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PROJECT

OF

LABOUR LAW & INTERNATIONAL LABOUR LAW

TOPIC:- WOMEN PROTECTION AT WORKPLACE


&LABOUR WELFARE LAWS

SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:

Dr. V. NEGI VEENA

110/13

Section-B

Semester-10th

B.A. LLB(Hons.)

UILS, PU, Chd.

INDEX
CONTENTS PAGE NO
1. INTRODUCTION
2. BACKGROUND
3. The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition
and Redressal) Act, 2013
• Objectives of the Act • Features of the Act
• Definitions:
 Sexual Harassment
 Work Place
• Prevention of Sexual Harassment
• Complaints Committee
 Internal Complaints Committee(Section-4)
 Local Complains Committee(Section-6)
 Power of ICC and LCC
 Composition. tenure and other terms and conditions of Local
Complaints Committee(section-7)
• Complaints Procedure(Section-9)
• Punishment for false or malicious complaints and false evidence (section-14)
• Determination of compensation (section 15)
• Duties of employer
• Duties and powers of District Officer
• Other law related to prevent the women form sexual harassment at work
place
4. OTHER LABOUR WELFARE LAW FOR WOMEN
5. CONCLUSION

Table of cases

Name of the cases Page no.


1. Apparel Export Promotion Council Vs. A.K. Chopra 2.
Medha Kotwal Lele vs. Union of India
3. Vishaka and Others Vs.
State of Rajasthan and Others1("Vishaka Judgment")
4. Vidya Akhave (“Petitioner”) v. Union of India and Ors

Introduction:

Labour laws apply to that area of activity where workers are working
under a contract of employment. As the workers are being Subject to
exploitation and discrimination and their human rights being violated so
the need arose for enactment of the labour laws for their protection and
security. Working women form a major thick peace of society. Amongst
– labourers, the conditions of working women is particularly vulnerable.
They belong to the weaker Section of the society. They need equal
treatment and special protection under the law. This special treatment to
women workers is due to the peculiar and psychological reasons, such as
their physical build up, poor health due to repeated pregnancies, home
drudgery and due to nature of occupation in which they are engaged. To
protect this vulnerable group, many legislative provisions have been
provided in almost all labour statutes which address problems of women
labourers in their employment situation.
Work undertaken by women in every field is grossly underestimated,
under-valued and subject to gender based discrimination. Despite a
plethora of legislations that attempt to remove inequalities in the
workplace, India is witnessing a steady decline in the participation rate of
women in the labour workforce.
Sexual harassment is a serious manifestation of sex discrimination at the
workplace and a violation of human rights as well as fundamental rights,
enshrined in the Constitution of India. It is yet another form of violence
against women reflecting patriarchal mindsets and gender based
discrimination that women experience at work. It is also a manifestation
of power relations, as women are much more likely to be the victims of
sexual harassment because of their already existing vulnerability,
insecurity, and social conditioning to accept discrimination in silence.
BACKGROND

In 1997, the Hon'ble Supreme Court of India, in Vishaka and Others Vs.
State of Rajasthan and Others1("Vishaka Judgment") acknowledged
the gravity of sexual harassment of the working women at the workplaces
and laid down guidelines making it mandatory for employers to prevent
the commission of acts of sexual harassment and to provide the
procedures for the resolution, settlement or prosecution of acts of sexual
harassment. The guidelines issued by the Hon'ble Supreme Court were
treated as law declared by the Hon'ble Supreme Court under Article 141of
the Constitution of India. It was held by the Hon'ble Supreme Court that
the guidelines framed by the Supreme Court would be strictly observed
in all work places for the prevention and enforcement of the right to
gender equality of the working women.

It was observed by various Courts from time to time in the past that the
guidelines and norms framed by the Hon'ble Supreme Court in Vishaka
Judgment have not been followed in workplaces strictly.

In Medha Kotwal Lele vs. Union of India coordinator of Aalochana, a


centre for documentation and research on women and other women’s
rights groups, together with others, petitioned the Court highlighting a
number of individual cases of sexual harassment and arguing that the
Vishaka Guidelines were not being effectively implemented. In
particular, the petitioners argued that, despite the guidelines, women
continued to be harassed in the workplace because the Vishaka Guidelines
were being breached in both substance and spirit by state functionaries
who harass women workers via legal and extra legal means, making them
suffer and by insulting their dignity.

The Court stated that the Vishaka Guidelines had to be implemented in


form, substance and spirit in order to help bring gender parity by ensuring
women can work with dignity, decency and due respect. It noted that the
Vishaka Guidelines require both employers and other responsible persons
or institutions to observe them and to help prevent sexual harassment of
women. The Court held that a number of states were falling short in this
regard. It referred back to its earlier findings on 17 January 2006, that the
Vishaka Guidelines had not been properly implemented by various States
and Departments in India and referred to the direction it provided on that
occasion to help to achieve better coordination and implementation. The
Court went on to note that some states appeared not to have implemented
earlier Court decisions which had required them to make their legislation
compliant with the Vishaka Guidelines.

The increasing work participation rate of women made it imperative for


enacting a comprehensive legislation focusing on prevention of sexual
harassment as well as providing a redressal mechanism.

The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention,


Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013

In 2013, after a span of 16 years, India finally enacted the Sexual


Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and
Redressal) Act, 2013 (hereinafter referred to as the 'Act') for prevention
of sexual harassment against women at the workplaces. The Central
Government vide notification SO 3606 (E) appointed 9 December 2013
as the date on which the provisions of the Act came into force and on the
same day, the Central Government made the Sexual Harassment of
Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Rules,
2013 ("Rules").

This new legislation makes every effort to be a user friendly constitutional


tool in the hands of the employers and employees, to create healthy and
safe workplaces and safeguard the vision of Vishaka guidelines, one
reaffirmed by the Justice Verma Committee (2013) Objectives of the Act
The Act is enacted by the Indian Parliament to provide protection against
sexual harassment of women at workplace and prevention and redressal
of complaints of sexual harassment and for matters connected therewith
or incidental thereto. Sexual harassment is termed as a violation of the
fundamental rights of a woman to equality under Articles 14 and 15 of the
Constitution of India and right to life and to live with dignity under Article
21 of the Constitution of India. Sexual harassment is also considered a
violation of a right to practice any profession or to carry on any
occupation, trade or business which includes a right to a safe environment
free from sexual harassment1.

Feature of the act2 :-

• The Act defines sexual harassment at the work place and creates a
mechanism for redressal of complaints. It also provides safeguards
against false or malicious charges.
• The Act also covers concepts of 'quid pro quo harassment' and 'hostile
work environment' as forms of sexual harassment if it occurs in
connection with an act or behavior of sexual harassment.
• The definition of "aggrieved woman", who will get protection under
the Act is extremely wide to cover all women, irrespective of her age
or employment status, whether in the organized or unorganized sectors,
public or private and covers clients, customers and domestic workers
as well.
• While the "workplace" in the Vishaka Guidelines is confined to the
traditional office set-up where there is a clear employer-employee
relationship, the Act goes much further to include organizations,
department, office, branch unit etc. in the public and private sector,
organized and unorganized, hospitals, nursing homes, educational
institutions, sports institutes, stadiums, sports complex and any place

1
http://www.nishithdesai.com/fileadmin/user_upload/pdfs/Research%20Papers/Prevention_of_Sexual_Harassme
nt_at_Workplace.pdf
2
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexual_Harassment_of_Women_at_Workplace_(Prevention,_Prohibition_and_Red
ressal)_Act,_2013
visited by the employee during the course of employment including the
transportation. Even non-traditional workplaces which involve tele-
commuting will get covered under this law.
• The Committee is required to complete the inquiry within a time period
of 90 days. On completion of the inquiry, the report will be sent to the
employer or the District Officer, as the case may be, they are mandated
to take action on the report within 60 days.
• Every employer is required to constitute an Internal Complaints
Committee at each office or branch with 10 or more employees. The
District Officer is required to constitute a Local Complaints Committee
at each district, and if required at the block level.
• The Complaints Committees have the powers of civil courts for
gathering evidence.
• The Complaints Committees are required to provide for conciliation
before initiating an inquiry, if requested by the complainant.
• The inquiry process under the Act should be confidential and the Act
lays down a penalty of Rs 5000 on the person who has breached
confidentiality.
• The Act requires employers to conduct education and sensitization
programs and develop policies against sexual harassment, among other
obligations.
• Penalties have been prescribed for employers. Non-compliance with
the provisions of the Act shall be punishable with a fine of up to Rs
50,000. Repeated violations may lead to higher penalties and
cancellation of license or registration to conduct business.
• Government can order an officer to inspect workplace and records
related to sexual harassment in any organization.
Definitions3 Sexual Harassment
The Act has adopted the definition of 'sexual harassment' from Vishaka
Judgment and the term sexual harassment includes any unwelcome acts

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or behavior (whether directly or by implication) such as physical contact
and advances, demand or request for sexual favours, making sexually
coloured remarks, showing pornography or any other unwelcome
physical, verbal or non-verbal conduct of sexual nature.

In, Apparel Export Promotion Council Vs. A.K. Chopra 3, the Hon'ble
Supreme Court while deciding an issue whether the act of a superior
officer (wherein such superior officer tried to molest his junior woman
employee) would amount to sexual harassment, the Court relied on the
definition of the term 'sexual harassment' laid down by the Supreme Court
in the Vishaka Judgment (which is similar to the definition of the Sexual
Harassment provided in the Act) held that "the act of the respondent was
unbecoming of good conduct and behavior expected from a superior
officer and undoubtedly amounted to sexual harassment..."

Section 2(n) of the Sexual Harassment of Women (Prevention


Prohibition and Redressal) Act 2013 states sexual harassment includes
any one or more of the following unwelcome acts or behaviour (whether
directly or by implication) namely:

1. Physical contact and advances; or


2. A demand or request for sexual favours; or
3. Making sexually coloured remarks; or
4. Showing pornography; or
5. Any other unwelcome physical, verbal, or non-verbal conduct of
sexual nature.

Definition of the “work place”:-section 2(o) includes:-

"workplace" includes-—
i. any department, organisation, undertaking, establishment,
enterprise, institution, office, branch or unit which is established,
owned, controlled or wholly or substantially financed by funds
provided directly or indirectly by the appropriate Government or
the local authority or a Government company or a corporation or a
co-operative society;
ii. any private sector organisation or a private venture,
undertaking, enterprise, institution, establishment, society, trust,
non-governmental organisation, unit or service provider carrying
on commercial, professional, vocational, educational,
entertainment, industrial, health services or financial activities
including production, supply, sale, distribution or service;
iii. hospitals or nursing homes;
iv. any sports institute, stadium, sports complex or competition or
games venue, whether residential or not used for training, sports
or other activities relating thereto;
v. any place visited by the employee arising out of or during the
course of employment including transportation provided by the
employer for undertaking such journey;
vi. a dwelling place or a house;

Prevention of Sexual Harassment

Section 3 of the Act provides that no woman shall be subjected to


sexual harassment at any workplace. The following circumstance may
amount to sexual harassment:

i. as implied or expressed promise to preferential treatment or


ii. implied or explicit threat of detrimental treatment in her
employment,
iii. implied or explicit threat about her present or future employment,
iv. interference with work or creating an intimidating or offensive
or hostile work environment,
v. humiliating treatment likely to affect health or safety of a woman.
Complaints Committee4

Internal Complaints Committee(section-4):

The Act makes it mandatory for every employer to constitute an internal


complaints committee ("ICC") which entertains the complaints made by
any aggrieved women. The members of the ICC are to be nominated by
the employer and ICC should consist of

i) a Presiding Officer,
ii) not less than two members from amongst employees preferably
committed to the cause or women or who have had experience in
social work or have legal knowledge and
iii) one member from amongst non-governmental organizations or
associations committed to the cause of women or a person familiar
with the issues relating to sexual harassment. In order to ensure
participation of women employees in the ICC proceedings, the Act
requires that at least one-half of the members of ICC nominated by
employer are women.

Local Complaints Committee(section-6):

Provisions are provided under the Act to form Local Complaints


Committee (LCC) for every district for receiving complaints of sexual
harassment from establishments where the ICC has not been formed due
to having less than 10 workers or if the complaint is against the employer
himself.

The Bombay High Court (“Court”) ruled that it would not interfere with
an order of punishment passed by the Internal Complaints Committee
(“ICC”) in relation to a sexual harassment complaint, unless the order is
shockingly disproportionate.

4
https://www.lawctopus.com/academike/standards-women-labour-law
The Court passed this judgment in the case of
Vidya Akhave (“Petitioner”) v. Union of India and Ors5in relation to the
new Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition
and Redressal) Act, 2013 of India (“Sexual
Harassment Act”).
The Court observed that the employer must sufficiently comply with the
duties cast upon it under the Sexual Harassment Act. The Court also stated
that (a) an employer must provide for an effective mechanism for
prevention of sexual harassment of women at workplace; (b) male
employees must be sensitized towards the concerns of female employees
and (c) the ICC must deal with complaints of sexual harassment in an
expedited manner.

Powers of the ICC/LCC

The act stipulates that the ICC and LCC shall, while inquiring into a
complaint of workplace sexual harassment, have the same powers as
vested in a civil court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 when
trying a suit in respect of:

i. summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person and


examining him on oath;
ii. ii. requiring the discovery and production of documents; and iii.
iii. any other matter which may be prescribed

Composition. tenure and other terms and conditions of Local


Complaints Committee(section-7):
1. The Local Complaints Committee shall consist of the following
members to be nominated by the District Officer, namely:

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Writ Petition 796 of 2015
a. a Chairperson to be nominated from amongst the eminent women in
the field of social work and committed to the cause of women;
b. one Member to be nominated from amongst the women working in
block, taluka or tehsil or ward or municipality in the district;
c. two Members, of whom at least one shall be a woman, to be
nominated from amongst such non-governmental organisations or
associations committed to the cause of women or a person familiar with
the issues relating to sexual harassment, which may be prescribed:
Provided that at least one of the nominees should, preferably,
have a background in law or legal knowledge:
Provided further that at least one of the nominees shall be a
woman belonging to the Scheduled Castes or the Scheduled
Tribes or the Other Backward Classes or minority community
notified by the Central Government, from time to time;
d. the concerned officer dealing with the social welfare or women and
child development in the district, shall be a member ex officio.
2. The Chairperson and every Member of the Local Committee shall
hold office for such period, not exceeding three years, from the date of
their appointment as may be specified by the District Officer.
3. Where the Chairperson or any Member of the Local Complaints
Committee- —
e. contravenes the provisions of section 16; or
f. has been convicted for an offence or an inquiry into an offence under
any law for the time being in force is pending against him; or
g. has been found guilty in any disciplinary proceedings or a
disciplinary proceeding is pending against him; or
h. has so abused his position as to render his continuance in office
prejudicial to the public interest, such Chairperson or Member, as the
case may be, shall be removed from the Committee and the vacancy
so created or any casual vacancy shall be filled by fresh nomination
in accordance with the provisions of this section.
4. The Chairperson and Members of the Local Committee other than
the Members nominated under clauses (b) and (d) of sub-section (1) shall
be entitled to such fees or allowances for holding the proceedings of the
Local Committee as may be prescribed.

Complaint procedure(section-9):

The Act stipulates that aggrieved woman can make written complaint of
sexual harassment at workplace to the ICC or to the LCC (in case a
complaint is against the employer), within a period of three months from
the date of incident and in case of a series of incidents, within a period of
three months from the date of last incident. If the aggrieved woman is
unable to make complaint in writing, reasonable assistance shall be
rendered by the presiding officer or any member of the ICC (or in case
the aggrieved woman is unable to make complaint in writing to the LCC,
the reasonable assistance shall be rendered by the Chairperson or any
member of the LCC) for making the complaint in writing.

As per the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention,


Prohibition and Redressal) Rules, 2013, in case the aggrieved woman is
unable to make a complaint on account of her physical incapacity, a
complaint may be filed inter alia by her relative or friend or her coworker
or an officer of the National Commission for Woman or State Women's
Commission or any person who has knowledge of the incident, with the
written consent of the aggrieved woman.

Punishment for false or malicious complaint and false


evidence(section-14)
1. Where the Internal Committee or the Local Committee, as the case
may be, arrives at a conclusion that the allegation against the
respondent is malicious or the aggrieved woman or any other person
making the complaint has made the complaint knowing it to be false
or the aggrieved woman or any other person making the complaint
has produced any forged or misleading document, it may
recommend to the employer or the District Officer, as the case may
be, to take action against the woman or the person who has made the
complaint under sub-section (I) or sub-section (2) of section 9, as
the case may be, in accordance with the provisions of the service
rules applicable to her or him or where no such service rules exist,
in such manner as may be prescribed:
A mere inability to substantiate a complaint or provide adequate proof
need not attract action against the complainant under this section
The malicious intent on part of the complainant shall be established after
an inquiry in accordance with the procedure prescribed, before any action
IS recommended.
2. Where the Internal Committee or the Local Committee, as the case
may be, arrives at a conclusion that during the inquiry any witness
has given false evidence or produced any forged or misleading
document, it may recommend to the employer of the witness or the
District Officer, as the case may be, to take action in accordance
with the provisions of the service rules applicable to the said witness
or where no such service rules exist, in such manner as may be
prescribed

Determination of compensation (section 15)6

The act also envisages payment of compensation to the aggrieved woman.


The compensation payable shall be determined based on:

i. the mental trauma, pain, suffering and emotional distress caused


to the aggrieved employee;
ii. the loss in career opportunity due to the incident of sexual
harassment;
iii. medical expenses incurred by the victim for physical/

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psychiatric treatment;
iv. the income and status of the alleged perpetrator; and v. feasibility
of such payment in lump sum or in installments.

In the event that the respondent fails to pay the aforesaid sum, ICC
may forward the order for recovery of the sum as an arrear of land
revenue to the concerned District Officer.

Duties of employer.
Every employer shall—
a. provide a safe working environment at the workplace which shall
include safety from the persons coming into contact at the
workplace;
b. display at any conspicuous place in the workplace, the penal
consequences of sexual harassments; and the order constituting, the
Internal Committee under subsection (I) of section 4;
c. organise workshops and awareness programmes at regular intervals
for sensitising the employees with the provisions of the Act and
orientation programmes for the members of the Internal
Committee in the manner as may be prescribed;
d. provide necessary facilities to the Internal Committee or the Local
Committee, as the case may be, for dealing with the complaint and
conducting an inquiry;
e. assist in securing the attendance of respondent and witnesses before
the Internal Committee or the Local Committee, as the case may be;
f. make available such information to the Internal Committee or the
Local Committee, as the case may be, as it may require having
regard to the complaint made under sub-section (1) of section 9;
g. provide assistance to the woman if she so chooses to file a complaint
in relation to the offence under the Indian Penal Code or any other
law for the time being 45 of 1860. in force;
h. cause to initiate action, under the Indian Penal Code or any other
law for the 45 of 1860. time being in force, against the perpetrator,
or if the aggrieved woman so desires, where the perpetrator is not an
employee, in the workplace at which the incident of sexual
harassment took place;
i. treat sexual harassment as a misconduct under the service rules and
initiate action for such misconduct;
j. monitor the timely submission of reports by the Internal Committee.
Duties and powers of District Officer.
The District Officer shall-
a. monitor the timely submission of reports furnished by the Local
Committee;
b. take such measures as may be necessary for engaging
nongovernmental organisations for creation of awareness on
sexual harassment and the rights of the women.

Other law related to prevent the women form sexual harassment


at work place:

Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946 The Industrial


Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946 (“Standing Orders Act”) is
a central enactment which, inter alia, requires an employer to define
and publish uniform conditions of employment in the form of standing
orders. As per the statute, the standing orders should contain terms of
employment including, hours of work, wage rates, shift working,
attendance and late coming, provision for leaves and holidays and
termination or suspension/dismissal of employees. At the first instance,
the Standing Orders Act is applicable to ‘industrial establishments
employing a minimum of 100 workmen.

The Standing Orders Act prescribes Model Standing Orders, serving as


guidelines for employers and in the event that an employer has not
framed and certified its own standing orders, the provisions of the
Model Standing Orders shall be applicable. Certain State
Governments, such as the Governments of Maharashtra and Karnataka,
have enhanced the scope of the statute and made it applicable to
establishments employing 50 or more employees. Further, in
Maharashtra, the Bombay Shops and Establishments Act, 1948
specifically extends the applicability of the Standing Orders Act to all
shops and commercial establishments.
The Model Standing Orders prescribed under the Industrial
Employment (Standing Orders) Central Rules, 1996 (“Standing Orders
Rules”) prescribe a list of acts constituting ‘misconduct’ and
specifically includes sexual harassment. The Model Standing Orders
not only defines ‘sexual harassment’ in line with the definition under
the Vishaka Judgment, but also envisages the requirement to set up a
complaints committee for redressal of grievances pertaining to
workplace sexual harassment. It is interesting to note that ‘sexual
harassment’ is not limited to women under the Standing Orders Rules.

OTHER LABOUR WELFARE LAW FOR WOMEN

While there are multiple legislations aimed only at women, such as the
Sexual harassment at Workplace Act, Maternity Benefits Act, etc., a
number of other statutes that are aimed at the general working populace
have special provisions for the welfare of women workers, namely:

• The Factories Act, 1948


• The Mines Act, 1952
• The Plantation Labour Act, 1951
• The Beedi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act,
1966,

• The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970


• The Inter-state Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and
Conditions of Service) Act, 1979
• Building and Other Construction Workers’ (Regulation of
Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996

• Minimum Wages Act, 1948 (ix) Payment of Wages Act, 1936

• The Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948


• The Workmen Compensation Act, 1923
• The Employees Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act,
1952

• Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972

Special provisions regarding the health, safety and welfare for women,
social security measures and wage protection are contained in the
abovementioned statutes. The provisions relating to the welfare of
women in all of these acts are as follows:

1. Provisions for separate Latrine and Urinal Facilities – This has


been provided for under the Factories Act, 1948; the Mines Act,
1952; the Plantation Labour Act, 1951; the Building and Other
Construction Workers’ (Regulation of Employment and
Conditions of Service) Act, 1996; the Beedi and Cigar Workers
(Conditions of Employment) Act, 1966; the Contract Labour
(Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970;
2. Prohibition of work in Hazardous Occupations – This has been
provided for under the Factories Act, 1948; the Mines Act, 1952;

3. Washing and Bathing Facilities – This has been provided for


under the Factories Act, 1948; the Building and Other
Construction Workers’ (Regulation of Employment and
Conditions of Service) Act, 1996; the Contract Labour
(Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970;
4. Crèches – This has been provided for under the Factories Act,
1948; the Mines Act, 1952; the Plantation Labour Act, 1951; the
Building and Other Construction Workers’ (Regulation of
Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996; the Beedi and
Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act, 1966; the
Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970; the
InterState Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and
Conditions of Service) Act, 1979;
5. Limiting hours of work to 9 hours per day and additional
regulations with regards to shifts – This has been provided for
under the Factories Act, 1948;

6. Limiting the maximum permissible load to be lifted by women


taking into consideration biological factors – This has been
provided for under the Factories Act, 1948;

7. Prohibition of Night work – This has been provided for under


the Factories Act, 1948; the Mines Act, 1952; the Plantation
Labour Act, 1951; the Beedi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of
Employment) Act, 1966; the Inter-State Migrant Workmen
(Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979;
8. Separate Restrooms and Canteens – the Contract Labour
(Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970; the Inter-State Migrant
Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service)
Act, 1979;

Conclusion

Undoubtedly, the guidelines and norms framed by the Hon'ble Supreme


Court in Vishaka Judgment are fountainhead of the Act. With the passage
of time, it was felt that guidelines and norms are not sufficient to deal with
the incidents of sexual harassment of women at workplaces and a strong
piece of legislation is the need of the hour and accordingly the Act was
enacted in 2013. The Act went one step ahead and included various issues
which remained unaddressed in the past such as extension of the
definition of workplace to include almost all types of establishments
including private sector organization, dwelling places or houses, inclusion
of the term domestic worker and unorganized sector in order to address
the issue of sexual harassment of women.
Bibliography

• https://blog.ipleaders.in/sexual-harassment-at-workplace

• https://www.lawctopus.com/academike/standards-women-labour-law

• Labour law and international labor law , menu paul,Allahabad law agency, 18 th edition
2011
• Labour law,S.N.Misra, central law publication, 19th edition 2010