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BUILDING SEVICES IV

SATHYABAMA UNIVERSITY
COMPILED BY
Ar.SELVENDIRAN
UNIT I INTRODUCTION
Introduction to A/C conditions, basic of refrigeration systems, components of refrigeration system, compressor,
condenser, control devices, evaporator, filters cooling tower. Vapour compression cycle. Concepts of cooling load, calculation of cooling load –
conductivity, transmission heat load, internal heat gain, concepts of zoning, room air distribution – types of outlets.

THERMODYNAMICS
Thermodynamics is that branch of science dealing with the mechanical action of heat. There are certain fundamental principles of
nature, often called laws of thermodynamics, which govern our existence here on Earth, several of which are basic, in the study of
refrigeration.
The first and most important of these laws is the fact energy can neither be created or destroyed, but can be converted
from one type to another.
HEAT
Heat is a form of energy, primarily created by the transformation of other types of energy into heat energy. For examples,
mechanical energy turning a wheel causes friction which creates heat.
TEMPERATURE
Temperature is the scale used to measure the intensity of heat, the indicator that determines which way the heat energy will move.
In the United states, temperature is normally measured in degrees Fahrenheit, but the Centigrade scale (sometimes termed Celsius) is widely
used in other parts of the world. Both scales use two points as reference, the freezing point of water and the boiling point of water at sea
level. Water freezes at 32°F or 0°C., and water boils at sea level at 212°F. or 100°C.
On the Fahrenheit scale, the temperature difference between these two points is divided into 180 equal increments or degrees F., while on
the Centigrade scale the temperature difference is divided into 100 equal increments or degrees C. The relation between Fahrenheit and
Centigrade scales can always be established by the following formulas:
Fahrenheit – 9/5 (Centigrade plus 32°)
Fahrenheit – 5/9 (Fahrenheit plus 32°)
LATENT HEAT OF FUSION:
A change of substance from a solid to a liquid or from a liquid to a solid involves the latent heat of fusion. It might also be termed
the latent heat of melting, or the latent heat of freezing.
LATENT HEAT OF EVAPORATION:
A change of a substance from a liquid to a vapour, or from a vapour back to a liquid involves the latent heat of evaporation.
When one pound of water boils or evaporates, it absorbs 970 Btu’s at a constant temperature of 212°F and to condense one pound
of steam to water 970 Btu’s must be extracted from it.
The absorption of heat by changing a liquid to vapour, and the discharge of that heat by condensing the vapour is the keystone to
the whole mechanical refrigeration process, and the movement of the latent heat involved is the basic means of refrigeration.
SATURATION TEMPERATURE :
Saturated temperature: Temperature of a liquid, vapor, or a solid, where if any heat is added or removed, a
change of state takes place.
PRESSURE TEMPERATURE RELATIONSHIP FOR LIQUID REFRIGERANTS :
For any given pressure, refrigerants have a saturation temperature. If the pressure is low, the saturation temperature is low. If pressure is
high, saturation temperature is high.
The temperature at which liquid refrigerant boils is dependent on the pressure exerted on it. The vapour pressure of the liquid, which is the
pressure being exerted by the tiny molecules seeking to escape the liquid and become vapour, increase with an increase in temperature until
at the point where the vapour pressure equals the external pressure, boiling occurs.
REFRIGERANTION CYCLE COMPONENTS : VAPOUR COMPRESSION CYCLE :
The main components of a vapour compression type refrigeration cycle are:
a. COMPRESSOR
b. CONDENSER
c. EXPANSION VALVE
d. EVAPORATOR
COMPRESSOR:
A compressor is used to maintain the flow of the refrigerant and to raise the pressure of the refrigerant so that it can be condensed suitably
and reused many times.
The compressor is the heart of the system. The compressor does just what it’s name is. It compresses the low pressure refrigerant vapor from
the evaporator and compresses it into a high pressure vapor.

The basic types of compressors are :


1. Reciprocating compressor
2. Rotary compressor
3. Scroll compressor
4. Screw compressor
5. Centrifugal compressor

Reciprocating compressor has one or more piston and cylinder combinations. In this type of compressor, the pistons are designed in similar
fashion to those used in a car engine: they slide inside a cylinder, drawing in and compressing the gas refrigerant. Each cylinder features a

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suction valve for the gas refrigerant and a delivery valve through which the
the gas refrigerant is sent to the condenser after having been
compressed.
Rotary compressor uses a rotary impeller driving refrigerant through a curved chamber to compress the refrigerant.
Scroll compressor features two involute scrolls: one stationary, and
and one orbiting around the first. Due to which the gas contained between the
two elements reaches a very high pressure and discharged through a hole in the centre.
Screw
crew compressor consists of two helically grooved rotors, housing
ousing with suction and discharge
discharge ports and
compresses the refrigerant between the rotating groves.
Centrifugal compressor raises the pressure of the refrigerant by a centrifugal force within a circular casing.
CONDENSER:
Condensers remove the cooling load, and the heat of compression
compression and condense the high pressure refrigerant gas into high pressure
liquid refrigerant.
Condensers may be water cooled or air cooled. Water cooled condensers use cooling towers. Various types of water-cooled
water cooled condensers are
shell and tube, shell and coil, evaporative etc. Air-
Air-cooled
cooled condensers employ cooling coils and fans.
EXPANSION VALVE : OR CONTROL DEVICES
An expansion valve is used to regulate the flow of liquid refrigerant into an evaporator depending on the load.
It reduces the pressure of the liquid refrigerant thus
th dividing the high and low side of the system.
system
Some form of expansion
expansion device is necessary to control the flow of liquid refrigerant between the low and high sides of a
refrigeration system. The following expansion devices are designed to pro-pro vide automatic control of refrigerant flow:
1. Automatic expansion valves
2. Thermostatic expansion valves
3. Float valves
4. Capillary tubes

EVAPORATOR:
Evaporator is a heat exchanger and transfers the heat from the substance to be cooled to the liquid refrigerant and converts it to vapour.

COOLING TOWERS FILTERS


Cooling Towers constantly "scrub" airborne contaminants from the atmosphere and often pick up particulate from the process using us the
cooled water. This build up of dirt, algae and other particles can plug heat exchangers, and spray nozzles, and it is costly
costly to remove when the
tower sumps get full. The LCF-Series
LCF Series or CTF-Series
CTF Series is the "filter of choice" for Cooling Tower Filters.

Vapour compression cycle

The diagram at the left shows the components of a vapor-


vapor
compression refrigeration cycle: a compressor, condenser,
expansion valve, and evaporator. A low pressure, low
temperature liquid is converted to vapor in the evaporator, thus
absorbing heat from the refrigerated space and keeping that
space cool. The fluid is driven around the cycle by the compressor,
which compresses the low temperature, low pressure vapor
leaving the evaporator to high pressure, high temperature vapor.
That vapor is condensed to liquid
liquid in the condenser, thus giving off
heat at a high temperature to the surrounding environment.
Finally, the high pressure, high temperature liquid leaving the
condenser is cooled and reduced in pressure by passing it through
an expansion valve. This provides
provides the input to the evaporator
which was the first step of the cycle described above.

Room air distribution


Characterizing how air is introduced to, flows through, and is removed from spaces is called room air distribution.HVAC airflow
airfl in
spaces generally can be classified by two different types: mixing (or dilution) and displacement.Mixing systems generally supply air such that
the supply air mixes with the room air so that the mixed air is at the room design temperature and humidity. In cooling mode, the cool supply
air, typically around 55 °F (13 °C) (saturated)
(saturated) at design conditions, exits an outlet at high velocity.
Outlet types
• Group A: In or near ceiling, horizontal discharge
• Group B: In or near floor, vertical
vertical non-spreading
non spreading discharge
discha
Group C: In or near floor, vertical spreading discharge
discharg
• Group D: In or near
near floor, horizontal discharge

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• Group E: In or near ceiling, vertical discharge

Heat exchange processes


The human body was considered as a defined unit and its heat exchange processes with the environment were analyzed. The
building can similarly be considered as a defined unit and its heat exchange processes with the out-door environment can be examined.
Conduction of heat may occur through the walls either inwards or outwards, the rate of which will be denoted as Qc (convective and
radiant components in the transfer of the same heat at the surfaces are included in the term: transmittance)
The effects of solar radiation on opaque surfaces can be included in the above by using the solair temperature concept, but through
transparent surfaces (windows) the solar heat gain must be considered separately. It may be denoted as Qs
Heat exchange in either direction may take place with the movement of air, i.e. ventilation, and the rate of this will be denoted as Qv
An internal heat gain may result from the heat output of human bodies, lamps, motors and appliances. This may be denoted as Qi
There may be a deliberate introduction or removal of heat (heating or cooling), using some form of outside energy supply. The heat
flow rate of such mechanical controls may be denoted as Qm.
Finally, if evaporation takes place on the surface of the building (e.g. a roof pool) or within the
building (human sweat or water in a fountain) and the vapours are removed, this will produce a cooling effect, the rate of which will be
denoted as Qe
The thermal balance, i.e. the existing thermal condition is maintained if:
Qi + Qs ± Qc ± Qv ± Qm – Qe = 0
If the sum of this equation is less than zero (negative), the building will be cooling and if it is more than zero, the temperature in the building
will increase. These factors will be examined in the following paragraphs.
Conduction
Conduction heat flow rate through a wall of a given area can be described by the equation:
Qc = A × U × ΔT
where Qc = conduction heat flow rate, in W
A = surface area, in m2
U = transmittance value, in W/m2degC
ΔT = temperature difference
For a whole building, enclosed by various elements and possibly the temperature differences
varying from side to side, the above equation is solved for each element and the results are added.
If heat loss from a building is considered:
ΔT = Ti – To
If heat gain in, say, an air conditioned building is calculated:
ΔT = To – Ti
and if in the latter case a surface is also exposed to solar radiation:
ΔT = Ts – Ti
where Ti = inside air temperature
Convection
Convection heat flow rate between the interior of a building and the open air, depends on the rate
of ventilation, i.e. air exchange. This may be unintentional air infiltration or may be deliberate
ventilation. The rate of ventilation can be given in m3/s.
The rate of ventilation heat flow is described by the equation:
Qv = 1300 × V × ΔT
where Q = ventilation heat flow rate, in W
1300 = volumetric specific heat of air, J/m3degC
V = ventilation rate, in m3/s
T = temperature difference, degC

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If the number of air changes per hour (N) is given the ventilation rate can be found as:
(3600 is the number of seconds in an hour).
Radiation through windows
If the intensity of solar radiation (l) incident on the plane of the window is known – this itself
being a value denoting a density of energy flow rate (W/m2) – it will have to be multiplied by the
area of the aperture only (m2) to get the heat flow rate in watts.
This would be the heat flow rate through an unglazed aperture. For glazed windows this value
will be reduced by a solar gain factor (θ) which depends on the quality of the glass and on the
angle of incidence. Values of θ are given in Figure 55 (see 4.2.9).
The solar heat flow equation can therefore be established as:
Qs = A × l × θ
where A = area of window, in m2
l = radiation heat flow density, in W/m2
θ = solar gain factor of window glass
3.2.5 Internal heat gain
The heat output rate of human bodies has been given in 2.1.2. Heat output from a body (inside the
building) is a heat gain for the building. Thus the heat output rate appropriate to the activity to be
accommodated must be selected and multiplied by the number of occupants. The result, in watts,
will be a significant component of Qi.
The total rate of energy emission of electric lamps can be taken as internal heat gain. The larger
part of this energy is emitted as heat (95% for incandescent lamps and 79% for fluorescent lamps)
and the part emitted as light, when incident on surfaces, will be converted into heat. Consequently
the total wattage of all lamps in the building (if and when in use) must be added to the Qi
If an electric motor and the machine driven by it are both located (and operating) in the same
space, the total wattage of the motor must be taken as Qi (If the hp of a motor is known, its wattage
can be found: W = 746 × hp.)
If the motor only is in the space considered and its efficiency is e, then W × ε useful power is
utilised elsewhere, but W (1 – ε) heat flow will contribute to Qi
3.2.6 Heating and cooling
Heating and cooling, i.e. mechanical controls will be dealt with in greater detail in Section 4.1.
The heat flow rate of these systems is subject to the designer's intentions and it is deliberately
controllable. It can thus be taken as a dependent variable in the equation, i.e. it can be adjusted
according to the balance of the other factors.
Evaporation
The rate of cooling by evaporation can only be calculated if the rate of evaporation itself is known.
If the evaporation rate is expressed in kg/h, the corresponding heat loss rate can be found:
Qe = 666 × kg/h
as the latent heat of evaporation of water around 20°C is approximately 2400 kJ/kg, this gives:
The estimation of evaporation rate is a more difficult task and it can rarely be done with any
degree of accuracy (except under mechanically controlled conditions), as it depends on many
variables, such as: available moisture, humidity of the air, temperature of the moisture itself and of
the air and velocity of the air movement. It can be measured indirectly, e.g. by measuring the
reduction in the quantity of water in an open vessel, or it can be estimated from the number of
people in the room, their activity and thus their likely sweat rate (a value between 20 g/h and 2
kg/h).
Usually evaporation heat loss is either ignored for the purposes of calculations (except in
mechanical installations), or it is handled qualitatively only: evaporative cooling will be utilised
to reduce air temperature 'as far as possible'.
Heat loss calculation
The purpose of heat loss calculation is usually for the design of a heating installation. Heat loss
rate for a condition which is the coldest for 90% of the time is calculated, heating installation is
then designed to produce heat at the same rate.
Under less severe conditions the installation can work with a reduced output, Colder conditions
in the remaining 10% of the time normally occur in short spells and may be bridged by the thermal
inertia of the building and by an 'overload capacity' of the installation. In the UK

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it is usual to take –1 °C or 0°C as the 'design out-door temperature' (To).
The calculation method is best illustrated by a simple example:
a 5 × 5 m and 2.5 m high office is located on an intermediate floor of a large building, therefore
it has only one exposed wall facing south, all other walls adjoin rooms kept at the same
temperature: Ti = 20 °C
the ventilation rate is three air changes per hour,
three 100 W bulbs are in continuous use to light the rear part of the room, which is used by four
clerical workers.
The exposed 5 × 2.5 m wall consists of a single glazed window, 1.5 × 5 m = 7.5 m2 U = 4.48
W/m2 degC
and a clinker concrete spandrel wall, 200 mm, rendered and plastered, 1 × 5m = 5m2 U = 1.35
W/m2degC
Solution:
Temperature difference (ΔT) = 20°C – ( –1 °C) = 21 degC.
Qc = (7.5 × 4.48 + 5 × 1.35)21
= (33.60 + 6.75)21 = 40.35 × 21 = 847 W,
the volume of the room is 5 ×5 × 2.5 m = 62.5 m3.
Thus the ventilation rate is:
Qv = 1300 × O.052 × 21 = 1420 W
The three light bulbs and four persons produce:
Qi = 3 × 100 + 4 × 140 = 300 + 560 = 860 W
As no solar radiation and no evaporative loss are considered (see 3.2.1), the thermal balance
equation is:
Qi – Qc – Qv + Qm = 0
substituting the calculated values:
860 -847 -1420 + Qm = 0
–1407 + Qm = 0
Qm = 1407 W
The heating installation should provide heat at this rate, or, rounded up, at the rate of 1.5 kW.
Heat gain calculation
Heat gain is usually calculated for the purposes of air conditioning design. It is obvious that this
installation should cope with the warmest conditions at its peak capacity. Again, the highest
temperature for 90% of the time is taken as 'design out door temperature' and a solar radiation
intensity is taken on similar grounds.
The above example will be used, except:
To = 26°C and the incident radiation (l) = 580 W/m2
absorbance of the wall surface a = 0.4
surface conductance fo = 10W/m2degC
solar gain factor for window θ = 0.75
Solution:
Temperature difference (ΔT) = 26°C – 20°C = 6 degC for conduction through the window and for
ventilation heat flow, but for the opaque surface the sol-air temperature must be found (see
3.1.18):
Thus for the spandrel wall ΔT = 49 – 20°C = 29 degC.
Qc = (7.5×4.48×6) +(5 ×1.35 ×29)
= (33.60 ×6) + (6.75 ×29) = 201.6 +195.75 = 397 W
Qs = 7.5 ×580 ×O.75 = 3270 W
Qv = 1 300 ×0.052 ×6 = 405 W
Qi = (as before) 860 W
No evaporation loss is considered, thus the thermal balance equation is (see 3.2.1):
Qi + Qs + Qc + Qv + Qm = 0
substituting the calculated values:
860 +3270 +397 +405 + Qm = 0
4932 + Qm = 0
Qm = –4932 W

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The air conditioning system must be capable of removing heat at this rate, or, rounded up, 5 kW.

UNIT II A/C SYSTEMS


Types of Window and split A/c. Package units, Factory made and split units, Centralized plants and Chilled
water plants, Comparison of various systems - Space requirements for A/c units, AHU’s & a/c plant, ducting,
testing and maintenance on ducts and pipes.-Designing the Built Environment and selecting the materials and
elements for energy efficient Air Conditioning, Protection of Ozone Layer.

Types of air-conditioning

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FOR SMALL BUILDINGS :


WINDOW AIR-CONDITIONERS:
Window air conditioners employ hermetic compressors and are available in capacities ranging from ½ to 2 TR. They are factory assembled and
can be directly installed in the room to be cooled and are ready for operation.
In window Air-conditioners, the compressor, condenser, evaporator and expansion valve are all enclosed in a single cabinet. The unit is to be
installed in a wooden frame either in a window or in a hole in the wall.
The whole assembly of the window air conditioner can be divided into two compartments : the room side, which is also the cooling side and
the outdoor side from where the heat absorbed by the room air is liberated to the atmosphere. The room side and outdoor side are separated
from each other by an insulated partition enclosed inside the window air conditioner assembly.
Window air conditioners are mainly used for residences, small offices and shops. Advantages are easy to install and cheaper. Disadvantages
are no fresh air and not suited for large areas. The units are also noisy.
SPLIT AIR-CONDITIONERS:
The Split air-conditioner is split into two basic components, the Indoor unit and the Outdoor unit. These two units are connected by
refrigeration tubing. The indoor unit ( evaporator unit ) is kept inside the conditioned area whereas the outdoor unit ( condensing unit ) is kept
outside. Thus noise level inside the conditioned area is reduced.
The indoor unit comprises the evaporator or cooling coil, expansion valve and cooling fan. Of late the expansion valve is shifted to the outdoor
unit to avoid hissing noise. For this unit you don’t have to make any slot in the wall of the room. Further, present day split units have aesthetic
appeal and do not take up as much space as a window unit. The outdoor unit, fitted outside the room, houses components like the
compressor, condenser and of late even the expansion valve.

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There are many versions of the indoor units like High Wall, Floor mounted, Ceiling mounted, Vertical, Concealed, Cassette etc.
The outdoor unit has the flexibility to be installed either on the roof or on a ledge or on the floor.
EVAPORATIVE COOLERS :
In low-humidity areas, evaporating water into the air provides a natural and energy-efficient means of cooling. Evaporative coolers rely on this
principle, cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated cellulose pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The cooler and
humidified air is then directed into the area to be used and pushes warmer air out through windows.
When operating an evaporative cooler, windows are opened part way to allow warm indoor air to escape as it is replaced by cooled air. Air
conditioning systems re-circulate the same air, however evaporative coolers provide a steady stream of fresh air into the area to be used.
Evaporative cooling is a common form of cooling buildings for thermal comfort since it is relatively cheap and requires less energy than other
forms of cooling. However, evaporative cooling is only effective when the relative humidity is on the low side, limiting its popularity to dry
climates. Evaporative cooling raises the internal humidity level significantly, which dry climate inhabitants may appreciate as the moist air re-
hydrates dry skin and sinuses. Evaporative coolers should not be used in humid climates because they add humidity to the air in your home.
PACKAGED AIR CONDITIONER / DUCTABLE SPLIT AIR CONDITIONERS ( SEMI-CENTRAL ):
a. Air cooled system:
The heat picked up from the conditioned space and the heat of compression has to be ultimately rejected to the atmosphere. This
heat can only be rejected to the ambient air or water. Thus systems using air-cooled condensers are classified as air-cooled.

b. Water cooled system:


Systems using water-cooled condensers working in conjunction with cooling towers for re-circulation of the water are called water-
cooled systems.
Packaged Airconditioners are shaped like cupboards and need to be located in a separate plant room adjoining the area to be air-
conditioned. They are connected to the conditioned area by ducting. They employ either air-cooled or water cooled condensers. They use
scroll compressor and operate on 415V AC 3 phase 50 cycles power supply. They are generally available from 5.5 TR to 22 TR capacity.

The indoor cabinet unit comprises of Compressor, Evaporator, expansion valve and relatively a powerful blower. The outdoor unit
comprises of air cooled condenser which rejects the heat. Both the units are connected by copper pipes to facilitate refrigerant flow.
Water cooled option is also available. The water cooled condenser is located in the indoor unit. The heat is rejected to water and
thro pumps the water goes to the cooling tower, rejects heat and goes back to the condenser for picking up more heat.
Packaged units are mainly used for offices and show rooms. Advantages are these units are rugged, multiple units can be used for
large areas, easy and fast installation, can handle long duct runs and higher air quantity requirements, the services are restricted to the unit
room.

Disadvantages are multiple units for larger applications, floor space is required for locating the units.

A variation of the above is the Ductable split units are mainly used for offices and show rooms. In this version the indoor unit is ceiling
suspended and comprises the evaporator and expansion valve. The outdoor unit comprises of the compressor and air-cooled condenser.

Advantages are this unit does not occupy floor space and can handle different areas. Disadvantages are too many units are used for
large spaces, restriction on the length of refrigerant piping, too many outdoor units, limitations on static pressure available, limitations on the
air quantity available, difficulty in servicing/cleaning the coils, high noise level in the work areas.
CENTRAL AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM:
DX CENTRAL PLANT :
The system uses multiple scroll compressors and the capacity varies from 5 TR to 80 TR. In this system the refrigerant gas directly
cools the air hence DX ( Direct Expansion ). The AHU is customized hence it can be used for heavy duty and non-standard applications.

They use air-cooled or water cooled condensers. A DX plant is most efficient from the thermodynamic point of view since the heat transfer is
directly between the refrigerant and air.
CHILLER PLANT :

Whenever it is not possible to install a single DX plant, because of restriction on the length of the refrigerant piping, in such cases
chilled water system is used. Also when large number of smaller zones are required to be air-conditioned then the practical arrangement will
be a chiller system.

In a chilled water system the chiller plant chills water. Then the water is pumped to the cooling coil in the Air Handling Unit – AHU. The chilled
water then cools the air. This is an indirect system of cooling.

Water can be easily pumped for long distances without any loss. In case of multistoried buildings or multiple buildings a chilled water system
with a single air-conditioning plant, it is possible to air-condition
the entire building with multiple air handling units and fan coil units. This also gives flexibility of usage.

Capacities available are from 10 to 1500 TR in single machine, multiple units can be used for larger installations. And available in air cooled and
water cooled versions with Scroll, Screw and Centrifugal type Compressors.

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Advantages are these types of machines can handle easily system diversities thus reducing the total installed capacities like in hotels, offices
and multi storied buildings. They have a better response to part loads offering better control, very rugged systems, better humidity control as
compared to packaged and split units.

Disadvantages are slightly longer lead times, extensive site work,costlier than DX systems, packaged / split units especially for small jobs. Also
needs trained manpower to operate.
Ductable Split Units :

PACKAGED AIRCONDITIONERS

DX CENTRAL PANT :

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CHILLER PLANT

ALL AIR SYSTEMS


In this system conditioned air is produced in one location of a zone in a floor and then distributed through ductwork running above false
ceiling. There is only a centralized control of cooling and each spot cannot have its own inside design conditions. Ideal for large office areas, IT
parks, Airports, Cinema Theatre, Stadium etc. In case there are smaller rooms within large areas then they can be controlled with VARIABLE
AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS ( VAV ) as detailed below .
Following care should be taken :
• AHU Room should be properly placed. Avoid placing it next to toilets / Canteen etc. AHU door should be air tight and should be
openable from outside. The height of the AHU room should be the same as that of the area to be air-conditioned.

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• Sufficient space to be provided below beam bottom to run the ducts. At least 450mm gap to be provided between bottom of beam
and false ceiling for areas less than 5000 sq.ft. For 5000 to 7500 sq.ft 600 mm is required. Beyond that 900 mm is required.
• Return air is collected back to the AHU room through the void available between false ceiling and ceiling. Hence proper space
should be provided and should be air tight.
• If there is a shortage of return air then outside air starts coming to the AHU room and will be waste of energy.
• All the supply air ducts should be surrounded by return air otherwise condensation happens.
• All the supply air ducts should be thermally insulated from the external side of the ducts.
• Initial portion of supply air ducting ( until the first collar ) should have internal acoustic insulation.
• Only factory fabricated ducts should be considered. As far as possible avoid site fabricated ducts.
• BIS standards for duct fabrication and installation should be followed.
• The collar which connect the duct and terminals should be properly linked. In many cases it is found that there is gap and this leads
to improper cooling.
• A co-ordinated layout should be prepared by super imposing various services like false ceiling, HVAC ducts and pipes, air terminal
units, lighting, fire sprinkler pipes and electrical cables. Any clash can be avoided in the planning stage itself .
• The walls of the AHU room adjoining the area to be air-conditioned should be acoustically treated.
• Fire dampers to close the supply ducts and return air entry to AHU room should be provided for Fire Safety.
• Finally Testing – Adjusting – Balancing should be carried out.

VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS ( VAV )

A variable-air-volume (VAV) air-conditioning system varies the volume of constant temperature air that is supplied to meet the
changing load conditions of the space.
The VAV system controls air from a single supply duct and varies the airflow to each zone or room based upon the temperature in the room. A
VAV system consists of four basic parts: a thermostat, a precision actuator controlled damper, an airflow sensor, and a controller. Whenever
the load comes down in a particular room the thermostat senses it and send signal to the controller and in turn the damper tends to close and
air supply is reduced. Due to the closure of the damper pressure builds up in the ducting system. A pressure sensor sends this signal to
Variable Frequency Drive ( VFD ) and in turn the VFD reduces the speed of the fan. For example by reducing 20 % of the speed we can expect
50 % reduction in the energy cost of the fan.

ALL WATER SYSTEMS :


In this system the Chilled water will be pumped to various small areas to be individually air-conditioned. The chilled water will be
sent to the Fan Coil Units for each room. The conditioned air thus produced will be directly fed to the room without any air distribution
system. Ideal for multizone applications with small rooms like Hotels, Hospitals etc.
In case of part load operation the chiller will get the message by sensing the return water temperature . If the return water
temperature is lower than the set point then the plant senses that production can be reduced. The capacity control mechanism ensures that
the compressor will run only in part load and save energy. Consequently all the downstream components need to run only in part load. This
should be taken care of in the first design itself. Many a times this is overlooked due to budget constraints but a basic Return on Investment
study will indicate that payback period is mostly within 2 years.
Some of the energy saving devices which help in partload operation power savings includes Variable Frequency Drives ( VFD) for
Pumps.
Following care should be taken :
• Piping system should be properly installed and insulated. If not condensation will be a perennial problem.
• Drain pipes are very critical and should not run for long lengths as natural gravity slope is required.
• Sufficient space for carrying out piping work should be provided like space above false ceiling and shafts crossing the floors.
• Isolation Valve for each AHU and FCU to be provided. Most important - Isolation valve for each floor has to be provided.
• During the design stage itself pipe openings can be given in the beams itself. Thus saving valuable space which will be occupied by
chilled water pipes below the beam.
• Always design the pipes with low pressure drop. This will ensure that pumping cost is reduced . Also any future expansion can be
easily carried out without major alterations.

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ALL WATER SYSTEMS : FAN COIL UNITS FOR GUEST ROOMS

ALL WATER SYSTEMS : AIR HANDLING UNITS FOR LARGER ROOMS

CONFIGURING / SIZING OF MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT :


TYPE OF EQUIPMENT COMMONLY AVAILABLE RATINGS
Window and Split AC Min : 1 TR – Max : 2 TR
Packaged Air-conditioners Min : 5.5 TR – Max : 22 TR
Ductable Air-conditioners Min : 5.5 TR – Max : 22 TR
DX-System - Min : 12 TR – Max : 90 TR
Air Cooled Scroll Chiller Min : 10 TR – Max : 80 TR

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Water Cooled Scroll Chiller Min : 11 TR – Max : 85 TR
Air Cooled Screw Chiller Min : 100 TR and Max : 400 TR
Water Cooled Screw Chiller Min : 120 TR and Max : 450 TR

EQUIPMENT SPACING :
While planning for the space requirements of AC Equipment
quipment rooms the following guidelines may be used.
TYPE OF EQUIPMENT
EQUIPMEN SPACE REQUIREMENT
Packaged unit room 3m x 2m – Single unit
3m x 4 m – Two units
3 m x 5 m – Three units
AHU Rooms 4m x 3m – upto 30 TR
4m x 5 m – upto 60 TR
Water Cooled chiller plants 6m x 6m for each plant and pumps.
pumps. 3m x 3m open space for
cooling tower.
t
Air cooled chiller plants 10 m x 8 m open space for one plant and pumps.

Note the following :


Height of packaged unit room or the AHU room should be the same as that of the area to be air-conditioned
conditioned.
Dutable split units require minimum 600 mm clearclea space above false
alse to locate the indoor units and to run the ducts.
Equipment placing should be done with an eye on maintenance. Packaged unit should have 1 m space in front of the unit for unit
unit servicing . If
it is water cooled 2 m at the side also required
required for condenser tube cleaning.
Shafts should be sized properly for installing the pipes based on site conditions.

AIR HANDLING UNIT - AHU


An Air-Handling
Air Handling Unit (AHU), is a device used to condition and circulate air as part of a HVAC system. The primary function of an AHU is to
transmit processed air from the air conditioning plant to the conditioned space and distribute
distribute it properly within the conditioned space.
An AHU is usually a large modular metal box containing various sections like :
• Filter Section with pre-filters
pre filters
• Cooling Coil Section with copper tubes and aluminium fins.
• Blower section with Centrifugal fans and Motor.
• Accessories include drain pan, dampers , VFD, Starters, Vibration isolators etc
The air is first passed through filters to remove dust particles and then over to the cooling coils wherein the air is cooled and de-humidified.
de
The blowers then convey
convey the pressurized air to the ducts which in turn distributes to the area to be air-conditioned
air conditioned through grilles and
diffusers..

HORIZONTAL FLOOR MOUNTED

CEILING SUSPENDED

COOLING TOWER
In a water cooled system the heat to be rejected is picked by water. Now to cool the water a cooling tower is used. A cooling tower is an
equipment used to reduce the temperature of a water stream by extracting heat from water and emitting it to the atmosphere.
Cooling towers are used to reject heat through the natural process of evaporation. Warm recirculating water is sent to the cooling
cooling tower
where it is sprayed
sprayed through nozzles into the air.
A portion of the water is evaporated into the air passing through the tower. As the water evaporates, the air absorbs heat, which
which lowers the
temperature of the remaining water.

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This process provides significant cooling to the remaining water stream that collects in the tower basin where it can be pumped back into the
system to extract more process or building heat, thereby allowing much of the water to be used repeatedly to meet the cooling demand.
The two types are :
Natural draft tower :
Natural
Natural draft towers are constructed of wooden louver held on wooden uprights. Nowadays plastic louvers are also available. The space
enclosed by the louvers has a water spray system on the top. Warm water from the condenser is sprayed by nozzles – This finely atomized
water flows by gravity into a small collecting basin.
Since its performance depends on existing air currents, ordinarily, a roof top is an excellent location. Louvers must be placed
placed on all sides of a
natural draft tower to reduce
reduce drift.
The drift loss ( loss of water due to wind movement ) and space requirements of a natural draft tower are much greater than for for other cooling
tower designs.
Mechanical draft tower :
These towers use a motor and fan to pull ( induced draft ) or push ( forced draft ) a constant volume of air through the tower. The water is
sprayed through nozzles into the draft thereby evaporating rapidly and cooling the rest of the water. The heat transfer area is enhanced due
to PVC fills. Water is collected at the base and again sent to the condenser for cooling.

MECHANICAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER


NATURAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER

Design Criteria for selecting the air conditioning system for large buildings :
DX CENTRAL PLANT :
When to use :
1. If requirement exceeds 400 sq.m.
2. For heavy duty offices, showrooms, industries etc.
3. Single zone areas.
When not to use :
1. Multizone areas.
2. When copper pipe length is more than 50 feet
CHILLER PLANT :
W
When to use :
1. If requirement does exceeds 2000 sq.m. sq.m.
2. If used for heavy duty commercial and industrial applications like IT Parks, Star Hotels, Hospitals, Major offices, Major showrooms,
showrooms,
Industries, non-standard
non standard application etc.
3. Multizone Zone areas.
4. If plantnt has to be located far way from usage
When not to use :
If requirement is highly variable and may go down to less than 40 %.
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES :
1. Select proper system taking the usage into account.
2. Ensure design is based on low pressure drop in piping and ducting system.
3. Consider latest insulation materials like elastomeric in place of fiberglass / expanded polystyrene.
4. Go for variable frequency drives for all motors.
5. Go for pre-insulated
pre insulated pipes in place of site insulation.
6. Go for factory fabricated
fabricated ducts in place of site fabrication.
7. Go for double skin AHU in place of single skin AHU.
8. Go for direct drive plug fans in place of belt driven centrifugal fans.
9. Go for VAV – Variable Air Volume systems to control air in smaller rooms which are part of a bigger office.
10. Go for Energy Recovery Ventilator – ERV for maintaining IAQ as per standard and still recovering 70 % energy.
11. Go for building management systems – BMS.

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HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION OF SERVICES FOR LARGE BUILDINGS
The horizontal distribution system for mechanical and electrical services in a large building should be planned simultaneously with
the structural frame and the interior finish systems, because the three are strongly interrelated. The floor–to-floor height of a building is
determined in part by the vertical dimension needed at each story for horizontal runs of ductwork and piping. The selection of finish ceiling,
partition, and floor systems is often based in part on their ability to contain the necessary electrical and mechanical services and to adjust to
future changes in these services. All these strategies involve close cooperation among the architect and the structural and mechanical
engineers.
CONNECTING HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION LINES
Horizontal mechanical and electrical lines must be fed by vertical lines through smooth, functional connections. Plumbing waste
lines, which must be slopped to drain by gravity, have top priority in the planning of horizontal service lines; if they are confined to vertical
plumbing walls, they will not interfere with other services. Sprinkler heads, which have the second highest priority in the layout of horizontal
services, are served from the fire standpipe by horizontal piping that seldom exceeds 4 in. (100mm) in outside diameter. The spacing of the
2
heads is coordinated with the placement of walls and partitions; the maximum coverage per head is about 200 sq.ft(18.6m ) in light-hazard
2
buildings. Coverage in industrial and storage buildings ranges from 130 to 90 sq.ft(12.1 to 8.4 m ) per head, depending on the substances
handled in the building;
Air conditioning ducts is the next priority. In the AHU room the return air will mix with outside fresh air and then will be taken inside
the AHU. The AHU will filter the air, cool and dehumidify it and then feed it to the ductwork for further distribution. The supply air ducts will
be taken above the false ceiling and fed to the area to be air-conditioned through grilles/diffuser. Return air is usually collected above the false
ceiling and the space available between the false ceiling and ceiling slab will act as return air path to the AHU room.
Diffusers are generally required at the rate of one for every 150 sq.ft.
GROUP HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION IN CENTRAL CORRIDORS
Sometimes the major runs of ductwork, piping and wiring can be grouped in the ceiling area above the central corridor of each floor
of a building, leaving the ceilings of the surrounding rooms essentially “clean”. This works especially well in hotels, dormitories, and apartment
buildings that rely on above ceiling all-water system. A low corridor ceiling is readily accepted in exchange for high, unobstructed space in the
occupied rooms, where the structure may be left exposed as the finish ceiling, saving cost and floor-to-floor height.
FLOORWISE HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION
In broad expanses of floor space, particularly where all electrical and communications services must be available at any point in the
area, an entire horizontal layer of space is reserved on each story for mechanical and electrical equipment.

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DISTRIBUTION ABOVE A SUSPENDED CEILING
Above a suspended ceiling, all services can be taken like :
• Fire Sprinkers • Plumbing
• Electrical wiring • HVAC piping
• Communication and Data • HVAC ducts ( supply air, return air, fresh air and exhaust air )

DISTRIBUTION ABOVE THE STRUCTURAL FLOOR


A raised access floor system allows maximum flexibility in running services because it can accommodate piping, ductwork, and
wiring with equal case. It is especially useful in industrial or office areas where large numbers of computers or computer terminals are used
and where frequent wiring changes are likely. It is also valuable in retrofitting old buildings for modern services. Though floors can be raised to
any desired height above the structural deck, heights of 300-450mm .
Undercarpet flat wiring may be used instead of a raised access floor in buildings with moderate needs for future wiring changes. Flat
wiring does not increase the overall height of the building, as raised access floors usually do, but it does not offer the unlimited capacity and
complete freedom of wire location of the raised floors. Flat wiring is used in both new buildings and retrofit work.

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Protect the ozone layer
• Buy air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment that do not use HCFCs as refrigerant.
• Buy aerosol products that do not use HCFCs or CFCs as propellants.
• Conduct regular inspection and maintenance of air-conditioning and refrigeration appliances to prevent and minimize refrigerant
leakage.
• For existing air-conditioning and refrigeration appliances that operate on HCFCs or CFCs, the refrigerant should be recovered or
recycled whenever an overhaul of equipment is to be carried out. Replacing or retrofitting such equipment to operate on non-HCFCs
refrigerant should also be considered.
• When motor vehicle air-conditioners need servicing, make sure that the refrigerants are properly recovered and recycled instead of
being vented to the atmosphere.

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