RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION:Human resource management is that field of human behavior in which

manager plans, organize, staff, direct and control human, physical and financial resource in an organized effort in order to achieve desired individual and group objectives with optimum efficiency and effectiveness. In simpler words management is concerned with the accomplishment of objective by utilizing physical and financial resources through the efforts of human resources and so human resource is the crucial system in the process of management. Human resource management is concerned with the management of people at work. The way in which people are recruited, developed and utilized by the management largely determines whether the organizations will achieve its objectives. Therefore human resource in the organization needs to be properly coordinated and utilized. It is universally recognized that the effectiveness with which human resources are coordinated and utilized is directly responsible for the success of any organization. Human resources are multidimensional in nature ‘people at work’ constituting the human resource in an organization comprises all individuals engaged in any of the organization activities, regardless of levels ages and socio cultural background. Each individual working in the organization has his own set of complex, needs, value and intention. Each one differs from the other. Moreover, human resource management is also concerned with now these various types of individuals ,ay be changed at what cost, under what specific circumstances and in how much short a period of time. DEFINITION:According to “Edwin Flippo”, Human resource management is “the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance, and separation of human resources to the end that individual, organizational and societal objectives are accomplished”.

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RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION INTRODUCTION OF RECURITMENT:MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF RECRUITMENT:The human resources are the most important of an organization. The success or failure of an organization is largely dependent on the caliber of the people working therein. Without positive and creative contributions from people, organizations cannot progress and prosper. In order to achieve the goals or the activities of an organization, therefore, we need to recruit people with requisite skills, qualifications and experience. While doing so, we have to keep the present as well as the future requirements of the organization in mind. Recruitment means to estimate the available vacancies and to make suitable arrangements for their selection and appointment. Recruitment refers to “Discovering potential applicants for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. Recruitment is a process “To discover the source of manpower to meet the requirements of staffing, to employ effective measures for attracting potential manpower in adequate number”. Recruitment is the process of identifying the sources for prospective candidates and to stimulate them to apply for the job. It’s linking activity bringing together those with jobs and those seeking jobs. It locates the source of manpower to meet the requirements and job specifications. In recruitment process available vacancies are given wide publicity and suitable candidates are encouraged to submit application so as to have a pool of eligible candidates for scientific selection. In recruitment, information is collected from interested candidates. For these different sources of recruitment such as newspaper advertisement, employment exchange, internal promotions, etc. are used. In the recruitment, a pool of eligible and interested candidates is created for the selection of most suitable candidate. Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees. Recruitment is a positive function in which publicity is given to the jobs available in the organization and interested candidates (qualified japplicants) are encouraged to submit applications for the purpose of selection.

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RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

DEFINITION OF RECREUITMENT:According to Edwin Flippo, “Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization”. According to Dale S. Beach, “Recruitment is the development and maintenance of adequate manpower resources. It involves the creation of a pool of available labour upon whom the organization can depend when it needs additional employees”. Thus, recruitment is the act or process of an organization attempting to obtain additional human resources for operational purposes. The goal of recruitment is to create a large pool of persons who are available and willing to work for a particular organization. OBJECTIVES OF RECRUITMENT:The objectives of recruitment are as follows: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experiences that suit the present and future organizational strategies, To induct outsider with a new perspective to lead the company, To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization, To develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company, To search or head hunt/head pouch people whose skills fit the company’s values, To search for talents globally and not just within the company, To devise methodologies for assessing psychological traits, To seek out non-conventional development grounds of talent, To design entry pay that competes on quality but not on quantum, To anticipate and find people for positions that do not exist yet.

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RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PURPOSE OF RECRUITMENT:Recruitment has three major purposes: 1) To increase the pool of job applicants with minimum cost. 2) To meet the organization’s legal and social obligations regarding the demographic composition of its workforce. 3) To help increase the success rte of the selection process by reducing the percentage of applicants who are either poorly qualified or have the wrong skills.

NEED FOR RECRUITMENT:The need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons/situations: (a) Vacancies due to promotions, transfers, retirement, termination, permanent disability, death and labour turnover. (b) Creation of new vacancies due to growth, expansion and diversification of business activities of an enterprise. In addition, new vacancies are possible due to job respecification.

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RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:Before an organization activity begins recruiting applicants, it should consider the most likely source of the type of employee it needs. Some companies try to develop new sources, while most only try to tackle the existing sources they have. These sources are as follows:

SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT

INTERNAL SOURCES
1. PROMOTIONS 2. TRANSFERS 3. RETIREMENTS 4. RECALLS 5. FORMER EMPLOYEES

EXTERNAL SOURCES
1. NEWSPAPER ADVERTISEMENT 2. CAMPUS RECRUITMENT 3. THROUGH INTERNET 4. JOB FAIRS 5. EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES 6. WALK-INS,WRITE-INS,TALK-INS

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somebody from within the organization is upgraded. This source also includes personnel who were once on the pay-roll of the company but who plan to return or whom the company would like to rehire. promoted or sometimes demoted. 2) TRANSFER:Transfer refers to a change in job assignment. status and salaries of an employee within the organization. 1) PROMOTIONS:In order to motivate the existing employees. management may not find suitable candidate in place of the one who had retired. A transfer may be either temporary or permanent. transfer from head office to branch office. It may involve a promotion or demotion. such as those on leave of absence. facilities. In non-unionized companies. A promotion policy should establish a well-defined promotion chart showing who can go up to what level in the organization. after meritorious service. depending the necessity of filling jobs. Whenever any vacancy arises or occurs.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION INTERNAL SOURCES:As the term implies internal source of recruitment is for those who are currently members or the organization. 6 . Promotion means shifting of an employee to a higher position carrying higher responsibilities. In government departments and in many companies promotions are given on seniority. Under this circumstances management may decide to call retired manager with new extension. Following are the internal sources of recruitment. management follows the policy of internal promotions. Many achieve promotion through hard work and good performance. 3) RETIREMENTS:At times. those who quit voluntarily. E. or those on production lay-offs. or no change in terms of responsibility or status.g. promotions are made on the basis of merit because employers are free from the union pressures. transferred.

5) FORMER EMPLOYEES:Individuals. The best example for newspaper advertisement is the Times of India’s Ascent supplement which comes on every Wednesday and contains both domestic as well as international jobs.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 4) RECALLS:When management faces a problem. External recruitment is one way of bringing into the organization that has new skills or abilities and different way of approaching job task. might be willing to come back for higher wages incentives. Though costly. who left for some other job. his leave may be extended. 1) NEWSPAPER ADVERTISEMENTS:Newspaper advertisements are overwhelmingly popular source of recruitment. it may be decided to recall that person. This may be with a view to introducing the ‘new blood’ in the organization. A message containing general information about the job and the organization is placed in various newspapers. After the problem is solved. it provides wide choice as it attracts a large number of suitable candidates from all over the country. Newspaper advertising typically generates a large applicant flow. Company managements have to use eternal sources for the recruitment of supervisory staff and managers as and when necessary. EXTERNAL SOURCES:As the term implies the external source of recruitment is of potential workers who are not currently member of the organization. which can be solved only by a manager who has proceeded on long leave. 7 . An advantage with these sources is that the performance of the person/employee is already known. It usually includes new entrants to the labour force the unemployed and people employed in the other organization seeking the change. Following are the most common external source of managerial recruitment.

iii. It is an excellent source of recruiting management trainees.Timesjob.naukri. There are many web sites through which recruitment takes place. Some of the examples are www. Most of the industries are maintaining detailed statistics regarding the campus recruiting process.. 8 . www. IIts and Regional Engineering Colleges has provided a popular source of recruitment. Private sector is able to attract many aspirants. The growth of Management institutes. 3) RECRUITMENT THROUGH INTERNET:The Internet has quickly become a very popular source of employment advertising. in India.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 2) CAMPUS RECRUITMENT:College Campuses are another very popular recruitment source. many of the leading universities and institutes of management and technology provide a variety of placement services to both to their own students and industries. they charge a fee. however.e. Most employment advertisement firms can also post the jobs on the Internet. etc.com. More and more organizations are placing information about open positions on the World Wide Web. Currently employers can post their openings to any of several newsgroups for free. Number of invitations to visit Number of campus interviews Number of invitation acceptance Number of invitations to visit Number of job acceptances Number of decisions to hire Many industries have found on-campus college-recruiting to be an excellent way of locating new sales and managerial personnel.com.monster.com. Comparison are made from year to year as follows: i. ii. www. The promising students get job security immediately after securing degrees due to such campus interviews/recruitment i. A large and fast growing proportion of employers use the internet as a recruitment tool. This source is quickly growing in popularity.

Write-ins are those who send written inquiries. 9 . Hiring managers can meet multiple candidates and conduct on-the-spot interviews. A job fair is an event sponsored by a "job fair" company who charges a fee to participating employers. The "job fair" company will typically advertise in local media to attract qualified applicants. Because the applicants may be interviewing with multiple employers. The advertisement mentions date. 6. which the agency then passes along to its clients. Talk-ins is now becoming popular and the applicants are required to meet the employer for detailed talks. it is imperative to respond quickly with invitations for in-plant interviews of qualified candidates. 2) The present employees already know the company well and are likely to develop a loyalty for the same. Fees may be charged to either or both the client seeking a job and the company seeking applicants. ADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:1) Internal recruitment is economical. WRITE-INS AND TALK-INS:The most economical approach for recruitment of candidates is direct applications.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 4) JOB FAIRS:Job fairs are very effective. day and timing during which the applicant can ‘walk in’ for an interview. 5 EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES:The firm contacts an organization whose main purpose is locate job seekers. The applicant is not required to submit any applications. Agencies can either be public or private. WALK –INS. The company provides the agency with information about the job. These applicants a raked to complete application forms for further processing. If a job fair results in just one hire it is usually cost effective. Clients may be either employed or unemployed. The job seekers submit applications or resumes directly to the employer.

5) It may encourage favoritism and nepotism. 7) Internal recruitment is a quick and more reliable method. In brief. 4) It provides security and continuity of employment. internal methods of recruitment should be used to extent possible but too much dependence on internal methods is undesirable and may prove costly to the organization in the long run. This means there is motivation to employee to develop and reach to higher positions. 4) The organization will not be able to attract capable persons from outside if internal sources are used extensively. 2) It prevents the entry of young blood in the organization. 3) Promotion to certain key post may not be possible due to non-availability of competent persons. 5) Internal recruitment helps to raise the morale of employees and develop cordial relations at the managerial levels. 3) Selection can be made in an impartial manner as large number of qualified and interested candidates are available. This facilitates selection of people with rich and varied experience. 10 . 6) Promotions by seniority may not be always beneficial to the organization. 8) People recruited from within the organization do not need induction or training. DISADVANTAES OF INTERNAL SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:1) Internal promotions create a feeling of discontent among those who are not promoted. 6) It reduces labour turnover as capable employees get promotion within the organizations. 2) Wide scope is available for selection. 4) Scope for heartburn and jealousy can be avoided by recruiting from outside. ADVANTAGES OF EXTERNAL SOURCE OF RECRUITMENT:1) Entry of young blood in the organization is possible.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 3) It tends to encourage existing employees to put in greater efforts and to acquire additional qualification.

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 5) The management can fulfill reservation requirements in favour of the disadvantaged section of he society. Nature of job 3. Supply of qualified persons 4. Reactions of present employees to source of recruitment 6. EVALUATION OF VARIOUS SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:It is very difficult to say which source is suitable to an enterprise or recruiting the personnel at various jobs. Relative merits of source on the basis of turnover 7. For recruiting managers and high officials. consultants. Time lag between requisition and placement 5. Their loyalty to the organization may be adversely affected. 3) The present employees may lose their sense of security. 4) Employees feel frustrated due to external recruitment and their morale is adversely affected. experienced and ambitious employees. professional bodies. 2) The relations between employer and employee deteriorate leading to industrial disputes and strikes. Thus suitability of the source of labour supply depends upon various factors1. No single source can suit all the enterprise for filling up the posts of different nature and at different times. Employment conditions in the community where the organization is located. universities and employment exchanges may be the suitable sources. 11 . DISADVANTAGES OF EXTERNAL SOURCE OF RECRUITMENT:1) External recruitment leads to labour turnover particularly of skilled. For example for recruiting the unskilled workers. Size of the enterprise 2. direct recruitment at gate or friends and relatives of existing employees or casual workers may be the best sources of recruitment.

5. 4. YIELD RATIOS:- 12 . type of applicant to be contacted. NUMBER OF CONTACTS:The company ascertains how many applicants are essential to fill in a particular vacancy. Quantify i. 1. Qualify i. Planning Strategy Development Searching Screening Evaluation and control. 2. The organization would derive a term called as YIELD RATIOS. number b. 3.e.e. taking into account its past recruitment process. In accordance with job vacancies and their job information.PLANNING STAGE:Its designing the set objectives that a. These figure may be arrived by an organization. a.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION RECRUITMENT PROCESS:The process comprises of 5 interrelated stages which are as follows: 1.

STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT STAGE:- A strategy is a “plan of action”. recruitment planning is to identify the type of people that need to be looked at or approached about job openings. On the basis of past experience. the other issues would be: a. MAKE OR BUY:The company has to make call whether the equation would be: Hire less skilled employees + invest on training and education = ‘Make’ Or Hire skilled employees + little Training and immediate work benefit = “buy” Whatever would be the best fit according to the need of the hour has to be accustomed and each has its own pros and cons. For E.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION These ratios indicate the number of leads/ contacts needed to generate a given number of hires at a point at time. then 200 contacts are made. it has to extend 20 offers. to continue the same example. as shown below: b. Thus. Based on this information. if a company needs 10 management trainees in the next six months. TYPE OF CONTACTS:People matter but the right type of people matter more. If the interview-tooffer ratio is 3:2. These details would be availed through job description and job specifications. it has to monitor past yield ratios in order to find out the number of candidates to be contacted for this purpose. the company finds that to hire 10 trainees. as many as 40 candidates must be invited. If the invitees to interview ratio is 4:3 then. For example. 2.: in case of buy—though an organisation might have an advantage with the buy decision of little time and money spent on training and benefit of 13 . Lastly. the company can construct the recruiting yield ratio. Once the organization has summed up ‘how many’ and ‘what type’ of applicants required. then 30 interviews must be conducted. if contacts or leads needed to identify suitable trainees to invite are in 5:1 ratio.g.

3. General strategy for an organisation:Top level Executives . c. ‘HOW TO LOOK’:This refers to the sources of recruitment. Step 1 is Source Activation . the exchange of resumes online by job seekers and employers has helped the organisation a chance to eliminate an unfit applicant right in the screening stage. Clerical and Blue collar jobs:.g.: due to the advent of computers. These can be external as well as internal. these aren’t water tight compartments and may be modified as per demand and need. activated 14 . organisations adopt an incremental strategy in which initial efforts are concentrated in regional or local markets and expanded if these efforts fail to achieve desired results.:.Calcutta. but due to high remuneration demanded the benefit are outweighed by it.Local Markets.regional and local markets. b. Sources and search methods are which results in a flood of applications. Also.IT people:.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION immediate work handling. e. Technical Employees .g. But. d. TECHNOLOGICAL SOPHISTICATION:The decision as to use the available technology in the process. thus saving on time and travel expenses.go on to national level and even international if its an MNC. SEARCHING STAGE:Also known as the Implementation Stage.Banglore Embroiders:. e. ‘WHERE TO LOOK’:Here the geographic distribution of labour markets among job seekers is to be considered.

 Number of suitable candidates for selection.  Cost of the recruitment process.  Retention and performance of the candidates selected.  Time lapsed data. SCREENING STAGE:- Applications received in response to ads are screened and only eligible applicants are called for an interview. E.g. 5.  Comments on image projected 15 . The techniques used to screen applicants vary depending on the candidate sources and recruiting methods used. the evaluation might include:  Return rate of applications sent out.:. A thoughtful and Tactful decision in identifying the way in which the company ‘sells’ its vacancies. the selection process commences.interviews and application banks used to screen walk-ins. following the source activation would be the way in which the message is sent across the organisation. Keeping this objective in mind.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION Step 2 is Selling . EVALUATION OF RECRUITMENT PROCESS:The recruitment process has the objective of searching for and obtaining applications from job-seekers in sufficient numbers and quality. EVALUATION AND CONTROL STAGE:- This step where the organization goes back to the process and analyses the effectiveness of the entire process. 4. Once the applications are scrutinized and short listed.

PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS:This is a method of filing vacancies from within through transfers and promotions. involves movement of employee from a lower level position to a higher level position accompanied by (usually) changes in duties. In this method. JOB POSTING:Job posting is another way of hiring people from within. etc. but not necessarily salary.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION METHODS OF RECRUITMENT:The following are the most commonly used methods of recruiting people. 1) INTERNAL METHODS:There are 4 types of internal methods: i. in this case. retrenchment compensation. If a person remains on such rolls for 240 days or more. from one to another. he gets the status of a permanent employee as per the industrial disputes act and is therefore entitled to all relevant benefits. including provident fund. on the other hand. iii. responsibilities. A transfer is a lateral movement within the same grade. ii. working conditions.. gratuity. electronic media and similar outlets. One of the important advantages of this method is that it offers a chance to highly qualified applicants working within the company to look for growth opportunities within the company without looking for greener pastures outside. the organization publicises job openings on bulletin boards. It may lead to changes in duties and responsibilities. Promotion. Such persons are usually passed on to various departments. Employees working in the organization. depending on internal requirements. status and value. Organizations generally prepare badli lists or a central pool of persons from which vacancies can be filled for manual jobs. are encouraged to 16 . It is a recommendation from a current employee regarding a job applicant. EMPLOYEE REFERRALS:Employee referral means using personal contacts to locate job opportunities.

Here the recruiters visit reputed educational institutions such as IITs. Companies offer rich rewards also to employees whose recommendations are accepted – after the routine screening and examining process is over – and job offers extended to the suggested candidates. applicants can be prescreened. It demands careful advance planning. On the negative front. applicants will not have to be lured away from a current job and lower salary expectations. Job seekers are provided information about the jobs and the recruiters. CAMPUS RECRUITMENT:It is a method of recruiting by visiting and participating in college campuses and their placement centres. Citibank. A preliminary screening is done within the campus and the shortlisted students are then subjected to the remainder of the selection process. 2) DIRECT METHODS:i. almost immediately after hiring. In fact. campus recruiting means hiring people with little or no work experience. boarding and lodging expenses of recruiters. The organizations will have to offer some kind of training to the applicants. site visit of applicants if allowed. etc. most reputed organizations (such as Hindustan Lever Ltd. get a snapshot of job seekers through constant interchange of information with respective institutions. State Bank of India. Advantages of this method include: the placement centre helps locate applicants and provides resumes to organizations. Further. this has become a popular way of recruiting people in the highly competitive information technology industry nowadays. looking into the placement weeks of various institutions in different parts of the country. in turn. campus recruiting can be costly for organizations situated in another city (airfare. IIMs.).RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION recommend the names of their friends working in other organizations for a possible vacancy in the near future. Tata and Birla group companies) visit IIMs and IITs regularly and even sponsor certain popular campus activities with a view to earn goodwill in the job market. 17 . Proctor & Gamble. colleges and universities with a view to pick up job aspirants having requisites technical or professional skills. In view of the growing demand for young managers.

This method is appropriate when (a) the organization wants a fairly good number of talented people – who are geographically spread out and (b) the organization intends to reach a large target group. etc.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 3) INDIRECT METHODS:i. especially for filling lower level positions. radio and television. In recent times. while some of the best candidates who are well paid and challenged by their current jobs may not be aware of such openings. To apply for the advertised vacancies let’s briefly examine the wide variety of alternatives available to a company – as far as ads are concerned: ii. etc. the company may be bombarded with applications from a large number of candidates who are marginally qualified for the job – adding to its administrative burden. etc. sending signals to competitors. compensation package. In a blind-box ad there is no identification of the advertising organization. iii. The ads generally give a brief outline of the job responsibilities. lively and imaginative as consumer advertising. TELEVISION AND RADIO ADS:- 18 .). To maintain secrecy for various reasons (avoiding the rush. large companies with a may also go in for blind-box ads in newspapers. ADVERTISEMENTS:These include advertisements in newspapers. professional and technical journals. As a result. this medium has become just as colorful. cutting down expenses involved in responding to any individual who applies. trade. prospects in the organization. NEWSPAPERS ADS:Newspaper ads tend to only those who are actively seeking employment at that point of time. Job aspirants are asked to respond to a post office box number or to an employment firm that is acting as an agent between the job seeker and the organization.

created all over India for helping unemployed youth. 4) THIRD PARTY METHODS:I. II. these ads are expensive. physically handicapped. they help the organization to target the audience more selectively and they offer considerable scope fro designing ads creatively. At the lower end. SB Billimoria. etc. However. Ferguson Associates offer specialized employment – related services to corporate houses for a fee. It covers all establishment in public sector and nonagricultural establishments employing 25 or more workers in the private sector. ABC consultants. III. displaced persons. 1959. Also. a number of search firms operate – providing multifarious services to both recruiters and the recruitees. EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES:As a statutory requirement.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION These ads are more likely to reach individuals who are not actively seeking employment. they are more likely to stand out distinctly. Noble and Hewitt. PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT SEARCH:A search firm is a private employment agency that maintains computerized lists of qualified applicants and supplies these to employers willing to hire people from the list for a fee. Firms like Arthur Anderson. because the television or radio is imply seen or heard. GATE HIRING AND CONTRACTORS:- 19 . especially for top and middle level executive vacancies. potential candidates may have a tough time remembering the details. KPMG. ex-military personnel. applies) their vacancies through the respective employment exchanges. companies are also expected to notify (wherever the employment exchanges act. making application difficult.

IV. knowledge. It would facilitate interchangeability of staff among various units/zones. V. CENTRALISED VS. skill. favouritism. It would have more expertise available to it.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION Gate hiring (where job seekers. It ensures the most effective and suitable placement to candidates. present themselves at eh factory gate and offer their services on a daily basis). It can ensure broad uniformity among human resources of various units/zones in respect of education. II. hiring through contractors. It enables centralized training programmes which further brings uniformity and minimizes average cost of staff. It would generally be above malpractices. talent etc. VI. It enables the line managers of various units and zones to concentrate on their operational activities by relieving them form the recruitment functions. Average cost of recruitment per candidate/unit should be relatively less due to economies of scale. generally blue collar employees. recruiting through word-of-mouth publicity are still in use – despite the many possibilities for their misuse – in the small scale sector in India. III. MERITS OF DECENTRALISED RECRUITMENT:20 . promotional and transfer procedure etc. MERITS OF CENTRALISED RECRUITMENT:I. abuse of powers. bias etc. DECENTRALISED RECRUITMENT:Recruitment practices vary from one organization to another. VII. Personnel department at the central office performs all the functions of recruitment in case of centralized recruitment and personnel departments at unit level/zonal level perform all the functions of recruitment concerning to the jobs of the respective unit or zone. VIII. IX. Some organisatior like commercial banks resort to centralized recruitment while some organizations like the Indian railway’s (for group III and group IV positions) resort to decentralize recruitment practices. It enables the organization to have centralized selection procedure.

The unit gets most suitable candidates as it is well aware of the recruitments of the jobs regarding cultural. Promotions. Techniques useful to stimulate internal candidates are: i. IV. social factors etc. local factors. v.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION I. Management uses different types of techniques to stimulate internal and external candidates. Units can recruit candidates as and when they are required without any delay. As such the cost of recruitment would be relatively less. Present employees. In the system of recruitment would suffer from their own demerits. i. ii. family background aspects. control and feedback and various functions/processes of recruitment. PROMOTIONS:Most of the internal candidates would be stimulated to take up higher responsibilities and express their willingness to be engaged in the higher level 21 . in selecting and employing the techniques to stimulate the candidates. The unit concerned concentrates only on those sources/places where it normally gets the suitable candidates. V. II. III. The units would enjoy freedom in finding out. RECRUITMENT TECHNIQUES:Recruitment techniques are the means or media by which management contracts prospective employees or provide necessary information or exchanges ideas or stimulate them to apply for jobs. Scouting. iv. developing the sources. VI. Techniques useful to stimulate external candidates. The unit would enjoy better familiarity and control over the employees it to recruit rather than on employees selected by the central recruitment agency. management has to weigh both the merits and demerits of each system before they take final decision about centralizing or decentralizing the recruitment. traditional. and Transfers. The unit would relatively enjoy advantage about the availability of information. Advertising. Hence. iii.

and 22 . IV. SCOUTING:Scouting means sending the representation of the organizations to various sources of recruitment with a view to persuading or stimulating the candidates to apply for jobs. radio. Plan and select the media. persuade the outsiders to apply for job in the organization through the recommendations to the candidates by the present employees. magazines of all kinds. V. The representatives provide information about the company and exchange information and ideas and clarify the doubts of the candidates. v. III. television etc. It provides the candidates in different sources. trade union leaders etc. (b) Creating and maintaining interest. the information about the job and company and stimulates them to apply for jobs. Management in order to achieve these objectives of advertising has to: I. ii. Decide who does what. ADVERTISING:Advertising is a widely accepted technique of recruitment though it mostly provides one way communication. The techniques of advertising should aim at: (a) Attracting attention of the prospective candidates. (c) Stimulating action by the candidates. RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE PRESENT EMPLOYEES:Management can contact.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION jobs if management gives them the assurance that they will be promoted to the next higher level. Design the advertisement. iii. Analyze job requirements. TRANSFERS:Employees will be stimulated to work in the new sections or places if management wishes to transfer them to the places of their choice. Write the copy. iv. II. It includes advertising through different media like newspapers.

iii. Scheduled tribes and scheduled castes. Employment agencies. VII. IX. Casual callers or employment seekers. Employment exchanges. Applicant introduced by friends and relatives in the organization. External advertisement. Employee recommendations. IV. Newspaper advertisements. Institutions. Badli or temporary workers. RECRUITMENT PRACTICES IN INDIA:The different sources for recruitment in India have been classified thus: i. Central training institute. and Labour contractors. iii. VI. Displaced persons. Internal advertisements. Advertisements. The management after selecting the recruitment techniques has to decide upon the type of appeal in order to make the recruitment efforts effective. Internal advertisement. III. v. the sources for non-supervisory staff are: i. In the public sector (steel units). Other public undertakings. the major sources of recruitment in order of preference are: I. In the public sector (heavy engineering). Basavaraj. II. According to a survey of public and private sector employers by Prof. Within the organization. Evaluate response. Relative and friends. Casual callers. and X. VIII. V. ii. Employment exchanges. iv. 23 .RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION VI. iv. ii. vi. vii. the following methods were used to recruit employees: A.

In some organizations. the major sources are. were not institutionalized in character. In the private sector. Introduction by the liaison officer of a corporation. Employee recommendations.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION v. Advertisements. though formulated. Casual callers. I. Deputation personnel. preference was given to sons and relatives of employees and to local people. In order of preference. 24 . IV. and Transfers from other public undertakings. Relatives and friends. B. the survey disclosed that the procedures. Employment exchanges. II. and V. III. vi. vii.

Thus selection process is negative function because it attempt to eliminate applicants. Selection is the process of collecting and evaluating information about an individual in order to extend an offer of employment. “Selection is the process in which candidates for employment are divided into two classes – those who are to be offered employment and those who are not”. The selection procedures are the system of functions and devices adopted in a given company to ascertain whether the candidate’s specification is matched with the job 25 . the management has to perform the function of selecting the right employees at the right time. Selection is more closely related to recruitment because both are concerned with processing individuals to place them in a job.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION SELECTION INTRODUCTION OF SELECTION:MEANING & IMPORTANCE OF SELECTION:Selection is one of the most important of all functions in the management of personnel. selection is the process of choosing a person suitable for the job out of several persons. The objective of the selection decision is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. After identifying the sources of human resources. “Right man at the right job” is the basic principle in selection. searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization. In the words of Dale Yodev. It is the process of logically choosing individuals who posses the necessary skills. abilities and personality to successfully fill specific jobs in the organization. Selection means a process by which the qualified personnel can be choosen from the applicants who have offered their services to the organization for employment. Selection is next to recruitment. leaving the best to be selected. In short.

demands constant monitoring of the ‘fit’ between person the job. the needs of the job are matched with the profile of candidates. to find out which job applicant will be successful. Any mismatch in this regard can cost an organization a great deal of money. PURPOSE OF SELECTION:The purpose of selection is to pick up the most suitable candidate who would meet the requirements of the job and the organization best. In course of time the employee may find the job distasteful and leave in frustration. in terms of training and operating costs. the company obtains and assesses information about the applicants in terms of age. The selection procedures cannot be effective until and unless: 1) Requirements of the job to be filled. human resource planning and recruitment are necessary prerequisites to the selection process. The most suitable person is then picked up after eliminating the unsuitable applicants through successive stages of selection process. etc).RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION specification and requirements or not. if hired. therefore. 26 . 3) Candidates for screening have been attracted. DEFINITION OF SELECTION:To select mean to choose. qualifications. Selection is the process of picking individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an organization. etc. 2) Employee specifications (physical. and behavioral. The breakdown in any of these processes can make even the best selection system ineffective. have been clearly specified (job analysis. skills. mental. the development of job analyses. time and trouble. Thus. etc) have been clearly specified. How well an employee is matched to a job is very important because it directly affects the amount and quality of the employee’s work. To meet this goal. He may even circulate ‘hot news’ and juicy bits of negative information about the company. experience. especially. social. Effective selection. The basic purpose is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. causing incalculable harm in the long run.

absenteeism and monotony shall not be experienced in their severity in the organization. ESSENTIALS OF SELECTION PROCEDURE:The selection process can be successful if the following requirements are satisfied: 27 . thus reducing the time and cost of training considerably. Selection of skilled personnel also facilitates the expansion in the size of the business. Further. Many problems like labour turnover. the organization can develop different training programmes for different persons on the basis of their individual differences. 2) REDUCE COST OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:Proper selection of candidates reduces the cost of training because qualified personnel have better grasping power. Selection of skilled personnel reduces the labour cost and increases the production.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION IMPORTANCE OF SELECTION:The importance of selection may be judged from the following facts: 1) PROCUREMENT OF QUAILIFED AND SKILLED WORKERS:Scientific selection facilitates the procurement of well qualified and skilled workers in the organization. the workers with high wages. It is in the interest of the organization in order to maintain the supremacy over the other competitive firms. Labour relation will be better because workers will be fully satisfied by the work. 3) ABSENCE OF PERSONNEL PROBLEM:Proper selection of personnel reduces personnel problems in the organization. Skilled workers help the management to expand the business and to earn more profits and in turn management compensates. They can understand the technique of work better and in less time. benefits etc.

i.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 1. the selection procedure is not a single act but is essentially a series of methods or stages by which different types of information can be secured through various selection techniques. a comprehensive job description and job specification should be available beforehand. At each step. Someone should have the authority to select. physical and mental ability. SELECTION PROCEDURE Selection procedure employs several methods of collecting information about the candidate’s qualification. This authority comes from the employment requisition. There must be some standard of personnel with which a prospective employee may be compared. as developed by an analysis of the work-load and work-force. Selection procedure is lengthy and time consuming particularly in the case of supervisory post. facts may come to light which are useful for comparison with the job requirement and employee specifications. experience. 2. Therefore. There must be a sufficient number of applicants from whom the required number of employees may be selected. aptitude and the like for judging whether a given applicant is or is not suitable for the job. nature and behaviour. 3.e. knowledge. Following are the steps/ procedures of selection: 1) JOB ANALYSIS:- 28 .

Where application forms are use. 4) SCREENING APPLICATION FORM:Information given in the application form is used for selection purposes. The information is generally required on the following items in the application forms: Personal background information. Thus preliminary interview is useful as a process of eliminating the undesirable and unsuitable candidate. job specification and employee specification before proceeding to the next step of selection. Educational information. The technique of application blank is traditional and widely accepted for securing information from the prospective candidates. Applications will not be accepted after the close date. The applicant who seems to be not fit for the job on the basis of information given in the application blank is rejected out rightly at this stage. personal details. the data become a part of the employee’s record. 3) PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW:- Preliminary or initial interview is often held in case of “at the gate” candidate. expected salary and allowances etc. 2) APPLICATION FORM:Application Form is also known as application blank. he is given an application form for being filled out by him. Work experiences.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION Job analysis is the basis for selecting the right candidate. If the candidate seems to possess the basic minimum requirements for efficient job performance. salary. This interview usually of short duration and is aimed at obtaining certain basic information with a view to identifying the obvious misfits or unqualified. The applicants who have not furnished the required information may also be rejected. job description. After the close date of 29 . Every organization should finalize the job analysis.

knowledge in various disciplines. A recruitment date may be extended if there are no qualified candidates. applicants are reviewed and interviewed on a regular basis until an eligible candidate can be selected and appointed to the available position. reasoning. 5) WRITTEN TEST:- The organization have to conduct written examination for the qualified candidates after they are screened on the basis of the application blanks so as to measure the candidate’s ability in arithmetical calculations. numbers. Intelligence test measures the individuals capacity or reasoning. Recruitments can also be open until the position is filled. aptitude test 30 . to measure the candidates aptitude. verbal comprehension.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION the recruitment. word fluency etc. vocabulary. the Job Expert for the hiring department and Human Resources will screen the application forms for minimum education and qualification requirements. to know the candidate’s attitude towards job. general knowledge and English language. in this situation.

This is the most essential step in the process of selection. The interviewer should not ask unwarranted questions which make the candidate nervous. Interview must be conducted in a friendly atmosphere and the candidate must be made to feel at ease. 6) FINAL INTERVIEWING:- Final interview is usually followed by testing. In this step the interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidate through various means to the job requirements and to the information obtained through his own observation during the interview.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION measures individuals capacity or talent ability to learn a job if he is given adequate training. the interviewee 31 . The basic objective of the interview is to measure the applicant against the specific requirements of the job. It being the two way communication.

32 . If reference is checked in the correct manner. and sometime from co-workers. a thorough medical examination is essential. A good reference check used sincerely fetches useful and reliable information to the organization. These references may be from the individuals who are familiar with the candidate’s academic achievement or from the applicant’s previous employer. Thus. who is well versed with the applicant’s job performance. about the job and the organization. 7) REFERENCE CHECKS:After completion of the final interview. 8) PHYSICAL EXAMINATION:- The candidates who have crossed the above hurdles are required to go for the medical examination. a great deal can be learned about a person that an interview or tests cannot elicit.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION should also be given a chance to ask questions if he so likes. Candidates are required to give the name of reference in their application forms. This is very important because of a person of poor health cannot work competently and the investment in him may go waste. the personnel department will engage in checking references.

SELECTION PROCEDURE 33 . pay scales.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 9) SELECTION:If a candidate successfully overcomes all the obstacles or tests given he would be declared selected. A appointment letter will be given to him mentioning the terms of employment. post on which selected etc.

 Hiring cost may be cut because duplication of efforts is minimized.  It helps operating managers to concentrate on their operating responsibilities.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION SELECTION PROCESS IS PREFERABLE BECAUSE: It is easier for applicant because they can send their applications to a single centralized department/agency.  It can provide for better selection because hiring is done by specialist trained in staffing techniques. Choosing the right techniques will help to recruit the best person for the position.  With increased government regulations on the selection process.  The applicant is better assured of consideration for a greater variety of jobs. This is helpful during peak operating period. SELECTION TECHNIQUES: How to choose selection techniques?  Who administers selection techniques?  Informing the candidates  Different selection techniques  HOW TO CHOOSE SELECTION TECHNIQUES?:Different types of positions require different kinds of selection techniques. They must be able to 34 . it is important that people who know about these rules handle a major part of the selection process. attributes and knowledge required for the position. The selection techniques to choose depend on the particular skills.  It facilitates contacts with applicants because issues pertaining to employment can be cleared through one central location.

in proportion to the risk of poor selection. Reference checks must be used as well to obtain this information. ie. The degree to which technical competence is critical to success. knowledge and qualifications of assessors. However.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION match the selection method with the selection criteria that are most critical to the position. their typical performance). • • • • Available resources. Very often need to combine two or more techniques to assess a range of skills and qualities in candidates. Equity issues. What to consider when choosing:• • • • The seniority/level of position. For example. The degree to which managerial/leadership ability is critical to success. their maximum performance). does the chosen technique directly or indirectly discriminate against EEO groups? WHO ADMINISTERS SELECTION TECHNIQUES:The selection committee or a representative from the Human Resources Unit (HRU) can administer many of the techniques. Descriptions of a range of selection techniques are provided below. work samples are an excellent way to assess what a candidate is capable of (ie. It is not a good idea to make recruitment decisions based on the results of one selection method alone. incorporates behaviour-based questions and is used in conjunction with other selection techniques. The interview's value is greatly increased when it is well structured. The skills. The budget. The time and effort required to use the technique. but they do not provide information on what the candidate does daily (ie. The selection techniques normally used are the interview along with a written application and referee reports. others need to be 35 .

5. attributes and behaviour through behaviour-based questions. 2. 4. Behaviour-based questions probe for specific examples of a candidate's behaviour in situations similar to those that will be found in the new job. Telephone interviews. based on specifics rather than 'gut' feelings or personal impressions. 6.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION administered by trained professionals. See the individual techniques for more information. The interview is also useful for assessing a candidate's presentation and communication skills. DIFFERENT SELECTION TECHNIQUES:1. Structured interview format. then this thing should reached to all the candidates and give them enough notice to make appropriate preparations. Work samples. STRUCTURED INTERVIEW FORMAT:The structured interview format involves assessing the candidate's skills. Asking behavioural questions enables you to assess candidates more objectively. Assessment centres. 'getting to know' candidates and assessing cultural 'fit' with the work area. 7. INFORMING THE CANDIDATES:If it is decided to use selection techniques in addition to the interview. Psychometric testing. Informal meetings. Peer assessment. Complementing the interview with other selection 36 . 3. Questions are typically worded to extract specific examples of what they have done in the past.

presentations and team observations increases the likelihood of identifying the best person for the position. analysis and/or judgement exercises. WORK SAMPLES:Work samples involve an individual or group of candidates completing exercises that they would be required to undertake as part of the position. Questions should be determined based on the selection criteria and it is important to define what constitutes an acceptable answer prior to conducting interviews. participants complete a task independently. caller should also meet the candidate face-to-face before making final recommendations. planning exercises. case studies. An acceptable answer should include: • • • An example of a specific work-related situation faced by the candidate. In individual exercises. Telephone interviews are normally used to make a preliminary assessment of a candidate. Usually the selection committee determines the questions to be asked in the interview. When conducting the interview. For group tasks. However. The outcome of the candidate's action. The interview is an artificial and formal environment that may not best show candidates as they behave in the work environment. be aware that the applicant is relying on clear and specific verbal feedback in the absence of non-verbal cues. The selection 37 .RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION techniques such as skills tests. work sample tests. TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS (VIDEO/TELECONFERENCING):For positions that are likely to attract overseas candidates it may be necessary to conduct initial discussions via telephone or video. Less formal opportunities for meeting and interacting with candidates and structured reference checking will provide further insight into a candidate's behaviour and performance. The candidate's action in response to the situation. candidates are placed in a situation in which the successful completion of a task requires interaction among the participants.

38 . researching information or analyzing data. Different types of in-tray tests may be designed to correspond to the various requirements of the position. Exercises might involve providing the candidate with some information about a typical project and asking them to draft a project plan or schedule. customer service orientation. coaching. This allows assessors to evaluate a candidate's skills and attributes in planning and judgement. letters.g.. can be evaluated. etc. Performance issues. memos. schedule and allocate resources. but remain free to observe and rate the performance of each participant. teamwork. In-tray exercises permit direct observation of individual behaviour within the context of a job-relevant problem situation. determine a budget or allocate resources. THE IN-TRAY TEST:This is an individual test designed to simulate important or regular tasks associated with the position. and adapt to last minute changes. At the conclusion of the exercise the candidate will have produced notes. eg. Examples of different work sample techniques and tips on how to use them are provided below: THE LEADERLESS GROUP DISCUSSION:This is a simple technique where a group of participants are asked to carry on a discussion about some topic for a specific period of time. e. Skills and attributes such as leadership. which constitute the record of his or her behaviour in completing the task. etc. plan activities. No-one is appointed leader and assessors do not participate in the discussion. Writing a memo. building relationships. PLANING EXERCISES:These test the candidate's ability to prioritize. or internal/external alliances or relationships.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION committee should determine acceptable responses or outcomes prior to administering any sort of work sample test.

after the first interview when follow-up and probing are required. data sorts. ie. as their perceptions are drawn from a different range of behavioural interactions. For example. or alternatively. They are particularly useful if implemented as part of a two-phase selection process. Peers or colleagues usually provide different feedback than that offered by supervisors. particularly if there are a lot of candidates. LECTURES/PRESENTATIONS:These assess a candidate's communication skills and perhaps their expertise on a particular subject. Using work samples as a selection technique is usually more time consuming and resource intensive than conducting an interview. peers and/or postgraduate students. COMPUTER EXERCISES:These demonstrate a candidate's computer skills using particular programs. assess the organisation's situation or improve matters such as productivity. customer relations. PEER ASSESSMENT:Peer assessment involves asking a candidate's colleagues to predict how the candidate will respond if placed in a particular work situation or role. letters or diagrams. A typical task might involve a candidate preparing and presenting to a selection committee. to weed out candidates prior to interview. make recommendations. TIPS ON USING WORK SAMPLES:Work samples are effective at predicting future behaviour. You must seek the candidate's approval before speaking to their 39 . organisational structure and morale. for an academic position a lecture or presentation of research or teaching would be appropriate.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION ANALYSIS EXERCISES:These evaluate a candidate's aptitude in analysis and judgement. Tasks might involve creating spreadsheets. Candidates are provided with quantitative and qualitative data about a fictitious organization and asked to draw conclusions. etc.

Trained professionals should administer psychometric tests. Ability tests should always be based on key selection criteria and the results compared alongside the results of all other selection techniques used. Psychometric and ability tests can be administered to help with selection at all levels. PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING:Psychometric testing includes cognitive ability tests. Peer assessment is often used to predict future leadership and managerial success. TIPS ON USING PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING:- 40 . for example someone who works with them in a team capacity. They can also be used to assess how a candidate will operate in a team environment or to identify managerial or leadership qualities. Keep in mind that peers may assess their colleagues based on personal bias. ASSESSMENT CENTRES:The assessment centre is traditionally used for large scale or bulk recruitment exercises. They can be expensive and complex to administer and are usually more cost effective when recruiting large numbers of people. A typical assessment may run over the course of one or two days and involve trained assessors evaluating a number of candidates using a range of techniques such as interviews.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION peers or colleagues. TIPS ON USING PEER ASSESSMENT:It's a good idea to involve a range of people with different relationships to the candidate. someone who has a supervisory relationship to them and someone who reports to them. Assessment centres vary in complexity and are typically conducted by trained consultants. Assessors assimilate evidence from candidate performance across all exercises and incorporate this into a final collective decision. objective personality and interest inventories and leadership ability tests. Psychometric tests used in recruitment are usually those that indicate work preferences. written tests and individual and group exercises.

not on temporary basis but on a full time basis and for long help. 360 DEGREE SELECTION OR PARTICIPATIVE SELECTION:In this method subordinates participate in the selection of their co-workers and supervisors. The idea is that such participation will improve quality. Psychometric tests can be expensive and time consuming to administer. Employees working elsewhere are leased. b. 7. SIGNIFICANCE OF SELECTION/BENEFITS OF SCIENTIFIC SELECTION:- 41 . An interesting feature is that the client company need not perform personnel activities such as hiring compensation or record keeping.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION Psychometric tests should be developed and administered by a properly qualified and accredited person. assistant sales manger will also take part in the selection process along with the hr manager. For example for the selection of a sales manger. TIPS ON USING INFORMAL MEETINGS:Informal meetings are probably best used as part of a two-phase selection process. They are not normally used as part of the selection process at the University. so you should always seek advice from the Human Resources Unit before deciding to use them. They are not directly employed by the company where they are working. after you have narrowed the field down to the last few candidates. NEW METHODS OF SELECTION:a. such as lunches or morning tea with staff or key stakeholders. EMPLOYEE LEASING:The client company leases employees from a third party. Employees not recruited by one client is sent to another. increase support for the selected supervisors and co-workers and improve employee morale. INFORMAL MEETINGS:Informal meetings can be used as a way of observing a candidate's behaviour in a less formal environment.

Training provided to properly selected candidates gives promising results. stable and firm.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION Selection is the process of picking candidates with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization.BENEFITS OF SCIENTIFIC SELECTION TO EMPLOYER/MANAGEMENT:1. Inefficiency. For progress and prosperity. 4. Selection acts as a foundation of the whole personnel management activity. are due to faulty selection of candidate. 3. Selection of suitable candidates is a matter of special importance in personnel management. Selection of unsuitable persons finally brings the future of a company in danger. no capacity to handle the job independently. no interest and initiative in the job and finally. They create problems and remain as obstacles. Similarly. etc. high wastages. capable and co-operative young workers and managers. B. loyal. This is because he has no liking for the job. 5. ineffective execution of training programmes. Unsuitable candidate becomes a permanent problem as long as he is in the organization. Expenditure on frequent selection of candidates is avoided. Professional managements attach special importance to selection of most suitable candidates as they prefer to avoid the entry of unsuitable candidates in their organizations. 2. It is like the foundation of a building which must be strong. industrial accidents. The objective of right man for the right job is achieved. 6. It is the starting point of the whole human resource management process. BENEFITS OF SCIENTIFIC SELECTION TO EMPLOYEES:- 42 . A.. This suggests the significance of scientific selection in personnel management. Such team is available only when the selection is made systematically. A building will be always in danger when the foundation is not sound. Stability to labour force as labour turnover is minimized. Scientific selection raises organizational efficiency and creates good image in the business world. Unsuitable employees become liability of a company. a company needs a team of efficient. low productivity. management of a business unit will be always difficult when the employees selected initially and thereafter are not of required qualities and qualifications. Unsuitable candidates are kept away from the organization.

the company conducts critical behaviour interviewing which evaluates the suitability of the candidate for the position.The Company uses India as a global recruitment resource. April 7-21 2004. 4. these individuals possess strong functional knowledge and come from a cosmopolitan background.while evaluating candidates. PEPSICO INDIA:. SIEMENS INDIA:. 3. pg 129. Job satisfaction and raising of morale of employees. Pepsi insists that to succeed in a global posting. LG ELECTRONICS INDIA:. 5. 2. lateral thinking. SELECTION PRACTICES:The following throws light on how the global giants use selection testing as a basis for picking up the right candidates to fill up the vacancies arising internally: 1. is possible. Higher salary due to promotions and career development. ARTHUR ANDERSON:. 43 .RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 1. Self-development through promotions. To select professionals for global careers with it. 3. The company uses occupational personality questionnaire to understand the candidate’s personal attributes and occupational testing to measure competencies. training. etc. Source: Business Today. Avoids frustration on the part of employees. the company uses a competencybased interviewing technique that looks at the candidate’s abilities in terms of strategizing. 2.LG Electronics uses 3 psychometric tests to measure a person’s ability as a team player. to check personality types and to find a person’s responsiveness and assertiveness. managing the environment.It uses extensive psychometric instruments to evaluate shortlisted candidates. This apart. problem solving. largely based on his past experience and credentials 4. High degree of satisfaction among the employees by letting them know that their capabilities are being properly utilized and that their talents are not wasted 6.

race or gender. This objective is often defeated because of certain barriers. Our limited perceptual ability is obviously a stumbling block to the objective and rational selection of people. with the aim of choosing the right persons for the jobs. a) PERCEPTION:Our inability to understand others accurately is probably the most fundamental barrier to selecting right candidate. The impediments which check effectiveness of selection are perception. b) FAIRNESS:Fairness in selection requires that no individual should be discriminated against on the basis of religion. But the low number of women and other less privileged sections of society in the middle and senior management positions and open discrimination on the basis of age in job advertisements and in the selection process would suggest that all the efforts to minimize inequity have not been very effective. Selection demands an individual or a group to assess and compare the respective competencies of others. and pressure. reliability. However. c) VALIDITY:Validity. validity. It can only increase possibility of success. as explained earlier. is a test that helps predict job performance of an incumbent.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE SELECTION:The main objective of selection is to hire people having competence and commitment. We all perceive the world differently. A test that has been validated can differentiate between the employees who can perform well and those who will not. But our views are highly personalized. a validated test does not predict job success accurately. fairness. region. d) RELIABILITY:44 .

friends. Like a validated test. 45 .RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION A reliable method is one which will produce consistent results when repeated in similar situations. Appointments to public sector undertakings generally take place under such pressure. and peers to select particular candidate. relatives. a reliable test may fall to predict job performance with precision. e) PRESSURE:Pressure is brought on the selectors by politicians. Candidates selected because of compulsions are obviously not the right ones. bureaucrats.

2) COST INCURRED:Cost incurred while selection process also plays an important role. People selected for the interview were flown into the city. Hence cost incurred is very important for the success of the selection process.g. This can be explained with an example: Pepsi went on a crash recruitment drive. Six people from the company took over Oberoi business center for six days.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION ROLE OF SELECTION:Selection is crucial for the organizations effectiveness for 2 reasons: 1) WORK PERFORMANCE:Performance of the organization is very important to the success of the company. So the organization always employs people who are well qualified and competent. just shows how expensive selection can be. SELECTION DECISIONS:- 46 . This e. 3000 people who had responded to the advertisements earlier issued were scanned: people were asked to respond within 100hrs by fax.

47 . 2) TRUE NEGATIVE ERROR:True negative is when a company predicts failure and the result is a failure i.e. 3) FALSE POSITIVE ERROR:This happens when a company predicts success and results in failure. 4) FALSE NEGATIVE ERROR:This happens when a company predicts failure when the result could have been a success. when they reject a candidate appropriately. 1) TRUE POSITIVE ERROR:True positive is when the company predicts success and the result is a success i. That is when they an employee who is very competent due to wrong perceptions. when they select the right employee for the right job. That is when they select a wrong/ incompetent employee for a job.e.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION SUCCESS FALSE NEGATIVE ERROR NEGATIVE TRUE NEGATIVE ERROR FAILURE PREDICTED FALSE POSITIVE ERROR SUCCESS PREDICTED TRUE POSITIVE ERROR OUTCOMES OF THE SELECTION PROCESS There are 4 outcomes of the selection decisions.

The process of choosing the most suitable candidate out of the available applicants is called selection. Thus it eliminates unsuitable candidates from the selection procedure. We have a strange paradox in our country. Unemployment is more among people who do not have specific skills. The manner of recruitment varies with the size. The rejection rate in the selection of candidates is very high. Only handful of candidate are hired by the time selection procedure comes to an end. Corruption and influence is used in hiring such employees. In order to make correct decision about the selection it is important to collect information about the applicants.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION SELECTION IN INDIA:Conditions of labour market largely determine the selection process. nature and environment of an organization. It locates the sources of people and attracts them to employment in the organization. Recruitment brings together employers and prospective employees. It tries to develop a pool of person from which most suitable ones can be selected. On one hand there is large scale unemployment and on the other hand there is shortage of skilled labour. 48 . At one place we have ‘no vacancy’ boards and at other places we have “wanted employees” boards. Sound selection matches the qualification of applicants with the job requirement. Selection is therefore not systematic and at times bizarre in CONCLUSION:Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and encouraging them to apply for jobs.

VERMA 2) MANAGEMENT --.DR.P. M.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS --. M. ANJALI GHANEKAR HUMAN RESOURCE AND PERSONNEL 49 .DR. SUBBA RAO 3) HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT --.

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 4) (TEXT & CASES) --. B.M.V.com 50 . V. KALE --.humanresource. G. P.com  www.S. GHANEKAR 6) HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT --.N. AHMED PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (TEXT & HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT WIBILIOGRAPHY  www.hrmguide.C. RAO 5) CASES) --. S. MAMORIA --.

the details are as follow: Factors Age Assumption Age is advantage upto the age of 50 Allocation of Points 21-30:3 points 30-40:4 points Marital status Married with family 40-50:7 points Single:0 point Married without children:3 points Married with children:5 points 51 . Five factors are to be assessed and quantified for each applicant. The company decided to use numerical rating system for selecting suitable candidates.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION CASE STUDY A reputed marketing company decided to select ten promising marketing executives for promoting sales of its two newly introduced consumer durables.

Moreover. The points are to be totaled for an overall rating. Applicants securing 20 or more points (maximum points are 30) are to be considered definite hires. Do you feel that selection of most suitable candidates will be possible by such numerical rating? D. ii. This system is based on two factors and the support of interviews to numerical system is the plus point of the selection system used. University degree:1 points Degree + diploma or certificate course iii. Final decisions are based on the numerical rating and performance of candidates in series of personal interviews Questions: A.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION Education MBA in Marketing contributes to success i. Sales aptitude Aptitude can be measured 0-7 points based on the results of test. the final decision will be on the basis of performance in the interviews where the points gained by candidates will be verified. those getting points between 10-20 will be treated as possible hires and those getting less than 10 points will be rejected. Are there any potential difficulties with this system? One Possible Solution: (1) The numerical rating system used here is reasonably good. What is your opinion on the above noted numerical rating system? C. This system is used extensively as it is quick. simple and fairly decisive. There is no scope for mistakes in the system. 52 . Experience Marketing experience is necessary/useful in marketing management:1extra point Degree + MBA in marketing:2 extra points 1 point for each year marketing experience.

Performance in the interviews should be given special importance and rating should be used as supporting tool because interview gives full view of the personality of the candidates. Problems may develop if the points noted above are neglected.RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION (2) Selection of most suitable candidates will be possible provided the numerical rating is done uniformly and impartially. 53 . The interviewer should review the performance of candidate in all the interviews collectively. (3) Potential difficulties/problems may not develop as the rating criteria is clear and compact. They will have to do their job as professionals. the interviewers appointed should be experts with experience and maturity. interviewer should use their performance marking. notes taken during interview and so on. they should not have special interest in one candidate or the other. Interviews should be fair and impartial. In addition. The rating must be done by responsible persons and all possible mistakes must be avoided. In brief. For this. numerical rating supported by a series of personal interviews by experts will enable the company to select the best among the available candidates. Secondly.

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