You are on page 1of 6

ISSN 2394-3777 (Print)

ISSN 2394-3785 (Online)

Available online at
International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJARTET)
Vol. 3, Special Issue 2, March 2016

Optimization of Construction Project Scheduling by

Using Linear Programming

M.E (IIyr) Construction Engineering and Management
Sree Sastha Institute of Engineering and Technology
Chennai -600123
Abstract:Planning, scheduling of compared and simulated values will be
construction projects are affected by projected.
unpredictable factors such as cash flow,
design changes etc. Conventionally project Keywords: Project management, linear
scheduling by using critical path method programming.
has been used. Of late project scheduling
using softwares like ms-project, primavera
are used. However optimized project Introduction:
scheduling using linear programming and
softwares are being attempted. In these Construction projects is high-rise
project work optimized project scheduling buildings, highways, power stations,
using linear programming and LINDO pipelines etc are involving thousands of
software are proposed to be used. activities. Planning, Scheduling of such
Procedures to solve these various problems projects using traditional network
are citied and the final solution is obtained techniques like CPM/PERT have many
using LINDO program. It could be used by disadvantages due to large number of
construction managers in planning stage to activities. Alternate methods using to
explore various possible solution. Linear model such as graphical methods, linear
programming shows that algorithm is very scheduling methods, line of balance
promising in practice on a wide variety of methods. The advantages of these
problems. This method is simple, graphical approaches are simplicity and
applicable to a large network, and visualize whole project. The disadvantage
generates shorter computational time at of these graphical methods attempt to
low cost, along with in an increase in finish the project at the earliest with a
robustness. A sample optimized project fixed production rate for each crew and
scheduling for a residential building G+2 therefore a known cost of the project. This
both by conventional method of cost may not be the minimum cost. In
scheduling and by using software like ms- order to include production rate as a
project, primavera and LINDO are decision variables to find a schedule with a
minimum cost a graphical model and
All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARTET
ISSN 2394-3777 (Print)
ISSN 2394-3785 (Online)
Available online at
International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJARTET)
Vol. 3, Special Issue 2, March 2016

analytical techniques are used. and management considerations of this

Linear programming is a method to project.
achieve the best outcome in a
mathematical model, whose requirements Tarek Hegay (2001) : A practical approach
are represented by a linear relationships. is presented for the model and
Linear programming can be applied to optimization of construction scheduling.
various fields of study. It is widely used in To simplify a spreadsheet model is
construction project, business and developed to easily usable. This model
economics, and is also utilized for some integrates CPM with time-cost trade-off,
engineering problems. resource levelling, cash flow management.
This model used to minimize the project
Objective of the project: cost .
To develop a project network by Hesham (2002) : An efficient optimum
establishing activity work break down solution is presented for a real-life dayoff
structure with duration and the sequence of scheduling problem with a three-week
their execution. To formulate linear cycle. The two different objective is labour
programming model. To identify the demands for each day of the week to
project minimum direct cost for a specified minimize the number of workers. The
feasible project duration. another objective is to reduce
transportation cost by minimizing the
Literature review: number of active day-off pattern. The
solution technique utilizes the linear
Hanssmann and W.Hess(1960) used a
programming solution to determine the
linear programming. Linear programming
minimum number of workers. This
mathematical method for determining a
solution is simple techniques to use
way to achieve the best outcome like
scheduling problems.
maximum profit with lowest cost in given
model. Linear programming is a specific Michael Benisch (2004) They use two
case of mathematical optimization. combine approaches to handle uncertainty.
They use this techniques for finding
Issac (1995) They has been done to
optimal solutions in the expected to solve
analyse the amount of savings that could
combinational optimization problem. This
have been achieved by proper construction
problem is formulate as a stochastic
management techniques with reference to
problem, and to solve the sample average
a 12-unit housing construction. Even a
approximation method.
small amount of saving without sacrificing
the quality or quantity of work will be Issam M.Srour (2006) address the issues of
extremely beneficial to a country like workforce training and allocation on
India. construction project. Christo Ananth et al.
[9] discussed about creating Obstacles to
AI-Momani (2000) some concepts of
Screened networks. In today’s
linear programming and critical path
technological world, millions of
method are reviewed to describe recent
individuals are subject to privacy threats.
modelling structures that have been of
Companies are hired not only to watch
great value in analyzing planning project
what you visit online, but to infiltrate the
time-cost problem. The model
information and send advertising based on
development represents many restrictions
your browsing history. People set up
accounts for facebook, enter bank and
All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARTET
ISSN 2394-3777 (Print)
ISSN 2394-3785 (Online)
Available online at
International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJARTET)
Vol. 3, Special Issue 2, March 2016

credit card information to various multiple of possible execution orders and

websites. Those concerned about Internet consequently to a optimization problem.
privacy often cite a number of privacy
risks events that can compromise privacy Samel L Baker (2010) critical path method
which may be encountered through is one of several related techniques for
Internet use. These methods of doing project planning and scheduling. If
compromise can range from the gathering some of the activities requires other
of statistics on users, to more malicious activities to finish before they can start,
acts such as the spreading of spyware and then the project becomes a complex web
various forms of bugs (software errors) of activities.
exploitation. The objective of this
Miriqbal Faheem (2010) planning,
proposed model is to minimize the labour
scheduling are affected by various factors
costs with satisfying project labour
such as climatic condition, design change,
etc are results the project duration and cost
Ahmed B Senouci (2006) presents a maximization. Identification of least cost
computerized system for the scheduling scheduling traditional network techniques
and cost optimization of linear projects. are used by bar charts, line of balance,
This system which use a genetic algorithm CPM, PERT are used. These techniques
model, minimizes the project cost and have many disadvantages in planning,
indirect cost. The proposed system scheduling due to large number of
determines the optimum formations and interacting activities. Linear programming
interruption durations of the production model is used to eliminate this
activity that minimizes the project cost. disadvantages. This model is simple, apply
to large network and minimize the cost and
Uros (2008) the optimization was duration of the project. For high rise
performed by the nonlinear programming building LINGO software is used.
approach. The nonlinear project cost
objective function is subjected to the Omar M. Elmabrouk (2011) in this
various system of the activity precedence CPM/PERT are two traditional research
relationship, activity duration constraints techniques are used. It is mainly provides a
and the project duration constraints. framework for crashing total project time
Theactivity precedence relationship by using linear programming techniques.
constraints was defined to comprise the
B.R.Kharde (2012) crashing technique is
project duration. Finish –start, start-start,
used to find optimum project duration to
start-finish, finish – finish precedence
minimum project cost. In crashing the
relationship between activity. The project
direct cost increase while indirect cost
duration constraints define the maximum
decrease. So it is beneficial to decrease the
various project duration..
project duration and project cost.
Li, Heng and Chan (2009) describes the
Omar M. Elmabrouk (2012) some
use of prototyping to optimize construction
concepts of linear programming and
planning scheduling by analyse resource
critical path method were reviewed to
allocation and planning with construction
describe recent modelling structures that
model, resource model.
have been of great value in analyzing
M.Kong (2009) the process of generating extended planning horizon project time-
optimized schedules for construction cost crash problem. A simplified
projects is a time-consuming. This ues to a representation of a project and a linear
All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARTET
ISSN 2394-3777 (Print)
ISSN 2394-3785 (Online)
Available online at
International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJARTET)
Vol. 3, Special Issue 2, March 2016

programming model was formed to Where, X=< x1, x2, x3....xn>T is a vector of
represent this system. Procedures to solve variables, A[aij], where i€Nm and j€Nn is a
these numerous problem formulation were constraint matrix, and b= <b1,b2,b3,>T
cited and the final solution was obtained is a right hand side vector.
by using LINDO program. It could be used
by construction managers in a planning
stage to various possible opportunities to
Analysis :
the contractor. This method is simple
applicable to a large network, The linear programming model will not
computational time at low cost. only take into account the activities on the
critical path. The LINDO solution report
and output solution. It indicates that the
Research methodology
project project can be completed with
Literature survey
shorter duration. The linear programming
analysis carried out to determine the
optimal solution in extra resource. It is
Estimate work quantity and cost of each important for a project management to
activity recognize the flexibility of the system that
can be used to numerous possible
opportunities. This approach allowsthe
user to easily manipulate different project
Develop the activities in sequential ordeof
networks of various difficulty representing
their execution
real world application and to study the
effectiveness of the model. The proposed
model is implemented and tested for linear
Develop and analyze critical path network programming.
Conclusion :
Formulate linear programming The algorithm is developed for the
minimizing project duration and cost. It is
simple to applicable and give numerous
Develop the constraints equations for each possible solutions. LINDO software are
activity user friendly and comprehensive set of
Reference :
Solve the linear programming
[1] A H AI-Momani, 'A Linear
Programming Algorithm for Least
Cost Scheduling' IE(I) Journal -
Analyse and compare result CV, Vol 81, August 2000.
[2] Ahmed B Senouci, Khaled K Naji '
Linear programming model :
A Computeried System for
Minimize : Z=CX Scheduling and Cost Optimization
of Nonserial Linear Projects'
Subjected to: AX < b, X > 0 International Journal of Surveying

All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARTET
ISSN 2394-3777 (Print)
ISSN 2394-3785 (Online)
Available online at
International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJARTET)
Vol. 3, Special Issue 2, March 2016

and Built Environment, Vol Science and Technology

17[2],49-62 December 2006. (IJARBEST), Volume 1,Issue
[3] A. M. El-Kholy, 'A Multi- 4,July 2015, pp:10-14
Objective Fuzzy Linear [10] Issam M. Srour, Carl T.
Programming Model for Cash Haas and David P. Morton 'Linear
Flow Management' International Programming Approach to
Journal of Engineering Research Optimize Strategic Investment in
andApplications, Vol 4, Issue 8, the Construction Workforce'
August 2014, pp.152-163. JournalofConstruction Engineering
[4] Anuja Rajguru1, Parag Mahatme and Management, Vol. 132, No.
'EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUES IN 11, November 1, 2006.
COST OPTIMIZATION OF [11] Juan Alemany, Diego
CONSTRUCTION PROJECT' Moitre, Herminio Pinto, Fernando
International Journal of Research in Magnago 'Short-Term Scheduling
Engineering and Technology, Vol of Combined Cycle Units
04: Issue 03, Mar-2015. UsingMixed Integer Linear
[5] Bhushan V Tatar, Rahul S Patil Programming Solution' Energy and
'Optimization Tools for Time Cost Power Engineering, 2013, 5, 161-
Trade off Applicable in 170.
Construction Project Management' [12] Li, Heng and Chan, Neo
International Journal of Science, and Guo, H.L. and Lu, Weisheng
Technology & Management, Vol 4, and Skitmore, Martin(2009)
Issue 1, March 2015. 'Optimizing Construction Planning
[6] B.R.Kharde, G.J.Vikhe patil 'An Schedules by Virtual Prototyping
Efficient Algorithm for Crashing' Enabled Resource Analysis,
International Journal of Scientific Automation in construction, 18(7).
& Technology Research, Vol 1, pp.912-918.
Issue 4, May 2012. [13] Li Hui, Zhang Jingxiao
[7] Devikamalam. J, Jane Helena, H ' 'Scheduling Optimization of
Resource Scheduling of Construction Engineering based on
Construction Projects Using Ant Colony Optimized Hybrid
Genetic Algorithm' International Genetic Algorithm' Journal of
Journal of Advanced Engineering Networks, Vol. 8,No. 6, June 2013.
Technology, Vol IV Issue III [14] M.Kong, U.Beibert
Article29, Sep 2013. 'Construction Scheduling
[8] Hanssmann , F. and Hess,S.W 'A Optimization by Simulated
Linear Programming approach to Annealing'2009.
Production and Employment [15] Miriqbal Faheem, Syed
Scheduling' Vol. 1, No. 1 (Jan., Saleem Basha & Kalam
1960), pp. 46-51. M.A,'Least-Cost Scheduling of
[9] Christo Ananth, P.Muppidathi, Construction Projects'.
S.Muthuselvi, P.Mathumitha, International Journal of Earth
M.Mohaideen Fathima, Sciences and Engineering, Vol.03,
M.Muthulakshmi, “Creating No.05, Oct 2010, pp.753-761.
Obstacles to Screened networks”, [16] Michael Benisch, Amy
International Journal of Advanced Greenwald, Victor Naroditskiy,
Research in Biology, Ecology, and Michael Tschantz 'A

All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARTET
ISSN 2394-3777 (Print)
ISSN 2394-3785 (Online)
Available online at
International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJARTET)
Vol. 3, Special Issue 2, March 2016

Stochastic Programming Approach Scheduling'Organizacijia, Vol 41,

to Schedulingin TAC SCM' 04, No 4, July 2008.
May 17–20, 2004. [25] W C Issac, 'Cost
[17] Omar M. Elmabrouk ' A Effectiveness through Construction
Linear Programming Technique for Management in Housing
the Optimization of the Activities construction', Vol 75, Feb 1995.
in Maintenance Projects'
International Journal of
Engineering & Technology, Feb
[18] Omar M. Elmabrouk
'Scheduling Project Crashing Time
using Linear Programming
Technique' International
Conference on Industrial
Engineering and Operations
Management, July 2012.
[19] Raida Abuizam, Lin Zhao
'Project management using Excel
spreadsheets' Journal of Business
Cases and Applications.
[20] Samel L Baker 'Critical
Path Method (CPM)' July 2010.
[21] Sanjay Bhoyar, Dhananjay
K.Parbat 'Multi-Objective model
for Time-Cost Trade-off in
Repetitive Construction Projects'
International Journal of Civil,
Structural, Environmental &
Infrastructure, Vol 4, Issue 4, Aug
2014, 13-24.
[22] Taeyoon Yu, Dong Sik Kim
and Sung-Yong Son 'Optimization
of Scheduling for Home
Appliances in Conjunction with
Renewable and Energy Storage
Resources' International Journal of
Smart Home Vol. 7, No. 4, July,
[23] Tarek Hegay, Tolga
Ersahin, 'Simplified Spreadsheet
Solution' Journal of Construction
Engineering and Management,
Vol.127, No.6, Nov 2001.
[24] Uros Klanesek, Mlrko
Psunder ' Cost Optimal Project

All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARTET