £ 500 MPa NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 6% α = 1.0 NLDa Combinations and Probable Capacity Shear (V p ) ϕ = 1.2 fc¢ fy + M uEND ³ + M uSPAN NLDa Combinations r £ 0. Ductile. r ³ 14 fy . and Nominal Moment Resisting Frame Design 100 Beam Design .002 Minimum hoop reinforcement Special reinforcement in hinge NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations Column Shears Minimum hoop Modified NLDa Combinations or Nominal Capacity Shear (V p ) ϕ = 1. M u4 1 ³ max M u+ .0 and ϕ = 1. M u5 { { } } END + M uSPAN END M uSPAN - 1 M uEND 2 1 ³ max M u+ . M u4 { { } } END END Beam Design Shear NLDa Combinations Modified NLDa Combinations or Nominal Capacity Shear (V p ) with α = 1.0 plus VD+L NLDa Combinations and Probable Capacity Shear (V p ) with α = 1.2 fc¢ fy NLDa Combinations r £ 0.025 r ³ 0.2 fc¢ fy .25 and ϕ = 1. q = 45o a NLD = Number of specified loading Table V-2 Comparison of Ordinary.0 and α = 1.04 r ³ 0. M u5 1 ³ max M u+ . + M uEND ³ Beam Min.

C h a p t e r VI

Design for BS 8110-85 R1989
This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the British limit state design code BS 8110 R1989 (BSI 1989). Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table VI-1. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted.

Design Load Combinations
The design loading combinations define the various factored combinations of the load cases for which the structure is to be checked. The design loading combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, g f (BS 2.4.1.3). If a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only, the design will need only one loading combination, namely 1.4 DL + 1.6 LL. However, in addition to the dead load and live load, if the structure is subDesign Load Combinations

101

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

Acv As As¢ Asc Asv a b b¢ bf bw C d d¢ Ec Es e min f cu fs fy f yv h hf K¢
¢

Area of section for shear resistance, mm2 Area of tension reinforcement, mm2 Area of compression reinforcement, mm2 Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, mm2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm2 Depth of compression block, mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Shorter section dimension, mm Shorter effective depth of biaxially bent column, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Compression force, N Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200000 MPA (BS 2.4.2.3) Minimum or nominal eccentricity, mm Characteristic cube strength at 28 days, MPA Compressive stress in a beam compression steel, MPA Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPA Characteristic strength of link reinforcement, MPA (< 460 MPA) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Mu Maximum for a singly reinforced concrete section taken as 0.156 bd 2 f cu by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10% Shear strength enhancement factor Concrete shear strength factor, f cu 25 Effective height of a column, mm Table VI-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS code
1/ 3

k1 k2 le

102

Design Load Combinations

Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989

l0 M M1 , M 2 M add Mi Mx ,M y N sv T V v vc vc ¢ v x ,v y x x bal z
b bb g f gm ec es ¢ es

Clear height between end restraints, mm Design moment at a section, MPA Smaller and larger end moments in a slender column, N-mm Maximum additional moment column, N-mm Initial moment at the point of maximum additional moment, N-mm Applied moments about the major and minor axes of a column, N-mm Ultimate axial load, N Spacing of links, mm Tension force, N Shear force at ultimate design load, N Shear stress, MPA Design ultimate shear stress resistance of a concrete beam, MPA Design concrete shear stress corrected for axial forces, MPA Design ultimate shear stress of a concrete section, MPA Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Effective length factor Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Concrete strain Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel

Table VI-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS code (continued)

Design Load Combinations

103

4 DL ± 1.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual jected to wind (WL) and/or earthquake (EL) loads.2 DL + 1. The values of g m used in the program are listed below (BS 2.4 EL 1.4 DL + 1. ï g m = í1.4 EL 1.3) (BS 2.4 WL 1.4.2 WL 1.0 DL ± 1. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user. for shear strength without shear reinforcement.4.4 DL ± 1. if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user. and ï1.4. the following load combinations for ultimate limit state might have to be considered (BS 2. However.4 WL 1. It is recommended that the user define additional load cases for considering the notional load in SAP2000. Design Strength The design strength for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial factor of safety.4 DL 1. the code requires that all buildings should be capable of resisting a notional design ultimate horizontal load applied at each floor or roof level.2). 104 Design Strength . In addition to the above load combinations. the program checks the column capacity.4. as allowed by some design codes.4.015 times the dead load (BS 3. g m . the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column.1) Column Design The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section.1).4.3) ± 1. can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on a member-by-member basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.50.6 LL 1.4.25. for reinforcement. and considering that those loads are subject to reversals.2 LL ± 1.15.2 DL + 1. ì1. for concrete in flexure and axial load. The notional load should be equal to 0. Live load reduction factors.2 LL (BS 2.1.2 EL These are the default load combinations.3): 1. î (BS 2.4.0 DL ± 1.

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. square. at the extremity of the section. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain. See Figure II-2. or circular column section (BS 3. • Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column.8.12.6. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. • Design the column shear reinforcement. f y 1. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement from 0. See Figure VI-1.87 f y ).2). A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure II-1.4.4.15 (0. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending.4. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II-1. the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations (BS 3. The area associated with each reinforcing bar is placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder).3 and BS 3.0035 (BS 3.4.5.4).4. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column (BS 3. e s E s and is limited to the design strength the steel.Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989 The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: • Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model.1).4 to 6 percent (BS 3. The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity. to 0.8.12. e c . The formulation is based consistently upon the basic principles of ultimate strength design and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area.1). Column Design 105 . When the steel is undefined.1).

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual 0.1). • Determine total design moments by adding the corresponding additional moments to the factored moments obtained from the analysis. Compute moments due to minimum eccentricity.67 f cu g m = 0.and M y .4. defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set. M x . Determine whether the point. with a stress value of 0.9 x 2 Cs εs3 εs4 3 Ts 4 Ts (i) CONCRETE SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure VI-1 Idealized Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular.67 fcu/γm εc = 0.V y .V x . • Determine the additional moments due to slender column effect. The interaction algorithm provides corrections to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. Check Column Capacity The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each output station of each column.0035 d' εs1 εs2 1 Cs C x a = 0. 106 Column Design . See Figure VI-1. In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular location.45 f cu (BS 3. lies within the interaction volume.4. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give N .

• l e is the effective length in the plane under consideration.8. l x or l y in Figure II-4.8.1) 1 = 2000 . Determine Additional Moments The determination of additional moments depends on whether the frame is “braced” or “unbraced” against side-sway (BS 3. M x and M y. For “unbraced” columns additional moment is automatically considered in the P-D analysis.8. M add = N a u . But for “braced” columns.1) where. In calculating the value of the effective length.5). In the above equations.8. further calculation is required for stability of individual column members. and l 0 the unsupported length corresponding to instability in the major or minor direction of the element. However.8.6. giving N .V x . Determine Factored Moments and Forces Each load combination is defined with a set of load factors corresponding to the load cases.3).1. Column Design 107 . (BS 3. It is obtained from le = b l0 .3.3. Braced Column The additional moment in a braced column in a particular plane is the product of the axial load and the lateral deflection of the column in that plane (BS 3.1) (BS 3. The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to the load cases. (BS 3.1) where b is the effective length factor. SAP2000 allows the user to override this default value.1. a u is the deflection at the ultimate limit state which is obtained from au = be b e Kh and æ le ö ç ÷ è b¢ ø 2 (BS 3. • b¢ is the dimension of the column in the plane of bending considered.Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989 The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps.3.8. the b factor is conservatively taken as 1.V y .

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • h is also the dimension of the column in the plane of bending considered.8.4 (BS 3.2) M 1 and M 2 are the smaller and the larger end moments respectively.2. and • K is the correction factor to the deflection to take care of the influence of the axial force and K is conservatively taken as 1.2. Therefore.2 LL (White and Hajjar 1991).3. SAP2000 then calculates the total design moments by combining the factored moments obtained from analysis and the additional moments.8. e min = h 20 £ 20 mm (BS 3.8.6 M 2 ³ 0.2) (BS 3. That means moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity. it is assumed that the SAP2000 analysis includes P-D effects so that the analysis results include the effects of the additional moments.8.2) (BS 3. 108 Column Design .2) (BS 3. However. If the column is in double curvature.3.2) M 1 + 0. it is recommended that for P-D analysis a factor be used to obtain a P equivalent to 1. no additional computation is required.4 M 2 .05 times the overall dimension of the column in the plane of bending considered but not more than 20 mm (BS 3. (BS 3. M i is the initial moment in a column due to design ultimate loads at the point of maximum additional moment and is given by Mi = 0.8. If M 1 and M 2 ( M 2 > M 1 ) are the initial end moments in a column member in a particular plane.3.4).2 DL + 1.3.4) Unbraced Column In the case of the unbraced column. Both moments are assumed to be positive if the column is in single curvature.8.8. M 1 is assumed to be negative. then the maximum design moment for the column is taken as the greatest of the following: M2 M 1 + M add M i + M add / 2 N e min where.3. e min is the minimum eccentricity which is taken as 0.

If the point lies within the interaction volume. (BS 3. Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. if the point lies outside the interaction volume. the column capacity is adequate. M x .3. • If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity. • If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. In biaxial bending the algorithm ensures that the eccentricity exceeds the minimum about both the axes simultaneously. M x . M x . the minimum eccentricity requirements are satisfied so the design moment should at least be Mu ³ N e min .8. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. If the reinforcing area is not defined. OL See Figure II-3. Column Design 109 . The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. M y ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure II-3. This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity.and M y set and associated load combination number. The point (N . e min is the minimum eccentricity which is described in the previous section. and M y are obtained according to the previous subsections. the column is overstressed. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface. however. OC • If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity.Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989 Also.2) where. The capacity ratio. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling N . CR. is given by the ratio . the design forces N . a capacity ratio is calculated.

the following steps are involved (BS 3.8) k2 gm æ = ç è = f cu 25 1 ö ÷ ø 3 .1) £ 1.4. If v exceeds either 0.4.4.5.12) ³ £ 110 Column Design .4.5.4.12) 0.4.15 400 d Vd M £ (BS 3.8.4.4) (BS 2.4.4.5.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column.6) v ¢ c = v c + 0. 3.4) (BS 3.5.75 N Vd . the section area should be increased.5. 100 As bd 1. with Ac M 1 (BS 3.6): • Calculate the design shear stress from v= v v £ V .5.8 f cu or 5 N/mm2.4. where (BS 3. d ø (BS 3.5.8 f cu . 0.4) (BS 3. and 2 £ 5 N/mm . • Calculate the design concrete shear stress from (BS 3.4.5.4.8.12) (BS 3.12) 1 vc = 0.25 . Acv Acv = bd .5.2) (BS 3.79 k1 k 2 æ 100 As ç gm bd è ö ÷ ø 3 æ ç è 400 ö 4 ÷ .5. (BS 3. 1.4) where. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction. (BS 3. k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression and taken conservatively as 1.4.4.

provide minimum links defined by ³ Asv sv 0. SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments.1).4. 0. and other criteria described below.3) where f yv can not be greater than 460 MPA (BS 3. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: • Design beam flexural reinforcement • Design beam shear reinforcement Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at a user defined number of check stations along the beam span. load combination factors. provide links given by Asv sv ³ ( v . All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear.4.87 f yv (BS 3. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.v¢ c ) b .87 f yv (BS 3.4 .5. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam at a particular section. Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam span.4 b . 0. Effects due to any axial forces.4) As is the area of tensile steel.4.5. the following steps are involved: • Determine the maximum factored moments • Determine the reinforcing steel Beam Design 111 .4 .4.Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989 f cu £ 40 N/mm2. • If v £ v ¢ c + 0. minor direction bending.3) else if v > v ¢ c + 0. and shears.5.5. and (BS 3.

the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.4.1 f cu Ag (BS 3.4. b b ³ 0. Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section.e.4. M single . See Figure VI-2. hence all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. or T-Beam effects may be included. Furthermore it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. is obtained first for a section. The design procedure used by SAP2000. In addition.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete frame beams.4. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. the beam may be designed as a rectangular section. The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations at that section. less than. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. 112 Beam Design . or the grade of concrete. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. The reinforcing steel area is determined based on whether M is greater than. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. to safeguard against nonductile failures (BS 3.4. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure VI-2 (BS 3.1).and T-beams) is summarized below.4. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.4. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.4).4). Design of a Rectangular beam For rectangular beams.9) (BS 3. the width.. In such cases.5. Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.4.1). or equal to M single . x d £ 0.

Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989 • Calculate the ultimate moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. and K= This is the top steel if the section is under negative moment and the bottom steel if the section is under positive moment.4) ε = 0. b (BS 3. is obtained from (BS 3.87 f y ) z ì î £ z = d í0.4. As .95d .9x d As (i) BEAM SECTION εs (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tc (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure VI-2 Design of Rectangular Beam Section • If M As = £ M single the area of tension reinforcement. where (0. where K ¢ = 0.67fcu/γm A's fs' Cs d' c a=0. Beam Design 113 .4.0035 0.25 M .4. f cu bd 2 0.156 .4.5 + 0. M single = K ¢ f cu bd 2 .9 þ M .4) K ü ý 0.

(i) Flanged beam under negative moment The contribution of the flange to the strength of the beam is ignored.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • If M > M single .776 887 d . is given by M - As¢ = M single f s¢ ( d .d¢ ) K¢ ü ý 0. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.4. > 1d 2 ê 800 ú ë û This is the bottom steel if the section is under negative moment.5 + 0. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width. then the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width b f . and f s¢= 0.25 Design as a T-Beam = 0. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. 114 Beam Design . 1ê 2 ë 800 ú û = if fy ù d¢ 1é . (ii) Flanged beam under positive moment With the flange in compression. the area of tension reinforcement is calculated as As = M single (0.4) z = d í0.87 f y f s¢ 700 é1 ê ë if 2d ¢ ù d ú û d¢ d £ fy ù 1é .9 þ . where (BS 3. See Figure VI-3. where d¢ is the depth of the compression steel from the concrete compression face. The design procedure is therefore identical to the one used for rectangular beams except that in the corresponding equations b is replaced by b w .4.d ¢ ) . the area of compression reinforcement. Based on this assumption. From equilibrium.87 f y ) z ì î + M - M single f y ( d . Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. As¢ . See Figure VI-3.

9 x . the balance of moment taken by the web is computed as Mw = M - M f . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. • If a £ h f . Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether K > K ¢. Beam Design 115 . C f . as shown in Figure VI-3.5 + 0. • If a > h f . the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by M f = 0. is taken as the width of the beam.z ) . In this case. and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by Kw = Mw f cu b w d 2 . the depth of neutral axis is computed as x= 1 ( d . for analysis. b.45 f cu ( b f - bw ) h f ( d - 0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. and 0.95d . f cu b f d 2 Then the moment arm is computed as z = d í0. C w .25 î ì K ü ý 0. in this case the width of the compression flange.45 the depth of compression block is given by a = 0. b f . the normalized moment is computed as K= M .Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989 Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. However.9 þ £ 0. calculation for As is done in two parts.5 h f ) .

As = M 0.156. The compression reinforcement is computed as 116 Beam Design . where 0.25 Kw 0.67 fcu/γm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure VI-3 Design of a T-Beam Section – If K w £ 0.9 0.95d . The area of steel is calculated as the sum of two parts. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.5 + 0.5 h f ) - + Mw .67 fcu/γm 0. The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude M w .M uw . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by M uw = K ¢ f cu b w d 2 .87 f y z ü ý þ £ z = d í0.0035 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. – If K w > K ¢.87 f y ( d ì î f - 0.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual bf hf ε = 0.

(BS 3.4.5.4) where.79 k1 k 2 æ 100 As vc = ç gm bd è 1 ö ÷ ø 3 æ ç è 400 ö 4 ÷ .5.0.M uw . k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.87 f y ê d .2) 0. if 2d ¢ ù .5): • Calculate the design shear stress as v= v v £ V .4.Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989 As¢ = M w .4. and f s¢ = 0.777 d û ë Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column.5. if d ú û d¢ d £ fy ù 1é .4. • Calculate the design concrete shear stress from 0.8 f cu . d ¢ is the depth of the compression steel from the concrete compression face. d ø 1 (BS 3. Acv Acv = bd . where (BS 3.8) Beam Design 117 . the following steps are involved (BS 3.5.2) (BS 3.5.87 f y . ê d .d¢ ú 0. and is conservatively taken as 1.4. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction.M uw ù 1 + + w ú . and 1ê 2ë 800 ú û f s¢= 700 é1 ê ë fy ù d¢ 1é .5 h f 0.d ¢ ) where.4.2) (BS 3. and 2 £ 5 N/mm . > 1d 2ê 800 ú ë û The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium As = Mf é M uw M . f s¢ ( d .

5.25 .4. (BS 3.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual æ = ç è k2 f cu 25 1 ö ÷ ø 3 ³ 1.4 b .5.4) (BS 3.4. As is the area of tensile steel.4.4.5. 0.3) where f yv can not be greater than 460 MPA (BS 3.15 400 d f cu £ 100 As bd 1 .4) (BS 2.4.5. • If v £ v c + 0.1).4) ³ £ 40 N/mm2 (for calculation purpose only).4. 118 Beam Design .1) gm = 1. and £ 3.5.4. 0.4. and (BS 3.87 f yv (BS 3. the following limitations also apply: 0.5.87 f yv (BS 3.4. However.5.v c ) b . provide minimum links defined by ³ Asv sv 0.4. provide links given by Asv sv ³ (v .4) (BS 3.3) else if v > v c + 0.4.

namely 1.35 DL + 1. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table VII-1. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. However.C h a p t e r VII Design for Eurocode 2 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the 1992 Eurocode 2 (CEN 1992). Design Load Combinations 119 . The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units.5 LL. Design Load Combinations The design loading combinations define the various factored combinations of the load cases for which the structure is to be checked. the design will need only one loading combination. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. For simplicity. If a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only. The design loading combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.

mm Table VII-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2 120 Design Load Combinations . MPA Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = f cwk g c . mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPA Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending.2. mm2 Depth of compression block. f cs f yd f yk . mm2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPA Characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete at 28 days. assumed as 200000 MPa (EC2 4. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. mm Design concrete compressive strength = f ck g c . mm Effective height of a column.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Ac Acv As As¢ Asw a b bf bw d d¢ Ec Es e e min e tot f cd f ck . mm2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm2 Area of tension reinforcement in a beam. mm Minimum or nominal eccentricity. mm Clear height between end restraints. MPA Stress in a beam compression steel. MPA Characteristic tensile yield strength of reinforcement.2) Eccentricity of axial load in a column. MPA Design tensile strength of shear reinforcing steel = f ywk g s . MPA Design tensile yield strength of reinforcing steel = f yk g s . mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm2 Area of section for shear resistance. MPA Characteristic tensile strength of shear reinforcement. mm Flange thickness. mm Width or effective width of flange. f c¢ f cwd ¢ f cwk . mm2 Area of total longitudinal reinforcement in a column. f ys h hf l0 l col Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member.2.3. MPA Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Total eccentricity for a braced column. f y f s¢ f ywd f ywk . mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design.

As bd Effective average compressive stress in concrete column. mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone. N-mm Normalized design moment. 1. N-mm Design moment of resistance of a section N-mm Moment at a section obtained from analysis. M 2 Mx .5 by default Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for steel strength. Enhancement factor of shear resistance for concentrated load Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for concrete strength. Out of plumbness factor Tension reinforcement ratio. As¢ f yd af cd bd Normalized limiting tensile steel ratio g f gc gm gs d ec es e s¢ n r s cp w w¢ wlim Table VII-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2 (continued) Design Load Combinations 121 . N Shear force from reinforcement.15 by default Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing.V y V wd a b Design moment at a section. N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section. MPA Normalized tensile steel ratio. N Spacing of links. N Shear force at ultimate design load. N Shear force at ultimate design load in two directions. As f yd af cd bd Normalized compression steel ratio. M bd 2 af cd Ultimate axial load. 1.M y M Rd M Sd m N sv V Rd 1 V Rd 2 V Sd V x . N-mm Smaller and larger end moments in a slender column.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 M M1 . N Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading Effective length factor. N-mm Applied moments about the major and minor axes of a column.

and considering that wind and earthquake forces are subject to reversals.3.5. These default loading combinations are produced for persistent and transient design situations (EC2 2. live.35 DL 1. the code requires that all buildings should be capable of resisting a notional design ultimate horizontal load applied at each floor or roof level (EC2 2. where (EC2 2. and earthquake loads according to the simplified formula (EC2 2.3) (EC2 2.3.2) = = f cwk f yk f ywk gc gs .1.35 LL ± 1.3.00 DL ± 1.3.3) (EC2 2. (EC2 2.35 DL + 1. in addition to the dead load and live load.3.50 LL 1.3.35 WL 1. the following load combinations might have to be considered (EC2 2.35 DL + 1.00 DL ± 1.00 DL + 1.3) EL These are the default load combinations.50 WL 1. It is recommended that the user define additional load cases for considering the notional load in SAP2000.2) by combining load due to dead.3.3.1) for ultimate limit states.2) (EC2 2.3. f cd f cwd f yd f ywd = f ck gc .00 EL 1.3): 1.1.5*0.3.3). Design Strength The design strength for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the materials by a corresponding partial factor of safety as shown below.3.2. gs = 122 Design Strength .3 LL ± 1.0 (EC2 2. .2) .35 DL ± 1. wind.3.50 WL 1. In addition to the above load combinations. as allowed by some design codes.3.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual However.3. Live load reduction factors. can be applied to the member forces of the live load condition on a member-by-member basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.2) (EC2 2. if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) forces.

3. and = Partial safety factor for concrete = 1. • Design the column shear reinforcing. if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user.1. The minimum reinforcement is taken to be N Sd ì ï0.1. However.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 gs gc = Partial safety factor for steel = 1.4.5. the program checks the column capacity. (EC2 2. • Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column.2. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: • Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete sections types of the model (EC2 4.003A c î (EC2 5. When the steel is undefined. min = max í f yd ï 0. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending.2.3.2) (EC2 2. Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user. the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations as shown in Figure II-1. the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column. The coordi- Column Design 123 .15.3.3.3.4.1).1.1) and the maximum reinforcement is taken to be 8 percent (EC2 5.2) Column Design The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section.15 As .2). A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II-1. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps.

2).3. and is limited to the design yield strength the steel. e c .3). The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain. e s E s .3). with a stress value of af cd .0035 and at a depth of d from the most compressed face 7 to 0.2. square. See Figure VII-1.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual nates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. or circular column section. where f cd is the design value of concrete cylinder compressive strength and a is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression.80 (EC2 4. f yd (EC2 4. The interaction algo- 124 Column Design .1. The formulation is based consistently upon the basic principles of ultimate strength design and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular. See Figure II-2. at the ex3 tremity of the section to 0. See Figure VII-1.2. The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular. The area associated with each reinforcing bar is placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder).1. Figure VII-1 Idealized Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity.0020 (EC2 4.3. a is generally assumed to be 0.3.

such that e tot = e0 = + ea + e2 . and M y . the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give N.6.3. • Determine the code total moments due to slender column effect. In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular location. Compute moments due to minimum eccentricity. V y . and M y.6 M 2 .2) M2 . The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to the load cases. V y . where N M1 £ e0 0. where M2 N ³ 0. • Check the column capacity ratio or compute the reinforcement for the column for resisting the factored moments. Braced Column Eurocode specifies that for braced columns the total moment should be computed from a set of eccentricities. and the moments from minimum eccentricity. V x . giving N.5. the code total moments. M x .Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 rithm provides corrections to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone.2) Column Design 125 .4 (EC2 4. (EC2 4.6. M x .3.4 M1 N + 0.5. Determine Factored Moments and Forces Each load combination is defined with a set of load factors corresponding to the load cases. Determine Code Total Moments The determination of code total moments depends on whether the frame is “braced” or “unbraced” against side-sway. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. Check Column Capacity The column capacity is checked for each loading combination of each column. V x .

(EC2 4.3. l = bl 0 rG .N bal - £ 1 .05 times the overall dimension of the column in the plane of bending and is given by e min =h 20 .3. (EC2 4. for l > 35.3) Finally the design moments are computed from the maximum of the three.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual nl 0 ea n = 2 .5. N Rd e min .5 E s d ì0 .5.5.5. and l col is the unsupported length corresponding to instability in the major or minor direction of the element.5. where (EC2 4.6) 126 Column Design .5.3. M factored ). e2 = 2 k1 k 2 l 0 f yd 4.3. = The axial force obtained from analysis.4) is taken as 1/100. (EC2 4.75.5) where b is the effective length factor depending on the end conditions and resistance against side-sway. í ï î 20 1 for 15 < l £ 35. and e min is the minimum eccentricity which is taken as 0. k 2 is taken as 1.3.6. (EC2 4.3. l 0 is the effective length of a column in a given plane and is obtained from l0 = b l col . the minimum eccentricity requirement is satisfied such that M Rd N Sd > N Sd e min .5. for l £ 15.5.3. However.3) M Rd = Design moment resistance of the section.3) k1 = ïl .0. b is conservatively taken as 1 for braced frames. M Rd = max( N Rd e tot . l x and l y in Figure II-4. (EC2 4. and k2 = N ud N ud N sd . however the user can override this value (EC2 2.1.3). rG = the radius of gyration about the axis of bending.0.5.

M x .5. the design forces N . Therefore. the column is overstressed.3) where. In addition. if the point lies outside the interaction volume. This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C.3. OL See Figure II-3. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 In biaxial bending. it is recommended that a factor be used to obtain a axial force P equivalent to 1. and M y are obtained according to the previous subsections. That means. it is assumed that the SAP2000 analysis includes P-D effects so that the analysis results include the effects of the additional moments. is given by the ratio . the moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity.35 DL + 1. The capacity ratio.5. Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. However. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface. the minimum eccentricity requirement needs to be satisfied so that the design moment should at least be M Rd ³ N e min . M y ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure II-3. CR. the program calculates the design moments at any station about two axes. In biaxial bending the algorithm ensures that the eccentricity exceeds the minimum about both the axes simultaneously. a capacity ratio is calculated. M x . (EC2 4. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. Unbraced Column In the case of the unbraced column. If the point lies within the interaction volume. any additional computation is not required. Column Design 127 . the column capacity is adequate. The point (N . however.35 LL for P-D analysis (White and Hajjar 1991). OC • If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. e min is the minimum eccentricity which is described in the previous section.

and M y set and associated load combination number. If the reinforcing area is not defined.1): • Obtain the design value of the applied shear forceV Sd from the SAP2000 analysis results. • The effect of any torsion is neglected for the design of shear reinforcement. V Sd = V2 or V 3 • Calculate the design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement.3. • If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed.15 s cp Acv .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. the effect of the direct support on the columns provided by the beams is ignored.2. Also. the following steps of the standard method are involved (EC2 4. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction.3. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling N . The assumptions in designing the shear reinforcement are as follows: • The column sections are assumed to be prismatic. where (EC2 4. The effect of any variation of width in the column section on the concrete shear capacity is neglected. M x .2 + 40 r 1 ) + 0. V Rd 1 = b t Rd k (1. SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity. Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column.3(1)) 128 Column Design . • The effect on the concrete shear capacity of any concentrated or distributed load in the span of the column between two beams is ignored. • All shear reinforcement is provided through shear reinforcements which are perpendicular to the longitudinal reinforcement.2.

3. it is taken as Acv which is shown in Figure VII-2. V Rd 2 1 n f cwd 0. (EC2 4. 0. (EC2 4. • Calculate the maximum design shear force that can be carried without crushing of the notional concrete compressive struts. red £ V Rd 2 = . red .2.3) (EC2 4.9 Acv . strength magnification factor for curtailment of longitudinal reinforcement and depth of the section.2. and is considered to be 1.2.2. where (EC2 4.3.3(3)) £ V Rd 2 . 05 f ctm k = = 0.3) Ac N Sd = the design value of the applied axial force in section.3.2.3. V Rd 2 .3) f ctk 0. (EC2 4. For a rectangular section Acv equals b w d . (EC2 4.2.3) Acv = the total area of concrete cross-section.3.2(4)) (EC2 4.05 gc = t Rd = .7 f ctm .67 V Rd 2 ç 1 ç è æ s cp .2.3.3. taken as half of total longitudinal reinforcement.1(9)) b is taken as 1.3.2. in a column. red 0 = 1. V Rd 2 . N Sd is taken as positive for compression and negative for tension.3) r1 = As1 = area of tension reinforcement.3) (EC2 3.3. eff ö ÷ f cd ÷ ø .1. s cp (EC2 4. (EC2 4. tension reinforcement ratio = As1 Acv £ 0.3.2.3) Ac = the total gross area of concrete cross-section.1.2(4)) (EC2 4.2.3) = average stress in concrete due to axial force = N Sd . 2 Column Design 129 .2.25 f ctk 0.02 .2. 2 3 0. basic design shear strength of concrete.2.3) (EC2 3.3. and (EC2 4.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 b = enhancement factor for shear resistance for members with concentrated loads located near the face of the support. As 2.3 f cwk .

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual d' DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE d Acv b RECTANGULAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE A cv b SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE Acv CIRCULAR Figure VII-2 Shear Stress Area.(EC2 4.7 - f ck ³ 0.3.5 .3. the effectiveness factor.3) s cp . effective average stress in concrete.2. Acv n = 0.2) 130 Column Design . eff = f yd As 2 Ac . 200 N Sd - (EC2 4.2.

obtained from each load combination.4.2.3): If V Sd £ V Rd 1 .2.3.V Rd 1 Acv 0.2(4)) Ac is the gross total area of concrete cross-section. Asw =0.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 N Sd = the design axial force. Column Design 131 .3. As 2. (EC2 4.3. it is taken positive for compression and negative for tension. is reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.3.2.4. (EC2 4.2(4)) The maximum of all the calculated Asw s values.4.3) f ywd is the design yield strength of the shear reinforcement.2.3.2. red . and (EC2 4.2(4)) As 2 is the area of reinforcement in the compression zone. red . • The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed following the Standard method as follows (EC2 4. s (EC2 4.2.2(4)) f yd £ 400 MPa.3. in a column.2(4)) f yd = the design yield stress of compression steel. (EC2 4. where V Sd .9 f ywd (EC2 4.2. else if V Sd ³ V Rd 2. (EC2 4.2. As 2 is taken as half of total longitudinal reinforcement.3. b w . a failure condition is declared.3.3) else if V Rd 1 < V Sd Asw s = < V Rd 2.

SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments. r w Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. Concrete Strength (MPA) fcwk £ 20 20 < fcwk £ 35 fcwk > 35 Steel Strength (MPA) fywk £ 220 0. and other criteria described below.4.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • For all columns and at any station.0030 220 < fywk £ 400 0. r w is determined from the following table (EC2 Table 5.0016 fywk > 400 0. Effects due to any axial forces.2 Minimum shear reenforcement ratio. the minimum area of shear reinforcement is imposed as follows: Asw s ³ r w bw (EC2 5. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.2(5)) In the above equation r w is the shear reinforcement ratio.0013 Table VII.0007 0.0013 0.0011 0.0024 0.0016 0. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam span. It is taken based on ¢ the concrete compression strength for shear use f cs which is the same as f cwk and the shear rebar yield strength f ys which is the same as f ywk . shears.5). The beam design procedure involves the following steps: • Design beam flexural reinforcement • Design beam shear reinforcement 132 Beam Design . load combination factors.0009 0.2. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. minor direction bending.

1. Negative beam moments produce top steel. Furthermore. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 2.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at the design stations along the beam span. the width.3. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code specified limiting value. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel.08 f ck Ag (EC2 4.5.2). the following steps are involved: • Determine the maximum factored moments • Determine the reinforcing steel Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement.2). The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. Beam Design 133 .1. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.3. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. the beam may be designed as a rectangular section. Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. In designing the flexural reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular section. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. In such cases.3.2). the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.4. hence all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. or T-Beam effects may be included.and T-beams) is summarized below. or the grade of concrete. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure VII-3 (EC2 4. The design procedure used by SAP2000. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. When the applied moment exceeds M u . for the beam major moment. The beam sec+ tion is then designed for the maximum positive M u and maximum negative M u factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.

1. mlim æ =ç è xö é x ù 1 . m= a M bd 2 af cd . d.1) = 1.3.3.25 d . as follows: æ ç è æ ç è d xö ÷ d ø lim xö ÷ d ø lim = d . See Figure VII-3.4.0.56 . (EC2 2. is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution.0. or equal to mlim . are obtained first. 134 Beam Design .0. and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforced beam.4 æ ö ú . if > 35 . . if f ck f ck £ 35 .44 1. with a stress value of af cd . The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular. m. gc • Calculate the normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. a is generally assumed to be 0. mlim .25 .5. where f cd is the design concrete f strength and is equal to ck . ÷ ç ÷ ê d ø lim ë è d ø lim û x where the limiting value of the ratio.1) is assumed to be 1.3). of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate d limit state after redistribution to the effective depth.4. where is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression. less than. (EC2 4. (EC2 2. mlim . the normalized moment.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design as a Rectangular Beam For rectangular beams. • Calculate the normalized design moment. m. See also page 124 for a . The reinforcing steel area is determined based on whether m is greater than.80 for assumed rectangular stress block.2.5.

As .807 æ ç xö ÷ . This is the top steel if the section is under negative moment and the bottom steel if the section is under positive moment. and w . Calculate the normalized steel ratio.0035 αfck/γc b A's fs' d' x Cs a=0. from As = w ê ê ë é af cd bd ù ú ú û f yd .Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 ε = 0. Calculate the area of tension reinforcement. Both top and bottom steel are required. a singly reinforced beam will suffice. the beam will not suffice as a singly reinforced beam.8x d h As (i) BEAM SECTION εs (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tc (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure VII-3 Design of a Rectangular Beam • If m £ mlim . • If m > mlim . è d ø lim Beam Design 135 . 0.2m . w =1 - 1 . – Calculate the normalized steel ratios w¢. wlim = wlim .

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual m . Based on this assumption. A¢ s and As . and 1 . However. • Calculate the normalized design moment.1. as follows: As¢ = w¢ é af cd bd ù ê f s¢ ú ë û . a is generally assumed to be 0.80 for assumed rectangular stress block.mlim .d ¢/ d . m= a M . is taken as the width of the beam. additional calculation is required. Design as a T-Beam (i) Flanged beam under negative moment The contribution of the flange to the strength of the beam is ignored if the flange is in the tension side. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis. max é1 ê ë £ . The design procedure is therefore identical to the one used for rectangular beams.3).2. See 136 Beam Design . b w . If the stress block extends beyond the flange. See Figure VII-4. See Figure VII-4. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width b f . m. (ii) Flanged beam under positive moment With the flange in compression. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. and As = é af bd ù cd wê ú f yd û ú ê ë where 2d ¢ ù d ú û fy gs f s¢ = E s e c . Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. the width of the web. where b f d 2 af cd is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression. w¢ = w = wlim + w¢ – Calculate the area of compression and tension reinforcement. (EC2 4.

5. Beam Design 137 . The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular.0.8x Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure VII-4 Design of a T-Beam Section • Calculate the limiting value of the ratio.0.3.1) = 1.25 .2m .5.0035 α fck/γc α fck/γc bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = 0. as follows: æ ç è æ ç è æ ç è d xö ÷ d ø lim xö ÷ d ø lim = d . • Calculate the normalized steel ratio. xö ÷ .56 . which is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution. if > 35 . w =1 - 1 . ε = 0. d.44 1.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 also page 124 for a .1) is assumed to be 1. of the neutral axis depth at the d ø lim ultimate limit state after redistribution to the effective depth.4. (EC2 2.4.3.25 d . if f ck f ck £ 35 . with a stress value of af cd . (EC2 2.

÷ ç ÷ d ø lim ê d ø lim û è ë mlim . • If æ ç è æ > ç ç è hf d . x d • If æ ç è = w 0. and é af ê ê ë cd – If m1 w1 = 1 - As1 = w1 bw d ù ú ú û f yd . Calculate the area of tension reinforcement.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual x . Calculate steel area required for equilibrating the flange compression. as follows: d • Calculate the ratio.M 2 . as follows: m1 = M1 b w d 2 af cd . ö ÷ ÷ ø x ö æ hf ÷£ç dø ç d è .2m 1 . M 1 = M .4 æ ö ú . 1 . as follows: As = xö ÷ dø é af cd b f wê ê ë dù ú ú û f yd ö ÷ ÷ ø . 138 Beam Design . As . the neutral axis lies within the flange. As 2 . and mlim æ =ç è £ xö é x ù 1 . the neutral axis lies below the flange. and the corresponding resistive moment is given by M2 = As 2 f yd ç d ç è æ - hf 2 ö ÷ ÷ ø . Calculate steel area required for rectangular section of width b r to resist moment.807 .0.bw )h f af cd f yd . As 2 = (b f .

d ¢/ d 0. As = As1 + As 2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination at various check stations along the beam span. – Calculate total steel area required for the tension side. the effect of the direct support on the beams provided by the columns is ignored. and ù ú ú û wlim = w1 = wlim + w¢ As¢ = w¢ é af cd bd ù ê f s¢ ú ë û As1 = f s¢ é af b d cd w w1 ê f yd ê ë where fy gs = E s e c .1). the following steps of the standard method are involved (EC2 4.807 æ ç xö ÷ . The assumptions in designing the shear reinforcements are as follows: • The beam sections are assumed to be prismatic. • The effect on the concrete shear capacity of any concentrated or distributed load in the span of the beam between two columns is ignored. 1 . • The effect of any torsion is neglected for the design of shear reinforcement. max é1 ê ë 2d ¢ ù d ú û £ . In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction. w¢ = m1 .Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 – If m1 > mlim . è d ø lim . Beam Design 139 .3. Also. .2. • All shear reinforcements are assumed to be perpendicular to the longitudinal reinforcement.mlim . The effect of any variation of width in the beam section on the concrete shear capacity is neglected.

3) Ac N Sd = the design value of the applied axial force in section.67 V Rd 2 ç 1 ç è æ s cp . 2 3 0.3) • Calculate the maximum design shear force that can be carried without crushing of the notional concrete compressive struts.2. N Sd is taken as positive for compression and negative for tension.3. 05 f ctm k = = 0.3. (EC2 4. tension reinforcement ratio = As1 bw d £ 0.3.3.2. 0.3.15 s cp b w d .3) r1 = As1 = area of tension reinforcement in the beam.3.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • Obtain the design value of the applied shear force V Sd from the SAP2000 analysis results.1.2.2. (EC2 4.3 f cwk .3.2 + 40 r 1 ) + 0.2.3) (EC2 4. V Rd 2 .3) Ac = the total gross area of concrete cross-section.7 f ctm .02 . V Rd 2 .2.3.1(9)) b is taken as 1.2(4)) 140 Beam Design .3(1)) = enhancement factor for shear resistance for members with concentrated loads located near the face of the support. s cp = average stress in concrete due to axial force = N Sd .3) (EC2 4.2. (EC2 4.2.2.1.05 gc = t Rd = . V Sd = V2 • Calculate the design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement.2.3.3) f ctk 0. (EC2 4. (EC2 4. where (EC2 4. eff ö ÷ f cd ÷ ø .3) (EC2 3. strength magnification factor for curtailment of longitudinal reinforcement and depth of the section. basic design shear strength of concrete.3. where (EC2 4.2.2.3) (EC2 3. and (EC2 4. red = 1. and is considered to be 1. red . V Rd 1 b = b t Rd k (1.25 f ctk 0.

(EC2 4. obtained from each load combination.3. The maximum of all the calculated Asw s values.2) N Sd = the design axial force.3): If V Sd Asw s £ V Rd 1 =0.2.2.3) V Rd 2 1 n f cwd 0. (EC2 4.3) V Sd . 200 N Sd - n = 0. • The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed following the Standard method as follows (EC2 4.9 Acv . 2 f ck ³ 0.3(3)) (EC2 4.2.3. red .7 - s cp .3.3. .2(4)) 400 MPa. and Ac is the gross total area of concrete cross-section.2(4)) (EC2 4.2(4)) (EC2 4. red else if V Rd 1 < V Sd Asw s = .(EC2 4.2.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 0 £ V Rd 2 .V Rd 1 Acv 0.2(4)) (EC2 4.3.2(4)) a failure condition is declared.3.4.2.4. red £ V Rd 2 = . eff = f yd As 2 Ac . As 2 is the area of the compression reinforcement.2.3. effective average stress in concrete.2(4)) f yd = the design yield stress of compression steel. the effectiveness factor.3.2.3.2.3. it is taken positive for compression and negative for tension.5 . where (EC2 4.3.9 f ywd f ywd is the design yield strength of the shear reinforcement.2. Beam Design 141 .3. (EC2 4.4. else if V Sd ³ V Rd 2.2. (EC2 4.2. b w .3) < V Rd 2. f yd £ (EC2 4. is reported for the major directions of the beam along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.2.

r w is determined from Table VII.2 according to the EC2 Table 5. It is taken based on ¢ the concrete compression strength for shear use f cs which is the same as f cwk and the shear rebar yield strength f ys which is the same as f ywk .4.5.2(5)) In the above equation r w is the shear reinforcement ratio.2. the minimum area of shear reinforcement is imposed as follows: Asw s ³ r w bw (EC2 5.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • For all beams and at any station. 142 Beam Design .

But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. the frame has to be identified as either Ductile.C h a p t e r VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the New Zealand code. Limited. NZS 310195 (NZS 1995). respectively. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted. The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in the following sections. 143 . frames with Limited ductility. or Elastic to represent Ductile moment resisting frames. For regular design. SAP2000 provides options to design or check all types of moment resisting frames as required for regular and seismic design. For Seismic design. the frame should be identified as Ordinary. and Elastically responding frames. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table VIII-1. For simplicity.

mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete.3. mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis. mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement.000 MPa (NZS 3. mm Thickness of slab (T-Beam section). assumed as 200. mm Maximum depth of compression block.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Acv Ag As As¢ As (required ) Ast Av a ab a max b bf bw Cm c cb d d¢ ds Ec Es f c¢ fy f yt h Ig k L Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. MPA Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. sq-mm Gross area of concrete. sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm4 Effective length factor Clear unsupported length. neglecting reinforcement. dependent upon column curvature. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement.3) Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm Concrete cover to center of reinforcing. MPA Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-mm Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement. mm Width of web (T-Beam section). MPA Dimension of beam or column. MPA Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. mm Coefficient. mm Effective width of flange (T-Beam section). mm Table VIII-1 List of Symbols Used in the New Zealand code 144 . mm Width of member.8. sq-mm Depth of compression block. used to calculate moment magnification factor Depth to neutral axis. sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement.

N Basic shear stress resisted by concrete. N-mm Sway component of factored end moment. N-mm Factored moment at section. N Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity. N Shear force at a section resisted by steel. N Maximum axial load strength allowed. N Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. N-mm Nonsway component of factored end moment. N-mm Factored moment to be used in design. N-mm Factored moment at section about Y-axis. MPA Shear force resisted by concrete. N Critical buckling strength of column. N Factored axial load at section. N Factored shear force at a section. N-mm Factored moment at section about X-axis. N-mm Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions. N-mm Larger factored end moment in a column. MPA Shear stress resisted by concrete. N Shear force from span loading. N Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Average stress factor in equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Absolute value of the ratio of the maximum factored axial dead load moment to the maximum factored total load moment Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Moment magnification factor for sway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor for bending Table VIII-1 List of Symbols Used in the New Zealand code (continued) 145 .Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 M1 M2 Mc M ns Ms M* M* x M* y Nb Nc N max N0 N* vb vc Vc VD +L Vp V* Vs a a1 b1 bd db ds ec es jb Smaller factored end moment in a column.

4 DL 1.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.2) (NZS 3.85 for bending and = 0. or pattern live loads are to be considered. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL). live load (LL).4.2 DL ± 1.0 DL + 0.0 (NZS 4203-92 2.4.2.4.2) (NZS 3. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated.0 WL 1.3) EL These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the NZS 3101-95 code is used. then the following load combinations may have to be considered for design of concrete frames (NZS 4203-92 2.4.0 WL 1. 146 Design Load Combinations .3) (NZS 4203-92 2. wind (WL).0 EL 1. other types of loads are present.3) (NZS 4203-92 2.2 DL + 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. is taken as jb jc js = 0.2.3): 1. Strength Reduction Factors The default strength reduction factor.6 LL 1.2) The user can.4.4. overwrite them.75 for shear.0 WL 0.3.2 DL + 0. For this code.0 DL ± 1. (NZS 3.2.85 for compression and = 0. j .4.9 DL ± 1. and earthquake (EL) loads.4 LL ± 1. however.4 LL ± 1.3. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.3.

• Design the column shear reinforcement. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement ratios  0. square.5. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user. The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (NZS 8.003 (NZS 8. at the extremity of the section.6. or circular column section. Column Design 147 . Limited. if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user.4. See Figure II-2. the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: • Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. to 0.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 Column Design The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II-1. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending. When the steel is undefined.008 to 18 f y for Seismic (Ductile. e c . • Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column.2). the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column. the program checks the column capacity. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area.3. and Elastic) moment resisting frames (NZS 8.4. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain.3). However.008 to 0.1) and 0.08 for Ordinary moment resisting frames (NZS 8. A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure II-1.1. Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular. The coordinates of these points of the interaction diagram are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column.3).

1.3. and is limited to the yield stress of the steel.1.85 .004 ( b1 = 0.65 £ b1 £ 0. £ 0.003 α1 f'c 1 Cs C 2 Cs a= 1c d' c εs1 εs2 εs3 εs4 Ts3 Ts4 (i) Concrete Section (ii) Strain Diagram (iii) Stress Diagram Figure VIII-1 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain. The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder).7) (NZS 8.008 ( f c¢ f c¢ .3. f y (NZS 8. E s .7) (NZS 8.1.7) and a depth of the stress block of b1 c.55).1.4).1.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual εc = 0.0.0.75 £ a 1 0. e s .7) (NZS 8. with a stress value of a 1 f c¢ (NZS 8. the following limits are imposed on the steel tensile strength and the concrete compressive strength: 148 Column Design .7) 0. The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular.85.30).85 .3. (NZS 8.3.3. See Figure VIII-1.1.85. where a 1 = 0.3. and the steel modulus of elasticity. . and and In designing the column longitudinal reinforcement.

Limited). Elastic). M * . ) + f y Ast ] (Ductile. The x y factored moments are further increased.4. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps.2.1. Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to all the load conditions.8. to obtain minimum eccentricities of (15 + 0. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give N * .Ast ) + f y Ast ] (Ordinary.11.4. (NZS 8. and M * .70 j c [a 1 f c¢ ( Ag .1. where the maximum factored axial load resistance is given by: N max = 0.Ast .4) Check Column Capacity The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each check station of each column. The effects of the strength reduction factor. defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set.1) (NZS 3.4. x y • Determine the moment magnification factors for stability. are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces.4) 70 MPa The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. • Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored loads obtained in the first step.5). • Determine the dynamic moment magnification effect.5) (NZS 8. In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular station.1) (NZS 3.8. j . and M * . Determine whether the point.8.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 fy f c¢ f c¢ £ 500 £ 100 £ MPA MPA (Ordinary and Elastic) (Ductile and Limited) (NZS 3. giving N * . The maximum compressive axial load is limited to N max .03 h ) mm.85 j c [a 1 f c¢ ( Ag N max = 0. where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (NZS 8. The computed moments are further amplified by us- Column Design 149 . if required. M * .1.5. lies within the interaction volume.

M c . These amplified moments are further amplified for individual member stability effect.4. In SAP2000. taken as 1. the moment magnification factor for lateral drift effect is applied only to the “sway” moment in SAP2000. The magnified moment is computed as. The program assumes that the SAP2000 analysis models P-D effects. obtained from the analysis and a magnified factored moment. especially those related to the value of EI used in analysis (NZS 8. SAP2000 treats all frames uniformly to amplify non-sway components of moments. d sx and d sy . The moment magnification factors.0. can be taken as 1.11. The non-sway components are amplified for lateral drift effect. the user can explicitly specify values of d sx and d sy .0 if a P-D analysis is carried out.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual ing “Moment Magnification Factors” to allow for “Lateral Drift Effect” and “Member Stability Effect”. It is suggested that the P-D analysis be done at the factored load level (White and Hajjar 1991).5). the EI values are computed based on gross cross-section areas.85. Member Stability Effects All compression members are designed using the factored axial load.4 LL)/j c with the loading standard NZS 4203. N * . d sx and d sy . Although this amplification may be avoided for “braced” frames according to the code. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member.0 DL + 0. where j c is the strength reduction factor for compression and is equal to 0. First the moments are separated into their “sway” and “non-sway” components. M = M ns +ds M s The moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway in the major and minor directions. can be different. Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are applied in two different stages. d sx and d sy are 150 Column Design . The user is reminded of the special analysis requirements. The necessary factors for a P-D analysis for the NZS 3101-95 code should be (1. therefore. The user has the option to reduce the EI values for analysis purposes using a scale factor on a section-by-section basis. Lateral Drift Effect For all frames.

where (NZS 8.5) bd = Maximum factored axial dead load . d b . (NZS 8. and M c is the maximum moment associated with the major or minor direction of the column occurring either at the end or at an interior point within the span of the column. however the user can override the value. for moments not causing sidesway is given by db = 1- Cm N* j c Nc p ³ 1. EI is associated with a particular column direction given by EI = 0. C m = 1 (NZS 8. If N * is found to be greater than or equal to j c N c . The magnification factor.4. The moment magnification factor. or the length is overwritten.4 (NZS 8.11.4. The two unsupported lengths are l 22 and l 33 corresponding to instability in the minor and major di- Column Design 151 .11. The above calculations use the unsupported lengths of the column.4. and (NZS 8.11.5) M a and M b are the moments at the ends of the column. and M b is numerically larger than M a . Maximum factored total axial load Ma Mb ³ 0. or for any other case. If transverse load is present on the span. Therefore N * must be less than j c N c . a failure condition is declared. ( kL) 2 2 k is conservatively taken as 1. The above expression of C m is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports. M a M b is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending.5). C m can be overwritten by the user on an element by element basis.40 E c I g 1 + bd .4 .4. (NZS 8. must be a positive number and greater than one. d b .Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 Mc =db M 2 .11.6 + 0.5) Nc = EI .5) where M 2 is the column maximum end moment obtained from elastic analysis after considering minimum eccentricity and lateral drift effect.11.1) C m = 0.4.0 .

1. * V col = the design shear for column. w = the dynamic magnification factor.3 h bV col * (NZS A7.0. It is taken as 1. which is based on a conservative assumption that h b is equal to zero.elastic = the column moment at the center of the joint obtained from linear elastic analysis. and is taken as 1. the three parameters R m .1. the moment is further amplified for dynamic effects of higher modes as follows (NZS 8. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. for Ductile moment resisting frames (NZS Table A3). See Figure II-4.5. Dynamic Moment Magnification For seismic design of Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility.elastic . In the current implementation of SAP2000. and the user can overwrite this. the reduction due to the design shear force is taken as zero. The user can overwrite this. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions. j 0 . and h b = the overall dimension of the beam at the beam-column joint. Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. However.1.6). w.25 j b (NZS A4.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual rections of the element. The user can model this using end-offsets in SAP2000. = Rm j 0 w M col. in the current implementation. 152 Column Design . M col.2) R m = the moment reduction factor which is taken as a function of axial force and the dynamic magnification factor. It is taken as 1 for frames with Limited ductility.5. respectively. NZS 8. and w can be overwritten. joint. a capacity ratio is calculated. j0 = an overstrength factor. joint. and the user can overwrite this.3): M* where.2. M * = the design moment for column.

• Determine the reinforcing steel required to carry the balance. CR. shown as point L in x y Figure II-3. In designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction. N * and V * . This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain N * . the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored forces acting on the section. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling N * . Note that N * is needed for the calculation of v c . and M * . y If the reinforcing area is not defined. the column is overstressed. however. M * . M * . M * .Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. the column capacity is adequate. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. is given by the ratio . v c . OC • If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. If the point lies within the interaction volume. that can be resisted by concrete alone. if the point lies outside the interaction volume. M * ) is then placed in the interaction space. • If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. x y The point (N * . • If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. Column Design 153 . and x M * set and associated load combination number. The capacity ratio. • Determine the shear stress. Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface. SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity. OL See Figure II-3.

M u and M u .3. the + positive and negative moment capacities. The design shear force.1).1.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual For Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility. is then given by (NZS 4. where V P1 = V P2 = where M I. the forces for a particular load combination. V * .5.1) V* = V p + V D+ L (NZS 4. NZS 17.4. V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 . For each load combination. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the SAP2000 analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. namely.4.3. L 154 Column Design . The design shear force. Therefore.3.+ M J+ . • In the shear design of Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames and frames of Limited ductility (NOT Elastically responding frames) the following are checked in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames (NZS 4. in a particular direction is also calculated from the overstrength moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column (NZS 8. and L M I+ + M J. Then. and the column shear force. N * .7.3). is calculated. N * . NZS 17. V * . the column axial force. the shear design of the columns is based on the overstrength moment capacities of the column (NZS 4.1. Determine Section Forces • In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame.4.1) whereV p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated overstrength ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions. the factored axial load.7. 17.5. of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force N * is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.7.4. V * .1).7.

• For Ordinary and Elastically responding moment resisting frames. in addition to the checks required for capacity design and factored loads. M J- = L = Clear span of column. v b = ê0. it is zero. and M J+ . the effective shear area. is taken as 1. the concrete shear capacity for columns is taken as follows: Column Design 155 .3.0). • For Ductile moment resisting frames.1) where.3.3.2. V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear capacity provided by the concrete alone. and £ (NZS 9. Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. (NZS 9. M I= Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.3.2. For most of the columns. f c¢ £ 70 .6). See also for more details.2 f c¢ .1. a .7 (NZS 4.08 f c¢ vb £ For other types of sections b w d is replaced by Acv .0). The factored shear force is based on the specified load combinations which are regular load combinations except the earthquake load factor is taken to be 1.1) 0. which is shown in Figure VIII-2. is calculated as follows: • The basic shear strength for a rectangular section is computed as. For Seismic moment resisting frames.8). the shear capacity of the column is also checked for additional factored loads.1) 0.4.25 for both Ductile moment resisting frames and frames with Limited ductility (NZS A4.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 M I+ . j is taken as 1 (NZS 4.07 + 10 ë é Ast ù bw d ú û f c¢ (NZS 9.5.4.2.3). v c .

156 Column Design . • For Seismic moment resisting frames with Limited ductility.4) vb if under compression. v c is not taken less than zero. N* N* = 0. N * < 0.3. (NZS 9. v c is not taken less than zero (NZS 17.3. • For Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames.7.3.2) If the axial compression is higher than the above limit. (NZS > 0.2) In any case.4.4.4): ìæ ïç ç ïè ï í ïæ ïç ç ïè î 0. > 0. This is given as v c = 0 if N * £ 0.5 +1. In any case. the shear strength of a column section is taken as zero if the axial force is tensile or compression is very small. v c is not taken less than zero. if under flexure only. N * < 0.7. vc = (NZS 9.0.2.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual ìæ ïç 1 +12 ç ïè ï í ï æ ï ç 1 +3 ç ï è î N* f c¢ Ag vb N* f c¢ Ag ö ÷ ÷ ø vb if under axial tension.1) ö ÷ ÷ ø vb if under compression.7. In any case. vc = 0. N * is negative for tension. N * is negative for tension.5 + 6 N* f c¢ Ag N f ¢ * ö ÷ ÷ ø vb if under axial tension. the concrete shear capacity for columns is taken as follows: vc = 4v b N* Ag f c¢ .1 if N * > 0.10 f c¢ Ag .2.4).5 v b 0.7.5 ö ÷ ÷ c Ag ø 17.3. (NZS 9.3 and NZS 17. N* N* = 0.3.2. if under flexure only.10 f c¢ Ag . the concrete shear capacity for columns is taken as follows (NZS 17.

bw d (NZS 9.2) • The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed as follows: If v * Av s else if Av s else if Av s £js vc 2 .3) else if v * > v max a failure condition is declared. (NZS 9. v max = min 0.1 f c¢ .4.1) Column Design 157 .2.16 f c¢ .1.85 f c¢ .1) For other types of sections b w d is replaced by Acv . (NZS 9. a limit is imposed on the f yt as f yt £ 500 Mpa.8) In calculating the design shear reinforcement.3) = 0.1 and NZS 9. 0. 9 MPa js . 9 MPa js (NZS 9. • The average shear stress.35 . . v max = min 1.8.4.3. which is given for Ordinary frames and Elastically responding seismic frames as. (NZS 9. v* = V* .4. . is limited to a maximum limit. (NZS 9.2 f c¢ .3.3.8) and for Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility as. v max .Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement • The average shear stress is computed for a rectangular section as. the effective shear area which is shown in . v * . 0.35b w .35 < f yt v* £ 500 MPa . f yt vc + 0.3.4. MPa . js v* £js vc + 0.1) vc 2 < =0.6.6. js £ j s v max = (v* -j svc js ) bw f yt .1. f yt £ 500 (NZS 9.3.1.3. (NZS 3.3.

0084ý þ h core (Stirrups) h core (Hoops) 4 (NZS 8.4.7 and NZS 8.0065ý þ ü .0. In designing the column shear reinforcement.r m t ³í î 2.3) (NZS 8. obtained from each load combination.2 (NZS 8.r m t ³í î 3.8. is reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.0.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual The maximum of all the calculated Av s values.4.3 Ag f c¢ Ac f yt Ag f c¢ Ac f yt N* ¢ j c f c Ag N* ¢ j c f c Ag ü .0.4.r m t ³í î 2.1) (NZS 3.4.4.4 (NZS 8.4 f yt £ 800 For the definition of the potential plastic hinge.3 . the minimum area of transverse stirrup and circular hoops is imposed as follows: Av s Av s ì1.3) r t m £ 0.4. it is assumed in the current version of the program that any beam and column segment near the joint is a potential plas- 158 Column Design . the following limits are imposed on the concrete compressive strength: f c¢ f c¢ £ 100 £ MPA (Ordinary and Elastic) (Ductile and Limited) (NZS 3.7.4.4.5.4.3 Ag f c¢ Ac f yt Ag f c¢ Ac f yt N* ¢ j c f c Ag N* ¢ j c f c Ag ü .4 (NZS 8.8.3) MPa (NZS 8.0. the minimum area of transverse stirrup and circular hoop reinforcement is imposed as follows: Av s Av s ì1 .1.5.3) ì1.7.r m t ³í î 3. of Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility.0084ý þ h core (Stirrups) h core (Hoops) 4 (NZS 8.2) ì1 . the following limits are imposed: Ag Ac ³ 1.7 and NZS 8.0060ý þ ü . as described later.5.1) In potential plastic hinge locations.7 and NZS 8.3 .5.5.4) 70 MPa For all columns and at any station.4.3) In the above four equations for calculating minimum shear reinforcement.4.

4. d' DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE d Acv b RECTANGULAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE A cv b SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE Acv CIRCULAR Figure VIII-2 Shear Stress Area. Acv Column Design 159 .1) The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon the above considerations.25 < 0.50 ³ 0. The length of the plastic hinge. in a column depends on the level of axial compression in it and it is taken as follows: ì h if if if N* 0. Lhinge .25 £ N * N * ï Lhinge = í2h ï 3h î jc jc jc f c¢ Ag f c¢ Ag f c Ag ¢ < 0. Any other minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of the program by the user.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 tic hinge.50 (NZS 8.5.

8. the following steps are involved: • Determine the maximum factored moments • Determine the reinforcing steel Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of Ordinary and Seismic (Ductile.1) (NZS 3.1) (NZS 3. shears. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam span. minor direction bending. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. load combination factors and other criteria described below.4. The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1. 160 Beam Design .8.8.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam for a particular section. and Elastic) moment resisting frame concrete beams. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. the following limits are imposed on the steel tensile strength and the concrete compressive strength: fy f c¢ f c¢ £ 500 £ 100 £ MPA MPA (Ordinary and Elastic) (NZS 3.4) 70 MPA (Ductile and Limited) Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at a user defined number of design stations along the beam span. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: • Design beam flexural reinforcement • Design beam shear reinforcement In designing the beam flexural and shear reinforcement.2. Limited. Effects due to any axial forces.

e. 0.3.1.3. is computed as.85 .85 (NZS 3.7) Beam Design 161 . The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in (NZS 8.1. Also a 1 is calculated as follows: a1 = 0.2).85 - 0. Design for Flexure of a Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.85 . or the grade of concrete.2. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.1) where the default value of j b is 0. 0.65 £ b1 £ 0. All the beams are designed only for major direction flexure and shear.85 - 0.6).4. The design procedure used by SAP2000. designing top or bottom steel) the depth of the compression block. In such cases the beam may be designed as a Rectangular.4. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. M * . the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Furthermore it is assumed that the compression carried by concrete is 0.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. the width. (NZS 8.and T-beams) is summarized below.3. Negative beam moments produce top steel. (NZS 8. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition.1. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section.55) .7) Also b1 and c b are calculated as follows: b1 = 0. (i.75 £ a1 £ 0.008( f c¢ - 30) . Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.3. and (NZS 8.004( f c¢ . a (See Figure VIII-3). Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.2) in the above and the following equations. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.or T-beam. a = d - d 2 2 M* a1 f c¢ jb b .75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 8.

2 and NZS 8.2) The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by a max • If a by As = jb = 0. 600 + f y cb = (NZS 8.4. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given M* f æ y çd è a 2 .4. ö ÷ ø This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M * is positive.4. (NZS 8. or at the top if M * is negative.1.003 b α1 f'c Cs A's d' c a= 1c d As εs Beam Section Strain Diagram Ts Tc Stress Diagram Figure VIII-3 Design of a Rectangular Beam Section 162 Beam Design .2).3.1.75 b1 c b £ .7) a max (NZS 8.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual 600 d. ε = 0.

4. (NZS 8.3) – The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is As1 = M* c . and (NZS 8. – The moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M* s = M* - M* .3.1. where = 0.7) the moment resisted by the concrete and bottom steel is M* c æ =C ç d è a max 2 ö ÷j b ø . the total tensile reinforcement.d¢ ù ê ë c ú û £ fy . As is to be placed at the bottom and As¢ is to be placed at the top if M * is positive. and total compression reinforcement is As¢ .3.1. compression reinforcement is required (NZS 8.2 and NZS 8. and a max ) jb f y (d 2 the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is As 2 = M* s .d¢ ) j b . c – So the required compression steel is given by As¢ f s¢ = * Ms ( f s¢ . and vice versa.3) and is calculated as follows: – The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by C =a1 f c¢ ba max . As = As1 + As 2 .1. Beam Design 163 .4.2).a 1 f c¢ )( d .1.d¢ ) j b – Therefore.3. f y ( d .003 E s é c .Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 • If a > a max (NZS 8.

7) • If a £ d s (NZS 8. i. (i. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. in this case the width of the beam is taken as b f .e.4. Therefore.4. for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as 164 Beam Design . Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a max . The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b w and d.75 b1 c b .4. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously done for the rectangular section design. As shown in . (NZS 8.1. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. designing top steel).2). no T-Beam data is to be used. the depth of the compression block is given by (see Figure VIII-4).SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design for Flexure of a T-Beam (i) Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.2). (NZS 8. (NZS 8. C w . M * £ 0. the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above. (ii) Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M * a > 0.2 and NZS 8.1) The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by a max = 0. As1 = given by M *f = C f æ ç è Cf fy ds 2 and the portion of M * that is resisted by the flange is d - ö ÷ jb ø . However. M * to be carried by the web is given by M* = M* w - M *f .3. - = d d 2 2 M* a1 f c¢ jb bf ..bw )d s .e. Cf =a1 f c¢ ( b f .1.7) Therefore. • If a > d s (NZS 8. calculation for As is done in two parts.3.3. C f . the balance of the moment.

2). compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: – The compressive force in the concrete web alone is given by Cw = a1 f c¢ ba max .2). This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam.3.4.1. and (NZS 8.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 2M * w . ε = 0.4.7) Beam Design 165 .1) a1 • If a1 £ a max (NZS 8. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As 2 = jb M* w f æ y çd è a1 2 . and ö ÷ ø As = As1 + As 2 . f c¢ j b b w a1 = d - d2 - (NZS 8.3.003 α1 f'c α1 f'c bf ds d' As' c d fs' Cs a= 1c Cf Cw As bw εs Ts Tw Tf Beam Section Strain Diagram Stress Diagram Figure VIII-4 Design of a T-Beam Section • If a1 > a max (NZS 8.

3.1. As is to be placed at the bottom and As¢ is to be placed at the top.max ç 2 è . Minimum and Maximum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary and Elastic moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two limits: As ³ f c¢ 4f y b w d .3. and total compression reinforcement is As¢ . As = As1 + As 2 + As 3 . – Total tensile reinforcement.2 and NZS 8.3.4. (NZS 8. 3 (NZS 8. where = 0.3) 166 Beam Design . and ö ÷j b ø the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is As 3 = fy M* s d .d¢ ) j b .3.1.4. – The moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M* s = M* w - * Mc .d¢ ù ê ë c ú û £ fy .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual the moment resisted by the concrete web and tensile steel is M* c = Cw æd ç è - a max 2 ö ÷ jb ø . or (NZS 8. – Therefore.3) – The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As 2 = * Mc a f y æ d .d¢ jb .003 E s é c . the compression steel is computed as As¢ f s¢ = * Ms ( f s¢ .1) As ³ 4 As (required ) .a 1 f c¢ )( d .

NZS 17. • The minimum tensile longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both at the top and bottom for both Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility. 17.2.04 b d £í î0.5.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 An upper limit of 0.5.3.4).5. At any section of a beam within a potential plastic hinge region for moment resisting frames with Limited ductility.3.4).04 b w d ì 0.5. As(min) ³ f c¢ 4f y bw d .04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: As As¢ ì 0.025 b w d and f c¢ + 10 bw d . the compression reinforcement area. the compression reinforcement area shall not be less than 3 8 of the tension reinforcement area at the same section (NZS 17. shall not be less than1 2 of the tension reinforcement area. as defined later on page 171.3.2) • The beam flexural tensile steel is limited to a maximum given by As As £ 0.04 b w d Rectangular beam T -beam Rectangular beam T -beam Additional Consideration for Seismic Design For Seismic moment resisting concrete Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility (not Elastically responding structures). at the same section (NZS 8.5. (NZS 8.3.5.3.3. 6f y (NZS 8.2 and NZS 17.5.04 b d £í î0. See Table VIII-2 for comprehensive listing. • At least1 4 of the larger of the top flexural reinforcement required at either end of the beam in a Ductile frame or in a frame with Limited ductility shall be continued throughout its length (NZS 8.3.5.2).2.5. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As (min) if tensile reinforcement is required.4).3.2.3. As .5.4) £ • At any section of a beam within a potential plastic hinge region for Ductile moment resisting frames. NZS 17. Beam Design 167 .5.4) (NZS 8.3. the following additional conditions are enforced for beam design (NZS 8.3. As¢ .

1) V* = V p + V D+ L (NZS 4. V * . See also for more details.4. V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated overstrength moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions.1) where. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored shear force. the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors.3. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from overstrength moment capacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Column Design” on page 154 (NZS 8. where V P1 = M I. NZS 17. V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 .V * . In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular loading combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear. v c . and the gravity shear forces (NZS 4.4.7.+ M J+ .3. NZS 17.1. For Seismic moment resisting frames.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user defined number of stations along the beam span. the shear force. and L 168 Beam Design . • In the shear design of Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames and frames of Limited ductility (NOT Elastically responding frames).7. however. • Determine the shear stress. is then given by (NZS 4.1). that can be resisted by the concrete. the shear design of the beams is also based on the overstrength moment capacities of the members.3).4.5. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. • Determine the reinforcing steel required to carry the balance. is calculated from the overstrength moment capacities of each end of the beam. Therefore. Determine Shear Force and Moment • In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. V * .1. The design shear force.

M I.6).1) 0.08 f c¢ vb £ • For Ordinary and Elastically responding moment resisting frames. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0). using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.2.2.3.= Moment capacity at end I. (NZS 9. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear capacity provided by the concrete alone. is taken as 1.2.1. with bottom steel in tension.4. M J. f c¢ £ 70 .1) where.3. a . and £ (NZS 9.0).0).3. with top steel in tension.2 f c¢ . V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the load in-span distribution of gravity loads.= Moment capacity at end J.2.1) Beam Design 169 . with top steel in tension.0). (NZS 9.07 + 10 ë é As ù bw d ú û f c¢ (NZS 9. v b = ê0. the concrete shear capacity for beams is taken as follows: vc = vb. For Seismic moment resisting frames.1) 0.25 for both Ductile moment resisting frames and frames with Limited ductility (NZS A4. L V P2 = where M I+ = Moment capacity at end I. M J+ = Moment capacity at end J.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 M I+ + M J. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. is calculated as follows: • The basic shear strength for a rectangular section is computed as. with bottom steel in tension. and L = Clear span of beam.3. v c . j is taken as 1 (NZS 4.3.3).

(NZS 9. (NZS 17.3) = 0.1) For other types of sections b w d is replaced by Acv .4.35 .1 f c¢ . v max = min 0. (NZS 9. f yt f yt £ 500 MPa 170 Beam Design . v * .3) Determine Required Shear Reinforcement • The average shear stress is computed for a rectangular beam section as. 0.1.3.1) vc 2 < =0.4.2 f c¢ .4.1) • For Seismic moment resisting frames with Limited ductility. 9 MPa js (NZS 9.4. 9 MPa js .3. the effective shear area which is shown in Figure VIII-2.16 f c¢ .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • For Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames.4. v max . (NZS 9.85 f c¢ .2) • The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed as follows: If v * Av s else if Av s £js vc 2 . js v* £js vc + 0. • The average shear stress.35b w . the concrete shear capacity for the beam is taken as follows: v c = 0. v max = min 1.3.3. v* = V* .8) and for Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility as. the shear strength of a beam section is taken as zero since the axial force is considered to be very small or tensile. (NZS 9. 0.1. which is given for Ordinary frames and Elastically responding seismic frames as. This is given as vc = 0 . bw d (NZS 9.2. is limited to a maximum limit.3.7.5 v b .

the following limits are imposed: Ag Ac ³ 1. obtained from each load combination.5.7 and NZS 8.6. (NZS 9. in a beam is taken as follows: Beam Design 171 .4.4.3) (NZS 8.4.7 and NZS 8.3) r t m £ 0.8.0.r m t ³í î 3. MPa (NZS 9.4.5.3 Ag f c¢ Ac f yt N* ¢ j c f c Ag ü .6.3) = (v* -j svc js ) bw f yt .0065ý þ h core (NZS 8.1) The maximum of all the calculated Av s values.3.2) In potential plastic hinge locations.3) In the above two equations for calculating the minimum shear reinforcement.1. f yt £ 500 else if v * > v max a failure condition is declared. the minimum area of transverse stirrup is imposed as follows: Av s ì1.r m t ³í î 3.3) MPa (NZS 8.2 (NZS 8.1 and NZS 9.3 Ag f c¢ Ac f yt N* ¢ j c f c Ag ü .8) In calculating the design shear reinforcement.35 < v* .4 f yt £ 800 For the definition of the potential plastic hinge.7.4.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 else if Av s js vc + 0. For all beams and at any station.3. £ j s v max .7 and NZS 8.5.5. is reported for the beam along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.0060ý þ h core (NZS 8.4.0. it is assumed in the current version of the program that any beam and column segment near the joint is a potential plastic hinge. a limit is imposed on the f yt as f yt £ 500 Mpa. as described later.4.4.3.2. of Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility. (NZS 3.3 . Lhinge . the minimum area of transverse stirrup reinforcement is imposed as follows: Av s ì1 . The length of the plastic hinge.

172 Beam Design .3.5.1) The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon the above considerations.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Lhinge = 2h (NZS 8. Any other minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

25 NLDa Combinations Ductile Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) NLDa Combinations Rm is from NZS Table A3 NLDa Combinations α = 1.0 plus VD+L vc = v b / 2 NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (V p ) with α = 1.008 < ρ < 18 fy (Elastic only) Column Shears NLDa Combinations Beam Design Flexure NLDa Combinations r £ 0.025 f ¢ + 10 r£ c 6 fy NLDa Combinations Column Design (Interaction) NLDa Combinations 0.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 Type of Check/ Design Column Check (interaction) Ordinary (non-Seismic) or Elastically Responding (Seismic) Moment Resisting Frames with Limited ductility or Elastically responding (Seismic) NLDa Combinations Rm = 1 NLDa Combinations α = 1.7 VE j = 1.25 and ϕ = 1. Moment Override Check fc¢ 4 fy 3 AsEND 8 1 ³ max AsEND 4 r³ fc¢ 4 fy 1 AsEND 2 1 ³ max AsEND 4 + AsEND ³ + AsEND ³ + AsSPAN No Requirement + AsSPAN { } { } NLDa Combinations Beam Design Shear vc = v b a NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (V p ) with α = 1.0 plus VD+L vc = 0 NLD = Number of specified loading Table VIII-2 Comparison of Ordinary and Seismic Moment Resisting Frame Design Beam Design 173 .0 and α = 1.0 and α = 1.08 0.25 NLDa Combinations r £ 0.008 < ρ < 0.25 and ϕ = 1.0 0.008 < ρ < 18 fy Rm = 1 Modified NLDa Combs Column Capacity Shear (V p ) ϕ = 1.025 f ¢ + 10 r£ c 6 fy r³ Beam Min.0 0.008< ρ < 18 fy Rm is from NZS Table A3 NLDa Combinations and Column Capacity Shear (V p ) Extra Combo with 1.

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and some intermediate results for all the load combinations at all the design sections of a specific frame member. it can also show the position of the current state of design forces on the column interaction diagram. and other design parameters. tabular output. The member specific detailed design information shows the details of the calculation from the designer’s point of view. reinforcement. K-factors. All graphical output can be printed. live load reduction factors. For a column member. This is generated for added convenience to the designer. The tabular output includes most of the information which can be displayed. The output design information includes longitudinal reinforcing. and column capacity ratios. design section dimensions. The tabular output can be saved in a file or printed. Overview 175 . and member specific detailed design information. It shows the design forces.C h a p t e r IX Design Output Overview SAP2000 creates design output in three major different formats  graphical display. shear reinforcing. Input design information includes design section labels. The graphical display of design output includes input and output design information.

For switching between 3D or 2D view of graphical displays. • Shear Reinforcing. from the Design menu. and The output design information which can be displayed is • Longitudinal Reinforcing. for the ACI 318-99 code.. the design outputs are similar. and member-specific detailed design information are described. Graphical Display of Design Output The graphical output can be produced either as color screen display or in grayscaled printed form. • Live Load Reduction Factors. and • Column Capacity Ratios. • Unbraced Length Ratios. Moreover. For example. the active screen display can be sent directly to the printer. there are several buttons 176 Graphical Display of Design Output . The graphics can be displayed in either 3D or 2D mode.. The ACI 318-99 design code is described in the latter part of this chapter. the longitudinal reinforcement can be displayed by selecting Display Design Info. The graphical displays can be accessed from the Design menu.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual In the following sections. Some of the design information is specific to the chosen concrete design codes which are available in the program and are only described where required. • • d s -factors. includes • Design section labels. some of the typical graphical display. d b -factors. tabular output. Then clicking the OK button will show the longitudinal reinforcing in the active window. Then the user should switch ON the Design Output option button (default) and select Longitudinal Reinforcing in the drop-down box. • C m -factors. For all other codes. The SAP2000 standard view transformations are available for all concrete design output displays. Input design information. The graphical display of design output includes input and output design information. • K-factors for major and minor direction of buckling. This will pop up a dialog box called Display Design Results.

– Concrete cover. To send the graphical output directly to the printer. The graphical display in an active window can be printed in gray scaled black and white from the SAP2000 program. • Load Combination Multipliers – Combination name. Input design information includes the following: • Concrete Column Property Data – Material label. – Load types. and – Top and bottom reinforcement areas.. and – Bar area. click on the Print Graphics button in the File menu. – Top and bottom concrete cover.. For the ACI 318-99 code. The printed form of tabular output is the same as that produced for the file output with the exception that for the printed output font size is adjusted. the tabular output includes the following. – Column dimensions. the view can be set by choosing Set 3D View. • Concrete Beam Property Data – Material label. Tabular Display of Design Output 177 . A screen capture of the active window can also be made by following the standard procedure provided by the Windows operating system. All tables have formal headings and are self-explanatory. from the View menu. The tabular design output includes input and output design information which depends on the design code of choice. – Beam dimensions. so further description of these tables is not given. – Reinforcement pattern. Tabular Display of Design Output The tabular design output can be sent directly either to a printer or to a file. Alternatively. and – Load factors.Chapter IX Design Output on the main toolbar.

– Station location. – – d s -factors. a file list can be obtained by clicking 178 Tabular Display of Design Output . This will pop up a dialog box. he/she can check the Print to File box. – Unbraced Length Ratios. – Element Type. and The output design information includes the following: • Column Design Information – Section ID. Then the user can specify the design quantities for which the results are to be tabulated. – Major shear reinforcement and the governing load combination.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • Concrete Design Element Information (code dependent) – Design Section ID. This will provide a default filename. – Live Load Reduction Factors. – Framing Type. Alternatively. • Concrete Moment Magnification Factors (code dependent) – Section ID. the output will be sent to the printer. and – Major shear reinforcement and the governing load combination. – Total longitudinal reinforcement and the governing load combination. – Station location.. from the File menu. – C m -factors. • Beam Design Information – Section ID. The default filename can be edited. d b -factors. – Top longitudinal reinforcement and the governing load combination. By default. and – Minor shear reinforcement and the governing load combination.. If the user wants the output stream to be redirected to a file. The tabular output can be accessed by selecting Print Design Tables. – Bottom reinforcement and the governing load combination. – K-factors for major and minor direction of buckling.

It provides an access to the geometry and material data. If the selected member is a beam. Member Specific Information The member specific design information shows the details of the calculation from the designer’s point of view. the dialog box includes – Load combination ID. design forces. For beams additional information can be accessed by clicking on the ReDesign and Details buttons in the dialog box. This will pop up a dialog box called Concrete Design Information which includes the following tabulated information for the specific member. other input data. it can also show the position of the current state of design forces on the column interaction diagram. and – Shear reinforcement area. – Top reinforcement area. The design detail information can be displayed for a specific load combination and for a specific station of a frame member. For a column member. Then clicking the OK button will direct the tabular output to the requested stream  the file or the printer. reinforcement details. and – Minor shear reinforcement area. the dialog box includes – Load combination ID. and some of the intermediate results for a member. Details. – Major shear reinforcement area. Additional information can be accessed for column members by clicking on the ReDesign. Additional information that is available by clicking on the ReDesign button is as follows: Member Specific Information 179 . – Longitudinal reinforcement area. design section dimensions. – Station location. – Station location. The detailed design information can be accessed by right clicking on the desired frame member. and Interaction buttons in the dialog box.Chapter IX Design Output the File Name button to chose a file from. – Bottom reinforcement area. If the selected member is a column.

• Material properties of steel and concrete. • Longitudinal reinforcing areas. • Shear reinforcing areas. • Section geometric information and graphical representation. K. • Design moments and shear forces. and Load Combination IDs. The details of this information depends on whether the selected member is a beam or a column. Section. • Moment factors. d b -factors. the information includes: • Frame. • Design shear forces. Station. and • Element Section ID • Element Framing Type Additional information that is available by clicking on the Details button is given below. • Material properties of steel and concrete. and • Shear capacities of concrete and steel. Station. – C m -factors. • Minimum design moments. and Load Combination IDs. – Unbraced Length Ratios. If the member is a beam. the information includes: • Frame. • Top and bottom reinforcing areas. • Section geometric information and graphical representation.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • Design Factors (code dependent) – Effective length factors. – Live Load Reduction Factors. Section. • Minimum design moments. – – d s -factors. for major and minor direction of buckling. • Shear capacities of concrete and steel. and 180 Member Specific Information . If the member is a column. • Design axial force and biaxial moments.

The design axial force and the biaxial moments are plotted on the interaction diagram to show the state of stress in the column. Clicking on the Interaction button displays the interaction diagram in a three dimensional space for the column section.Chapter IX Design Output • Shear reinforcing area. The interaction diagram can be viewed in any orientation and the view can be manipulated from the interaction dialog box. Member Specific Information 181 . The interaction diagram can be printed for hard-copy output.

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Eurocode 1: Basis of Design and Action on Structures Part 1. Belgium. 1999 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-99) and Commentary (ACI 318R-99). Box 9094. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. 1992 ENV 1992-1-1. CEN. American Concrete Institute. Part 1. 1985. Michigan. 183 . 1989 BS 8110 : Part 1.S. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 1989. 1994 ENV 1991-1. ACI. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures.O. Belgium. 1997 Interim Edition. 1997 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications — U. Basis of Design. Brussels. UK. Structural Use of Concrete. 1994. June 1999. Farmington Hills. BSI. Issue 2. 1997. London.References AASHTO. Units. 1992. Part 1. CEN. P. British Standards Institution. European Committee for Standardization. European Committee for Standardization. Brussels.

Rexdale. Standards New Zealand. Concrete Structures Standard. 1998a SAP2000 Getting Started. I and II.3-94. Computers and Structures. 1996 Notes on ACI 318-99. 1994. California. Standards New Zealand. Wellington. Canadian Standards Association. ICBO. Canada. Design of Concrete Structures. Berkeley. 1997 Uniform Building Code. Portland Cement Association. 1997.. 1997. California. 1992 New Zealand Standard NZS 4203. 1998. New Zealand. Berkeley. Part 1 — The Design of Concrete Structures. New Zealand. Berkeley. NZS. Computers and Structures. 1998. 184 . California. Skokie.. 1994 A23. Ontario. Code of practice for General Structural Design and Design Loadings for Buildings. PCA. 1996. International Conference of Building Officials.. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. Illinois. NZS. Inc. California. Inc. Computers and Structures.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual CSA. 1995 New Zealand Standard NZS 3101. 1997 SAP2000 Analysis Reference. Inc. CSI. with Design Applications. Vols. Whittier. 1992. CSI. 1998b SAP2000 Quick Tutorial. Wellington. 1995. CSI.

F. White and J.. 4.” Engineering Journal. No. W. Inc. American Institute of Steel Construction. Vol. 28. Hajjar.Chapter X D. 1991. 1991 “Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice. 185 .

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125.Index Additional moment British. 95 Eurocode. 152 Column flexural design. 30 British. 127 New Zealand. 150 Check station. 168 Braced frames AASHTO. 109 Canadian. 135. 25 British. 125 Column capacity ratio. 59 ACI. 52 ACI. 139 New Zealand. 63 ACI. 23. 51 ACI. 11 AASHTO. 87 Eurocode. 132 New Zealand. 75 Eurocode. 111 Canadian. 26 British. 8 AASHTO. 149. 61. 89. 47 ACI. 24 British. 50. 77 Eurocode. 147 Column shear design. 116 Canadian. 9 AASHTO. 80 Eurocode. 123 New Zealand. 8 AASHTO. 104 Canadian. 107 Canadian. 66 ACI. 77. 160 Beam shear design. 106. 113. 53 ACI. 138 New Zealand. 107 Balanced condition AASHTO. 21 British. 33. 125 New Zealand. 165 Beam flexural design. 35 BS. 11 AASHTO. 110 187 . 162. 91 Eurocode. 2. 38 British. 117 Canadian. 7 Code total moment Eurocode.

39 shear in special frames. 66 special. 40 British. 160 Flexural reinforcement AASHTO. 123 New Zealand. 105 188 . 114. 95. 169 Design load combinations. 75 Eurocode. 9 AASHTO. 128. 17. 34 British.112 Canadian. 125. 21 British. 26. 167 Earthquake resisting frames ductile. 23. 74 Eurocode. 31 British. 160 Generation of biaxial interaction surfaces. 48 ACI. 128 New Zealand. 119 New Zealand. 91 Eurocode. 66. 101 Canadian. 81 . 165 Concrete shear capacity AASHTO. 8 Identification of columns. 31 British. 112 Canadian. 87 Eurocode.168 elastic. 17 British. 143 nominal. 48 ACI. 6 AASHTO. 59 ACI. 96. 146 Design of T-beams AASHTO. 154 . 37 . 46 ACI. 149. 27. 163. 59 ACI. 62 ACI. 114 Canadian. 17. 117 Canadian. 133 New Zealand. 28. 53. 167 . 147 Graphical output.91 Eurocode. 116 Canadian. 35 British. 155. 81 Eurocode. 39 limited. 180 Ductile detailing ACI. 97 Eurocode. 135. 8 Interaction diagram. 54. 28. 21 British. 71. 138 New Zealand. 55.38 Element unsupported length. 17 shear in intermediate frames. 136 New Zealand. 33. 1. 12 Factored moments and forces AASHTO. 140 New Zealand.155. 97 ordinary. 164 Detailed output. 50. 37.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Canadian. 61. 87 Eurocode. 143. 133 New Zealand. 176 Identification of beams. 83. 153 Compression reinforcement AASHTO.82. 77. 105 Canadian. 110. 63 ACI. 143 intermediate. 90 . 94. 10 AASHTO. 111 . 95 New Zealand. 107. 37 Canadian. 67 ACI.

175 . 75 Eurocode. 127 New Zealand.176 interaction diagram. 108 Canadian. 180 graphical. 150 Nominal moment capacity. 175. 78 See also P-Delta analysis Live load reduction factor.127 New Zealand. 51 ACI. 179 Minimum column reinforcement AASHTO. 149 Minimum tensile reinforcement AASHTO. 36 Canadian. 77 Eurocode (total moment). 88 Eurocode. 21 British. 47 ACI. 24 British. 50 ACI. 26. 175. 125 New Zealand. 20. 12. 104. 51 ACI. 32 British. 161 189 . 123 New Zealand. 1 details. 177 Overstrength factor. 123 New Zealand. 105 Canadian. 126 . 123 New Zealand. 96 Overstrength moment capacity. 107 Canadian. 23 British (additional moment). 181 member specific. 77 Eurocode. 12 AASHTO. 75 Eurocode. 46. 146 Maximum column reinforcement AASHTO. 23 British. 21 British. 107 Canadian. 168 P-Delta analysis. 147 Member specific output. 105 Canadian. 77 Eurocode. 75 Eurocode. 166 Moment magnification AASHTO. 78 Eurocode. 60 ACI. 112 Canadian. 147 Interactive environment. 154. 147 Minimum eccentricity AASHTO.Index Canadian. 134 New Zealand. 65 ACI. 82 Rectangular beam design AASHTO. 1 Lateral drift effect. 125 New Zealand. 47 ACI. 51 ACI. 82 Nonsway frames AASHTO. 179 tabular. 94 New Zealand. 7. 150 Output. 108 Canadian. 122. 23 British. 74. 150 Probable moment capacity.

5. 5. 84. 52 190 . 17 British. 164 Unbraced frames AASHTO. 143. 66 ACI. 62 ACI. 25. 98 New Zealand. 17. 101 Canadian. 54. 24 British. 168 Strength reduction factors AASHTO. 157. 107 Canadian. 74 Eurocode. 71 Eurocode. 150 Tabular output. 179 Shear reinforcement AASHTO. 51 ACI.38 Canadian. 34 British. 27.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Redesign. 71 Eurocode. 114 Canadian. 104 Canadian. 96 New Zealand. 5. 101 Canadian. 77 Eurocode. 154. 30. 82. 20 British. 14 AASHTO. 110. 2. 43 ACI. 150 Units. 43 ACI. 177 T-Beam design AASHTO. 8. 77 Eurocode. 127 New Zealand. 1 AASHTO. 146 Supported design codes. 118 Canadian. 24 British. 14 AASHTO. 125 New Zealand. 56. 5. 5. 68 ACI. 119 New Zealand. 119 New Zealand. 91 Eurocode. 143 Sway frames AASHTO. 170 Special considerations for seismic loads. 17 British. 136 New Zealand. 141. 5. 122 New Zealand. 108 Canadian. 40 British. 51 ACI. 47 ACI. 37 . 131. 43. 71. 143 Unsupported length.

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