# Energy Efficiency

(Microhydro)
Forebay Headrace Canal Intake Dam / weir Penstock Powerhouse Transmission

Tailrace

Training on Renewable Energy Utilization and Energy Efficiency for DEEUs’ Engineers Jointly organized by: Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) & Center for Energy Studies (CES)/Institute of Engineering/Tribhuvan University

Energy Source
• Potential energy of WATER of certain mass (m) with reference to certain HEAD (H) is the basis for available power source for all Microhydro power plants.
PE = m.g.H m KE = 0 V=0
H

H Gross = Z (IWL) − Z (TWL)
Intake Water Level (ZIWL)

E Gross = g ∗ H Gross
Gross Specific Energy
Energy delivers by 1 kg of water when passing through the plant from upper (Intake) to a lower (Tailrace) level

PE m KE
V
Datum Line

m

PE = 0 KE = 1/2mV2 V=Vmax

Tail Water Level (ZTWL)

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 2

Energy Facts
• Energy can not be created nor destroyed. But it can be changed from one form to other by using some suitable devices. • While changing from one form to others some losses are inevitable that is some portion of available energy is lost in the form of heat, noise etc. • The amount of energy losses depends various factors that includes design, type and quality of conversion devices being used.
14 September 2010 Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 3

Energy Conversion

Foreway Water Level (ZFWL)

Tail Water Level (ZTWL)

H Gross = Z (FWL) − Z (TWL) E Gross = g ∗ H Gross
Gross Specific Energy
14 September 2010 Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 4

Types of Hydro-power Plants (by water usage)
Run-off-River type
• Uses water within the range of the natural river flow. • Seasonal Variation of Flow • No Storage of Water Energy

Reservoir / Pondage type
•Has a reservoir that enables regulating the river flow •Supplies power in response to the demand. • Head may alter as per reservoir water Level

Pump storage type
•Has an upper reservoir and a lower reservoir. •Generates power during peak demand. •Pumps up water during low demand. • Improves Load Factor
14 September 2010 Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 5

TOTAL LOSSES

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 6

Efficiency Facts:
• Ratio of useful power (Actual Power) to available power (Theoretical Power). • It signify the effectiveness of a system indicating what portion of available energy that can be converted into useful energy. • Usually expressed as %. More the % more effective is the system. • Efficiency is inbuilt in the system, but not a component or device that can separately added. • So It is related to each and every aspect of project that includes; design, sizing, selecting , installation and operation and maintenance of the system.
14 September 2010 Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 7

Quantifying Energy Potential
Power Potential P (kW) =
(g.ρ) = Weight density of water = 9810
N/m3 Hg = Level difference between Intake and Tailwater (m) Qg = Water flow rate at Intake (m3/s)

(gρ) Hg Qg
1000`
Seasonal variation

Tailrace

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 8

For a particular site Hg is fixed (for run-off system) Qg is minimum dry season flow

Usable Power (kW) =  g × ρ × H g × Qg    ×η o   1000  
ηo =Overall (or ) Combine efficiency

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 9

Overall Efficiency
USABLE POWER (PUSA.)

Useful Available Overall Power = Power x Efficiency (PUseful) (PAvailable) (ηOverall)

Typical Example:

ηOverall = (0.95 × 0.91× 0.75 × 1× 0.86 × 0.9)

≈ 50 %

η Overall = (η Canal × η Penstock × η Turbine × η Drive × η Generator × η Transmission )
14 September 2010 Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 10

If power potential of a MHP site is 100 kW, ONLY 50kW is available for useful work.

Overall Efficiency
• Useful Energy depends on Overall efficiency of MHP scheme. • Overall Efficiency is the product of all individual efficiency of systems / components. • To improve overall efficiency each and every system/ components must be properly constructed and suitably selected /installed. • They should be properly operated and maintained in good working conditions.

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 11

Energy Efficiency
Saving some energy is equivalent to producing same amount of additional energy. (Available Power (kW) *η Overall ) Useable Power (kW) Efficiency = = Available Power (kW) Available Power (kW)
Energy Efficiency = Useable Power * Time (kWh) Annual Power used * Time (kWh/yr) = Available Power * Time (kWh) Power Available* 8760 (kWh/yr)

(End used components Power Rating * its efficiency) * Time (kWh/yr) Energy Efficiency = Power Available* 8760 (kWh/yr)

Factors to be considered for improving Energy Efficiency are:
Improve Overall Efficiency Consumer ‘s loads (Load factors) to be increased Make use energy storing devices / Apply waste recovery system Make use of high efficient appliances Reducing frequency of breakdown/ downtime Operate under best efficiency parameters & proper maintenance
14 September 2010 Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 12

MHP Energy Efficiency Aspects
• Design aspect of Water conduit systems
– Proper design, size and construction of Water conduit systems that includes: Intake, Headrace, Settling basin, Forebay, Penstock and Tailrace etc.)

• Design aspect of Power Producing/ Transmission & Distribution Components
– Suitably selecting (types/ sizes) and installation of Power producing and transmitting components that includes: Turbine, Generator, Drive system, Transmission and Distribution system.

• Power Consumption Aspects
– Efficiently use of available useable power/ Energy saving and storing aspects

• Operation and maintenance aspects
– Properly operating and maintenance of MHP systems.

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 13

Intake Design Aspect: Typical Example
The function of the intake is to discharge required design flow of water to the Headrace canal from the River.

Design Aspect
– Type Selection/ Safe Location – Design Standard – Regulate design flow during dry / rainy season – Optimum sizing Basic Criterion
Trashrack

Design Parameters
Flood Level, Qflood Normal Level, QNormal Canal Level, hC Design Velocity ; V Orifice size, A; (W x H) Level difference, (hr-hc) Cost

V = Cv. √2.g.(hr-hc) Q = A. Cv. √2.g.(hr-hc)
Intake Orifice (hr-hc)

Q Flood Q Normal
hr H River bed Side Intake
14 September 2010

Q Flood Q Normal
W

hc Canal

hr h c Datum

Orifice

H

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 14

Gravel Trap Design aspect: Typical Example
Function:
is to trap the coarse sand and protect the system. Usually flow regulation and flushing systems are incorporated with.

Design Aspect
– – – – Safe location, particle size Design standards Storage capacity Optimum sizing L

Design Parameters
Capacity, Q Velocity ; V Length; L Width; B Particle size, d Cost

setting

From Intake Pressure tunnel Design Criteria DSettling To headrace
P.S. (mm) 0.5 1.0 2.0 VVertical (m/s) 0.1 0.4 0.6

L Settling D Settling

=

V Horizontal V Vertical

Trapped Gravels

Flushing system

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 15

Design aspects of Spillway: Typical example
Function
– is to remove excess water from the channel and maintain normal design flow in the canal.

Design Aspect
– – – – – Maximum flood level Design standards Normal flow level Optimum sizing Safe location

Design Parameters
Spill flow, QSpill Velocity ; V Spillway Size; Wspill; LSpill Spill height, Hspill Cost
Qflood Level

LSpill
Qnormal Level

From Intake

Design Criteria
Qspill = Cw*LSpill*(Hflood - Hnormal)1.5
Weir constant ~ 1.6

HSpill Q Spillway

To Forebay

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 16

Headrace Canal Design Aspect: Typical Example
Design Parameters Design Aspect
– – – – – Selection channel type Economy section Optimum sizing Minimum losses Design standards
Semicircular

Θ=600
b d

b=2d

Design flow, Q Velocity ; V Slope; S Hydraulic Radius, R Canal Size; b; d Critical depth, dc Headloss, Hl Seepage loss; qLoss Costs Loss

Intake Forebay

Design Criteria 1 2 1 3 V = . S 2 Limitation R N N Canal type
R = A/P n.V. S= R0.667
14 September 2010 Earthen 2 0.02-0.15 0.035-0.013 Cemented /Cont. Metal 0.020-0.07

V 0.8 – 1 m/s 1-3 m/s 3 m/s

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 17

Specific Energy vs Canal depth

yc=Critical Depth

yc

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 18

Design aspects Settling basin: Typical example
Design Aspect
– – – – Settle Smallest size possible Storage capacity Optimum sizing Safe location/ Flushing
Vhorizontal VVerticle DCollection Design Criteria

Design Parameters
Capacity, Q Velocity ; V Length; L Width; B Particle size, d Cost
DSettling

L Settling D Settling

=

V Horizontal V Vertical
L Settling
=

LSetting

Q

W

Settling

×V

Vertical

P.S. (mm) 0.1 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0

VVertical (m/s) 0.02 0.03 0.1 0.4 0.6
Slide No. 19

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Forebay design aspect: Typical example
hs>
1.5*V2

2*g

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 20

Penstocks A penstock is a pipe that conveys the flow of water
from Forebay to the Turbine.
Trashrack Forebay Expansion Joint Support Piers

Line

hs>

1.5*V2

2*g

Penstock pipe

Overflow

Anchor block hs
Trashrack 300mm

Expansion Joint Materials PVC/ HDPE Mild-steel k mm 0.06 0.1 to 0.15
Slide No. 21

PH

Forebay
14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Design Aspects of Penstock Pipe
Design Aspect
– – – – – – Selecting Penstock Minimizing Frictional/ Turbulence losses Optimum sizing Regulating design flow Rigidly support Penstock Allow axial movement

Design Parameters
Design flow, Q Diameter, D Velocity ; V Penstock Length; L Material types, f Thickness, t Gross/ Net Head, Hgross; Hnet Surge head, Hsurge Cost Materials PVC/ HDPE Mild-steel k mm 0.06 0.1 to 0.15

Design Criteria
4.Q V= π.d2 F*L*V2 hWall-losses= 2*g*d

△L=α*L*(Thot-Tcold)

V2 [Kentrance+Kbend+Kexpansion+Kvalve+....] hTurbulence-losses= 2.g

Total head losses: hWall-loss + hTurbulence loss HSurge= axv x 1 n g S.F.= 2*σ*teffictive ρ*g*htotal*d

If % headloss is more than 5% then choose bigger size Penstock and repeat the calculation If S.F is less than 3.5 repeat the calculation choosing t , more thicker
Slide No. 22

hTotal = hGross + hSurge
14 September 2010

t = (teffective+ FCorrosion * FRolling* FWelding )

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Minor Losses
Sudden Expansion and Contraction Losses

Valve Losses

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 23

Minor Losses
Entrance Losses

Bend Losses

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 24

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 25

Turbine Selection: Typical Example
Turbines are site specific. Selecting the best suitable turbine is most important. They are normally, selected based on one or more of the following factors. - Specific speed – Part flow efficiency - The Head – Head and Flow - Cost/ Availability – Head, Power and Operating Speed etc.

Design / Selection Aspect
– – – – – High Efficiency Reliability Design Standards Maintenance Availability
Impulse Turbines:

Selection Parameters
Design flow, Q Net head, Hnet Specific Speed, Ns RPM, N Efficiency, η Power, P, Costs
Reaction Turbines:

Turgo Pelton

Cross flow 14 September 2010

Francis

Propeller
Slide No. 26

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Head Classification Turbine Type High (>50m) Pelton Turgo Multi-Jet Pelton Medium (10-50m) Crossflow Turgo Multi-Jet Pelton Francis Reaction Low (<10m) Crossflow

Impulse

Propeller Kaplan

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 27

Turbine Selection:
(Based on Specific Speed)
Types of Turbine Single-Jet Pelton 2 - Jet Pelton 3 - Jet Pelton Impulse 4 - Jet Pelton 6 - Jet Pelton Turgo Crossflow Francis Reaction Kaplan Propeller
14 September 2010

Specific Speed (NS) 10 - 35 10 - 45 10 - 55 10 - 70 10 - 80 20 - 80 20 - 90 70 - 500 350 - 1100 600 - 900 NS = NS =

NT x Po0.5 HN1.25

(NG/G) x Po0.5 HN1.25 G= NG NT

Where: NS = Specific Speed NT = Turbine Speed (RPM) Po = Power output (kW) HN = Net Head (m) NG = Generator Speed G = Speed ratio (G= 1 to 3)
Slide No. 28

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Turbine Selection:
(Based on Part flow Efficiency)

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 29

Part flow Efficiency
(Cross-flow Turbine)

To improve the part-flow efficiency two valves of 1/3 and 2/3 sizes being used in cross-flow. Similarly, multi jet and Spear valve are used in Pelton. Blade pitches are adjusted in Kaplan.

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 30

Turbine Selection: Based on Head & Flow

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 31

Turbine Selection: Based on Head, Power and Speed

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 32

Design aspects of Drive System: Typical Example
The function of Drive system is to transmit power available at Turbine shaft to the Generator to its required RPM.

Design Aspect
– – – – – – – – Power Transmission Suitable Drive System Speed Matching Design Standards Perfect alignment Minimizing losses Adjustment Tight side Safety
D2

Design Parameters

T1
R1

D1 θ1 N 1 Driving Pulley

Manufacture's Specification Power, P Center distance, C Size ; (t x b) Turbine Speed; NT Generator’s Speed, NG Belt Tension, T1; T2 Velocity, V Angle of Lap, θ1; θ2 Pulleys dia. D1; D2 Cost

θ2 N2 Driven R2
Pulley

T2
Slack side
C
Belt Shafts

Design Criteria
P = (T1 – T2)*V

V = π*D1*N1= π*D2*N2

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 33

Generator Selection: Typical Example
Design / Selection Aspect
– – – – – – – – Continues operation Present / Future demand High Efficiency Safety, Reliability Design standards Maintenance Runway speed Availability
U p to 10 kW Induction or Synchronous Single or Three 10 to 25 kW Synchronous or Induction Three

The function of the Generator is to receive the mechanical power from Turbine and convert it to Electrical Power. Selection Parameters Manufacture's Specification Type/ Power, P Phase, Ф, Voltage, V Frequency, f (Hz) RPM, N Efficiency, η Power factor, pf ELC factor, Altitude factor Temperature factor
M ore than 25 kW Synchronous Three

Size of schem e Type of Generator

Phase

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 34

Operating Characteristic of Synchronous Generator
V V

RPM =
220 V 220 V

120 * f P

Where; P = No. of poles When; P = 4, f = 50 ; RPM = 1500 Load (A)

1500

RPM

Max (A)

Load curve at fixed RPM (with compounding)

Operating Characteristic of Induction Generator
V
I.G. S.G.
220 V 220 V

V

RPM =

120 * f (1+s) P

Where; s= slip (0 – 10%) p = No. of poles (2,4...) When; P = 4, f = 50 ; s = 0-5% RPM = 1500 - 1575 Load (A) Load curve at fixed RPM
Slide No. 35

1500

14 September 2010

RPM

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Generator Sizing: Typical Example
Factors to be considered for selecting the size of the Generator. Max. ambient Temp.(0C) A Temp. factor Altitude B C D Altitude factor ELC Correction factor When load resistive (light bulbs) only Power factor When loads are light bulbs + Tube-lights etc. (Resistive + Inductive) 20 1.10 1000 1.00 30 1.06 2000 0.93 40 1.00 3000 0.86 50 0.92 4000 0.8 0.83 1.00 0.80

Power output in kW Generator KVA =
AxBxCxD

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 36

Transmission System sizing:
Design / Selection Aspect
– – – – – – Power transmission Minimizing Losses Design Standards Safe route Constant Voltage / Frequency Proper Protection

Typical Example

The function of the Transmission and Distribution system is to transmit the Electrical Power available at Generator in PH to the villages users household .

Selection Parameters
Power, P Phase, Ф, pf Generator Voltage, Vgen Endues voltage; V Frequency, f (Hz) Conductor size/ type, R Distance; D Voltage drop, Vdrop V drop is depends on:
1. Type of cable material 2. Cross-sectional area of the cable 3. Length of the cable

Design Criteria
P = Vx I V drop = I x R R=

ρ. L
Α

PLoss =

V

2 drop

R

= I2 ⋅R

Cable Resistance, R= Length (km) * Resistance ( /km)
14 September 2010 Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 37

Cable Specifications:
Conductor Squirrel Gopher Weasel Rabbit Dog Current rating (amp) 76 85 95 135 205 Aluminum Cable Conductor 4mm2 6mm2 10mm2 16mm2 25mm2 Current rating (amp) 23 30 40 51 70 Resistance ( /km) 7.15 4.76 2.86 1.78 1.14 Resistance ( (ohm)/km) 1.374 1.089 0.9047 0.5404 0.2722

Typical Example
Weight (kg/km) 85 106 127.7 213.6 394

ACSR Cable (Typical specification)

Most commonly used conducting materials are: - Copper - Aluminum ACSR (Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforce)

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 38

Power Consumption Aspects
• • • • • Make use of energy efficient devices Make use of CFL lamps Improve load factors of the plant. Avoid energy conversion as far as practicable. Load balancing proper design of distribution system. • Generate Awareness about Energy Saving • Recovering of waste energy
• • • •
14 September 2010

Make use of lost heat energy of ballast load Use of Energy Storing Devices (Battery charger) Use of reservoir for water storing Pump Storage
Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 39

Operation and Maintenance Aspects
• For all components/ systems there are certain best operating parameters at which they can run efficiently. • These parameters must be checked/ verified /ensured before operating and should routinely monitored. • There should daily and routine checking and inspection plan to ensure good physical condition of Components • There should be some schedule maintenance, preventive maintenance and predictive maintenance plan to prevent plant from sudden breakdown and reduce downtime. • Spare stock of fast moving items/ plan maintenance system greatly reduce downtime/ plant shutdown.

14 September 2010

Training on Energy Efficiency: “Energy Efficiency-Micro-hydro”: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 40