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Now days, the pollution around us are getting worse and many bad things occur such as acid rain, deafness and many more. Even though technology is getting better and essential for our life, but still it also have negative feedback.
From Wikipedia, we know that pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. The Blacksmith Institute issues annually a list of the world's worst polluted places. In the 2007 issues the ten top nominees are located in Azerbaijan, China, India, Peru, Russia, Ukraine, and Zambia.
Human activities are the main cause of endanger an ecosystem. Logging, deforestation , release of dangerous chemical substances and many more. These shorten the life of ecosystem and our life for sure.
The main objective now is about pollution. There are 4 type of pollution : noise , air , water and thermal. NOISE POLLUTION : Noise pollution (or environmental noise) is displeasing human, animal or machine-created sound that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. The word noise comes from the Latin word nauseas, meaning seasickness. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems, including motor vehicle noise, aircraft noise and rail noise. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area. Indoor and outdoor noise pollution sources include car alarms, emergency service sirens, mechanical equipment, fireworks, compressed air horns, ground keeping equipment, barking dogs, appliances, lighting hum, audio entertainment systems, electric megaphones, and loud people.
AIR POLLUTION : the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. Indoor air pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the world's worst pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's Worst Polluted Places report.
WATER POLLUTION : is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater). Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.
THERMAL POLLUTION : is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. When water used as a coolant is returned to the natural environment at a higher temperature, the change in temperature (a) decreases oxygen supply, and (b) affects ecosystem composition. Urban runoff--stormwater discharged to surface waters from roads and parking lots-can also be a source of elevated water temperatures. When a power plant first opens or shuts down for repair or other causes, fish and other organisms adapted to particular temperature range can be killed by the abrupt rise in water temperature known as 'thermal shock'.
• To study what cause these pollution.
• To study the effect of these pollution to living things.
• To study how these pollution can be prevent.
Juru river at Penang Island
Status of Juru river from 2000-2009 The the higher the graph the better the condition of river.
1. Internet Wikipedia : Searching about the main objective
2. Book Memory mastery through mind maps and diagram Biology SPM : to refer my topic and main idea
Cause: The prevailing source of artificial noise pollution is from transportation. In rural areas, train and airplane noise can disturb wildlife habits, thereby affecting the manner in which animals in areas around train tracks and airports hunt and mate. In urban areas, automobile, motorcycle, and even entertainment noise. Effect: Can cause sleep disruption in humans and animals, hearing loss, heart disease (as a result of stress), and in severe cases even mental instability. How to overcome : Notable exception to the rule is the electric, or hybridelectric, automobile. Hybrid vehicles are so quite, in fact, that legislation is pending to actually make them louder. This is in response to numerous injuries in which pedestrians, unaware of a hybrid vehicle's presence, have been struck by such vehicles in parking lots and pedestrian crosswalks.
Cause: "Stationary Sources" include smoke stacks of power plants, manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices "Mobile Sources" include motor vehicles, marine vessels, aircraft and the effect of sound etc. Chemicals, dust and controlled burn practices in agriculture and forestry management. Controlled or prescribed burning is a technique sometimes used in forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement. Fire is a natural part of both forest and grassland ecology and controlled fire can be a tool for foresters. Controlled burning stimulates the germination of some desirable forest trees, thus renewing the forest. Fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol sprays and other solvents. Waste deposition in landfills, which generate methane. Methane is not toxic; however, it is highly flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane is also an asphyxiant and may
displace oxygen in an enclosed space. Asphyxia or suffocation may result if the oxygen concentration is reduced to below 19.5% by displacement. Effect: "Epidemiological studies suggest that more than 500,000 Americans die each year from cardiopulmonary disease linked to breathing fine particle air pollution. Haze, lung cancer , mutation , disturbance of visibility and allergy. How to overcome : Mechanical collectors (dust cyclones, multi cyclones)Electrostatic precipitators An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally impede the flow of gases through the device, and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air stream. Baghouses Designed to handle heavy dust loads, a dust collector consists of a blower, dust filter, a filter-cleaning system, and a dust receptacle or dust removal system (distinguished from air cleaners which utilize disposable filters to remove the dust)Particulate scrubbers Wet scrubber is a form of pollution control technology. The term describes a variety of devices that use pollutants from a furnace flue gas or from other gas streams. In a wet scrubber, the polluted gas stream is brought into contact with the scrubbing liquid, by spraying it with the liquid, by forcing it through a pool of liquid, or by some other contact method, so as to remove the pollutants. THERMAL POLLUTION Cause: Discharged of heat and warm water power stations or industrial fields in excess heat in the environment. Effect: Aquatic organisms will die due to high temperature and less oxygen. How to overcome: Plant more trees and reflect the sunlight ray back to atmosphere.
WATER POLLUTON Cause: Domestic wastes and agricultural waste. Effect: Increase bacteria in water, cholera, bad odour and High BOD How to overcome: Put the waste product at the right place.
The conclusion that can be made base on what have been done previously were there are 4 type of pollution that are noise, air, water and thermal. Noise pollution can cause many injuries to living things and can lead us to deaf or death. Sound made by aircraft, motorcycle and trucks are the example of noise pollution made by them. Air pollution is cause by many factors such as open burning, chemical in aerosol can and many more. Bad things can happen to us such as respiratory diseases, lung cancer allergy and disturb visibility. While thermal pollution mostly occurs at urban area. The place where many building were built. These building were made by concrete that absorb heat. Plus, hot or warm water from the power station release to the environment can disturb the ecosystem especially aquatic creature. Lastly water pollution is one of the common pollution we always heard. The main factors are domestic waste, industrial waste and agricultural waste. Human discard these things into the drain or river that run free. The garbage can make the water current slow or maybe block the river completely. Sungai Juru in Kedah is one of the dirtiest river in Malaysia.
By doing this project, I had finally realized that it is important to manage the development activities properly. If we mismanage the development activities, various types of environmental problems will occur. It is really important to ensure that the environment is safe for our future generations. We should think wisely before doing anythings. One wrong step can cause disaster to our ecosystem and environment. Maybe we got much money from deforestation, but in the end we lost our tree and animal. Not only that, the river that run free also run not freely. The air that we breath now days are dirty than the first time we born. The smoke, car fume, dust and carbon monoxide can cause our life to end. Lastly, as the person who want to keep the earth clean from pollution, we should take care our environment seriously.
Sekolah Menengah Sains Labuan Peti Surat 82206, 87032, Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan. PEKA BIOLOGY Chapter 9 : Endangered ecosystem ( Pollution)
Name : Muhammad Ardany Bin Nazlim Class : 4 Sarjana IC No.
: 940929-10-6681 Instructor : Mr. Mohd Fadhil bin Masrun Date : 24 SEPTEMBER 2010