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Chapter I

THE PROBLEM

Introduction

Education involves the process of teaching and facilitating learning,

knowledge, skills, values , beliefs and habits of a group of people, usually at

school which the teacher transferred their learning through different strategies

like storytelling, discussion, training or research. Education often takes place

under the guidance of educator or teacher, but students may also educate

themselves in a process of autodidactic. Any experience that the student has a

formative effect on the way he thinks, feels, or acts may be considered

educational through the guidance of the teacher.

At present, the Philippines education is precisely separated into stage such

preschool, primary school, secondary, and college, university or apprenticeship.

Formal education takes place in a school environment with multiple students

learning together with certified teacher on every subject. Teaching, in

traditional application in terms of education is by simply giving instructions.

Teachers tend to used long lived teaching procedures, techniques and strategies

for the development of the learners knowledge and skills and equipped with

values for the better quality of life. The ultimate goal of every teacher may be

differ from each other but any sense; the results will be the same, to impart

knowledge to students that serves as a testament of every teacher’s effective

teaching.
Strategy is an organized, orderly, systematic, well planned procedure. It

is consists of steps or procedures which are logically arranged at achieving the

specific goals in instruction, at enhancing greater teacher and develop the

students mind set. It directs and guides the teacher in all class activities and to

improve the students’ performance and skills in school. It is also the skill of

making or carrying out plans to achieve goals.

Effective Teaching is present when it is well planned such that the

activities and experiences of the learner are related into more meaningful ideas.

The teacher constitutes different activities that bring out relationships of facts

learned to give new view and meaning that may apply in the improvement of

student’s performance.

Nowadays, commonly used strategy to facilitate the learning of the

students is the cooperative learning which focus on the group activities. It

enables the student to process, consolidate, and retain more information. It turn

motivate strengthens the students commitment to the group’s education while

increasing self-esteem and self-worth. As student practice different roles, they

have the opportunity to develop a variety of skills. These teaching strategies

help the students take more responsibility for their own learning and enhance

the process of teaching for learning. Base on the observations of the researchers

many teachers are not aware to the new teaching strategies that will improve

the students’ performance, despite of the strategies that are commonly used in

teaching TLE that is less effective today because of the rise of modern
technology.

Those mentioned above give the researchers an idea to conduct with a

research study with response in the topic. The purpose of this research study is

to understand the idea about the strategies being used which is effective in

teaching and will improve the student performance especially in TLE subject

and to conform with the instructional conditions that usually used by the

teachers considered to be successful with the students in learning TLE.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine the New Teaching Strategies to Enhance Student

Performance in TLE in the Selected High School in Rosario District.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

What is the profile of the teacher –respondents in terms of:

age;

1.2 sex;

1.3 number of seminars attended related to teaching strategies; and

1.4 number of years in service?

What are the new strategies that are being used by the teacher in teaching TLE?

Which of the methods/strategies often used by the teacher are found to be the

most effective in enhancing the students’ performance especially in the TLE

subject?

4. Based on findings, what proposed activities can be suggested or

recommended to enhance the teaching of TLE that will improve students’


performance?

Scope, Delimitation and Limitation of the Study

The main focus of the study is to determine the new teaching strategies

to enhance student performance in TLE in the selected high schools in Rosario

District, Division of Batangas during the assessment year 2015-2016. The

study will cover the teachers handling TLE students in Grade 7 and 8 in the

selected schools in the Rosario District. The descriptive method of research

will be utilized in this study with self made questionnaire as the main tool in

gathering the data.

This study will be limited to the other public high schools and the

teachers was selected only from grade 7 and 8 year level and this study will be

delimited to the private high schools in the Rosario District, to the teachers

handling Grade 9 and 10 students and to the teachers who do not handle TLE

subject.

Significance of the Study

This part of the study discuss about the importance of creating the

system to the following: to the administrators, teachers, parents, students,

researchers and future researchers.

Administrators. They will be aware on how to organize and

supervise the school that will improve the teaching of TLE subject and

also in other subjects.


Teachers. It will provide sample in discussing how to facilitate the

learning of the students using new teaching strategies.

Students. It will enhance their learning and help them to develop higher

order cognitive skills such as critical thinking as well as their performance in

school.

Parents. It will give them idea what they can help to their child to

improve their performance in school in the different subjects especially in TLE.

Researchers. It will give ideas in new strategies that can be used in the

future career in teaching and lead to the creation of the strategies that can be

used in teaching TLE.

Future researchers. It will be used as basis to the related study of the

researchers for the future use in teaching TLE subject and also a source of

additional information that they can improve and have deep understanding with

the research study.


CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This chapter presents the conceptual literature, research literature,

theoretical framework, conceptual framework and definition of terms that will

help to fully understand the research study.

Conceptual Literature

The following related researches which have been taken from different

references are used as the bases of this study:

Technology and Livelihood Education

Technology and Livelihood Education is the subject offered in all curriculum

levels for all students, boys and girls. It covers the basic skills and concepts of

Home Economics, Entrepreneurship, Agricultural Arts and Industrial Arts to be

taken as a unified course. As one fundamental school subject, TLE is concerned


with providing experiences in the various field of work and expectations that

will develop in the individual skill, knowledge, appreciation and values

necessary for effective daily living (Agdan et.al. 2013)

Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) equips learners with knowledge

and information, skills, and processes, right work values and life skills in the

field of Home economics, Industrial Arts, Agri-Fishery Arts, Information

Communication Technology and Entrepreneurship (Balhag et.al. 2013)

The main goal of T.L.E is the development of work ethics , knowledge, skills

and values essential to economically productive endeavor and to bring about

the students awareness by engaging then income generating activities and other

livelihood projects to improve their lives and lessen dependence on

employment as the only source of income (Cabanig et. al., 2013)

Teaching Strategies

According to Corpuz and Salandanan (2013) teaching strategies is a long term

plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal. Strategies apply to many

disparate fields such as military strategy, economic strategy, teaching strategy

and the like.

The following are some of the strategies used to establish an effective

instruction in Technology and Livelihood Education (Ramon C. Cabag, Ed.D).

Brainstorming. A creative technique in which a group is given a

problem and is asked to suggest as many solutions as they can in a given time.

This works best when there is a specific problem that lends itself to many
possible answers.

Buzzing or Buzz Session. Involves the group in a interchange of ideas

on a topic or question on which judgment is sought.

Film forum. A discussion before and after the viewing of an educational

film is similar to the lecture forum except that the films takes the place of a

speaker.

Role Playing. A training technique consists of a dramatization which

shows the emotional reactions of participants who are assuming an identity

other than their own.

Simulation Games. Are scaled-down models of real life situations,

problems or activities. The players assume realistic roles and participate in

discussions according to specific rules.

Springboard. Is a method in which materials are used on a topic

intended to provoke or motivate the learners into conducting an inquiry on the

subject.

Lecture. Used extensively by technicians and subject matter specialists

to present technical information, develop background and appreciation and to

integrate ideas.

The strategies used mentioned above are used by the TLE teachers to enhance

the performance and learning of the students in the TLE subject.

Performance.

It refers to the accomplishment of a given task (Petra, 2000). It is the


ability of how students can perform in a certain task.

A term which refers to the fulfillment of a claim, promise or request.

(Grolier Dictionary, 1981. Vol. 2). It refers to the range where the students can

perform the given task that enhance their performance.

Research Literature

According to the findings of Aguila et. al, 2005 seminars attended, years

of experience and age have significant in the level of the extent of use of

methods and show that there is no significant relationship between the extent

use of methods and gender and civil status of the respondent. While in the

terms of relationship between the extent of use of strategies in teaching and the

profile of the respondents, there were significant relationship between age,

years of experience and seminars attended but no significant relationship to the

gender and civil status.

Calangi, et. al. (2002) stated that the age, sex, course and type of high

school attended may have an effect on students’ study habits. Along with these,

teachers’ performance, attitudes and environmental factors really affect the

students. They were able to prove that the learner’s profile is a big factor that

teachers must consider to have a successful learning outcome.

Synthesis

The studies reviewed by the researchers are range of background in the study

of new teaching strategies to enhance student performance in Technology and


Livelihood Education (TLE).

The study of Aguila is relevant to the present study because he states

that the profile of the respondents greatly affect the use of teaching strategies in

the TLE subject. He also states that the age, years of experience and seminars

attended have a significant relationship to the way the respondents use this

methods and strategies but it has no relation to the age and civil status of the

respondents.

The Calangi, et. al. was different to the present study. It is more on the factor

that can affect the student performance. Students’ profiles have the big affect

the success of learning outcome and the other factor was the teachers’

performance, attitudes and environmental factors.

Theoretical Framework

Verbal
Symbols
Visual Symbols
Graphics
SYMBOLIC
Audio Recording and Radio
Still Visuals
Motion Pictures
Exhibits and museums
ICONIC EXPERIENCES
Demonstrations and Field trips
Dramatic and Contrived Experience
Direct Purposeful Experiences
ENACTIVE EXPERIENCES
FIGURE 1 EDGAR DALE’S CONE OF EXPERIENCE

According to Dale’s research, the least effective method at the top

involves learning from information presented through verbal symbols. Ex:


Listening to spoken words. The most effective methods at the bottom, involves

direct, purposeful learning experiences, such as hands on or field experience. A

direct purposeful experience represents reality or the closest things to real,

everyday life. The cone charts the average retention rate for various methods of

teaching. The further you progressed down the cone, the greater the learning

and the more information is likely to be retained. It also suggests that when

choosing an instructional method it is important to remember that involving

students in the process strengthens knowledge retention. It reveals that “action-

learning” techniques result in up to 90% retention. People learn best when they

use perceptual learning styles. Perceptual learning styles are sensory based.

According to Dale, instructors should design instructional activities that build

upon more real-life experiences.

Conceptual Framework

Technology and Livelihood Education is more on hands on activities and

application. But like the other subjects, the teacher must use teaching strategies

that will enhance the student’s performance and at the same time they learned.

TLE must involve learning concepts and ideas about its different areas.

Figure 2.2 presents the research paradigm of the study on New Teaching

Strategies to Enhance Students Performance in TLE. Input variables were the

teaching strategies used by teachers and the profile of the respondents. In the

process, the researchers will use self made questionnaire. The first part will be

the profile of the respondents and the second part is the teaching strategies used
by the respondents, the teachers.

The output of this study was a proposed activities which that will enhance the

student’s performance of Grade 7 and 8 in the TLE subject. In this conceptual

paradigm, it shows the relationship of the contents in relation with the research

study.

The first one shows the profile and the teaching strategies used by the

respondents which can be determined through the use of self made

questionnaire. This instrument is used to gather the necessary information from

the contents of the input that will be use as a basis for the making of proposed

plans or activities as part of the output.

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

Profile of the Respondents:

Age

Sex

Number of Seminars Attended

Years in Service
Teaching Strategies used by the respondents.

Figure 2

Research Paradigm of New Teaching Strategies to Enhance Student

Performance in TLE in the Selected High Schools in Rosario District.

Hypothesis

The study will test the null hypothesis. There is no significant

relationship between the profile of the respondents and the strategies often used

by the teacher in enhancing the students’ performance.

Definition of Terms

The following terms are discussed to fully understand and help to know how it
is used in developing the study.

Strategy. It is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular

goal (Corpuz and Salandanan, 2013). In this study, it refers to the way on how

student will learn.

Teaching. is a multi-faceted human activity. It involves a wide range of

planning, strategies, interactions, organizational arrangement and materials

resources that take place in the teaching learning process (Zulueta, 2006). In

this study, it is the way on how the teacher can impart knowledge to enhance

the student performance.

Performance. The act of performing; carrying into execution or action

and accomplishment represented by action (wiktionary). It refers to the way on

how the students performance and accomplish a task.

Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE). It refers to one the

components of Makabayan offered from first year to fourth year which

comprises Home Economics, Agriculture, Industrial Arts and Entrepreneurship

(BEC, 2002). In this study it is the focus where the teaching strategies must be

related.
CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE

This chapter presents the research design, subject of the study, data

gathering instrument, data gathering procedure and the statistical treatment of

data that will be used in gathering the necessary information for the study.

Research Design

The descriptive method of research will be utilized to study the new

teaching strategies to enhance student performance in TLE in the selected high

schools in Rosario District. It served as the basis to assess and to describe the

concerns about the teaching strategies stated in this study.

Descriptive method is used to discover facts on which judgment could

be based. It describes records, analyzes and interprets what it is (Rivera, 1999).

This method is applicable to use in the studies concerning with the various

problems present in a research study.


Subject of the Study

The respondents of this study will be 17 high school TLE teachers as

respondents from Grade 7-8 in the selected high schools in Rosario District,

Division of Batangas. The distribution of respondents is shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1

Distribution of Respondents

Schools Frequency Percentage

Alupay 3 17.65

Rosario 4 23.53

Baybayin 5 29.41

Itlugan 2 11.76

Timbugan 3 17.65

TOTAL 17 100

As shown in the Table 1, 3 of the respondents were TLE teachers from

Alupay, 4 from Rosario, 5 from Baybayin, 2 from Itlugan and 3 from

Timbugan. These only shown that majority of the respondents were from

Baybayin National High School.

Data Gathering Instrument

The main instrument in gathering data was a self made questionnaire made by

the researchers. The needed data will be gathered through the questionnaire

made by the researchers from the different readings from books and other

resource materials and also to the unpublished materials regarding the


strategies used by teachers. The draft of the questionnaire contains the different

strategies used by teachers in teaching TLE subject.

Construction of the Questionnaire. The second draft of the questionnaire

will be prepared, together with the corrections and suggestions made on the

first draft. After the questionnaire is checked and improved, the third draft will

be prepared.

The questionnaire had two parts. The first part of the questionnaire is the

profile of the respondents. The age, sex, year level handled number of seminars

attended and the number of years in service in teaching Technology and

Livelihood Education. The second part emphasize with the teaching strategies

used by the respondents, the TLE teachers to enhance the performance of the

students in the TLE subject.

Validation of the Questionnaire. To ensure the validity and reliability

of the questionnaire, the researchers will prepare a letter requesting for the

validation from the practitioners. It will be presented to the TLE teachers and

to the adviser of the research study. The draft will be rewritten with the

incorporated suggestions and recommendations and showed it to the adviser for

the approval.

Administration of the Questionnaire. After the questionnaire was

approved, the researchers will prepare a letter of request noted by the adviser

and the Dean of College of Teacher Education for the administration of the

instrument. Afterwards the letter will be presented to the principals of the


chosen schools for the utilization of the teachers as the respondents of the

study. After the principals’ approval, the researchers will distribute the

questionnaire to the respondents.

Scoring of Responses. The data that will be gathered from this study

will be interpreted, tallied, and analyzed based on the scale to determine in the

conformity in the items found in the questionnaire. The scoring used was as

follows:

Option Scale Range Verbal Interpretation

5 4.50-5.0 widely used

4 3.50-4.49 often used

3 2.50-3.49 moderately used

2 1.50-2.49 seldom used

1 1.00-1.49 never used

Data Gathering Procedures

With the permission that granted by the principal, the questionnaire will be

distributed at the teachers’ free time. The 17 teachers that respond to the

questionnaire will be given enough time for them to answer. Consciously, the

researcher will guide the teachers so they will not misunderstand the needed

information in the questionnaire.

When the researchers finished the administering and collecting the

questionnaires, they will start the tallying and tabulating the data. After the data
will be tallied and tabulated, they will give it to the statistician for statistical

treatment.

Statistical Treatment of Data

To be able to analyze the data gathered, statistical tools such as percentage,

frequency, weighted mean, ranking.

Percentage. This will be used to determine percentage for each data.

Frequency. This will be used to refer to the number of respondents who

indicated a specific answer.

Weighted Mean. This will be used to interpret in terms of criteria based on the

scale and their verbal descriptions.

Ranking. This will be used to rank the teachers responses from highest to

lowest.