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Assignment 3: Chapter 8

Group Members:
Haider Shamim
Zain Yousaf Sony
Abdul Wahid
Muaz Ashraf
Talha Saleem
Sohail Ghumman
Syed Ismaeel Shah
Submitted to:
Sir Usman Riaz

CHAPTER 8: TRAINING & DEVELOPING EMPLOYEES

Employee Orientation Purpose & Its Process.


Employee orientation is the process by which an employee acquires the
necessary skills, knowledge, behaviors, and contacts to effectively transition
into a new organization (or role within the organization).
As part of the hiring smart philosophy, orientations can be simple to prepare
and conduct. All it really takes is planning. It actually begins at the point of
hire when the offer is first presented. The offer letter can include a welcome
and a brief overview of benefits, time to report, who to report to and what to
expect the first day, week and follow-up months. By merely making sure the
new employee is listed on the company roster and in the phone system can
make the first impression very favorable.

On the first day, the employee should be given a tour of the facility, no
matter the size, and especially those areas the employee will be most
involved with during their work day. Introduce the staff and prepare a list of
their names and job functions. Time should be made to go over the basic
operations of the company and department, such as work hours,
timeliness/punctuality, explaining the time tracking process, pay day
schedules (including direct deposit information or banks used in the area),
overtime policy, lunch time or break time policies, parking, telephone and
Internet policies, security regulations and how the telephone system works.
In addition, a review of the new employee job description, the filling our of
necessary forms, and a schedule for any additional needed information –
such as training.

The Employee Handbook

An employee handbook is a book given to employees by an employer.


Usually, the employee handbook contains several key sections and includes
information about company culture, policies, and procedures.

Overview of the Training Process


Directly after orientation, training should begin. Training means giving new or
current employees the skills that they need to perform their jobs.Training is a
task that managers mostly ignore, having high potential employees doesn’t
guarantee they’ll succeed.

ADDIE- Five Step Training Process

Training Process is as follows:

 Analyze the training need.

 Design the overall training program.

 Develop the course (creating the training material)

 Implement training, by using methods on the job training or online


training

 Evaluate the course effectiveness.

Apprenticeship Training

Apprenticeship is a combination of on-the-job training (OJT) and related


classroom instruction under the supervision of a journey-level craft person or
trade professional in which workers learn the practical and theoretical
aspects of a highly skilled occupation.

Informal Learning

Informal learning refers to learning that occurs away from a structured, formal
classroom environment. Informal learning comes in many forms, including
viewing videos, self-study, reading articles, participating in forums and chat
rooms, performance support, coaching sessions and games. Informal learning is
a style of learning in which the learner sets their own goals and objectives.

Job Instruction Training

Step by step on the job training method in which a trainer (1)prepares a trainee
with an overview of the job, its purpose and the results desired (2)
demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee, (3) allows the trainee to mimic
the demonstration on his or her own, and (4) follows up to provide feedback
and help.

Audiovisual Based Training


Audiovisual based training techniques like DVDs, films, Power Points, video
conferencing, audiotapes, and videotapes can be very effective and are
widely used.In addition, consider using them in the following situations:

1) When there is a need to illustrate how to follow a certain sequence over


time, such as when reaching fax machine repair. The stop action instant
replay and last or slow motion capabilities of audiovisuals can be useful here.
2) When there is a need to expose trainees to events not easily
demonstrable in live lectures, such as a visual tour of a factory or open heart
surgery.
3) When you need organization wide training and it is too costly to move the
trainers from place to place.

Simulated Training:

Training employees on special off the job equipment as in airplane pilot


training, so training costs and hazards can be reduced.Simulated training is
necessary when it’s too costly or dangerous to train employees on the job.
Putting new assembly line worker right to work could slow production, for in
stance, and when safety is a concern as with pilots – simulated training may
be the only practical alternative.Simulated training may take place in a
separate room with the same equipment the trainees will use on the job.
However, it often involves the use of simulators. In pilot training, for
instance, airlines use flight simulators for safety learning efficiency, and cost
savings.

Off the Job Management Training & Development Techniques

Here we are outlining many off the job techniques for training and
developing managers.

The Case Study Method: All most everyone knows, the case study method
presents a trainee with a written description of an organizational problem.
The person then analyzes the case, diagnoses the problem, and presents his
or her findings and solutions in a discussion with other trainees.

Management Game: With computerized management games, trainees are


divided into five or six-person groups, each of which competes with the
others in a simulated marketplace. Each group typically must decide, for
example, (1) how much to spend on advertising, (2) how much to produce,
(3) how much inventory to maintain, and (4) how many of which product to
produce. Usually, the game itself compresses a two-or three year period into
days, weeks or months. As in the real world each company team usually
can’t see what decisions (such as to boost advertising) the other firms
have made, although these decisions do affect their own sales.Management
games can be good development tools. People learn best by being involved
and the games can be useful for gaining such involvement. They help
trainees develop their problem solving skills, as well as to focus attention on
planning rather than just putting out fires. The groups also usually elect their
own officers and organize themselves; they can thus develop leadership
skills and foster cooperation and teamwork.

Outside Seminars: Many companies and universities offer Web based and
traditional management development seminars and conference.

University related programs: Many universities provide executive education


ad continuing education programs in leadership, supervisor, and the like.
These can range one to four day programs to executive development
program lasting one to four months. An increasing number of these are
offered online.

Role Playing: The aim of role playing is to create a realistic situation and then
have the trainees assume the parts (or roles) of specific persons it that
situation.

Lewins Change Model

Kurt Lewin developed a change model involving three


steps: unfreezing, changing and refreezing. The model represents a very
simple and practical model for understanding the change process. For Lewin,
the process of change entails creating the perception that a change is
needed, then moving toward the new, desired level of behavior and finally,
solidifying that new behavior as the norm. The model is still widely used and
serves as the basis for many modern change models.

Leading Organisational Change

Unfreeze

1. Determine what needs to change.

 Survey the organization to understand the current state.


 Understand why change has to take place.

2. Ensure there is strong support from senior management.

 Use Stakeholder Analysis and Stakeholder Management to identify


and win the support of key people within the organization.
 Frame the issue as one of organization-wide importance.

3. Create the need for change.

 Create a compelling message about why change has to occur.

 Use your vision and strategy as supporting evidence.

 Communicate the vision in terms of the change required.

 Emphasize the "why."

4. Manage and understand the doubts and concerns.

 Remain open to employee concerns and address them in terms of the


need to change.

Change

1. Communicate often.

 Do so throughout the planning and implementation of the changes.

 Describe the benefits.

 Explain exactly how the changes will effect everyone.

 Prepare everyone for what is coming.

2. Dispel rumors.

 Answer questions openly and honestly.

 Deal with problems immediately.

 Relate the need for change back to operational necessities.

3. Empower action.

 Provide lots of opportunity for employee involvement.


 Have line managers provide day-to-day direction.

4. Involve people in the process.

 Generate short-term wins to reinforce the change.

 Negotiate with external stakeholders as necessary (such as employee


organizations).

Refreeze

1. Anchor the changes into the culture.

 Identity what supports the change.

 Identify barriers to sustaining change.

2. Develop ways to sustain the change.

 Ensure leadership support.

 Create a reward system.

 Establish feedback systems.

 Adapt the organizational structure as necessary.

3. Provide support and training.

 Keep everyone informed and supported.

4. Celebrate success!

Evaluating the Training Effort

It is crucial that the manager evaluate the training program. There are
basically three things you can measure: participants reactions to the
program; what (if anything) the trainees learned form the programs; and to
what extent their on the job behavior changed as a result of the program.

There are actually two basic issues to address when evaluating training
programs. The first is the design of the evaluation study and, in particular,
whether to use controlled experimentation. The second issue is: What should
we measure?
Designing the Study:

In evaluating the training program the first question should be how to design
the evaluations study. The time series design is one option. Here, you take a
series of measures before and after the training program. This can provide at
least an initial reading on the program’s effectiveness.

Controlled experimentation: Formal methods for testing the effectiveness of


a training program, preferably with before and after tests and a control group

This approach is feasible but, in terms of current practice few firms use it.
Most simply measure trainees’ reactions to the program; some also measure
the trainees’ job performance before and after training. The human resources
manager should at least use an evaluation form to evaluate training
program.

Training effects to measure:

You can measure four basic categories of training outcome:

1) Reaction: Evaluate trainees’ reactions to the programs. Did they like the
program? Did they think it is worth while?
2) Learning: test the trainees to determine whether they learned the
principles, skills, and facts they were supposed to learn.
3) Behavior: Ask whether the trainees on the job behavior changed because
of the training program. For example are employees in the store’s complaint
department more courteous toward disgruntled customers?
4) Results Probably most important to ask: What final results were achieved
in terms of the training objectives previously set?

Evaluating any of these four is fairly straight forward. Similarly, you might
assess trainees learning by testing their new knowledge. The employer can
asses the trainees’ behavioral change directly or indirectly. Indirectly you
might assess the effectiveness of, say, a supervisory performance appraisal
training program by asking that person’s subordinates questions like, Did
your supervisor take the time to provide you with examples of good and bad
performance when he or she appraised your performance most recently? Or,
you can directly assess a training program’s results, for instance, by
measuring, say, the percentage of phone calls answered correctly.

Suggestions: Reactions measures aren’t good substitutes for measuring


learning or results. Unfortunately only about 10% to 35% of trainees are
transferring what they learned to their jobs in during training. Managers can
improve this. Prior to training, get trainee and supervisor input in designing
the program, institute a training attendance policy and encourage
employees to participate. During training, trainees with training experience
and conditions, surroundings, equipment that resemble the actual work
environment. After training reinforce what trainees leaned, for instance, by
appraising and rewarding employees for using new skills and by ensuring
they have the tools and materials they need to use their new skills.

Computerization facilitates evaluation: For example Bovis Lend Lease uses


learning management software to monitor which employees are taking which
courses, and the extent to which they are improving their skills.