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Advancing Performance Excellence

www.asq.org JULY 2007

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SOLUTIONS
Contents JULY 2007 I VOLUME 40 NUMBER 7

F E AT U R E S
INNOVATION

18 The Innovation Process and Quality Tools


Innovation is the driving force behind creating a competitive advantage.
Consider the seven new quality tools to steer your firm in the right direction.
JUSTIN LEVESQUE, master’s in manufacturing systems and MBA programs student,
University of Southern Maine

H. FRED WALKER, professor, department chair and graduate coordinator in


department of technology, University of Southern Maine

23 Nanotechnology: A Big Little Frontier for Quality


The surge of nanotechnology applications will open more doors for members of
the quality community to contribute to this growing discipline.
HARRIET BLACK NEMBHARD, associate professor of industrial and manufacturing engineering,
Pennsylvania State University

QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT

30 QFD’s Evolution in Japan and the West


Quality practitioners in Japan and the West have taken OFD in different directions—
but have always kept an eye on innovation and product quality improvements.
JUI-CHIN JIANG, associate professor, department of industrial engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian
University (CYCU), Taiwan

C H E C K O U T MING-LI SHIU, doctoral candidate and lecturer, department of industrial engineering, CYCU
The ASQ website! MAO-HSIUNG TU, president, D&N Business Consulting Co., Hsin-Chu City, Taiwan
VISIT

www.asq.org OPINION
• Web Watch.
• Author guidelines. 39 Conformity or Sustainability? That Is the Question
• Searchable database of ASQ A paradigm shift might be underway with the ISO 9004 draft, which envisions
abstracts. integrated, aligned and process based management systems.
• Index of back issues. DAVID K. WATKINS, executive vice president and director of international operations, Omnex Inc.,
Ann Arbor, MI
For ASQ members only:
• Salary surveys from 1995 to 2005.
• Complete feature articles since 1995. SIX SIGMA

• QP Discussion Board.
45 Six Sigma, Value and Competitive Strategy
To stay ahead of competitors and create value, a company should listen to
its customers and use Six Sigma to achieve its competitive strategy.
R. ERIC REIDENBACH and REGINALD W. GOEKE, principals and founding partners of Market Value
Solutions, State College, PA

MALCOLM BALDRIGE NATIONAL QUALITY AWARD

50 From One-Man Show to Baldrige Recipient


An ISO 9001 based quality management system using lean and Six Sigma
propelled this cathodic protection services provider to elite quality status.
SUSAN E. DANIELS, editor at large
D E PA R T M E N T S QualityProgress
6 Up Front
TABLE OF CONTACTS
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8 Mr. Pareto Head E-mail


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12 Keeping Current 66 Standards Outlook


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asq.org).

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Challenges of instrument
56 Quality in the First innovations. Free QP Live
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Continual innovation and
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e-mail ahaley@asq.org.
Next Month:
64 Statistics Roundtable Photocopies, Reprints
And Microform
Likert scales and data analyses. Quality in Today’s Article photocopies are available from ASQ at
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a personal ethic, the American Society for Quality becomes the community for everyone opportunities related to quality. In addition, ASQ
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4 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


UPFRONT
QualityProgress
Forward Thinking Publisher
WILLIAM A. TONY

A s quality professionals, you’re trained to place intense emphasis on


the voice of the customer, and certainly, there is great value in
being highly attuned to customers’ needs and wants. But there are certain
Editor
SEICHE SANDERS

Associate Editor
MARK EDMUND
things customers can’t tell you. The theme of this month’s issue is about an-
Assistant Editor
ticipating and catering to customer needs—before they even know what DAVE NELSEN
they want. It’s called innovation. Manuscript Coordinator
W. Edwards Deming believed in the power and VALERIE FUNK

necessity of innovation, and knew it didn’t originate Editor at Large


SUSAN E. DANIELS
with the customer: “Innovation comes from the pro-
Contributing Editor
ducer—not from the customer,” he said. NICOLE ADRIAN
The ability to extend beyond the tried-and-true is Copy Editors
essential in our rapidly changing world. Innovation SUSAN GRONEMUS
KELLY SULLIVAN
is the driving force behind the companies that will
survive today and thrive tomorrow. Staying one step Art Director
MARY UTTECH
ahead of your customer has never been more impor-
Graphic Designer
tant. The need to innovate is and will continue to be SANDY WYSS
a constant. Needless to say, many organizations find themselves to be inno- Production
vation challenged. CATHY SCHNACKENBERG

Futurist Jim Carroll, who spoke at ASQ’s World Conference on Quality Advertising Production
BARBARA MITROVIC
and Improvement this spring, says there are 10 signs that you’ve got inno-
Digital Production Specialists
vation dysfunction within your organization: ERIC BERNA, LAURA FRANCESCHI
• People laugh at new ideas.
• Someone who identifies a problem is shunned. Account Executives
ANGELA M. MITCHELL
• Innovation is the privileged practice of a special group. MITCHELL PEZANOSKI
• The phrase, “You can’t do that because we’ve always done it this way”
Classified/Recruitment Advertising
follows every new idea. RAMONA GARCIA

• No one can remember the last time anyone did anything really cool. Marketing Administrator
• People think innovation is about R&D. MATT MEINHOLZ

• People have convinced themselves that competing on price is normal. Editorial and Advertising Offices
414-272-8575 fax 414-272-1734
• The organization is focused more on process than success.
• There are lots of baby boomers about, and few people younger than 25. ASQ ADMINISTRATION
Executive Director
• After any type of surprise—product, market, industry or organizational PAUL E. BORAWSKI

change—everyone sits back and asks, “Wow, where did that come from?” Managing Directors
CHRISTOPHER D. BAUMAN
Look around you. Look at your company. If you read any one of the
BRIAN J. LEHOUILLIER
points above, and thought, “Boy, can I relate,” you must—really, for the sake MICHELLE MASON

of survival—ask yourself, “What are you going to do about it?” To promote discussion of issues in the field of quality and ensure
coverage of all responsible points of view, Quality Progress pub-
lishes articles representing conflicting and minority views.
Opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily
of ASQ or Quality Progress. Use of the ASQ logo in advertisements
does not necessarily constitute endorsement of that particular
product or service by ASQ.

Seiche Sanders
Editor

6 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


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QP
MAILBAG
Sarbanes Oxley—Don’t mentation at Turner Broadcasting, disagree that the flow process chart is
Involve ISO Standards said SOX would not reduce the likeli- no longer a critical tool.
hood of CNN executives stealing from A lot of confusion comes from
am concerned about quality profes-
I sionals capitalizing on the flawed
solution that is the Sarbanes-Oxley
the company. In fact, what executive
would not be willing to sign off on a
changing terminology, specialization
of improvement team concepts and
SOX audit, which essentially says lack of clarity on what process charts,
(SOX) law. Two May 2007 articles— everything is fine? SOX actually pro- process maps, flow process charts and
“ASQ Team Offers SOX Comments” vides cover for an executive who procedure charts can include and be
(p. 19) and “Financial Control and wants to steal from shareholders. used for. Some distinctions are
Quality” (William Stimson and Tom I have worked with clients whose whether the process crosses work cen-
Dlugopolski, p. 26)—promote ISO annual audit costs have more than dou- ters (procedure chart), focuses on
9000 and ISO 14000 as systems to sup- bled because of SOX. The law itself internal movement through process
port SOX audits. states that SOX “should not result in an activities (flow process), is looking at
While I agree that quality has a role additional audit,” but that is what has macro or microprocess steps, or is
in helping organizations comply with often happened. based largely on the suppliers, inputs,
SOX, quality professionals must be Quality professionals shouldn’t fur- processing, outputs, customers model.
careful to avoid further increasing the ther increase companies’ costs by Times, input, output, operators and
already exorbitant costs that companies expanding their use of ISO 9000 and results can be incorporated into any of
have incurred from SOX compliance. ISO 14000 into the SOX realm. Sens. the charts. In an in-depth Six Sigma
The fundamental problem with Mel Martinez and Jim DeMint are co- study, I would think multiple charts
SOX is that it will not solve what it sponsoring a revision to SOX that would be used, based on the scope of
was intended to. SOX was Congress’ would reduce its impact on small busi- the outcome expected, yet not every
response to the fraud and shareholder nesses and the frequency with which chart will be presented in an out brief.
losses of Enron, WorldCom and Tyco. companies must affirm compliance. If Also, a lot of charting is dictated by
President Bush introduced the law by quality professionals want to be who is going to use the chart. A
saying SOX would “deter and punish involved with SOX, supporting this process owner or operator might use
corporate and account fraud and cor- revision would be a great place to start. the simplest flowchart to manage the
ruption, ensure justice for wrongdo- process within his or her span of con-
F RED P ATTON
ers, and protect the interests of Patton Performance Solutions trol. A manager might use process or
workers and shareholders.” Lake Mary, FL procedure charts based on his or her
Quality professionals often say you pattonfred@aol.com control span and the type and extent of
cannot “inspect in quality”; quality must the process. A process improvement
be built into the process. Similarly, you team might use any of the charting
cannot “audit in honesty.” Further audits Flow Process Chart tools to improve the process based on
will never prevent smart executives from Remains Useful the team’s purpose or goal.
stealing from their shareholders if they While Six Sigma process mapping
really want to. agree with Tom Kubiak that short- (using Y=f(x)) might be the most math-
At the ASQ Southeastern Quality
Conference in 2004, Michelle Samuels,
I cuts during a Six Sigma project can
damage the final result (“Reviving the
ematical way to chart the process, the
same information can be obtained and
who is responsible for SOX imple- Process Map,” May 2007, p. 59), but I integrated into the process analysis by

Mr. Pareto Head by Mike Crossen

8 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


other means, keeping the charts simple ativity and obsessive compulsive ten-
and clean so the uninitiated will easily dencies. At worst, they’ll have to shell
and quickly understand the method. out for a good psychologist when the
D OROTHY M. W INCHELL
child rebels against their ridiculous CHAIR OF THE BOARD
Ronald D. Atkinson, General Motors
Organizational performance consultant demands for conformity.
Boston I hope when they are elderly, this PRESIDENT

totomo@comcast.net child gives them their own strict Michael D. Nichols, Nichols Quality Associates

guidelines to adhere to and a require- PRESIDENT-ELECT


ment that their PQRs (parent quality Roberto M. Saco, Aporia Advisors
Process Map, Flowchart: ratings) not fall below an acceptable TREASURER
Same Thing? limit. “Sorry, mom, but your PQR of E. David Spong, Boeing (retired)
less than 99% requires that I put you
PARLIAMENTARIAN
oint of terminology: “Reviving into a nursing home until you can
P the Process Map” distinguishes
between “process map” and “flow-
demonstrate capability.”
James J. Rooney Jr., ABS Consulting

DIRECTORS
M IKE M ASON Jochen Amelsberg, Juran Institute
chart,” but I believe they are syn- Grayline Inc. Belinda Chavez, United Space Alliance
onyms. Both are generic terms for Waukesha, WI Brenda M. Fisk, Software Quality Solutions
various ways to diagram a process. mikem@graylineinc.com Richard A. Gould, RG Management Solutions
According to one website, process Kamla P. Gupta, Continuous Improvement Technology
mapping “is also known as process Stephen K. Hacker, Transformation Systems International
Gary L. Johnson, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
charting or flow charting” and “the Author’s Response
Kay A. Kendall, Sun Microsystems
original system [was] invented by Thank you for sharing your view- William H. LaFollette, Humana Inc.
Frank Gilbreth in the early 1900s” point. I didn’t mention it in the col- Lou Ann Lathrop, General Motors
(www.strategosinc.com/process_ umn, but my approach is based on David B. Levy, Levy Quality Consulting
map_example.htm). While that site is research and principles of behavior Richard A. Litts, Litts Quality Technologies
not necessarily a definitive authority, I management for children. Richard F. McKeever, D2 Quality Associates

agree with the statement. I think Aimee H. Siegler, Benchmark Electronics


Age appropriate 5S can be intro-
Donald C. Singer, GlaxoSmithKline
someone coined the term process map duced gradually at home as a family
Steven E. Wilson, U.S. Department of Commerce
20 or 30 years ago because it sounded activity. The 5S game shows consis- Seafood Inspection Program
fresher than flowchart. tent, positive examples of adult
QP EDITORIAL REVIEW BOARD
I’m not criticizing the article, which behavior from which children can
Randy Brull, chair
recommends a particular kind of learn by watching and doing activities
Administrative Committee
process map—one that gets more fac- with their parents. 5S for families is Roger Berger, Brady Boggs, Randy Brull, Jane
tors and more detail onto the page. intended to be a form of play and a Camp-anizzi, Larry Haugh, Jim Jaquess, Gary MacLean,
Because it is well suited for Six Sigma program with a goal, structure and a Christine Robinson, Richard Stump
studies, maybe it should be called a schedule that teaches by repetition Reviewers
Six Sigma process map. and helps improve behavior. I. Elaine Allen, Andy Barnett, David Bonyuet, John
Brown, Bernie Carpenter, Ken Cogan, Linda Cubalchini-
R ICHARD J. S CHONBERGER
I am happy to say all other feed-
Travis, Ahmad Elshennawy, Tim Folkerts, Eric Furness,
Schonberger & Associates back I received was complimentary.
Mark Gavoor, Kunita Gear, Lynne Hare, Ron Kenett, Ray
Bellevue, WA D AVORKA F ILIPUSIC Klotz, Tom Kubiak, William LaFollette, Shin Ta Liu,
sainc17@qwest.net Pradip Mehta, Gene Placzkowski, Paul Plsek, Tony
Polito, Peter Pylipow, Philip Ramsey, R. Dan Reid,
Wayne Reynolds, John Richards, James Rooney, Anil

Correction Sengupta, Sunil Thawani, Joe Tunner, John Vaks, Manu


5S Might Not Be
Vora, Jack Westfall, James Zurn
Good for Children
The statistics article in “10 Quality
hen I saw “5S for Families,” Basics” (June 2007, pp. 28-29) con-
W (Davorka Filipusic, May
2007, p. 66), I was sure it was a paro-
tained an incorrect formula. The cor-
rect formula,
dy. However, after reading it, I see the
author actually didn’t intend it to be Y = f(x) + ε,
humorous.
I can’t imagine what’s next for that is used to make decisions on the basis
poor 4-year-old—maybe monthly CQR of data and distinguish between the
(child quality rating) reports, with rat- two components. Y is what you get,
ings for areas such as academics, athlet- f(x) is the total effect of all controls
ics, attractiveness and cost of exerted on the process (intentionally
childhood. At best, the parents might or unintentionally), and ε is random
end up with a child who has little cre- variation.

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 9


KEEPING
CURRENT
AUTOMOTIVE

Auto Quality and Auto Sales:


Quality Pros Speak Out
Toyota Motor Corp. surpassed General Motors (GM) in The well-known information firm came out with its 2007
sales during the first quarter of 2007, unseating the stalwart Initial Quality Study in June, and results were mixed. Toyota
that has held the title for 70 years and becoming the first took the top spots in four categories: midsize multi-activity
automaker outside the United States to hold the title. During vehicle (Toyota 4Runner), large multi-activity vehicle (Toyota
the three-month period, Toyota sold 2.35 million vehicles; GM Sequoia), midsize premium multi-activity vehicle (Lexus RX)
sold 2.26 million. and midsize pickup (Toyota Tacoma). GM also took three
While the end-of-year numbers will be the true measure of top spots: large vehicle (Pontiac Grand Prix), large pickup
which company is on top, Toyota’s achievement might repre- (Chevrolet Silverado Classic HD) and van (Chevrolet Express).
sent a changing tide. Overall, Japanese automakers
Some ASQ members say they took seven of the 19 top spots, U.S.
weren’t surprised by the numbers. automakers also took seven,
“I was in senior management at GM European automakers took four,
in Canada during the first days of the and South Korea’s Kia took one.
Japanese entry into the North American J.D. Power also recognizes
market,” says Maurice Lake, a member assembly plants that produced the
of ASQ’s Automotive Division. “The fewest defects, and Japanese com-
director of quality always said, ‘Look panies dominated in 2007. Ford
over your shoulders, managers, the Motor Co.’s Wixom assembly plant
Japanese are coming.’” in Michigan received the Platinum
That’s not to say Toyota is making award, averaging 35 defects per 100
better vehicles, Lake says. units, but of the 10 awards given
“GM has a tremendous lineup of out, U.S. automakers took only two.
vehicles and their quality has improved Japanese automakers took five and
immensely. Their fuel economy has European companies took three.
also improved. However, they have a Also, 21 of the 38 auto dealers
long way to go to get the message to that J.D. Power deemed “Dealers
the consumer.” of Excellence” in 2007 sell Japanese
Lake, who has consulted in ISO 9000 vehicles. Nine sell European vehi-
and TS 16949, says such standards cles, six sell U.S. vehicles, and two
have “made a huge difference in the sell South Korean vehicles.
quality of GM’s products.” But, he Overall quality ratings for 2007,
adds that while the quality of GM’s products is better than available at www.jdpower.com/autos/quality-ratings, are all
ever, the company’s service lags behind that of Toyota’s. over the board, with no one country a clear leader.
“I think the quality efforts have to be extended to every
part of the organization to truly make a difference in the long Level Field
term. If GM is to turn it around, they must provide an excel- GM sees this mix of numbers as a leveling of the quality
lent quality product that is fuel efficient and environmentally playing field.
friendly and [they must provide quality] service.” “Toyota is making excellent products, but so is GM,” says
Diane Kulisek, an independent quality consultant and ASQ Tom Wilkinson, director of news relations at GM. “There’s
senior member, disagrees. She says Toyota is selling more cars going to be a parity” in quality among U.S. and Japanese
because it is building higher quality cars. manufacturers, he says.
“I doubt the United States will ever catch up with Japan in Wilkinson says other manufacturers are taking lessons
automotive quality,” Kulisek says. from Toyota’s playbook, citing GM’s global manufacturing
According to J.D. Power and Associates, they’re both right. system, a newer method in which GM uses identical parts in

12 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


Q
many automobiles. This, he says, allows more efficient assembly,
much like what Toyota has been doing for years. W h o ’s Who in
While GM says its quality is increasing, Toyota admits that its
rise to the top is affecting quality negatively. According to the
Wall Street Journal, Toyota President Katsuaki Watanabe admitted
last year that to meet demand, the company might have skipped
Name: Afaq Fayzee Ahmed
some quality checks.
Residence: Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; per-
Toyota says it is slowing production to try to correct that.
manent resident of the United States
So, with quality equal—or at least headed in that direction—
Education: Master’s degree in mechanical
what will determine which company sells the most cars for the
engineering, University of Southern
rest of 2007 and beyond? One factor to consider is which compa-
California, Los Angeles
ny can make the most cars.
First job in quality:
According to the Harbour Report, published annually by
Corporate quality engi-
Harbour Consulting in Troy, MI, Toyota can still produce a car
neer at General Auto-
in less time than GM, although GM is catching up. The report,
motive, helping auto
which examines labor productivity of six manufacturers, found
parts suppliers enhance
that it took Toyota 29.93 labor hours to build components and
quality systems
assemble each vehicle in 2006. It took GM 32.36 hours from start
Current job:
to finish.
Engineering specialist for
That’s an improvement of better than 2% over 2005 for GM.
Saudi Aramco; develops, maintains and
Toyota’s time was 1.8% longer than in 2005. This is mainly due to
improves systems and procedures to
a large number of new models launched at Toyota’s plants,
enhance supplier quality and conducts facil-
including the new Camry and Tundra pickup truck, says Ron
ity surveys of potential critical equipment
Harbour, author of the report.
suppliers. He also participates as a mentor
That narrowing gap reflects a trend. For 2006, the difference
in a program to develop young engineers.
between the fastest production (Toyota) and the slowest (Ford)
ASQ activities: Senior member; regional
was only 5.17 hours. It was 7.33 hours in 2005, and 9.1 hours in
councilor, Healthcare Division; certified
2004. In 1998, it was 16.6.
quality manager, engineer and auditor
GM is also closing the gap in assembly. After all the parts are
Other achievements: RABQSA certified
built, GM takes 22.15 hours to assemble a car, compared to
skill examiner and quality management sys-
Toyota’s 22.05 hours—that’s a difference of only six minutes.
tem lead auditor
GM is also making strides in supplier relations. A recent arti-
Personal: Married, one son, one daughter
cle in the Detroit News cites an annual survey in which parts sup-
Favorite ways to relax: Playing tennis,
pliers are asked to rank their overall relations with auto
exercising, reading, listening to music and
manufacturers on a scale of zero to 500. GM scored 174 for 2006,
traveling
up from 131 in 2005. Still, GM has along way to go to catch
Quality quote: Efforts must be made at the
Toyota, which took the top spot with an average score of 415.
corporate and national levels to overcome
The article goes on to quote analysts who say this gives Toyota
barriers in cultivating a quality culture in
an advantage, as suppliers tend to offer their best technology,
developing nations. There should be ongo-
highest quality parts and lower prices to their best customers.
ing seminars, conferences, training courses
The price breaks allow Toyota and Honda to invest more money
and workshops to increase quality aware-
in R&D.
ness. Graduate level courses should be
offered in quality management and reliabil-
What to Focus On
ity. Top management should lead by pro-
GM has closed in on Toyota in a number of areas, but what
moting quality awareness and employee
has to happen for the U.S. automaker to take back the lead in
empowerment, and implementing recogni-
sales?
tion systems.
John Poris, a consultant and ASQ member, says, “Toyota is a
learning organization, while the Big Three are not. Toyota is
much leaner as well. It is a cultural thing more than anything. ➤

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 13


KEEPING
CURRENT

For the Big Three to catch up, the culture has to change signif- AWARDS
icantly.”
Whatever automaker you’re behind, quality will no doubt Juran Center Names 2007
contribute to its future success.
Poris says, “Quality professionals should be constantly
Fellows, Award Winners
pushing quality issues upstream, being as noisy as possible The Joseph M. Juran Center for Leadership in Quality at
about it. This includes pushing sales and marketing to nail the University of Minnesota’s Carlson School of Management
down customer requirements, pushing engineering to be recently named its 2007 Juran fellows. Six Juran fellows were
more involved up front in development of specifications, selected from 20 applicants and receive $10,000 to expand
and ensuring advanced product quality planning is actually their quality research and its applications after graduation.
used and reviewed by decision makers throughout the The fellows and their proposed research projects are:
design process.” • Wenny Chandra, Pennsylvania State University,
Wilkinson’s advice? “Think globally. Think like a customer.” “Improving Public Health System: Disease Surveillance
He says the key to taking back the lead in global sales will for Pandemic Preparedness and Response Planning.”
depend on GM’s ability to fit in to an expanding global market. • Aravind Chandrasekaran, University of Minnesota,
Japan, the United States and Western Europe, are “mature “Balancing Between Innovation and Improvement
markets,” Wilkinson says. GM leads in the United States, Projects in High Velocity Environments.”
Toyota leads in Japan, and it’s unlikely any of that will change. • Carla L. Fisher, Pennsylvania State University,
However, he points to China, India and Latin America as open “Competent Mother-Adult Daughter Communication:
markets. It’s up to the automakers to appeal to car buyers in Behavior Essential to the Quality of Life when Coping
those countries. With Breast Cancer Across the Life Span.”
“It’s a wide open market,” Wilkinson says. “The next few • Betty Harper, Pennsylvania State University, “An
years will be very interesting.” Investigation of the Role of Continuous Improvement in

It’s the question you’re always


dying to ask your colleagues:

“How much
do you make?”

We can help you avoid the awkward silence that most likely follows such a daring question—simply read
the 2007 Quality Progress Salary Survey. But first, we need your help.
Please spend 10 minutes taking our salary survey at www.asq.org/mr/qp-salary-survey-07.html.
Your participation will help ensure the best, most accurate results. Last year, we received a record number
of responses. This year, we’d like to break that record.
Results of the survey will appear in the December issue of Quality Progress. Expanded results will be posted
at www.asq.org/pub/qualityprogress.

14 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


Promoting Student Learning.” • Bonnie Paris, University of Wisconsin.
• Ying Hong, Rutgers University, “One Size Does Not • Shrihari Sridhar, University of Missouri.
Fit All: Linking Customer Service Strategy With • Hua-Hung Weng, Clemson University.
Human Resource Management.”
• Leidy Klotz, Pennsylvania State University, “The
Relationships Between Transparency, Process
Mapping and Sustainable Building Delivery.”
The Juran Center also announced its doctoral award win-
ners. The doctoral awards are given to encourage doctoral
short
runs
THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY ACTION GROUP
students to consider quality principles early in their careers. (AIAG) and the Automatic Identification Manufacturer
Applicants submit essays based on their research interests Assn. of China (AIM of China) have agreed to cooperate
and how quality principles link to those topics. on automatic identification technologies. For more infor-
Winners receive a $2,500 cash award. The 12 award win- mation, go to www.aiag.org or www.aimchina.org.cn.
ners selected from 24 applicants are:
• Kate Alder, University of Wisconsin. THIS YEAR’S QUALITY COLLOQUIUM, a health-
care related event at Harvard University, will include a
• Shaunna Barnhart, Pennsylvania State University.
patient safety certificate program. This is the first time in
• BeiBei Dong, University of Missouri-Columbia.
the six-year history of the event that such a certification
• Richard Holden, University of Wisconsin.
has been offered. The Quality Colloquium is Aug. 19-22.
• Jain Kwan, University of Minnesota.
For more information, go to www.qualitycolloquium.com.
• Toni Liechty, Pennsylvania State University.
• Donald Lund, University of Missouri.
THE ACADEMIC QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PRO-
• Brent Moritz, University of Minnesota. GRAM (AQIP) is holding a workshop Sept. 13-14 in Lisle,
• Lela Olson, University of Minnesota. IL, called “Crafting Your Systems Portfolio.” The workshop

ASQ CERTIFICATION + Upper Iowa University MBA =


Access to the World of Opportunity
Combine your ASQ Certification with an accredited MBA in
Quality Management from Upper Iowa University and maximize
your opportunities for career advancement.
Whether you have a technical degree or one in business, the Upper Iowa
University MBA in Quality Management is designed to integrate contemporary
quality management concepts with the knowledge needed to manage people
and resources. Graduates of this program are expected to be able to assume
leadership roles advancing quality in their organizations.
• Online courses that fit your schedule.
• No residency requirement
• Start in any of 6 terms each year
• Highly qualified and supportive faculty
Contact us now for more information:
www.uiuonline.info | online@uiu.edu | 1-800-603-3756

Contact American Society for Quality: http://www.asq.org.


or telephone: 1-800-248-1946 for certification information.
Upper Iowa University is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and is a member of the
North Central Association. The MBA Program and business degrees offered are further accredited
by the International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education.
Accredited, Accessible, Affordable

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 15


KEEPING
CURRENT

will focus on the requirements and uses of AQIP’s sys- helps consumers make better healthcare decisions. For more
tems portfolio and systems appraisal process, which use information, go to www.nbch.org.
quality tools to describe and assess education systems.
Enrollment is limited to 50 people, and registrations will EFFECTIVE OUTSOURCING is based on partner-
be accepted until the workshop is full, or until Aug. 17, ship rather than procurement, according to
whichever comes first. For more information, go to PricewaterhouseCoopers’ new 2007 global outsourcing
www.aqip.org. survey. For more on the survey results, go to
www.pwc.com/extweb/ncpressrelease.nsf/docid/
THE NATIONAL BUSINESS COALITION ON FAB8BEF609FA5F48852572E30053BF92 (case sensitive).
HEALTH, the Leapfrog Group and Bridges to Excellence
recently presented their Driving Value in Health Care APICS, THE ASSOCIATION FOR OPERATIONS
Awards. Michigan based insurer Priority Health won an MANAGEMENT says it will address supply chain sus-
award for offering financial rewards to healthcare providers tainability and “going green” at the 2007 APICS
for high quality and cost effective care through its physician International Conference and Exposition, which will be
incentive program. The University of Michigan won an Oct. 21-23 in Denver. For more information or to register
award for its “focus on diabetes” initiative, a program that for the event, go to www.apicsconference.org.

Web Watch
AUTOMOTIVE Education Foundation created this site to inspire teens
www.sae.org and preteens to pursue careers in engineering and
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has manufacturing. It shows how engineers design and
more than 90,000 members. On SAE’s website, mem- produce things such as snacks, clothing, cars, cosmet-
bers and nonmembers can view the bookstore, job ics and cell phones. It also features video clips of teens
board, papers and related links, plus information on and preteens creating radio controlled airplanes and
magazines, conferences and exhibitions, seminars, building computers at SME’s Science, Technology and
training, collegiate chapters and volunteering opportu- Engineering Preview summer programs.
nities. Other features include free online specialized
newsletters and a search tool. SAE members can QUALITY RESOURCES
access discussion forums and a news briefing service. www.fmeainfocentre.com
The FMEA Info Centre claims to have “everything
INTERNATIONAL you want to know about failure mode and effect analy-
www.euskalit.net/new/indexenglish.php sis.” Features of the site include book lists, papers,
The Basque Foundation for Quality, known as presentations, news alerts, downloadable software,
EUSKALIT, is a not-for-profit organization that promotes implementation guides and information on standards.
total quality management in the region of Spain known
as Basque Country. Its website has free articles and More websites. Links to and descriptions of these sites
information on EUSKALIT, its 5S club, European Quality and past Web Watch sites can be found in the cumula-
Week and the Basque Quality Award. While this is the tive Web Watch listing online. Click on the
address of the English homepage, some of the links Quality Progress link at www.asq.org.
send users to pages in Spanish.
Found an interesting quality site? If you
MANUFACTURING come across a noncommercial site that
www.manufacturingiscool.com could be useful to other quality profession-
The Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) als, e-mail it to dnelsen@asq.org.

16 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


ASQ News
IDEAS TO ACTION FALL GATHERING COMING UP The Ideas
to Action fall gathering is scheduled for Sept. 23-25 in Milwaukee.
About 200 member leaders attended the Ideas to Action spring gather-
ing in April in Orlando, FL, to brainstorm how to strengthen ASQ’s vol-
unteer community. For more information about the spring gathering
and updates on the fall gathering, go to http://asqgroups.asq.org/itag.

DIVISION CONFERENCES MERGING The Energy and


Environmental and Design and Construction divisions are combining STANDARDS
efforts for the 34th National Energy and Environmental Conference,
Nov. 4-7 in Providence, RI. This year’s theme is preparing for the future, ISO 14065 Addresses
featuring the resurgence of commercial nuclear power and new trends in
environmental, safety, heath and quality. Attendees can earn continuing edu- Greenhouse Gas
cation and recertification units. For more information, go to www.asq.
org/ee.
Emissions
The International Organization for
E-MAIL ADDRESSES LOG MEMBERS IN Members can now Standardization (ISO) has launched
use their e-mail addresses as their log-in identifications on ASQ’s ISO 14065:2007, a new addition to its
member website. It will work for members who have provided their standards for addressing climate
e-mail addresses to ASQ. Passwords remain the same. E-mail help@ change and supporting emissions trad-
asq.org with questions regarding logging in. ing schemes.
In March 2006, ISO published its
AUDIT DIVISION OFFERING REFRESHER COURSE The Audit greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting
Division is presenting a certified quality auditor (CQA) exam refresher and verification standard, ISO 14064.
Oct. 9-10 in Atlanta. It coincides with the annual Audit Division confer- The complementary new standard,
ence, Oct. 11-12, and the certification exam, Oct. 14. The course costs ISO 14065:2007, Greenhouse Gases—
$595 and is worth 1.5 continuing education credits. Attendees will also Requirements for Greenhouse Gas
receive The ASQ Auditing Handbook, third edition. For more informa- Validation and Verification Bodies for
tion or to register, go to www.asq.org/courses/cqa-refresher.html. Use in Accreditation or Other Forms of
Recognition, details requirements for
ORGANIZATIONAL MEMBER HONORED FOR ETHICS Sun GHG validation or verification bodies
Microsystems, an ASQ organizational member, was named one of to use in accreditation or other forms
the “World’s Most Ethical Companies” by Ethisphere Magazine. The of recognition.
award is given to a company that demonstrates social responsibili- While ISO 14064 provides require-
ty. For more information about organizational membership, go to ments for organizations or persons to
www.asq.org/membership/organizations/overview.html. quantify and verify GHG emissions,
ISO 14065 specifies accreditation
QP OFFERING FULL ISSUE ONLINE Full issues of Quality requirements for organizations that
Progress are now available online as PDFs. Individual articles are validate or verify resulting GHG
available as PDFs going back to 1995, but since January, users can emission assertions or claims.
also download entire issues. Go to www.asq.org/pub/qualityprogress ISO 14065: is available from ISO at
for the current issue. www.iso.ch/iso/en/CatalogueDetail
Page.CatalogueDetail?CSNUMBER=
2008 QIHC SITE LIVE Planning is under way for next year’s Quality 40685&ICS1=13&ICS2=20&ICS3=40
Institute for Healthcare (QIHC), which will be May 5-7 in Houston. Like (case sensitive) or national member
the 2007 QIHC, it will coincide with the World Conference on Quality and institutes, including the American
Improvement. For more information, including how to submit propos- National Standards Institute at www.
als, go to http://qihc.asq.org. ansi.org. QP

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 17


INNOVATION

The Innovation
Process and
Quality Tools
by Justin Levesque and H. Fred Walker

a level of competitive advantage, while product or

A
s quality professionals, we work to
improve our organizations using special- service innovation is the actual source of competi-
ized knowledge, tools and techniques. tive advantage in a global market.
We call our work continuous improvement, which, Second, innovation consists of a series of steps,
historically, has primarily focused on reducing just like any other business or industrial process.
costs and waste while minimizing process variabil- Since innovation in and of itself is a process, specif-
ity to increase product or service quality. But are ic quality improvement tools can be used for its
cost reductions and quality improvements the improvement. Using quality improvement tools in
source of competitive advantage in a global mar- the innovation process will get higer quality prod-
ketplace? ucts to market faster and at a lower cost.
The intent of this article is to make two points.
First, cost control and product quality only sustain Why Should Firms Focus
On Innovation?
Manufacturing and service industries are contin-
In 50 Words uing the global trend of outsourcing, and this pres-
Or Less sures new vendors and suppliers to innovate if
they want to meet market demand. It is widely
known that manufacturing work continues to
• While cost control and product quality can sustain a
move to Asia. With global commerce, a new com-
competitive advantage, innovation creates it. pany with a great product can buy off-the-shelf
technology to become a first-rate manufacturer
• The innovation process can be compared to a manufac- quickly. Many Asian firms have done this. These
companies have become global competitors, with a
turing process, as both require a series of steps to
niche application in the use of automated manufac-
arrive at a final product. turing technology, on par with any U.S. or
European firm.
• The innovation process uses seven new quality tools. Education, when considered a service industry,
might also be experiencing a similar global shift—

18 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


although this trend could be overstated. Recent developing new value added products and ser-
articles in the popular press have stressed that vices. New products or services give the innovative
China is catching up to the United States in gradu- firm a competitive advantage over its rivals.
ating college students in engineering related disci- Quality and cost control programs then sustain this
plines. Duke University researchers have framed competitive advantage.
this debate in a study published in Issues in Science But how can we, as quality practitioners, con-
and Technology.1 tribute to the innovation process? One solution is to
Figure 1 shows some of their preliminary find- focus on conceptualizing and planning new prod-
ings. While the United States is the world leader in ucts and services. This occurs in the earlier stages of
awarding engineering related bachelor’s degrees the innovation process, before the cost and quality
per capita, China is gaining at an increasing rate. A improvements typical during engineering and
key question is whether this trend will continue. manufacturing.
As service based call centers and other high-tech
startups continue to flourish in India and China, Innovation: A Process
their need for well-educated technical employees That Can Be Mapped
will increase. The innovation process is an interrelated series
These examples of globalization should concern of steps needed to bring new product and service
quality professionals in the United States and ideas from conceptualization to market. The inno-
Europe, as many of us are employed in the manu- vation process can be compared to a manufactur-
facturing, service and high-tech sectors. And, as ing process: Both require a series of steps to
quality professionals, if we continue to compete assemble a final product. Mapping quality tools
primarily by reducing product cost and making to the earlier stages of the innovation process can
incremental process improvements,
the outsourcing trend will likely FIGURE 1 Engineering Bachelor’s Degrees Earned by Country1
continue and gain momentum.
Firms that make developing new 500
products and services a priority
450
enjoy a competitive advantage over
Degrees awarded per million citizens

firms that focus mainly on cutting 400


costs or improving product quality.
350
We illustrate this point in Figure 2
(p. 22), which outlines three innova- 300
tion strategies. In the cost conscious 250
firm, profit margins are low and
rival competition is fierce; these 200
firms are forced to cut costs to stay 150
competitive, and there is a minimal
100
focus on innovation.
A firm making product and ser- 50
vice quality a high priority, the
0
quality oriented firm, enjoys a com- 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04
petitive advantage—until rivals Year
introduce a new product or service. India China MoE CERN China MoE Yearbook United States
Quality of the obsolete product or
service then becomes a moot point. 1. Data provided by the Chinese Ministry of Education (MoE) Yearbook might include additional engineer-
The innovative firm is focused on ing and technology degrees outside traditional engineering fields; the China MoE Center for Education
and Research Network (CERN) gives a more conservative estimate. Reprinted with permission.

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 19


seem like an abstract exercise. If the innovation FIGURE 2 Three Firms, Three Approaches
process is compared to a manufacturing process, it
is easier to see where quality tools and techniques Cost Quality
Innovative
can contribute to delivering new products and ser- conscious oriented
firm
vices. firm firm
Innovations in the traditional research and devel- High Cost Quality Innovation
opment (R&D) laboratory commonly take years to
make it to market as commercially viable products
Level of
or services. When quality tools are mapped to the Quality Cost Quality
focus
innovation process there is potential to reduce inno-
vation cycle time—saving the firm time and money
while getting new products and services to market Low Innovation Innovation Cost
faster than competitors.
The innovation process has been mapped to
many different company strategies. Regardless of ing analyses are typically done first, while manu-
how many strategies exist, it is important to choose facturing is last. Interdepartmental meeting points,
one process to guide innovation. Without a specific or tollgate meetings, occur throughout the process
strategy in place, systematically using quality tools and are depicted as vertical lines. At tollgate meet-
in the innovation process would be difficult at best, ings, the progress of product or service develop-
and most likely ineffective. Figure 3 shows one of ment is reviewed. As the product or service
many strategies that can guide the innovation development cycle matures, tollgate meetings
process. Andrew Graves, of the University of Bath, become less frequent.
introduced this strategy.2
The innovation process in Figure 3 relies on mul- New vs. Old
tiple departments working simultaneously to As seen in Figure 3, we distinguish two quality
develop new products or services. The six horizon- toolsets: the old and the new. The quality community
tal bars represent each department’s major func- is well acquainted with the seven old tools: cause
tions. Each department becomes involved in the and effect diagrams, stratifications analyses, check-
innovation process at staggered intervals; market- sheets, histograms, scatter diagrams, Pareto analyses
and control charts. The old
tools have proven their worth
FIGURE 3 Cross Departmental Innovation Process when mapping existing
Time
processes to learn about per-
formance capability and char-
Marketing analysis
acterization. When used
Application alongside other traditional
areas of
the seven
Research and development statistical quality control tech-
new tools niques, such as process setup
and verification, acceptance
Product and process development
sampling and designed
experiments, the old tools are
Traditional
Product engineering an even more powerful way
focus areas to streamline production
of the quality
professional Parts manufacture and supplier relationships processes for improvement
emphasis on purposes.
seven old tools
and statistical
However, the set of seven
Manufacture
quality control. new tools has not widely
caught on in the quality
Interdepartmental meeting points Mature phase of innovation process
community because it is not

20 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


as compatible with process improve- TABLE 1 The Seven New Quality Tools
ment work—the tools are much more
useful in conceptualization and Degree of complexity New tool Useful area
ideation: a structured approach to think-
ing about solving problems. This concep- Low: 1 Affinity diagram Brainstorming, consensus
tual work commonly occurs in the 2 Relations diagram Cause and effect
beginning phases of the innovation cycle. 3 Tree diagram Logic based problem solving
Because most quality practitioners typi- 4 Process decision program chart Identifying best solution
cally work in the later phases of the inno- 5 Arrow diagram Resource planning
vation cycle, where efforts are centered 6 Matrix diagram Determining interrelated factors
on improving manufacturing processes
High: 7 Matrix data analysis Quantitative analysis
for the sake of cutting cost and improv-
ing quality, it is easy to see why the seven
new tools have not enjoyed such wide-
spread popularity as the seven old tools.
ASQ has recognized the value of the seven new 3. Tree diagram. This logic based tool, which can
quality tools by including them in the higher level also be called a systematic diagram, is more focused
bodies of knowledge for several certifications, than the affinity or relations diagrams. It starts with
namely manager of quality/organizational excel- a broad category, theme or problem and attempts to
lence.3 Knowledge of the new tools as a requirement break the issue down into granular levels of detail
for such a high level ASQ certification illustrates the using a branch system. The logic behind the tree
value they bring to strategic planning and the inno- diagram is that as a broad issue is broken down
vation process. into finer levels, a solution pathway emerges. The
tree diagram is effective after developing affinity
Seven New Quality Tools and relations diagrams because the ideas from
Table 1 shows the seven new quality tools. Due these broader tools can be applied to the tree dia-
to space limitations, we cannot go into great detail gram to help find a clear solution.
about the inner workings of each tool, but we can 4. Process decision program chart (PDPC). When
provide an overview. We encourage readers to con- faced with multiple options to solve a problem, the
sult ASQ’s website4 for more detailed information. PDPC is useful in assessing all the alternative solu-
Also, Creating Quality by William Kolarik5 and The tions to find the one that fits best. A PDPC can also
Quality Toolbox by Nancy Tague6 offer excellent be used in a what-if analysis. If a solution or process
overviews of the seven new tools. is already agreed on, the tool can identify what
1. Affinity diagram. This is one of the basic tools might go wrong if the solution were to be employed.
used to stimulate creativity and bring structure to Because a tree diagram might give multiple solu-
the brainstorming process. The affinity diagram is tions to the issue at hand, the PDPC is the logical tool
especially useful in any interdepartmental project— to use after the tree diagram to determine which
it helps put team members at ease with one another solution has the most promise.
because the tool is designed to welcome a diverse 5. Arrow diagram. This tool addresses resource
range of ideas. Because the innovation process relies problems and bottlenecks during the innovation
heavily on people from different departments work- process. Similar in scope to a Gantt chart, the arrow
ing together, the affinity diagram would be power- diagram allows the mapping and scheduling of
ful in the early stages of the innovation process. multiple tasks. The tool is valuable when resources
2. Relations diagram. This tool discovers causes must be allocated across an interdepartmental pro-
and effects of problems. It identifies the cause of ject. When significant penalties occur if a project
problems that can occur in high-level strategic falls behind schedule, resource allocation becomes
planning by systematically linking the many fac- an important focus.
tors that contribute to a problem, providing a big- 6. Matrix diagram. This shows relationships
picture view of what’s at stake. between groups of information. It draws out

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 21


interrelated factors, illustrating how changing one competed primarily by reducing costs, decreasing
factor might affect others. The strength of the rela- waste and increasing product or service quality.
tionship can be characterized as varying degrees The innovation process is an area in which quality
of positive and negative. Many different shapes practitioners can apply the seven new quality tools
for the matrix diagram are possible. to get new higher quality products and services to
7. Matrix data analysis. This is a mathematical market faster and at a lower cost to help our firms
technique that quantifies the interrelated factors stay competitive in a global marketplace.
created in the matrix diagram. Weights are given
to the interrelated factors when hard data are REFERENCES

unavailable; software programs using statistical 1. Vivek Wadhwa, “Where the Engineers Are,” Issues in
correlation methods are used to quantify the rela- Science and Technology, Spring 2007, pp. 73-84.
tionship between factors when data are available. 2. Andrew Graves, “Comparative Trends in Automotive
Due to the mathematical rigor involved, matrix Research and Development,” paper presented at the Science
data analysis is the most complex of the new tools. Policy Research Unit, Sussex University, Brighton, Sussex,
1987.
Considerations for Quality 3. ASQ, Manager of Quality/Organizational Excellence
Professionals Certification, www.asq.org/certification/manager-of-quality/
bok.html.
Firms can structure the innovation process in 4. ASQ, Seven New Management and Planning Tools,
such a way that quality improvement methods www.asq.org/learn-about-quality/
with the new tools are not aligned with the model new-management-planning-tools/overview/overview.html.
we have illustrated. For the new quality tools to be 5. William Kolarik, Creating Quality: Concepts, Systems,
of use, we recommend readers evaluate the current Strategies, and Tools, McGraw-Hill, 1995.
state of the innovation process in their firms with 6. Nancy Tague, The Quality Toolbox, second edition, ASQ
other department stakeholders. Other stakeholders Quality Press, 2005.
can include marketing managers, R&D scientists
and managers, technology transfer officers, prod- JUSTIN LEVESQUE is a graduate student in the master’s
uct engineers and manufacturing managers. in manufacturing systems and MBA programs at the
When the existing state of the innovation process
University of Southern Maine. He has established and
is known, a phased-in approach of the new quality
operated a quality testing laboratory in the brewing indus-
tools can then be completed over time. A good
place for introduction of the new tools might be at try. Levesque has a bachelor’s degree in biology from Bates
the interdepartmental meetings that occur during College in Lewiston, ME, and works in process improve-
the innovation process. ment for a biotechnology company.
R&D personnel and other departments involved H. FRED WALKER is a professor, department chair and
in the innovation process might be hesitant to
graduate coordinator in the department of technology at
embrace quality tools, which is an issue of organi-
the University of Southern Maine. He has a doctorate in
zational culture and communication. But as quality
industrial education and technology from Iowa State
professionals, we all know quality impacts the ulti-
mate profitability of our firms. Most of us can prob- University. Walker recently co-authored two books pub-
ably think of a time when we have had difficulty lished by ASQ Quality Press, The Certified Quality
explaining to senior management that quality is an Engineer Handbook, second edition, and The Certified
investment, not a cost. Communicating this concept Quality Technician Handbook. He is vice chair of print
of quality to R&D managers, as well as to other initiatives for ASQ’s Quality Management Division and
innovation stakeholders, will be no different. We editor of its newsletter, Quality Management Forum.
must embrace the concept of quality not just in Walker is a senior member of ASQ and is a certified man-
engineering and manufacturing, but also through- ager of quality/organizational excellence, quality engineer,
out all stages of the innovation process. reliability engineer and quality auditor.
As quality practitioners, we historically have

22 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


INNOVATION

Nanotechnology:
A Big Little Frontier
For Quality by Harriet Black Nembhard

H
ave you seen the Apple iPod nano? While to make about the same reduction as you would to
it is very thin, it is not really on the nano fit the diameter of the earth into your arms.
scale. The term nano denotes one-billionth Nanotechnology deals with arranging particles
in the metric measuring system. A particle with a on this extremely small scale, the atomic scale. It is a
nanometer diameter is therefore one-billionth of a field of applied science focused on the design, syn-
meter (10-9m) in size. thesis, characterization and application of materials
The thickness (or thinness, as Apple would have and devices on the nanoscale. The basic goal is to
it) of an iPod is approximately 7 million nanometers. engineer functional systems at the molecular level.
To reduce it to just one nanometer, you would have The United States’ National Nanotechnology
Initiative (NNI) website defines nanotechnology as
“the understanding and control of matter at dimen-
In 50 Words sions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique
Or Less phenomena enable novel applications.”1
Some contend nanotechnology is more impor-
• Nanotechnology deals with arranging particles on the tant than all previous scientific advances. To quote
the authors of one book:
atomic scale.
Nanotechnology is an anticipated manufactur-
ing technology that allows thorough, inexpen-
• The scope of nanotechnology is vast, global and critical sive control of the structure of matter by working
to future production. with atoms. It will allow many things to be man-
ufactured at low cost and with no pollution. It
will lead to the production of nanomachines,
• Quality practitioners and researchers can use design which are sometimes called nanodevices. It is
therefore an advancement as important as the
of experiments, statistical process control, Six Sigma discovery of the first tool. However, rather than
and ISO 9001 certification knowledge to make strong shape what nature offers, we can do it ourselves.
Unlike metallurgy, natural substances are not
contributions to nanotechnology. used as the starting materials, but atoms—the
ingredients of the universe.2

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 23


INNOVATION

NNI, established in 2001, and the 21st Century nanotechnology, a patent was recently filed for
Nanotechnology Research and Development Act the Nucleic Acid Nanorobot that could perhaps
of 20033 have supported in the neighborhood of be used someday to deliver molecular medicine
$1 billion per year for nanotechnology research exactly where it is needed in the body.7
and development in the United States. With this If this sounds almost like science fiction, the case
investment, numerous centers and networks of can easily be made that the future of nanotechnolo-
excellence have been established under the gy is here. One of the recurring problems, however,
National Science Foundation (NSF), National is that this growing nanotech trade has been hit by
Institutes of Health, Department of Defense and questions regarding quality. One of the reasons the
NASA. use of nanotech is limited is because process con-
Most major universities now have laboratories trol, reliability and repeatability of the processes
and centers dedicated to nanotechnology, with and products have not been well established.
much of the work focused on the fundamental sci-
ence needed to advance research and development. Fundamental Characterization
Some elements that have been born out of this And Processing
research include nanoshells (5 to 20 nanometers in Laboratory operations for nanotechnology are
diameter—about the width of a blood cell) that can often concerned with systematically arranging
simultaneously detect and destroy cancer cells,4 nanoparticles into functional structures such as
and nanomotors (2 to 5 nanometers in diameter— films, lubricants and adhesives. At the nanoscale,
about the width of DNA) that can be used to rotate there are small-size dependent properties that do
microscale objects.5 However, even though proto- not necessarily correspond to macroscale proper-
types and samples of these devices have been cre- ties.
ated, nanotechnology is still in the precompetitive Therein lies the problem: In many cases, these
stage, meaning its applied use is limited. size dependent properties are only beginning to be
understood. It is critical, however, that this science is
How Will Nanotechnology Be Used? more fully understood to manipulate the nanoscale
Beyond the basic definitions and capabilities, building blocks into engineered nanoscale systems.
many people have grappled with the deeper ques- Statistically based design of experiments (DOEs) can
tions of what nanotechnology means, what it has be extremely helpful in comprehending the effects
the potential to offer society and how it will be of design factors on the particle or product charac-
used to create wealth. Indeed, nanotechnology is terization and process.
becoming an engine for making the food we eat, As an example of this point, consider the step
clothes we wear and medicine we take. More than and flash nanolithography (SFNL) process. This
1,700 companies in 47 nations are reportedly pur- SFNL process is used for nanoscale imprinting,
suing the promise of nanotechnology, according to which can create features of an imprinted pattern
the May 2007 issue of the International Nanotech- on the order of 50 to 100 nanometers. This capabili-
nology Companies Business Directory.6 ty can be applied, for example, to write very small
Many of these companies specialize in business- letters for library archival purposes.
to-business products, such as specialized nanopar- I was a part of a team that used DOE to improve
ticulates made of metals and ceramics, nanotubes, the operation of an SFNL process.8 The process own-
nanowires and nanocages made of these materials, ers established that the radio frequency power,
and imaging and tooling equipment designed for chamber pressure, gas flow and the magnetic flux
the nanoscale. were four important controllable process factors and
Some companies directly involved with busi- that the average amount and the uniformity of the
ness-to-consumer products are using nanotechnol- etching of the spin-on material were two important
ogy to improve the rain repelling capability of responses. A replicated full 24 factor design with
automotive glass, to enhance skin condition with three center point runs was carried out.
highly penetrating moisturizer, and to purify air The results showed significant interaction between
with supercharged oxidizing photons. pressure and gas flow that affected the preferred
According to TinyTech IP, a blog devoted to operating settings of the process. Furthermore, a

24 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


residual analysis showed the gas flow

Limin Tong for the Mazur Group, Harvard University


should be run at a high level because it
reduces the mean etch rate variability.
These results were extremely helpful to
the process engineers as they refined
the operating procedures for the
nanoimprinter.
As further evidence of the use of
DOE in nanotechnology, some recent
work in nanotechnology literature
includes the following:
• Factorial design with center
points in a nanocomposites syn-
thesis.9
• Fractional factorial design in a
nanolubrication process.10
• Central composite design to opti-
mize dispersion properties of
polymer nanocomposites.11
• Split-plot design in a nanomilling
process.12
• Mixture design in a nanoparticu- NANOWIRE: A light conducting
late bonding process.13 silica nanowire wraps a beam of
• Multistage split lot design in a light around a strand of human hair.
self-assembled monolayering
process.14
• Taguchi design in a deposition
process of nanocrystalline dia-
mond coating.15
Although the above list is not exhaustive, the iments for technical details on this type of error17).
experimental research that does not use DOE far
outweighs the experimental research that does Scaling Up
use DOE. In fact, a cautionary word is that there Nanomanufacturing emphasizes the use of nan-
are numerous articles in the nanotechnology lit- otechnology for manufacturing the products and
erature in which a one-factor-at-a-time experi- services we use. One of the foremost challenges
mental approach has been applied. nanomanufacturing faces is that of scaling up.
This approach is so-named because the experi- An NSF report says, “To move scientific discov-
menter tries to change one factor while holding all eries from the laboratory to commercial products, a
of the others constant. Although it appears to be a completely different set of fundamental research
methodical approach on the surface, as explained in issues must be addressed—primarily those related
the classic Design and Analysis of Experiments,16 its to viable commercial scale-up of production vol-
use is unfortunate because it often misses important umes, process robustness and reliability, and inte-
interactions among the variables, yielding mislead- gration of nanoscale structures and devices into
ing conclusions. microscale, mesoscale and macroscale products.”18
There also have been several published cases Regarding the processing of nanoscale materials,
in which DOE was applied but was wrongly a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)
analyzed due to a lack of randomization. For report says, “Our challenge is designing stable,
example, an experiment was carried out with the durable materials that can be scaled up and manu-
structure of a split-plot design but analyzed as a factured in the form of thin films, bulk powders or
full factorial one (see Design and Analysis of Exper- bulk solids. From an applications perspective, our

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 25


INNOVATION

ability to scale up reliable materials will determine chip manufacturers to analyze the surface for
whether industry will support the development of defects using atomic force microscopy (AFM).27
nanoscale materials for specific applications.”19 There seems to be an immediate opportunity to use
The same issue is echoed by the Food and Drug SPC and AFM or other imaging technology in the
Administration (FDA): “The industrialization chal- production of nanowires, but in a current review of
lenges posed by the demands of physical product the literature, this has not been addressed.
design, characterization, scale-up and manufactur- If true process control could be established for
ing are often little understood outside of FDA and nanowires, and indeed other nanodevices and nan-
the pharmaceutical ... communities. It is crucial otechnologies, it would lay the foundation for
that ... improved methods for design, characteriza- process scale-up. An important consideration, how-
tion and product manufacture are available to ever, should be that the complexity and intricacy of
improve predictability in this area.”20 nanotechnology processes might in fact call for
The NSF, PNNL, FDA and other agencies and multivariate SPC (MSPC) methods such as multi-
private initiatives have helped support innovation variate exponentially weighted average principle
component analysis and profile monitoring.
With these methods, multivariate data is reduced
in dimension and correlated with final product
Certification has started quality. This information can then be used for fault
detection and coupled with engineering process
to become a priority with control. A recent example illustrates the application
of MSPC to a reactive ion etching process.28 There is
several organizations. certainly opportunity to explore the application of
other MSPC techniques to other nanotechnology
processes.
In fact, in the last several years, many traditional
and research to address the scale-up challenge. The companies have embraced the Six Sigma metric of
reports point out that key subproblems have been quality that aims for processes that produce prod-
low reliability and yield for nanoscale devices, lack ucts that are 99.99966% defect free. Think about it:
of repeatability and reproducibility in yielding a Out of 1,000 nanowires on a wafer, in many cases,
particular product, and lack of inherent robustness fewer than 10 will have the desired quality and
and control of the nanomanufacturing process. specification. Imagine now how the potential of the
These issues are intrinsically linked to quality field would change if nanotechnology production
and statistics. More specifically, statistical process processes met Six Sigma levels.
control (SPC) is an area in the quality domain that
could help tremendously. Product Certification and Standards
Consider, for example, the current research into As interest in nanotechnology has surged, the
the development of nanowires. Nanowires are gen- market has created buyers and sellers for special-
erally flexible and can be as slender as 50 nanome- ized nanoparticulates and nanodevices. On the
ters in width. The photo on p. 27 shows a nanowire commercial level, however, trade has been ham-
made of silicon that can guide a beam of light. pered by concerns about the quality and safety of
While it is not the intent of this article to exhaus- the products. For example, a survey of nanotech-
tively examine the literature on nanowires, they nology companies revealed problems with contam-
have been created from many materials, for many inated batches of nanoparticulates. Some of the
purposes, using many types of processes.21-26 In problems might have occurred during production,
many of these cases, however, the literature is others during shipping.29
reporting on the best one of just a few nanowires In response to these problems, certification has
that had the desired quality and specification. But started to become a priority with several organiza-
that one nanowire might have been produced in a tions:
batch of thousands. • In the textile industry, the Hohenstein Insti-
It has been reported that SPC has been used by tute (Bönnigheim, Germany) has launched the

26 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


Hohenstein Quality Label for Nanotechnology
FIGURE 1 Nanotech Career Opportunities
for manufacturers of textiles with functions
For Quality Practitioners
based on nanotechnology.30
• Zyvex Corp. has installed a supply chain certi- Quality
fication program for carbon nanotube suppli- Environmental control Assembly
ers. It verifies quality and batch-to-batch Health Metrology Scale-up
consistency using a scanning electron micro-
scope analytical testing.31
• The government of Taiwan recently initiated
the Nano Mark System to certify that products Nanoscale Devices/ Systems
bulk materials components
claiming to have nanoparticles (specifically
titanium dioxide) do in fact have them.32
Standards will also play an important role in
Chemical Hardware
supporting the evolution of nanotechnology. As architecture
the premier measurement laboratory in the United Mechanical
Software
States, the National Institute of Standards and Electronic architecture
Technology (NIST) has made the development of
instrumentation and standards for nanotechnology
a top priority.33
Globally, a new International Organization for and research communities to reach a consensus on
Standardization (ISO) technical committee was nanotechnology certification and standardization
recently established to develop international nan- efforts. Technical committees and working groups
otechnology standards. ISO/TC 229—Nanotechnolo- will need many dedicated people with diverse
gies will develop standards for terminology and backgrounds—including those with quality back-
nomenclature, basic metrology, and test methodolo- grounds—to help advance nanotechnology stan-
gies.34 Hundreds of other standards developing dards at a pace with nanotechnology discovery.
organizations throughout United States and the
world are also working on nanotechnology. Call to Action
Those who are actively working in nanotechnolo- The concept of nanotechnology is attributed to
gy might find that an anticipatory standards strate- Nobel laureate Richard Feynman. He gave a vision-
gy can be used. This strategy depends on flexible ary lecture titled “There is Plenty of Room at the
working groups of scientists and engineers who Bottom” at a meeting of the American Physical
understand nanotech trends and can anticipate the Society on Dec. 29, 1959. He made bold and accu-
need for standards in commercializing specific rate prognostications on building molecular scale
areas. The need for standardization with respect to machines.36 The lecture was subtitled “An Invitation
quality control and metrology is listed explicitly for to Enter a New Field of Physics.”
activities related to nanoscale bulk materials, Quality engineers and practitioners should think
devices and components, and final systems (see of this QP article as an invitation to enter the world
Figure 1).35 of nanotechnology. The discussion and examples in
We can also expect needs for quality control and my article demonstrate that the body of knowledge
statistical analysis within other areas. For example, in DOE, SPC, Six Sigma, and certification and stan-
standard methods for electrical transport proper- dards can be used to make significant contribu-
ties for carbon nanotubes might need to rely on tions to nanotechnology.
empirical data. Experimental design might be Learn more about nanotechnology using the
applied to developing standard interfacial architec- web. Many excellent websites provide help,
tures. Standard test device structures might need including Nanopedia,37 which is presented as an
reliability methods. encyclopedia of nanotechnology, and the Institute
While there has been a rapid pace of discovery of Nanotechnology,38 which has organized tabs for
in nanotechnology, it might take more time for the nano reports, news, events, careers, books, images
various constituencies across the public, private and other links.

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 27


INNOVATION

Then read The Next Big Thing Is Really Small39 and high school and college levels.
Understanding Nanotechnology.40 These two books Quality practitioners should track the nanotech-
provide a good, basic introduction to the topic and nology food chain for their industry. Understand
can be read in an afternoon. For a more in-depth how it will potentially impact your organization.
overview, books that are sometimes used in higher- Then think strategically about how to position
education courses are Nanotechnology: Basic Science your business and your career for success in nan-
and Emerging Technologies,41 Nanoscale Science and otechnology using quality tools.
Technology42 and Nanoparticles: Building Blocks for Even if you are not directly involved in nanotech-
Nanotechnology.43 A somewhat prophetic treatment nology, it already impacts you and your business in
is given in Engines of Creation, the Coming Age of some way—or soon will.
Nanotechnology.44
REFERENCES
Researchers who are familiar with quality princi-
ples should collaborate with colleagues in chemical 1. National Nanotechnology Initiative, www.nano.gov.
engineering, mechanical engineering and material 2. Mick Wilson, Kannangara Kamali, Geoff Smith,
Michelle Simmons and Burkhard Ragues, Nanotechnology:
Basic Science and Emerging Technologies, Chapman &
Hall/CRC, 2002.
Teachers should become 3. “President Bush Signs Nanotechnology Research and
Development Act,” www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/
familiar with nanotechnology 2003/12/20031203-7.html.
4. Christopher Loo, Amanda Lowery, Naomi Halas,
courses being developed on Jennifer West and Rebekah Drezek, “Immunotargeted
Nanoshells for Integrated Cancer Imaging and Therapy,”
university campuses and help Nano Letters, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2005, pp. 709-711.
5. Rienk Eelkema, Michael M. Pollard, Javier Vicario,

shape the topic coverage to Nathalie Katsonis, Blanca Serrano, Ramon Cees, W. M.
Bastiaansen, Dirk J. Broer and Ben L. Feringa, “Molecular

include quality principles. Machines: Nanomotor Rotates Microscale Objects,” Nature,


Vol. 440, Issue 7,081, 2006, pp. 163-173.
6. International Nanotechnology Business Directory,
www.nanovip.com.
science. There are gaps in the quality components 7. TinyTechIP, http://tinytechip.blogspot.com/2007/01/
of nanotechnology due in part to perennial prob- us-patent-7163794-nucleic-acid.html.
lems, such as a lack of engineers who are cross 8. Hector Carrion, Michael Rogosky, Harriet Black Nemb-
trained in statistical methods and the perceived hard, Sanjay Joshi and Jeffrey Catchmark, “Characterization of
drudgery of statistical work. Those of us who are the SilSpin Etch-Back (breakthrough) Process for Nanolithog-
familiar with the methods should insert ourselves raphy with CHF3 and O2 Gas Chemistry,” Proceedings of 2006
into the scientific teams. We can lead the efforts to Industrial Engineering Research Conference, 2006.
9. Amitava Basumallick, G.C. Das and S. Mukherjee,
improve process and product quality and put the
“Design of Experiments for Synthesizing in situ Ni-SiO2 and
nanotechnology on a faster, more efficient develop-
Co-SiO2 Nanocomposites by Non-Isothermal Reduction
ment path.
Treatment,” Nanotechnology, Vol. 14, 2003, pp. 903-906.
Teachers should become familiar with nanotech- 10. Harriet Black Nembhard, Navin N. Acharya, Mehmet
nology courses being developed on university Aktan and Seong H. Kim, “Design Issues and Analysis of
campuses and help shape the topic coverage to Experiments in Nanomanufacturing,” Chapter 17, Handbook
include quality principles. NSF has funded work to of Industrial and Systems Engineering, A. Badiru, ed., CRC
integrate nanotechnology into the curriculum. One Press, 2006.
model that can be used is the Interactive Nano- 11. Virginia Yong and H. Thomas Hahn, “Dispersant Op-
Visualization for Science and Engineering Educa- timization Using Design of Experiments for SiC/vinyl Ester
tion (INVSEE).45 The first goal of INVSEE is to Nanocomposites,” Nanotechnology, Vol. 16, 2005, pp. 354-360.
12. Harriet Black Nembhard, “Design Issues and Analysis
educate students about the principles, execution,
of Experiments in Nanomanufacturing,” see reference 10.
interpretation and rational design of experiments.46
13. Ibid.
This model could be used more broadly at both
14. Navin Acharya and Harriet Black Nembhard,

28 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


“Multistage Nanomanufacturing Experimentation,” gy-Taiwan Experiences” Emerging Technologies-Nanoelec-
working paper, 2007. tronics, IEEE Conference, 2006.
15. W. Ahmed, E. Ahmed, C. Maryan, M. J. Jackson, A.A. 33. Nanotechnology is BIG at NIST, www.nist.gov/nanotech.
Ogwu, N. Ali, V.F. Neto and J. Gracio, “Time Modulated CVD 34. International Organization for Standardization—Tech-
Process Optimized Using the Taguchi Method,” Journal of Ma- nical Committee on Nanotechnology (TC 229), www.iso.
terials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 236-241. org/iso/en/stdsdevelopment/tc/tclist/Technical
16. D.C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, CommitteeDetailPage.TechnicalCommitteeDetail?COMMID=
fifth edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2005. 5932 (case sensitive).
17. Ibid. 35. Edward Rashba and Daniel Gamota, “Anticipatory
18. Ahmed Busnaina, Carol Barry and Glen Miller, orga- Standards and the Commercialization of Nanotechnology,”
nizers, NSF Workshop on Three Dimensional Nanomanufactur- Journal of Nanoparticle Research, Vol. 4, 2003, pp. 401-407.
ing: Partnering with Industry; Conclusions and Report, 2003, 36. Richard P. Feynman, “There is Plenty of Room at the
www.coe.neu.edu/Research/nano/nsf_workshop.htm, ac- Bottom: An Invitation to Enter a New Field of Physics,”
cessed January 2006. Engineering and Science, 1960, available on the web in several
19. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, www.pnl.gov/ locations including www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.
breakthroughs/issues/2004-issues/spring-summer/special_ html.
report.stm 37. Nanopedia, nanopedia.case.edu.
20. “Innovation or Stagnation: Challenge and Opportu- 38. Institute of Nanotechnology, www.nano.org.uk.
nity on the Critical Path to New Medical Products,” FDA 39. Jack Uldrich and Deb Newberry, The Next Big Thing is
2004 report, http://nano.cancer.gov/news_center/monthly_ Really Small: How Nanotechnology Will Change the Future of
feature_2005_jun.asp. Your Business, Crown Business, 2002.
21. Michael H. Huang, Yiying Wu, Henning Feick, Ngan 40. Understanding Nanotechnology, from the editors of
Tran, Eicke Weber and Peidong Yang, “Catalytic Growth of Scientific American; compiled and with introductions by
Zinc Oxide Nanowires by Vapor Transport,” Science, Vol. 13, Sandy Fritz; Warner Books Inc., 2002.
No. 2, pp. 113-116. 41. Mick Wilson, Nanotechnology: Basic Science and
22. A. M. Morales, “A Laser Ablation Method for the Emerging Technologies, see reference 2.
Synthesis of Crystalline Semiconductor Nanowires,” Science, 42. R. Kelsall, I.W. Hamley and M. Geoghegan, eds.,
Vol. 279, No. 5,348, pp. 208-211. Nanoscale Science and Technology, John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
23. M.H. Huang, see Reference 18. 43. Vincent M. Rotello, ed., Nanoparticles: Building Blocks
24. B. Li, D. Yu and S.L. Zhang, “Raman Spectral Study for Nanotechnology, Springer, 2003.
of Silicon Nanowire,” Physical Review B, Vol. 59, 1999, 44. Eric Drexler, Engines of Creation, the Coming Age of
pp. 1,645–1,648. Nanotechnology, Fourth Estate, 1990.
25. Y. Duan, Y. Huang, Y. Cui, J. Wang and C.M. Lieber, 45. Interactive Nano-Visualization for Science and
“Indium Phosphide Nanowires as Building Blocks for Engineering Education, http://invsee.asu.edu.
Nanoscale Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices,” Nature, 46. B. L. Ramakrishna, Eddie W. Ong, Andrew
Jan. 4, 2001, pp. 66-69. Chizmeshya and Jeremy Rowe, “Nanotechnology Education:
26. Y.C. Kong, D.P. Yu, B. Zhang, W. Fang, and S.Q. Feng, Exploring a Compact Disk Stamper,” National Educators’
“Ultraviolet-emitting ZnO Nanowires Synthesized by a Workshop: Update 2000. Standard Experiments in Engineering,
Physical Vapor Deposition Approach,” Applied Physics Materials Science and Technology, 2001, pp. 227-242.
Letters, Vol. 78, No. 4, pp. 407-409.
27. Charalabos C. Doumanidis, “Nanomanufacturing
Research: Technical Advances, Research Challenges and Future HARRIET BLACK NEMBHARD is an
Directions,” 2003, unpublished report. associate professor of industrial and
28. Harriet Black Nembhard and Shuohui Chen, “Multi- manufacturing engineering at the
variate Cuscore Control Charts for Monitoring the Mean Pennsylvania State University. She
Vector in Autocorrelated Processes,” working paper, 2006.
earned a doctorate in industrial engi-
29. Lux Research, Survey of Nanotech Problems, www.
luxresearchinc.com. neering from the University of Mich-
30. Hohenstein Quality Label for Nanotechnology, www. igan. Nembhard is a senior member of
hohenstein.de/en/content/content1.asp?hohenstein= ASQ, an associate academician of the
47-249-0-355-0-0. International Academy of Quality and an ASQ certified
31. Zyvex Announces Carbon Nanotube Supply Chain
Six Sigma Black Belt. Nembhard received the ASQ Journal
Certification Program, www.zyvex.com/News/
of Quality Technology Lloyd S. Nelson Award in 2003
CNTStandards.html (case sensitive).
32. Tsung-Tsan Su, “Commercialization of Nanotech-nolo- and the ASQ Armand V. Feigenbaum Medal in 2004.

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 29


QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT

QFD’s Evolution in
Japan and the West
by Jui-Chin Jiang, Ming-Li Shiu and Mao-Hsiung Tu

E
ven though the initial theory of quality as it developed many new products and changed
originated in the United States, early indus- models.
trial applications predominantly took place Yoji Akao conceived quality function deploy-
at Japanese companies. ment (QFD), a concept and method that served as a
At first, Japanese companies used quality control vital management tool for new product develop-
in manufacturing and inspection areas. But, the ment.1
Japanese automobile industry recognized the im- The ultimate benefits of QFD are lower product
portance of designing quality into new products in development costs, increased customer satisfaction
late 1960s, when it was in the midst of rapid growth and increased market share. It has been well docu-
mented that using QFD can result in the follow-
ing:2, 3, 4
• Reduction of development time by 50%.
In 50 Words • Reduction of the number of engineering
Or Less changes by 50%.
• Reduction of start-up and engineering costs
• The historical development of quality function by 30%.
deployment (QFD) in Japan and the West evolved • Reduction of warranty claims up to 50%.
• Increased customer satisfaction.
through three generations. • Systematic retention of product development
knowledge so it can be easily applied to simi-
• QFD will become an integral quality assurance lar future designs.
architecture that can be implemented concurrently
Definition
with product development processes, instead of QFD refers to the combination of quality deploy-
existing as a mere series of matrices. ment and narrowly defined QFD.5, 6 This definition
is depicted in Figure 1.
Quality deployment converts customer demands

30 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


into the design quality of the finished product. It materials—that constitute a product architecture,
covers design targets and major quality assurance and quality of production processes that manufac-
points, which are the key points and control items ture and assemble partly finished products into fin-
in achieving sales and preventing a recurrence of ished products. This is illustrated in the quality
past and potential new product design and devel- deployment section of Figure 1.
opment problem areas. Narrowly defined QFD is derived by extending
Quality deployment is used at all levels of prod- the concept of value engineering that is originally
uct architecture and during process design. The applied to defining the functions of a product to
purpose of quality deployment, therefore, is to the deployment of business process functions.7
establish a quality network that can ensure the Therefore, the word “function” in QFD refers
quality of a product itself. to the job functions of a product development
This network includes both quality of physical process, rather than to the functions of the product
elements—subsystems, component units, parts and itself. Then, job functions that can create product

FIGURE 1 Quality Deployment and Narrowly Defined Quality Function Deployment

Quality deployment
(deployment of the quality of a product itself)

• Optimal product
Quality of:
specifications
• Subsystems
• Optimal process
• Component
Customer’s condition
units
expressed Quality of a specifications
• Parts
and latent finished product • Supplier process
• Materials
requirements performance
• Production
requirements
process
• Key quality
design
assurance points

Narrowly defined quality function deployment


(deployment of the product realization process)

Product planning

System level design


Related
Prototype design quality
assurance
Detail design job functions
or activities
Production preparation

Mass production

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 31


QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT

FIGURE 2 Original Quality Function Deployment Design

Finished product Function


quality characteristics deployment
1. Primary
2. Secondary
3. Tertiary
Demanded
quality items

1. Primary

2. Secondary

3. Tertiary

Specification xxx kg
values xxx° K

Unit parts
Quality
Subsystems characteristics of
component unit Quality data file

Processes
Process deployment system
Number Method A Method B Method C

Parts deployment
Component Final product Parts quality Precision
Number
parts characteristics characteristics
Cost

Review sheet for process contorl points


Process deployment
Process Higher Control QA
(quality assurance process planning sheet) Number
description level function points chart
Fabricating conditions Parts characteristics
Control
resistance
dimension
luminous

Vibration
Current

Number Process points of


flux
life

Equipment Index process

Information Review sheet for check items


on quality Process
QA process sheet Number
description
Person Object Material Method
Flow chart Control method
Part Operating Control
Process Control
name Raw instruction instruction Control
Process description items Sampling
(___) material sheet sheet charts

32 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


quality are called quality functions. The steps to a QFD system were defined as
The purpose of narrowly defined QFD is to including:
establish a procedure network that is formed by • The establishment of a quality chart to convert
various planning and operational quality assurance customer demands into substitute quality char-
activities and procedure flows to achieve product acteristics and determine their design targets.
quality. • The deployments of subsystems, parts and
This network includes activities at all stages of processes.
the product realization process, from product and • The deployment of related job functions.
technology development planning, system level
design, prototype design and detail design to pro-
duction preparation and mass production. This is
illustrated in the narrowly defined QFD section of QFD is the most complete,
Figure 1.
QFD is the most complete, systematic and con- systematic and convincing
vincing method for designing products with the
quality that fulfills expressed and latent require- method for designing
ments of customers.

QFD’s Evolution
products with the quality
When QFD was conceived in Japan in the late that fulfills customer
1960s, the Japanese recognized that it was impor-
tant to design quality into new products. But they requirements.
lacked guidance on how this could be achieved.
Akao was the first person in Japan to propose
QFD to address the design situation.8 Akao’s origi-
nal QFD design, shown in Figure 2, represents the The first article that introduced QFD to the
first generation of QFD in Japan. He and Shigeru West was published in Quality Progress in 1983.10
Mizuno published the first book on the topic in In the same year, a comprehensive system of QFD,
1978.9 including technology, cost and reliability—which
reflects quality, technology, cost and reliability
considerations necessarily involved in product
development—was presented in Japan.11
Apart from the quality deployment, the system
FIGURE 3 House of Quality also includes:
• Ensuring that any bottleneck technology that
hinders the realization of design quality is
Co- extracted and solved at the earliest possible
relationships time.
How: • Preventing potential failures and their effects
technical through early prediction.
requirements • Achieving target costs balanced with quality.
Relationship This comprehensive QFD system represents the
What: second generation of QFD in Japan.
between Customer
customer In the meantime, Western authors introduced
hows and perceptions
requirements
whats the quality chart, or house of quality (HOQ), as the
main tool of QFD.12, 13
How much:
objectives/
The HOQ in Figure 3 illustrates how to use a
targets quality chart to convert customer demands (whats)
into quality characteristics (hows) and determine

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 33


QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT

their design targets (how much) in TABLE 1 QFD Evolution in Japan and the West
great detail.
But these Western writers used Evolution Japan The West
only a simple conceptual model of
linked houses of quality, as shown First generation Original quality function Four linked houses of quality
in Figure 4 (p. 35), to show how a deployment (QFD)
quality chart can be combined Second genera- Comprehensive system of 30-matrix model of QFD
tion QFD—including technolo-
with the other deployments, such
gy, cost and reliability
as subsystems, parts and process
deployments Third generation Real-time database QFD Critical parameter management
Although the linked houses of Evolutionary Toward adding value to Toward integrating various
quality tool is the earliest QFD direction every activity in the design tools and methods to
model made by Western re- product development competitively improve product
searchers (the first generation of process to competitively quality
QFD in the West) and the most improve product quality
recognized QFD form today in the
West, the tool was oversimplified
and left out much important information from the buy-in, implementation and compliance, the term
original QFD. QFD has been used to mean quality deployment in
Despite the passage of time since the comprehen- itself, and narrowly defined QFD has been com-
sive QFD system was introduced, few books and arti- pletely overlooked by most QFD practitioners out-
cles have been written on the topic in English. A side Japan.19
notable exception is Bob King’s 30-matrix model of
QFD.14 This model can be viewed as the most com- Different Directions
plete (including technology, cost and reliability) QFD In the past, although some misperceptions about
model made by Western researchers, and as the sec- the essence of QFD did exist, Western QFD basical-
ond generation of QFD in the West. ly developed following the model of Japanese QFD.
When QFD was spread internationally, some However, the difference between the current devel-
misunderstandings about the original QFD were opment of the so-called third generation of QFD in
gradually engendered and publicized. The com- Japan and the West can be considered a change in
mon misunderstandings include the following: which they have begun to develop QFD in different
Quality deployment is equivalent to a quality directions.
chart. Although QFD has been simplified in the The current Japanese QFD is based on narrowly
form of linked houses of quality in the West, the defined QFD. Also known as the deployment of a
majority of QFD applications stop with the com- new product development process for implemen-
pletion of the first matrix, the quality chart.15, 16, 17 tation, this version of QFD is known as real-time
C.A. Cox says no more than 5% of companies go database QFD (Rdb-QFD). Its original concept was
beyond the quality chart.18 However, most Japanese proposed by Tadashi Ohfuji, who says all quality
companies not only go beyond the quality chart to deployment charts should be retrievable in real
use the subsystems deployment chart, parts deploy- time from a computer database according to needs
ment chart and process deployment chart (all known during each stage of product development.
as quality deployment), but also implement technol- Western QFD has now combined with TRIZ, Kano
ogy deployment, cost deployment and reliability analysis and the Taguchi method and is used by Six
deployment. Sigma experts.
QFD is equivalent to quality deployment. As TRIZ is a Russian acronym for a theory of inven-
already noted, broadly defined QFD refers to the tive problem solving. Kano analysis stratifies the
combination of quality deployment and narrowly importance of demanded qualities based on cus-
defined QFD. Although narrowly defined QFD is tomer perception. Genichi Taguchi’s method has
the essential part for QFD to gaining long-term been further developed into a form of critical para-

34 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


FIGURE 4 Linked Houses of Quality

Engineering Parts Key process Production


characteristics characteristics operations requirements
characteristics

characteristics

Key process
Engineering

operations
Customer
attributes

Parts
I. II. III. IV.

House of quality Parts deployment Process planning Production planning

meter management by Six Sigma experts and is (narrowly defined QFD) in new product develop-
used in implementing design for Six Sigma activi- ment processes, various quality deployment charts
ties as the basis for the define, measure, analyze, are made and linked at each process stage, as in the
design and verify model. various sections of Figure 5 (p. 36):
The biggest difference between the latest devel- • I-1 and II-1 can be used to identify customer
opments of QFD in Japan and the West is that the needs and formulate advance technology
former’s QFD, in concept and method, points
toward how to add value to every activity in the
product development process to competitively
improve product quality. On the other hand, the Although QFD has been
latter’s QFD points toward how to integrate vari-
ous design tools and methods to competitively simplified in the form of
improve product quality. Table 1 summarizes these
differences. linked houses of quality in
Future of QFD the West, the majority of
QFD must become an integral quality assurance
architecture that can be concurrently implemented QFD applications stop with
within the product development process, not as
merely a series of matrices. The word “integral,” in the completion of the first
this context, means integrating both Japanese and
Western approaches to QFD, as shown in Figure 4, matrix, the quality chart.
by combining various design tools and methods
with QFD to strengthen the quality deployment
process itself, as in the following examples: development plans during the product and
• In deploying demanded qualities, Kano analy- technology development planning stage.
sis can be introduced to get a better under- • II-2 and III-1 can provide information on tech-
standing of the customer’s perception. nical feasibility evaluation and target costs
• In deploying finished product quality charac- needed for the system level design stage of
teristics and subsystems, TRIZ can be used to product development.
enhance creativity in design concept genera- • I-2, II-3 and IV-1 help to develop optimal prod-
tion and design problem solving. uct specifications and select key components.
• In deploying processes, the Taguchi method • I-2’ and II-3 can be used to choose materials,
can be adopted to determine optimal process tooling and product specifications and con-
conditions more effectively. duct their verification during the prototype-
When deploying the quality assurance activities design and detail-design stages.

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 35


QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT

FIGURE 5 QFD: Integral Quality Assurance Architecture for New Product Development

Comprehensive quality function deployment (QFD) New product


combined with various design tools development system
I. Quality deployment II. Technology deployment
Finished
product quality Technology Product and technology
characteristics deployment development planning
• Market targeting

development
information
Demanded

Advance

roadmap

Product
product
Market
quality

• Customer needs

plan
I-1 II-1
identification
• Product portfolio
Finished Technology III. Cost deployment
product development
strategy formulation
Using Kano analysis to Own
specifications specify the demanded plan III-1 Competitors • Advance product/
company
qualities that are technology roadmapping
Market price
attractive for customers Sales volume
Market share
System level design
characteristics
specifications

• Product target cost


Key quality

Profit
Finished
product

II-2 Target cost identification


• Technical feasibility
evaluation for customer
specifications
• Optimal product
specifications
development
Using TRIZ to generate • Key components
design concept and
selection
solve problems related
to design vulnerability
IV. Reliability Prototype design
deployment • New materials
Product selection
Parts/ fault tree • Nominal and tolerance
materials analysis table design verifications
component units

Key components/

mode and effects


Component/part/
Component unit

analysis (FMEA)
Subsystems/

specifications

Product failure

• Tooling specifications
material cost
parts

I-2 I-2‘ II-3 IV-1 verification

Supplier Detail design


process • Product design
performance capability verification
studies
• New material
specifications and
Overhead cost

tooling specifications
Using Taguchi method qualification
to optimize process to
make product be minimally Production preparation
sensitive to
minimally factors to
sensitive Machine • Optimal process
Component unit causingcausing
factors variability fault tree conditions design
specifications variability analysis table • Manufacturability
Labor/equipment/
specifications

Key control

verification
Processes

Production

tooling cost

Process
FMEA
items

I-3 I-3‘ II-4 IV-2 • Reliability requirements


verification
• Process capability
Operating
instructions Shopfloor verification
and standard management Control plan • Shopfloor management
operating system system verification
procedures

36 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


• I-3, I-3’, II-4 and IV-2 can be used to evaluate and Techniques to Help Quality Function Deployment,”
and verify optimal process conditions, product Benchmarking, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2000, pp. 8-19.
manufacturability and process capability dur- 17. John J. Cristiano, Jeffrey K. Liker and C.C. White III,
ing the production preparation stage. “Key Factors in the Successful Application of Quality
Function Deployment (QFD),” IEEE Transactions on
QFD is generally implemented through a project
Engineering Management, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2001, pp. 81-95.
approach, but the trend toward a conceptual model,
18. C.A. Cox, “Keys to Success in Quality Function
shown in Figure 4, that is implemented through a
Deployment,” APICS—The Performance Advantage, Vol. 2, No.
more process oriented approach, will add real value 4, 1992, pp. 25-29.
to any new product development system and thus 19. Yoji Akao, “The Leading Edge in QFD: Past, Present
result in more systematic innovation. and Future,” see reference 1.

REFERENCES

1. Yoji Akao and Glenn H. Mazur, “The Leading Edge in JUI-CHIN JIANG is an associate professor
QFD: Past, Present and Future,” International Journal of Quality in the department of industrial engineer-
& Reliability Management, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2003, pp. 20-35. ing of Chung-Yuan Christian University
2. Don Clausing and Stuart Pugh, “Enhanced Quality
(CYCU), Taiwan, and a consultant to
Function Deployment,” Proceedings of the Design Productivity
International Conference, 1991, pp. 15-25.
Taiwanese industries. He received his doc-
3. Archie Lockamy III and Anil Khurana, “Quality torate in industrial engineering from
Function Deployment: Total Quality Management for New Cleveland State University in Ohio.
Product Design,” International Journal of Quality & Reliability
Management, Vol. 12, No. 6, 1995, pp. 73-84.
4. Mohamed Zairi and Mohamed A. Youssef, “Quality
Function Deployment,” International Journal of Quality & MING-LI SHUI is a doctoral candidate
Reliability Management, Vol. 12, No. 6, 1995, pp. 9-23. and lecturer in the department of indus-
5. Shigeru Mizuno and Yoji Akao, eds., Quality Function trial engineering of CYCU.
Deployment: A Companywide Quality Approach (in Japanese),
JUSE Press, 1978.
6. Akao, “The Leading Edge in QFD: Past, Present and
Future,” see reference 1.
7. Ibid.
8. Yoji Akao, “New Product Development and Quality MAO-HSIUNG TU is the president of
Assurance—Quality Deployment System” (in Japanese), D&N Business Consulting Co. in Hsin-
Standardization and Quality Control, Vol. 25, No. 4, 1972, pp. 7-14. Chu City, Taiwan. He received his MBA
9. Mizuno, Quality Function Deployment: A Companywide from City University, Seattle. He was
Quality Approach, see reference 5.
formerly the corporate chief consultant of
10. Masao Kogure and Yoji Akao, “Quality Function
Deployment and CWQC in Japan,” Quality Progress, Vol. 16,
the companywide quality improvement
No. 10, 1983, pp. 25-29. office of Philips Taiwan and won the
11. Yoji Akao, Tadatoshi Ono, Akira Harada, Hodecharu Deming Application Prize in 1991 and the Japan Quality
Tanaka and Kazuo Iwasawa, “Quality Deployment Medal (Nihon Quality Control Prize) in 1997.
Including Cost, Reliability and Technology (Part I)—Design
of Quality, Cost and Reliability” (in Japanese), Quality, Vol.
13, No. 1, 1983, pp. 61-70.
12. L.P. Sullivan, “Quality Function Deployment,” Quality
Progress, Vol. 19, No. 6, 1986, pp. 39-50.
Please
comment
13. John R. Hauser and Don Clausing, “The House of
Quality,” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 66, No. 3, 1988, pp. 63-73. If you would like to comment on this article,
14. Bob King, Better Designs in Half the Time: Implementing please post your remarks on the Quality Progress
Quality Function Deployment in America, GOAL/QPC, 1989.
Discussion Board at www.asq.org, or e-mail
15. Lou Cohen, Quality Function Deployment: How to Make
them to editor@asq.org.
QFD Work for You, Addison-Wesley, 1995.
16. Vivianne Bouchereau and Hefin Rowlands, “Methods

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 37


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OPINION

Conformity or
Sustainability? That
Is the Question
by David K. Watkins

“I
’m sorry, but whoever purchased the tickets tor attempted to select seating at the time she pur-
online must have neglected to make a seat chased the tickets, your website indicated no
selection,” offered the so-called elite cus- assignments were available at that time. Not only
tomer service representative I had contacted when I dis- that,” I added, “but even today my repeated
covered I had no seat assignments for my round trip to attempts to select seats online have all been
Mumbai, India, departing the next day. blocked by the system.”
“Well, no,” I responded. “When my travel coordina- With some frustration, the agent told me that she
could not determine what had gone wrong with
the initial ticketing process, nor could she pinpoint
why the system was still blocking me. Nonetheless,
In 50 Words after a number of calls and by dogged, persistent
Or Less
effort, she finally managed to get reasonable seat
assignments for me.
• An enterprise’s ability to survive and prosper, not Realizing I was a bit put out, she politely asked if
conformance, is what matters in today’s economy. I wished to file a formal complaint. I knew from
long experience with this airline that this would just
• The ISO 9004 revision draft says sustainability result in a politely apologetic form letter, explaining
how important I am to the airline and gifting me
requires continual identification and understanding with some air miles. Instead, I asked whether a for-
of present and future expectations and needs of all mal customer complaint would be necessary for the
problem to be addressed. Receiving a somewhat
stakeholders.
guarded response, I pressed on.
“You know there has been a fundamental failure
• This approach envisions integrated, aligned and in your ticketing process, right? You know it affect-
process based management systems. ed a customer who has flown over 2 million miles
on your airline and probably affected others in a

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 39


OPINION

similar way. And you yourself have had to work of popular talks intended to edify and entertain,
hard and involve several other people to resolve improve the mind and bring culture and enlighten-
the immediate problem, right?” ment” to its audience.
She agreed, politely if not somewhat impatiently. While this description somewhat overstates my
“Is there a way for you to pursue this problem or purposes and, definitely, my capabilities, it seems
elevate it to the attention of management so it is for- this is what I am engaged in when writing this type
mally investigated, understood and prevented from of article. While it might not serve to enlighten or
ever recurring?” I asked. “Not really,” she replied, edify, it might further the discussion regarding
“Not without a formal complaint, anyway.” QMSs, the purpose of developing and implement-
Rather a long tale to illustrate what is, in many ing them, and our understanding of their potential
organizations, a typical response to a failure: First, for enhancing value, organizational effectiveness
blame it on the customer (or, better yet, a vendor); and sustainability.
second, try to fix the immediate problem (rework);
third, offer an apology and, if absolutely necessary, Are International Standards
some sort of modest compensation. If possible, par- The Answer?
ticularly in service industries, automate the latter There is good—if somewhat limited and inconsis-
so it involves minimal effort and cost. tent—empirical evidence that for some organizations
Fourth? Well, often, there is no fourth: Seek out, by the development of QMSs based on international
a disciplined process, the systemic cause and sure standards has provided at least part of the solution
prevention of a recurrence; learn from this investiga- to critical and chronic enterprise performance fail-
tive process; and use it to continually improve perfor- ures. Whether or not this success has been sustain-
mance to the competitive advantage of the enterprise. able is less well documented.
With time and subsequent iterations, the initial
Bankruptcy Result basic systems have been enhanced—becoming cus-
Not surprisingly, this is one of the airlines cur- tomer oriented, process based, quantitatively mea-
rently in bankruptcy. They all cite high fuel costs, sured (in some instances, at least) and designed to
wages and benefits as the primary causes—even drive continual improvement based on the plan-
though they all use the same fuel from the same do-check-act (PDCA) model.
sources and employ people from essentially the Subsequent efforts have endeavored to make
same labor markets as do those airlines not in QMSs more relevant and comprehensible by:
bankruptcy. • Adopting and deploying sector specific ver-
Bankruptcy raises the issue of sustainability—an sions (such as ISO/TS 16949 for the automo-
enterprise’s ability to survive and prosper in a tive industry, TL 9000 for telecommunications
rapidly evolving environment. Other airlines are and ISO 13485 for medical devices).
not only surviving but are prospering in the same • Disseminating industry specific guidelines—
environment. for example, International Organization for
More on this later because, based on a number of Standardization (ISO) guidelines for sectors
years of dealing with business operating systems such as construction, healthcare providers and
(called quality operating systems in the automotive educational institutions.
world), I have found myself constantly advising • Defining customer specific requirements.
clients that, in the end, sustainability of the enter- • Morphing into replicate systems that address
prise must be both the subject and object of quality other strategically critical areas of performance
management systems (QMSs). such as environment, health and safety, and
In Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance1 social and fiduciary responsibility, complete
(subtitled, aptly, “An Inquiry Into Values”), Robert with systems standards or regulations for each
Pirsig describes his discussion of quality and val- (ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001, SA 8000 and Sar-
ues as “a sort of Chautauqua …an old-time series banes-Oxley, respectively).

40 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


Unfortunately, this has misled organizations into The introductory comic opera of airline cus-
developing separately structured and documented tomer service is a prime example: an entire infra-
management systems, complete with distinct—and, structure of systems, procedures and resources,
frequently, unaligned—policies, objectives, proce- created ostensibly to enhance customer satisfaction
dures, redundant management review processes and create competitive advantage among the orga-
and internal audits for each. Surely this is an unin- nization’s most valued customers, does neither.
tended consequence for all involved, with the pos- Nor does the system incorporate mechanisms to
sible exception of certification bodies. capture, monitor and use the information gained
Second generation efforts are now underway in from primary customer interactions (both good
many organizations to try both to simplify and inte-
grate these systems, often involving substantial time
and expense. Logically, it would seem, an organiza-
tion can have only one functionally effective man-
Any expenditure of
agement system—the real one.
All this being said, based on my own experience,
resources that does not
I contend that quality and excellence are not a mat-
ter of QMS, per se, even when there is evidence an
generate value produces
effectively implemented, customer oriented QMS
might have materially contributed to reduced inci-
a net loss and impaired
dences of failure and customer dissatisfaction or
disaffection—competitive failures.
sustainability.
Likewise, the risks associated with environmen-
tal incidents, health and safety accidents, financial and bad) to analyze, understand and improve sys-
malpractices and even socially destructive prac- temic performance capability. And, at this point,
tices might be somewhat ameliorated by disci- we are considering only effects on commercial cus-
plined management system approaches to these tomer satisfaction.
features of enterprise performance. And, as
already noted, various international standards, Management Systems and
guidelines, laws and regulations exist to address Sustainability—the Relationship
these features. Needless to say, the essence of sustainability is
No argument, many organizations around the performance results— in the form of value and sat-
world conform to these criteria and standards— isfaction provided to customers, return provided to
and have the certificates to prove it. But do confor- investors, and enhancement of the wealth, welfare
mance and certification contribute to, let alone and well-being of employees and society. All of
ensure, the sustainability of the enterprise? Value these—when competitive—serve to ensure the sus-
to the customer? Return to the investor? Benefit to tainability of the enterprise.
the employees and the community? So how does all of this relate to management
systems? Actually, I think the proliferation of stan-
Beyond Conformance dards and methods for the various features of
To Improved Performance enterprise performance (for example, product and
This is not merely the old conformance-versus- service quality, cost and efficiency, environment,
performance QMS issue. It would be somewhat health and safety, social responsibility and fi-
tedious to further belabor the obvious—that confor- nances) suggests the answer: that an enterprise is a
mance to requirements for the sake of conformance system, functioning and operating in an environ-
is of minimal value as a customer or market require- ment. This environment is, essentially, a large and
ment at best and has a net negative impact on the complex group of external systems, each with a
organization more often than not in the long run. cohort of values, expectations and requirements:
A simple formula illustrates this point: Increased 1. Markets: customers and competitors in vari-
expenditure of resources with minimal, if any, ous regions and cultures.
improvement in performance results in less gener- 2. Investment: investors, markets, lenders and
ated value—for customers, investors, employees channels.
and society. In other words, any expenditure of 3. HR: employees (who are investing their lives,
resources that does not generate value produces a not just their treasure, in the enterprise), other
net loss and impaired sustainability. employers and the communities in which they live

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 41


OPINION

or operate in various regions, cultures and political involve conformance, nor does it prescribe specific
systems. processes, outcomes or evidence. Rather, it articu-
4. Vendors of goods and services, the supply lates “shoulds” deemed essential to developing and
chains they comprise and their own competi- continually improving a sustainable enterprise in a
tive environment. rapidly evolving environment by implementing
5. Governmental, regulatory and political sys- system based solutions, focusing on approaches to
tems. continually assessing the organization’s maturity
This brings us back to sustainability—which on a scale of values associated with sustainability,
turns out to be the focus of an ISO technical com- and continually assessing the organization’s envi-
mittee 176 committee draft (CD), ISO/CD 9004, ronment.
Managing for Sustainability—A Quality Management
Approach,2 currently in circulation for comment. ISO 9004’s Organizational Vision
I am introducing the draft at this point not to Where ISO 9001 requires determining and
report on it but to explore the way it seems to meeting customer requirements and continually
address the relationship between management improving customer satisfaction, the ISO 9004
systems and enterprise sustainability. draft envisions the enterprise employing mecha-
In its introduction, the draft asserts—without nisms that identify and understand “present and
much argument, I think—that organizations are future expectations and needs of defined stake-
increasingly accountable to: holders (including shareholders, managers,
• More environmentally and socially aware employees, customers, partners and society).”
shareholders. In part, according to the draft, these mechanisms
• Civil society in general. should assess competitive threats; threats and
• Employees. opportunities of emerging markets and products;
• Customers. and trends in customer needs and expectations.
• A variety of other stakeholders. In addition, according to the draft, the focus on
In this specific context, the document defines the organization environment should extend to the
sustainability as the “ability of an organization or following:
activity to maintain or develop its performance in • Current and changing legal and regulatory
the long term.” requirements.
Like ISO 9001, it describes a system based solu- • Evolving labor market conditions and issues.
tion incorporating the dynamic of the PDCA cycle, • Socio-economic and cultural trends that might
in which: come to bear on the organization.
• Plan addresses intent (mission, vision, strate- • Current and needed organizational capabilities.
gies and objectives, and the processes, structure • Practices to acquire learning and knowledge
and resources to ensure desired outcomes). from external organizations (for example, best
• Do involves the implementation of strategies, practices, products, technologies and system
processes and resources that are cohesively solutions).
linked and aligned with desired outcomes. While ISO 9001 speaks to analysis of data, the
• Check envisions monitoring and measurement ISO 9004 draft places enormous emphasis and
that assesses outcomes and provides information focus on application of and the learning to be
to enhance knowledge and decision making. achieved by sustained and disciplined analysis of
• Act involves corrections to achieve objectives; all recommended areas of monitoring and mea-
improvements to processes, products, struc- surement—internal and, in particular, external.
tures and systems; and (most particularly, Taken in its entirety, 9004 CD seems to me to
based on its emphasis throughout) innovation. aim for a systemic solution to the grail of the
Unlike ISO 9001, the ISO 9004 draft does not knowledge organization, (more honored in the

42 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


A Parable for Our Times
Circuit City recently announced it was firing some 3,400 of its most experienced sales
clerks (their term) and replacing them with lower paid staff.1 Too many people? No—too
highly paid. Terminations were based on specific wage rates. For example, if you made
more than exactly $X per hour, you were terminated, effective that day.
Don’t forget, by the way, that whatever these folks were being paid, it was planned and
approved by management. For many of the affected employees, the same manager who
approved their wage rate was now firing them for being paid too much.
Mostly, Circuit City sells high-tech electronics, such as plasma TVs, games, global posi-
tioning system navigation and home entertainment systems—in general, fairly pricey
agglomerates of inconceivably small microcircuitry.
In fact, when I toured Circuit City’s local big box store the other day, I realized that
while I’m not quite ready for the boneyard (I’ve got a 60GB iPod with some very current
cuts on it, too!), I’m geezer enough that I couldn’t even tell you what some of the gizmos
on display were—even after I read the tags.
So, given this, do you think I want to have some kid who has been there three months;
is paid minimum wage; has never heard of Betamax, cassette tapes or radio car phones;
and who would have no idea what to do with my gorgeous Girard turntable? Do you
think I want him to help me pick out a digital SLR camera or a digital camcorder?
More to the point, does the CEO of Circuit City—who reportedly was paid $713,000 in
salary last year with a $700,000 bonus, has $3 million in stock and $340,000 in options,
and who decided to lay off these $30,000 per year folks—think I’m going to risk my
money and memories on his nifty cost-cutting plan?
While his compensation package is fairly modest (only 40 times that of the employees,
not 400 times like that of some megacorporate CEOs), I would suggest he not bet $1 of it
on my deciding to buy electronics from Circuit City.
Imagine if Circuit City had engaged the most knowledgeable of its employees in an
effectively led program to find ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their
processes—processes the employees likely understood better than most of their man-
agers do—with concomitant ownership of the results of their efforts.
That’s what happens every day at every Toyota facility in the world. Toyota doesn’t fire
knowledge; it grows knowledge as a strategic imperative. And it harvests the fruits, to the
benefit of its customers, stockholders and employees.

REFERENCE

1. Associated Press, March 28, 2007.

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 43


OPINION

breach than the observance, I’m afraid) in which audit approach.


the planning and implementation of strategies, Finally, it seems to me, what matters is the suc-
processes and resources are the direct result of the cess of the enterprise in achieving its commercial
constant and disciplined gathering and analysis of purpose and that such success is sustainable. Thus,
internal and external information regarding per- to be of real value—to actually produce an accept-
formance, capability and improvement. able return for the long-term investment in effort
The planning and implementation occurs in the and resources such a system requires—a QMS
context of external information regarding customer must have this sustainability as both purpose and
and stakeholder values and strategically critical effect, for the well-being of all of the stakehold-
issues presented by a constantly changing environ- ers—customers, investors and employees, society
ment. and the environment.
This approach envisions an integrated, aligned, Real wealth generation is a product of sustain-
process based management system architecture able excellence. Accordingly, it is not produced
that comprehends the enterprise and its environ- quarterly, for the benefit of stock analysts, but over
ment in its entirety; one in which policies, objec- the long haul, for all of the stakeholders. That’s
tives, performance monitoring, strategic planning hard-nosed capitalism, but of the enlightened sort.
and resource allocation are predicated on knowl- So, an organization’s customer service activity
edge and innovation and consistently produce out- can tell you a lot about the long-term sustainability
comes that result in competitive advantage now of an enterprise. Frequent flyer miles anyone? I
and sustainability in the future. have a ton lying around.

Continual Improvement REFERENCES

The approach also provides constant and struc- 1. Robert Pirsig, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance,
tured self-assessment of and actions to improve William Morrow and Co., 1974.
enterprise sustainability in terms of: 2. ISO/CD 9004; ISO/TC 176/SC 2 N 787-1, International
Organization for Standardization, 2007.
• Monitoring and analyzing the organization’s
environment.
• Strategies, objectives, planning and communi- DAVID K. WATKINS is executive vice
cations. president and director of international
• Resources. operations for Omnex Inc., Ann Arbor,
• Processes. MI. He earned a bachelor’s degree in
• Measurements and analysis.
liberal arts from Widener University,
• Learning, improvement and innovation.
Chester, PA. His previous experience
Whether adopted as is or not, the draft points
includes general management, manu-
clearly to a paradigm shift in the essential nature
and purposes of QMSs, with a resultant seismic facturing, production, HR and distribution management in
shift in the fundamentals of QMS architecture and a variety of industries.
organizational ownership.
It’s arguable that with the comprehensive
nature—the maturity, if you will—of the assess-
ment envisioned in the ISO 9004 revision draft and Please
its focus on the culture and capability of the organi- comment
zation as a whole, ISO 9001 certification takes on a
If you would like to comment on this article,
very different cast, one more consistent with the
please post your remarks on the Quality Progress
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award or
Discussion Board at www.asq.org, or e-mail
European Foundation for Quality Management
examination and award approach than with the them to editor@asq.org.
present conformance and effectiveness in practice

44 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


SIX SIGMA

Six Sigma, Value


And Competitive
Strategy
by R. Eric Reidenbach and Reginald W. Goeke

must align, because it is at this level that the tools of Six

O
rganizations usually tell their Six Sigma advo-
cates to make sure their Six Sigma deployment Sigma can be most effectively applied.
is congruent with the organization’s strategy. This article outlines a framework and approach for
On the surface, this makes a lot of sense. However, aligning an organization’s Six Sigma initiatives with the
achieving congruency is often more complicated than it organization’s competitive strategy. First, however, we’ll
initially seems. review the three levels of strategy development in most
The key problem is that in many organizations there multilevel organizations to clarify why Six Sigma align-
are three levels of strategy: corporate, strategic business ment at the competitive level is most important.
unit (SBU) and competitive. The competitive strategy
level is where organizational strategy and Six Sigma Corporate Strategy Level
At the corporate strategy level, the key question fac-
ing planners is, “How do we, as an organization, grow?”
There are four basic options:
In 50 Words 1. Market penetration: selling current products to
Or Less current markets.
2. Market development: selling current products to
• Most organizations have three levels of strategy: new markets.
corporate, strategic business unit and competitive. 3. Product development: selling new products to cur-
rent markets.
• Six Sigma initiatives are the most useful at the 4. Diversification: selling new products to new mar-
kets.
competitive level. Six Sigma applied at this level lacks focus. Two things
are missing: the ability to clearly understand the voice of
• Listening to customers to determine what attributes the market and the ability to identify what products or ser-
contribute to value, then directing projects toward vices the customers are reacting to.

improving those attributes will set an organization SBU Strategy Level


ahead of its competitors. At the SBU or divisional level, the strategic question
is, “Where does the organization focus its resources?”

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 45


SIX SIGMA

But when organizations understand they are com- expanded view of targeted marketing must also
peting for a value advantage, the real question include processes such as those addressed by Six
becomes, “Where does the organization focus its Sigma initiatives. When focused on an organiza-
resources to enhance its value offering?” tion’s value creation and delivery processes, Six
Each SBU will have one or more product lines Sigma has the power to increase an organization’s
and serve one or more market segments. A good market share and profitability.1
way to look at this is to develop a product/market Organizations have a choice as to where and
(P/M) matrix, such as Figure 1. how they bring products or services to the market.
The vertical axis shows the SBU’s different prod- Each P/M has different competitors and success
uct lines—three in this case. Across the top of the criteria. It is incumbent on the organization to
matrix are the market segments that buy the prod- understand these competitors and success criteria
uct lines—four in this example. This means there better than any of its competitors do. These success
are 12 potential P/M combinations the SBU can criteria, generated from the voice of the market,
serve. If the organization is unable to serve all 12 become the critical to quality (CTQ) factors that
with equal effectiveness, the strategic challenge at will direct the organization’s Six Sigma initiatives
the SBU level is deciding which of these P/Ms to to achieve the desired strategic outcomes.
focus resources on.
To answer this question, the SBU must identify Competitive Strategy Level
strategic criteria to evaluate and prioritize the dif- The value an organization brings to the market-
ferent business opportunities each P/M offers. place is the best leading indicator of market share
These criteria might include: and profitability.2 An organization’s competitive
• Market share. strategy is its plan for enhancing its capacity to deliv-
• Margins. er value, thus increasing market share. Competitive
• Competitive intensity. strategy that focuses on value enhancement address-
• Market growth rate. es key questions such as:
• Size of market. • Where are the organization’s best opportuni-
Ideally, the organization would focus on a P/M ties for widening a value advantage or closing
with high margins, a mid to high range market a disadvantage?
share, a high market growth rate and low competi- • On what basis does the organization widen or
tive intensity. Each P/M represents a different close the value gap?
opportunity for the organization, and some will be • How does the organization get its best return
better than others. Many organizations that begin on investment for these efforts?
using P/M matrices discover they have been invest- Within this strategic realm, Six Sigma also is all
ing in P/Ms that will actually lose money for them. about value—either widening a value advantage
The investment decision about which P/Ms get over a competitor or closing a value disadvantage
which resources—a Six Sigma initiative being one to increase market share. Competitive strategy can
of those resources—depends on the quality of the detail a plan of where and how to deploy Six Sigma
opportunity as determined by the strategic crite- in its value enhancing role. This cannot be articulat-
ria. There’s no point in using Six Sigma resources ed clearly at the corporate or SBU strategy level—
in P/Ms that offer little, if any, economic value to only at the P/M, or competitive, level.
the organization. However, many organizations Value is also a strong predictor of loyalty,3 the dri-
waste valuable resources simply because they fail ver of repeat purchasing, recommendation and
to understand that the organization’s Six Sigma lower cost revenues. And, if strategy and Six Sigma
initiatives should be congruent with its strategy are to be responsive to the competitive nature of the
and that this is the level and point in the planning market, it is important to understand how the mar-
process in which the competitive strategy begins ket defines value and to use this information to
to take shape. If the strategy is flawed, so too will drive both competitive strategy and Six Sigma ini-
be the Six Sigma initiatives. tiatives.
This is the essence of expanded targeted market- Strategy concocted within the confines of the
ing. Traditionally, targeted marketing has focused boardroom is not strategic planning, but strategic
on price, promotion, product and distribution. An guessing. Competitive strategy, like Six Sigma, must

46 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


also respond to the marketplace and reflect its realities. FIGURE 1 A Generalize Product/Market Matrix
After specific P/Ms have been prioritized, the
strategic question becomes, “How does the organi-
Segment A Segment B Segment C Segment D Total
zation enhance the value it is providing the mar-
ket?” Answering this question requires a couple of
powerful tools. Product A
Competitive
Consider the value model shown in Figure 2. It is
value
a market based model that focuses on tractors sold Product B proposition
to farmers. This is the P/M that was identified as
strategically important to a large heavy equipment
manufacturer through an analysis of its P/M matrix. Product C
Farmers who use different brands of tractors
were surveyed by phone. They responded to ques- Total
tions designed to evaluate the performance of dif-
ferent competitors on numerous attributes related to
not only the products but also to issues of product
support, parts availability, service and sales. improving quality than it will by lowering price.
The questions were first asked during a series of The managerial side of the model provides direc-
three focus groups with farmers that were designed tion for improving the organization’s quality offer-
and conducted to identify how farmers talk about ing. Note that quality, as defined by the market,
quality and value in deciding to purchase tractors. transcends mere product quality and includes
Farmers were subsequently asked to rate the perfor- aspects of product support and distribution. The
mance of several tractor suppliers on each of the most important quality driver is dealer service
questions, and these ratings were used to generate (0.229), followed by two product related drivers,
the competitive value model. Such models, therefore, machine operation (0.189) and machine productivity
are empirically derived from end users’ ratings of (0.149), with the others identified in descending
performance. order of importance.
There are two parts to the value model: a predic- Because this is a market based model, the question
tive component and a managerial component. The arises of how the organization’s competitive value
predictive component conveys two pieces
of important information. First, the R2 tells
us how reflective the model is of the mar-
ketplace’s definition of value. R2 can range FIGURE 2 Competitive Value Model: Tractors/Agriculture
from 0 (no fit) to 1.00 (perfect fit). An R2 of
Dealer 0.229
0.863, as shown in Figure 2, means the
service
questions used in the telephone survey
were sufficient enough to account for Machine 0.189
operation
about 86% of how farmers define the value
of tractors. Machine 0.149 0.518
CQI
productivity
Second, the predictive component
Acquisition
addresses the interaction among the main Trial and 0.147 0.842 Value
0.824
Loyalty
training
drivers of value: customer quality index Retention
(CQI), image and price. Dealer 0.139
Image
0.101
Managers who do not systematically sales
listen to the voice of the market often rely Order and 0.074 0.634 Model fit: R2 = 0.863
on price reductions to increase value. delivery
Figure 2 indicates the most important dri- Machine 0.073 0.381
Price
ver of value is CQI (0.518), followed by reliability
price (0.381) and image (0.101). The orga- Managerial component Predictive component
nization, therefore, will get greater
returns from its value proposition by CQI = customer quality index

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 47


SIX SIGMA

proposition stacks up against its competitors’. This XYZ is the clear leader in value, making it also
is yet another aspect of the strategy question. the market share leader, and will want to maintain
Figure 3 shows the competitive value matrix for this overall leadership. Many managers would
this P/M. The competitive value matrix identifies simply congratulate themselves on this value
the value propositions for each of the major com- advantage and continue to monitor XYZ’s position.
petitors within the P/M and the value gaps among While keeping an eye on competitors is always
them. The two main drivers of value—CQI and advised, XYZ should leverage its strengths to actu-
price—form the two axes of the matrix. The four ally widen the value and market share gaps
quadrants of the matrix are formed by the inter- between itself and its competitors.
section of the market means on these two drivers. The quality drivers at the left of the value model
This information is taken directly from ratings on in Figure 2 (p. 47), such as dealer service and
the drivers identified in Figure 1 (p. 47). machine operation, represent the CTQs that drive
Competitors in the outstanding value quadrant, Six Sigma initiatives. These CTQs come from cus-
in this case XYZ, are those the market has identified tomers (focus groups) and are empirically derived
as providing superior quality at a highly satisfactory from ratings of competitors by end users in the
price—the definition of value. Their scores on CQI marketplace (surveys). Six Sigma initiatives should
and price are both above the market means. Out- identify and target links between the CTQs and
standing value competitors will have the greatest organizational processes for the explicit purpose of
market share, customers who are more likely to pur- enhancing their effectiveness and efficiency.6 These
chase tractors from the same manufacturer and links are required for aligning Six Sigma with com-
dealer, and customers who are most likely to recom- petitive strategy.
mend both the dealer and manufacturer to other In this case, XYZ identified an opportunity for
farmers. These customers are the least likely to enhancing value by improving its repair and ser-
switch to another brand when offered a lower price.4 vice processes for tractors. The strategy articulated
Competitors in the poor value quadrant—in this an action program for mapping three processes:
case competitors one, two and three—are those the the repair scheduling process, the process of parts
market has identified as providing inferior quality delivery to the service bays in the workshop and
in tractors and related services at highly unsatisfac- the repair process itself. After mapping those
tory prices. Their CQI scores and prices are below processes within the overall repair value stream,
the market averages. These competitors are market the team identified a number of ways to speed up
share laggards and cannot sustain their poor value one type of major tractor repair from an average of
positions without further loss of market share and seven days to three days. Costs per repair were
declining profitability. Customers of these compa- also reduced by 30%, and the savings were driven
nies are significantly less likely to recommend the to the organization’s bottom line. Market share for
dealer or manufacturer and less likely to buy again XYZ has also improved by 4% over two years.
from either.5 If your organization is either competitor one or
Companies in the discount relationship quad- two, you would more than likely choose challeng-
rant (none in this example) are judged by the mar- ing XYZ as your strategy. Challengers are typically
ket to be inferior in quality but with satisfactory closer to the leader and in a position to draw even
prices. The expensive relationship quadrant is with it or take the lead. In this case, the question
home to competitors (again, none in this example) facing a Six Sigma Black Belt is, “How does the
offering higher quality tractors at unsatisfactory organization address its weaknesses on the key
prices. The image scores for each competitor are quality drivers?”
listed just outside the matrix, accounting for the Competitor three is most likely in a position to
third dimension of value. follow XYZ. Followers realize that, because the
value gap is too large, they cannot challenge. They
Six Sigma and Value Gaps will instead choose to emulate XYZ and follow its
From a competitive strategy standpoint, organi- lead, making sure the value gap does not widen in
zations can do one of four things: lead, challenge, the short term. Here again, Six Sigma will focus on
follow or target a niche. the question, “How does the organization address

48 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


its weaknesses on the key quality drivers?” FIGURE 3 Competitive Value Matrix: Tractors/Agriculture
Those who tagerts niches realize they
High Expensive relationship Outstanding value Image
might not have the resources to compete
XYZ: 7.96
across the board from a product or service
Competitor 1: 7.63
level or might not have the capability to com- Competitor 2: 8.03
pete in all markets. In this example, they XYZ
Competitor 3: 7.24

Customer quality index


might have a more limited line of tractors or a
limited geographical presence. To prosper,
Competitor 2
nichers must focus their Six Sigma efforts on
processes that relate to their specific niche Competitor 1
opportunities and achieve a market position
that is unassailable.
Competitor 3
Six Sigma and Competitive
Strategy
No matter what an organization’s chosen Low Poor value Discount relationship
Low High
strategy is, Six Sigma can be instrumental in Price
achieving that strategy. In fact, it is hard to
divorce Six Sigma from the implementation and
deployment of a competitive strategy. Effective com- When an organization addresses the question “How do
petitive strategies are necessarily focused on value we compete?” and focuses that question on its targeted
gaps and are either designed to extend value leader- P/Ms, Six Sigma will be congruent with the organiza-
ship or to close the gap with a value leader. tion’s strategy. That kind of focus guarantees Six Sigma
In either case, the deployment of that strategy will help achieve the organization’s strategy and not be
will require a focus on the organization’s business squandered in areas that offer no real strategic advantage.
processes. The tools of Six Sigma are particularly
REFERENCES
effective for improving business processes. The
challenge lies in directing those tools toward 1. Donald W. Benbow and Tom M. Kubiak, The Certified Six
Sigma Black Belt Handbook, ASQ Quality Press, 2005.
improvements that will have a direct impact on
2. Bradley Gale, Managing Customer Value, Free Press, 1994.
value gaps. That requires aligning Six Sigma with
3. Frederick F. Reichheld, “The One Number You Need to
the organization’s competitive strategy. Grow,” Harvard Business Review, December 2003.
When applied in this manner, Six Sigma is not 4. R. Eric Reidenbach, Reginald W. Goeke and Gordon McClung,
just about cost reduction, although cost savings Dominating Markets With Value, Rhumbline Publishing, 2001.
might accrue as new processes become more effi- 5. Ibid.
cient. Rather, it is a tool or method directed by the 6. R. Eric Reidenbach and Reginald W. Goeke, Value-Driven
voice of the market and designed to enhance the Channel Strategy, ASQ Quality Press, 2005.
creation and delivery of value to that market for a
sustainable competitive advantage.
R. ERIC REIDENBACH is principal and founding partner of Market
Specific Six Sigma tools should be driven by the
Value Solutions in State College, PA. He has a doctorate in market-
customer value model to enhance value creation and
ing from Michigan State University and is co-author of Competing
delivery and market performance. Competitive strat-
egy organizes the Six Sigma focus and creates a series for Customers and Winning with Value: Breakthrough
of actions, the successful completion of which guar- Strategies for Market Dominance (ASQ Quality Press, 2005).
antees the efficacy of the overall strategy. These REGINALD W. GOEKE is principal and founding partner of Market
actions typically call for the Black Belt and quality Value Solutions. He received his doctorate from the University of
team to identify specific processes and focus attention
Illinois and is co-author of Competing for Customers and
on how to improve those processes. Targeted process-
Winning With Value: Breakthrough Strategies for Market
es can then be mapped, analyzed and improved to
Dominance (ASQ Quality Press, 2005). Goeke is a senior member
not only reduce costs, but also to en-hance the organi-
zation’s position in the targeted P/M. of ASQ.

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 49


MALCOLM BALDRIGE NATIONAL QUALITY AWARD

From One-Man
Show to Baldrige
Recipient
by Susan E. Daniels, editor at large

eceiving the Malcolm Baldrige National When the recipient starts out as a one-man service

R Quality Award is always a big deal—it’s


the highest U.S. presidential honor for
organizational performance excellence.
company 25-plus years ago and today has a work-
force of just 70, the award takes on even greater sig-
nificance. Such is the case with Mesa Products Inc.,
The Baldrige criteria for performance excellence which received the Baldrige award in the small busi-
are extremely rigorous, and evaluations by a team ness category in 2006, a year that brought a record
of examiners are followed by on-site visits to clari- number of award applicants—76—but produced
fy and verify information. only three recipients.
Back in 1979, Terry F. May, founder and current
president, was the “one” in one-man show. Today,
In 50 Words Mesa remains privately held, designing, manufac-
Or Less turing and installing cathodic protection systems
for underground piping, tanks and other metallic
• Mesa Products Inc. received a 2006 Baldrige award in structures.
the small business category. Cathodic protection is an electrochemical
method of controlling corrosion on underground
and submerged steel structures. The 60-year-old
• The ISO 9001 based quality management system at Mesa
technology remains the primary control for pro-
uses lean and Six Sigma. tecting the existing U.S. underground pipeline
infrastructure. Pipeline operators, oil and gas pro-
• Mesa’s customer satisfaction performance tops that of ducers, gas and electric utilities and underground
tank owners are among Mesa’s customers.
its competitors and greatly exceeds American Customer
Mesa’s corporate office and production facility
Satisfaction Index levels for energy utilities. are located in Tulsa, OK, with branch offices in
Houston, Los Angeles and Tallahassee, FL.

50 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


TRAINING: Mesa’s
Tulsa training field
is used to simulate
field conditions.

Based on ISO 9000 were lacking. The marketing value was relatively
Mesa’s performance improvement system is insignificant,” May says. “We upgraded to ISO
embedded and managed through its quality man- 9001 in 2003.”
agement system (QMS), primarily through ISO The ISO 9001 based QMS combines with the
9001 certification. The company uses several Baldrige criteria at Mesa to bind business processes
improvement processes built around methods in an integrated, aligned direction, resulting in
such as the plan-do-check-act
(PDCA) cycle, lean and Six Sigma’s
define, measure, analyze, improve FIGURE 1 Mesa’s Quality Management System
and control strategy.
Initially, Mesa registered to ISO Lean
ISO 9001 Baldrige
9002, the former version of ISO 9000 ACT
for service organizations, to show cus-
PDCA
tomers its quality focus. May says Manufacturing
Value creation

that back then Mesa was more inter-


processes

Marketing Sales Delivery Customer


ested in the standard’s external mar- Cathode
keting value than on internal protection
improvement. “At that time, none of services
our competitors were registered,” he
explains.
processes
Support

But Mesa was learning. “After Accounting, HR, supply chain management,
becoming registered, we quickly real- management information services
ized that the real value from ISO 9002
certification was internal, specifically
ACT = accurate, continuous improvement and timely
in developing the discipline that we
PDCA = plan-do-check-act

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 51


MALCOLM BALDRIGE NATIONAL QUALITY AWARD

performance excellence (see Figure 1, p. 51). The Crisis” was published in Materials Performance, a
quality policy called ACT, for accurate, continuous major publication of the corrosion control industry,
improvement and timely, describes Mesa’s approach in January 2004, and was presented at four major
to customer satisfaction. industry conferences and meetings.
The awareness campaign resulted in competitor
Dealing With a Threat benchmarking, through which Mesa demonstrated
Mesa’s quality processes came into play in a big significant quality variations among its five com-
way in December 2000 when a management review petitors. After user awareness had increased a year
revealed a key quality problem related to magne- later, the benchmarking was repeated and demon-
sium anode production. Magnesium anode accounts strated overall quality improvement (see Table 1).
for 30% of Mesa’s material revenues. Mesa’s actions were a key driver in improving
Quality problems with international raw materi- quality—not only its own quality but also that of
al sources were recognized. This culminated in the the entire industry, a factor that undoubtedly
development of a comprehensive quality assurance played a role when Baldrige examiners studied the
specification used as the basis for product acceptance. firm’s award application.
The program includes quarantine of truckload
purchases for about four weeks while lab tests are Baldrige Criteria
performed on randomly selected anodes. If a test Baldrige applicants are judged on seven business
anode fails, the entire truckload is rejected. criteria:
Over a 12-month period, more than 10,000 anode 1. Leadership.
deliveries were rejected and returned to suppliers. 2. Strategic planning.
Mesa worked successfully with its key supplier 3. Customer and market focus.
during this time to improve performance. 4. Measurement, analysis and knowledge man-
Unfortunately, the net result was an increasingly agement.
noncompetitive position, primarily because Mesa 5. HR management.
was incurring significant additional costs to ensure 6. Process management.
quality, while its end users were unaware of the 7. Business results.
quality problem and its significance.
To turn the threat into an opportunity, Mesa man- 1. Leadership: Because the cathodic protection
agement embarked on an industry awareness cam- industry is a relatively small, mature market, May
paign. An article titled “Magnesium Anode Quality says retention and growth of existing customer and

TABLE 1 Magnesium Anode Quality FIGURE 2 Customer Satisfaction Index Results


Improvement
100
2003 current 2005 current
Competitor
efficiency efficiency
90
Good

Mesa minimum
50.0% 50.0%
requirement
80
A 49.3% 55.6%
B 41.6% 29.1%*
70
C 12.1%* 57.1%
D 11.0%* 16.2%* 60
E 4.8%* 55.4% 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Mesa Best competitor ACSI energy utilities
F NA 55.1%
* denotes poor quality ACSI = American Customer Satisfaction Index

52 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


vendor relationships are critical to long-term suc-
cess. This means Mesa business practices must be
based on a foundation of trust, honesty and ethics.
Mesa demonstrates this philosophy to employ-
ees, customers, suppliers and the public through a
values statement in its strategic plan: “We conduct
our business with the highest integrity at all times.”
Standards of conduct are documented, reinforced,
monitored and measured.
Mesa’s Baldrige application notes that the result INSTALLATION: At left, a magnesium anode, the white object at
of its operations, services and products is a positive the bottom, is being connected by a wire to a pipe to prevent
impact on the environment and increased public external corrosion. At right, a cathodic protection system is being
safety. Compliance with all regulatory requirements installed prior to construction of an above-ground tank.
is ensured by a full time employee who is dedicated
to maintaining program documentation and ensur-
ing all training and safety requirements are met.
May has taken his leadership beyond Mesa. In shown in Figure 2. In 2006, Mesa led its top com-
2002, he was elected the first president of the petitor in all 17 of the customer satisfaction attrib-
NACE Foundation, an educational outreach orga- utes measured by a third party through a quarterly
nization of NACE International, previously known customized survey.
as the National Assn. of Corrosion Engineers. In addition, from 2002 to 2005, its overall level of
May then implemented Mesa’s process to devel- customer satisfaction increased from 80% to 88%,
op a strategic plan for the foundation. His leader- greatly surpassing its top competitor and the
ship abilities have led to his re-election to three American Customer Satisfaction Index of energy
more terms as president. May also is certified as an utilities, which had levels of approximately 73%.1
instructor of NACE cathodic protection courses. Perhaps more significant is Mesa’s focus on the
2. Strategic planning: “Mesa’s strategic plan is a development of ongoing, profitable relationships.
key tool because it has helped us focus on those areas From 2002 to 2005, key customer retention in-
that have the most importance to future success,” creased from 93% to 100%.
May says. “It forces you to identify the important Mesa systematically evaluates its customer satis-
things and then assists in providing the resources faction survey annually. A major initiative was
required to achieve targets. It helps prioritize. It pro- deployment of a customer relationship manage-
vides a long-term roadmap to communicate through- ment program for sales personnel to facilitate cus-
out the organization. I could go on and on.” tomer information gathering and sharing.
May provided a long list of improvement deci- The Mesa complaint system is incorporated into
sions that occurred as direct results of strategic the corrective and preventive action parts of its ISO
planning. A few of the many were: 9001 based QMS. Any external nonconformance
• Becoming ISO 9002 and later ISO 9001 certified. (NCR) closure requires May’s approval, and May
• Opening a Houston office. usually calls the affected customer personally to
• Expanding service operations. apologize.
• Pursuing the magnesium anode quality issue, 4. Measurement, analysis and knowledge man-
described earlier. agement: Four levels of performance measurement
• Adopting lean and the Baldrige criteria. systems are in place at Mesa: corporate, depart-
• Expanding magnesium production capacity ment, process and individual. These measurements
• Pursuing the exploration and production mar- are key drivers of decision making and innovation.
ket, specifically for the Texas natural gas field Corporate performance is primarily monitored
known as the Barnett Shale. through performance projection to annual and
3. Customer and market focus: Mesa’s customer long-term goals, monthly report cards, monthly
satisfaction index results from 1999 to 2005 are financial results, annual management reviews

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 53


MALCOLM BALDRIGE NATIONAL QUALITY AWARD

Tulsa undergo at least eight hours of classroom


training in lean.
When asked how Mesa has managed to never
have a planned workforce reduction, May re-
sponded, “Probably more luck than anything.
Although we’ve had situations in our 28-year his-
tory where conditions haven’t been great, we’ve
been able to make the necessary adjustments by
other means, including attrition. I wouldn’t go so
far to say we’ll never have a planned workforce
reduction, but it will be a last resort.”
May says this is important because of the mes-
sage sent to employees. “If workforce reduction is
PRODUCT ASSEMBLY: Mesa employees assemble impressed a regular management tool,” he explains, “it will
current anodes. be extremely difficult to develop loyalty, empower-
ment and all the other traits of a positive culture.”
6. Process management: Mesa employees view
and annual financial results. quality and process improvement (see Figure 1,
An improvement identified from a previous p. 51) as an integral part of their jobs. The PDCA
Baldrige site visit was the development of long-term cycle is Mesa’s basic improvement process, and
performance projections, which identify 33 metrics lean is its primary improvement method.
balanced across Mesa’s key strategic objectives. Lean concepts incorporate cross departmental
Each operating group has customized perfor- teams in organizing processes in cooperative, inno-
mance metrics that drive group performance and vative ways. Mesa uses lean as a multistep process
are aligned with Mesa’s strategic plan and bal- that involves mentoring, facilitation, knowledge
anced across key strategic goals. transfer and joint implementation. May says lean
Process performance is measured using the met- concepts provide the flexibility to keep processes
rics listed on the monthly report card and include: current with business needs.
three-day shipments, on-time shipments, customer As Mesa’s major strategic goals were developed,
affected NCRs and total NCRs. the logical fallout was the determination of key
Quarterly documented individual performance
assessments consist of questions
aligned and balanced across Mesa’s
five key strategic objectives. TABLE 2 Lean Event Results—Sales Order Entry
5. HR management: While lean
methods play a major role at Mesa, Percentage
Parameter Before After
lean does not mean that Mesa con- improved
stantly adjusts the size of its work- Total lead time, hours 5.6 3.9 30%
force based on seasonal demand for Total cycle time, minutes 24 24 0%
its products and services. May Value added ratio 7% 10% 43%
believes the firm’s employee assets Error rate, inquiries per day 12 6 50%
are too valuable to reduce in slow Orders in process 30 20 33%
periods then not be available in
busy periods. Project goals: to improve consistency, quality and speed of the sales order
processing sequence from customer contact to start of production.
In fact, lean has become Mesa’s
Waste eliminated: walking, multiple handling, redundant copies, checking
approach to involving employees in orders, unclear work instructions, amendments and reprinting, and errors.
improving the work environment Major outcomes of this event included the development of two uniform
while also improving organizational product identification codes.
performance. Mesa employees in

54 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


business processes: marketing, sales, manufactur-
ing, cathodic protection services and delivery.
The area in which Mesa has seen the most dra-
matic improvements is its magnesium anode
assembly area, according to May. “Due to continu-
ing growth, we are now in the midst of a major
expansion project in this area,” he says. “We are
using lean principles, resulting in a complete
redesign and layout.”
May says this expansion will double capacity
without adding space or people. “Key points of the
design include an almost complete shift from batch
production to continuous flow, even though our
orders are heavily skewed to small quantity, high
mix,” he says. “Our production people are heavily
involved in the project, resulting in ownership of FOUNDER AND PRESIDENT: Terry F. May
the results.”
7. Business results: One area in which Mesa has
achieved world-class levels of performance is that
of one-time shipments. Since 1997, results in this owned, making it difficult for Mesa to measure its
area have gone from 94% to 97.5%, reaching levels market performance, Mesa has had to come up
that compare to those of previous Baldrige award with unique research methods to compare its sales
recipients (see Figure 3). growth to the growth of its market. This research
Mesa’s Baldrige application also reveals return reveals Mesa’s sales growth has resulted largely
on equity that outperforms industry norms and its from taking market share from its competitors—
competitors’ results. Its financial health is suffi- primarily because of poor performance by a key
ciently stable that it can maintain consistent opera- competitor.
tions even during years that are less profitable than Lean kaizen events have led to major waste reduc-
anticipated. tion and productivity improvement. One such event
Because most of its competitors are privately improved the sales order entry process. The impres-
sive results of this effort are shown in Table 2.
Mesa employees have been well rewarded
for these successes. They receive 35% of
FIGURE 3 On-time Shipments annual net pretax profits through a profit-
sharing program. Since 2000, this payment
100% has ranged between 5 and 15% of their
annual salaries.
98% No wonder 69% of Mesa’s employees say
they’re highly satisfied with their jobs, com-
96%
pared to an industry norm of 44%. The result
Good

94% has been creation of a stable work environ-


ment and the team based culture May con-
92% siders vital to Mesa’s business success.
90% NOTE
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
1. American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI),
Mesa MBNQA #1 MBNQA #2 MBNQA #3 MBNQA #4 www.theacsi.org. The ACSI is produced by a part-
nership of ASQ, the University of Michigan and CFI
MBNQA = Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
Group.

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 55


QUALITY IN THE
FIRST PERSON

Continual Innovation and Reinvention


by Russ Westcott

here is often a pattern to one’s three-year financial training program Stamford, CT, chapter.

T work life, a pattern that might


not have been immediately evi-
dent or intended. Call it an inclination
(FTP), did three job rotations and
affirmed I didn’t want a career in
finance. I transferred to the machine
After a brief entrepreneurial venture
(data processing services for small
businesses), I returned to the corpo-
that ultimately morphs into a strategic accounting unit of the manufacturing rate world as assistant manager of
plan. plant, where I soon became the super- CIT Financial’s 600-person data pro-
My business adventures began as a visor. Working closely with manage- cessing center. In this role, I estab-
9-year-old door-to-door candy sales- ment, I reorganized the unit and lished a management development
man for two summers. Newspaper streamlined its procedures. program and aided the transition to a
deliverer, dishwasher, short order mainframe computer.
cook, window dresser, and file and Next, I moved to TRW Systems
mailroom clerk followed. I thanked Group (Los Angeles), a matrix type
these after-school jobs for exposing me Sometimes, it’s best organization, as a functional manager
to the kind of work I didn’t want to do. responsible for training, development
In the mid-1940s, I worked for a
not to start with a plan. and deployment of 150 systems and
small insurance company, where I programming professionals for com-
rotated from job to job, making process puter based projects. In this role I re-
improvements along the way. My Following FTP graduation, I joined engineered the hiring process for
assignment in the machine accounting a 50-person plant relocation task high-demand systems professionals,
unit was especially significant. Thus force. I participated in the selection of shortening the cycle time from three
began my inclination to spot areas for a Virginia site and designed the new months to less than two weeks.
improvement and initiate change. data processing center. I moved to A year later, I became an internal
In a U.S. Navy boot camp, ignoring Virginia, established a training facility, management systems consultant with
advice to never volunteer for any- and became the manager of data pro- 10 employee relations offices as my
thing, I became the clerk of our 120- cessing, reporting to the finance vice clients.
man company. This experience president. I moved back East to become an
afforded me perks and an opportunity To develop job candidates for the internal consultant with Consolidated
to improve the record keeping. Virginia operation, I sold the local Edison (ConEd) of New York, where I
Reporting to my first ship just after business college president on offering facilitated numerous process improve-
the end of World War II, I was a data processing curriculum for ments for the employee relations and
assigned to chipping paint. Feeling which I would serve as instructor. information services departments.
this was a waste of my capabilities, I Meanwhile, I was elected president of Most notably, I established the long-
requested an office job. the local chapter of the National running Mini-Scule, a lunchtime
After a brief demonstration of my Machine Accountants Assn. school to train and educate in-house
typing skills, I was allowed to “strike” Within two years I transferred to staff. I also conducted organizational
(apprentice) for a yeoman (secretary) GE’s Defense Systems Division assessments and led a project team in
position in the captain’s office. After (Syracuse, NY) to manage the conver- developing a corporate business
16 months I had progressed from sea- sion of accounting systems to a main- model.
man to yeoman third class and served frame computer. Following this, I
aboard three ships in both the Pacific transferred to GE Credit Corp.’s A Move to HR
and Atlantic oceans, before an honor- northeast operations center as manag- As a result of my improvements to
able discharge. I made several innova- er of data processing. My task was to the personnel function of ConEd’s
tive changes during this brief period. stabilize an out-of-control punch card 2,000-person Westchester Division, I
operation and manage the transition became the division’s director of HR.
Punch Card Pursuits to a mainframe computer. In reorga- In this role, I rebuilt the HR func-
Pursuing my interest in the growing nizing the operation, I instituted sev- tion with more effective processes
field of punch card data processing, I eral approaches now under the lean and more focus on training and con-
became an IBM machine operator in a umbrella, such as spaghetti charting, sulting to operating units. I became
large insurance company. A year later process mapping and 5S practices. active in the American Society for
I began designing punch card sys- Following that, I moved on to man- Training and Development, ultimate-
tems. During this time, I married and age the systems development and ly forming and leading a Westchester
earned a business degree at night programming unit. During this time, I chapter. I also served as vice chair of
from Boston University. became president of the Data Junior Achievement for Westchester
I enrolled in General Electric’s (GE) Processing Management Association’s County and taught management

56 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


courses at Fairfield (CT) and Pace manager of quality/organizational excellence Please
(NY) universities. (CMQ/OE). Westcott is on the executive board comment
ConEd’s Westchester Division sore- of the Thames Valley Section, CT. He is editor of
ly needed a major culture change and the CMQ/OE Handbook and the author of If you would like to comment on
Simplified Project Management for the this article, please post your remarks
quality improvement. I initiated and
Quality Professional and Stepping Up To
managed a divisionwide performance on the Quality Progress Discussion
ISO 9004:2000. Westcott recently received the
improvement project (PIP). Over a ASQ Testimonial Award for “leadership and Board at www.asq.org, or e-mail
three-year period, the PIP enabled the distinguished service” to Section 308. them to editor@asq.org.
division to move from last place on
the division scorecard to far ahead of
all divisions.
In addition to achieving a positive
organizational culture, quality of ser-
vices and customer satisfaction
improved dramatically. The PIP gen-
erated a documented return on invest-
ment of more than $1 million (1976
dollars).
With this accomplishment, I chose
to again become an independent
entrepreneur. From 1979 to the pre-
sent my roles have continued to
evolve. I’ve been an ISO 9000 quality
management systems consultant, a
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality
Award trained examiner for a state
award program, an organizational
performance improvement consul-
tant, a project management consul-
tant, a career change coach and writer.
I’ve also been active in ASQ as a sec-
tion volunteer and a certified manager
of quality/organizational excellence
refresher course instructor.
I’ve enjoyed multiple careers, indus-
tries and positions. Even though rela-
tively new to ASQ (1991) I’ve long
used many of the now popular quali-
ty methods and tools, under different
names or no names. At the time I
joined TRW, my inclination became
my strategic plan—to turn every posi-
tion, regardless of the title, into a con-
sulting role.
After 60-plus years of multifaceted
experience, I achieved ASQ fellow sta-
tus. My modus operandi is to continu-
ally innovate and reinvent myself to
embrace new opportunities and
increase enjoyment in what I do. For
me, it’s never too late.

RUSSELL T. WEST-
COTT is president of
R.T. Westcott and Asso-
ciates and the Offerjost-
Westcott Group in Old
Saybrook, CT. He is an
ASQ fellow and a certi-
fied quality auditor and

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 57


3.4 PER
MILLION

How to Identify and Select


Lean Six Sigma Projects by Douglas P. Mader

L
ean Six Sigma is a powerful ing related to the restructuring or modeling in the strategic planning
method for improving existing divestiture of existing business step, an analysis likely will have
products, processes and services. lines, as well as the addition of identified where the line of business
Six Sigma was developed by Motorola new business lines. (LOB) falls with respect to market
in 1987. Motorola’s Six Sigma yielded • Performance audit: Perform an growth and competitive position. The
significant financial results and assessment of the organization in intent is to determine an effective
became popular with many other terms of capabilities and financial strategy for a particular LOB based on
companies, even though Six Sigma strength. the rate of market growth and the
was practiced without the benefit of competitive position for the LOB.
the define, measure, analyze, improve For example, if a particular LOB has
and control (DMAIC) strategy, Black Success is often based a strong competitive position in a fast
Belts (BBs), or a defined project selec- growing market, the management
tion process. on completing four team for the LOB might emphasize
In the mid-1990s, consultants intro- product development over operations
duced the method to Allied Signal prerequisites. improvement. On the other hand, a
and General Electric (GE), tying particular LOB with a weak competi-
improvement to bottom-line financial tive position in a slow market might
performance. GE and other organiza- • Gap analysis: Compare the cur- require extensive focus on improving
tions refined the Six Sigma method rent performance with the desired the cost structure through lean Six
and focused on identifying and select- state to create a list of gaps. Sigma. For other scenarios, the im-
ing key projects, as well as adapting • Integrating action plans: Create provement strategy should be suited
operations-based Six Sigma to service and implement a detailed plan to to the optimization of each specific
and transactional processes. accomplish the strategies of the LOB relative to its strategic goals.
One way to improve the deployment organization and close any gaps.
of lean Six Sigma is to improve how • Contingency planning: Develop Prerequisite Three: Understand
lean Six Sigma projects are identified contingency plans to account for The Policy Deployment System
and selected. The typical approach to potential market changes, compet- The third step is to integrate the
lean Six Sigma project identification itive pressures and other scenarios action plans into the policy deploy-
and selection is heavy on selection tech- that might affect the strategic plan ment system. Policy deployment is a
niques but light on identification tech- and the organization’s ability to general reference to goal based plans
niques. There are four prerequisites to a execute it. cascaded throughout the various lev-
well executed lean Six Sigma project • Implementation: Deploy the plan els of the organization. Hoshin plan-
identification and selection process. throughout the organization via ning, management by objective and
cascaded goals, quantifiable per- other terms are varied implementa-
Prerequisite One: Understand formance measures and clearly tions of policy deployment.
The Strategic Plan identified owners and timeframes. Successful implementation of policy
The first step in understanding how As part of action planning, organiza- deployment involves:
to identify and select lean Six Sigma tions should launch strategic thrusts to • Setting high-level goals, targets,
projects is to ensure you are complete- close perceived gaps. Typically, strate- timeframes and owners based on
ly familiar with your organization’s gic thrusts are initiatives with clear the action plans from the strategic
strategic plan. A typical strategic charters and budgets, led by senior plan.
planning process will involve the fol- executives and involve clear account- • Setting functional and departmen-
lowing steps: ability. Strategic thrusts might be broad tal goals, targets, timeframes and
• Planning to plan: Create a or specific, depending on the perceived owners based on cascading the
roadmap to accomplish the strate- gaps. Lean Six Sigma, Six Sigma, high-level goals to the local level.
gic plan. design for Six Sigma and their various • Integrating the local goals into
• Values scan: Assess the interests permutations are all strategic thrusts. performance plans for individuals
of the stakeholders. and teams.
• Mission formulation: Use the Prerequisite Two: Align, • Doing regular performance re-
stakeholders’ input to formulate a Improve Efforts With Strategy views for high-level and local goal
mission statement. The second step is to understand achievement.
• Business modeling: Create a how improvement activities should be • Integrating performance to goals
viable business model, including aligned with the action plans found in in the bonus structure for man-
cultural considerations and fund- the strategic plan. As part of business agement.

58 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


Prerequisite Four: Understand Then the key L1 processes will be bro- • Brainstorm all potential improve-
Core Business Processes ken down so key L2 processes can be ment opportunities.
Every organization operates in identified. A typical lean Six Sigma • Rank and prioritize all potential
some form as a system that converts project then will address a sequence improvement opportunities based
inputs (transactions, information or of work steps within one or more L2 on risk/return/goals.
raw materials) into outputs desired by processes. • Communicate the results of the
customers (a product or service). The ranking activity and seek consensus.
Project Identification and • Launch lean Six Sigma projects
organization will attempt to define
Selection Process based on the priorities.
processes to create the desired out-
come for customers and ostensibly Champions, Master Black Belts After becoming familiar with the
document those processes. (MBBs) and BBs can and should fol- process, the Champion is expected to
To clarify how to look at process low a structured method for identify- lead these steps for the organization
performance for opportunities for ing, prioritizing and selecting lean Six on a regular basis.
improvement, the following terms Sigma projects. Initially, the responsi-
bility of a Champion in the project Champion’s Role Is Integral
apply:
• Level one (L1) process: A core identification and selection process is The role of a lean Six Sigma Cham-
business process that corresponds to assist a trained MBB to execute the pion is varied and diverse depending
to a business function and has following steps: on the size of the organization and the
accounting traceability. • Review the strategic plan. scope of the lean Six Sigma deploy-
• Level two (L2) process: A sub- • Understand the high-level goals ment. The DMAIC method does not
process of an L1 process that and targets for the organization. come without the risk of failure, but it
involves a distinctly related • Compare desired performance is a very successful and proven
sequence of process steps. with actual performance for the approach to solving problems and opti-
• Work steps: A logical work unit of organization. mizing process performance. The suc-
an L2 process that involves a • Understand the local or depart- cess of lean Six Sigma projects often
sequence of work tasks and is per- mental goals and targets for all hinges on the Champion’s ability to
formed by a person or a small business functions. resolve organizational issues and man-
team. • Compare the desired performance age risks to the project, including:
Figure 1 shows an example of the with the actual performance for • Funding.
use of the terms. each business function. • Time.
The typical approach to identifying • Identify key L1 processes based on • Staffing.
opportunities for improvement is to risk/return/goal analysis. • Customer relations.
first understand what the key L1 • Understand key L2 processes based • Project size and complexity.
processes are within the organization. on risk/return/goal analysis. • Overall structure.

FIGURE 1 Process Performance Decomposition Example

Widget line of business (Level one: core business processes)

Market Concept Widget Process Order End of


research generation development development fulfillment life

Order fulfillment (Level two: subprocess)

Receive Schedule Make Prepare Ship Pay


order production widget shipment widget suppliers

Work steps

Ensure Ensure Check tax ID Enter


Retrieve Validate Enter auto- Mail
invoice is supplier in and mailing payment
invoice signatures payment payment
complete database address in logbook

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 59


3.4 PER
MILLION

• External factors. Champion responsibilities do not should not only look back at preceding
• Dependencies among projects. end after projects have been selected. activities, but also look ahead for the
Most of these risks can be addressed— The Champion is also responsible for successful execution of upcoming
and possibly alleviated—by having a ensuring that each lean Six Sigma pro- phases.
well-run project identification process, ject has a solid plan, buy-in for the A well-trained MBB should assist the
communicating the priorities of the required resources, and effective man- Champion before and during the pro-
organization, communicating the agement. The Champion is also re- ject reviews. The BB will be well
potential lean Six Sigma projects, and sponsible for running effective project versed in the technical tools, but it is
building consensus among the key reviews at the end of each phase of the the responsibility of the Champion to
stakeholders. DMAIC process. Project reviews enable sufficient resources and remove
organizational roadblocks that might
stall the project.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Askin, R.G., and J.B. Goldberg, Design and


Analysis of Lean Production Systems,
Wiley, 2002.
Dennis, Pascal, Lean Production Simplified:
A Plain Language Guide to the World’s
Most Powerful Production System, Pro-
ductivity Press, 2002.
Keyte, Beau, and Drew Locher, The
Complete Lean Enterprise: Value Stream
Mapping for Administrative and Office
Processes, Productivity Press, 2004.
Liker, J. K., The Toyota Way: 14 Management
Principles From the World’s Greatest
Manufacturer, McGraw-Hill, 2004.
Ruffa, S.A., and M.J. Perozziello, Breaking
the Cost Barrier: A Proven Approach to
Managing and Implementing Lean Man-
ufacturing, Wiley, 2000.
Womack, James P., and Daniel T. Jones,

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comment
If you would like to comment on
this article, please post your remarks
on the Quality Progress Discussion
www.infinityqs.com 1.800.772.7978
Board at www.asq.org, or e-mail
them to editor@asq.org.

60 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


CAREER
CORNER

Full-Time Quality Manager


Or Part-Time Quality Consultant?
by Diane G. Kulisek

A
s companies become leaner summarized my own thoughts along part of and understand an organiza-
and the workforce becomes with extractions from insights shared tion’s culture. This connects them
older, it seems the use of high- by others, and now I seem to have with other employees in ways that
ly qualified quality assurance consul- arrived at a better understanding of can make their ability to complete
tants would be an attractive the considerations. necessary tasks more effective and
alternative to hiring full-time regular efficient as well as less invasive than
quality managers. Full-Time Quality Managers that of a temporary or part-time con-
In fact, in 2005 surveys of business There are several reasons an organi- sultant.
leaders, more than 50% of respondents zation might favor hiring a full-time Internal accountability. Full-time
reported using consultants as perfor- quality manager: employees must live with the long-
mance management resources.1 Unquestioned obedience. Hiring term, in-house consequences of their
But, according to the participation actions and generally cannot behave
in Quality Progress’ annual salary sur- in ways that would be considered
vey from 2001 through 2006, the per- inappropriate by their co-workers
centage of consultants that makes up without jeopardizing their liveli-
the quality workforce appears essen- Which is best for hoods.
tially unchanged at about 3% while your organization On-site presence. If the need to
the percentage of participants who are quickly perform a task (such as pro-
quality managers is also unchanged at and why? vide support for an unannounced on-
about 25%.2 site audit by a customer or regulatory
This lack of increased quality con- representative) arises unexpectedly, the
sultant representation does not seem immediate on-site presence of a full-
to make much sense, so I am inclined managers could believe they have time employee could be a significant
to let my personal experience trump more leverage over a full-time quality advantage over an off-site, part-time
the statistics a bit. manager because of perceived exclu- consultant, who might take additional
Two years ago, I decided it might be sive control over the regular employ- time to respond or arrive on site.
a good time to build a private quality ee’s livelihood. This can be especially Shared liability. Organizational
consulting practice. It was not a light- important when unquestioned obedi- insurance will typically cover liability
ly made decision, but the outcome has ence is an essential factor for a hiring expenses incurred by employee deci-
been disappointing. manager’s success. sions but not those incurred as a result
I could take it personally, but I have Acceptance of nonquality related of decisions made by consultants or
enough evidence to believe the issue tasks. Full-time employees can be contractors. Consultants or contractors
is not personal. It would be reason- asked to perform tasks outside of might not have adequate insurance to
able to assume a technical profession- their basic job descriptions, while con- cover their own decisions. This could
al’s marketing skills might be lacking, sultants are limited to tasks described require a leap of faith in a hiring man-
but I have checked off everything on within their contracts. ager’s signing off on documented out-
my carefully prepared list of “guerril- Youthful enthusiasm. Entry-level, puts from a consultant on behalf of the
la” marketing tactics,3 participated in full-time quality managers tend to organization (consultants typically
Institute of Management Consultants4 bring youthful enthusiasm to the table will not sign internal documentation).
meetings and effectively completed and can be a great match for a start-up
the SCORE5 course on starting one’s operation’s culture. Part-Time Quality Consultants
own business. I also assertively Tribal knowledge. Entry-level, full- There are also many good reasons
tapped SCORE mentors and fellow time employees can grow with a com- to hire a part-time quality consultant:
owners of quality consulting firms for pany and its products, providing Independent objectivity. Hiring
guidance. continuity. They can also serve as a managers usually do not have ex-
Most recently, I asked for help in repository for undocumented archival clusive control over a consultant’s
understanding what might be going company and product history. livelihood. This can be especially
on from those in my online profes- Insider intelligence. Full-time helpful when the consultant’s objec-
sional network. 6 I’ve combined and employees tend to learn, become a tivity and independence from poten-

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 61


CAREER
CORNER

tial manipulation by a senior manager the ability of the consultant to secure specific reason, the low probability of
is perceived as essential to satisfying a new clients. success should be clearly acknowl-
business need. External credibility. The mutual edged in the contract and a provision
Focused effort. Part-time consul- respect established through a consul- made for the consultant to be paid
tants are much less susceptible to tant’s long-term working relation- regardless of outcome.
becoming distracted by tasks other ships with major customers or Trial by fire. This is the “try before
than those described in their contracts regulators can be advantageous when you buy” concept of hiring a quality
and are better able to stay focused on the consultant is brought in to sup- consultant. Short-term use of quality
completing critical objectives. If there port tasks involving those customers consultants willing to consider
are effective incentives for providing or regulators. becoming regular employees could be
agreed on deliverables ahead of Proven decision maker. Consul- a method of screening candidates for
schedule and under budget, a consul- tants must be highly vigilant about the that elusive right fit. This beats the
tant could be the key to more timely risks associated with decisions they potential expense of recruiter commis-
and cost-effective completion of criti- are recommending. Consultants rely sions, competitive salaries, relocation
cal projects. and build on a track record of effective costs and separation expenses when
Entrepreneurialism. Seasoned qual- past decisions to gain and maintain untried quality managers don’t work
ity consultants are entrepreneurs who the confidence of those acting on their out after being hired.
have had to learn to effectively man- recommendations.
age risk to survive. They can be a great Cost management. When budget What’s Really Happening
match for a bureaucratic organization constraints prevent the addition of reg- Because there are advantages both
striving to reconnect with entrepre- ular employees, consultants can be to hiring a full-time quality manager
neurialism by better managing risk brought in under a separate profes- and hiring a part-time quality consul-
within its own culture. sional services budget. Consultants can tant, I would have to conclude that,
Change agent. The value of a con- be contracted with on a project basis or all things being equal, there should be
sultant’s ability to be objective and on the basis of specific deliverables. equal demand for both types of pro-
free of inappropriate influence by a Stress relief. The documentation fessionals. But, this is not the case, so
senior executive has already been required to establish an effective qual- all things are not equal.
noted. Add to this the natural detach- ity management system (QMS) or to From my experience, I suspect reg-
ment of a consultant from the influ- periodically audit it comprehensively ular full-time senior quality managers
ence of informal or pre-existing can be far beyond that required to with recent work histories indicating
cultural biases. Consultants can work support a QMS on a day-to-day basis. organizational changes every year or
to overcome complacency and resis- A quality consultant can be the best two are actually performing as quali-
tance to change without the burden of short-term solution. ty consultants without being recog-
having to maintain pre-existing rela- Body of knowledge expertise. nized as such—by either themselves
tionships with employees who might Adding or bringing new bodies of or others.
otherwise be obstacles. knowledge or skill sets into an organi- It would certainly be difficult for a
Troubleshooter. Unlike regular zation can require comprehensive small or even medium-size organiza-
employees, consultants cannot rely on expertise or training tailored for many tion to justify the ongoing expense of
tribal or archival knowledge for their levels. Expert quality consultants in a high performing quality practition-
success. So, consultants are generally areas such as auditing, process er after all its QMSs are humming
quick to identify and recommend improvement, problem solving, regu- along on near autopilot, the work-
solutions for situations in which an latory affairs or risk management are force is trained and competent, con-
organization has become vulnerable typically the best resources for achiev- tinual improvement has become a
due to missing or inadequate proce- ing effective initial training and self-maintaining way of doing busi-
dures, ineffective training, or business implementation. Expert consultants ness, and the customers are pretty
requirements that have changed but can also ensure continuity of new con- much delighted.
have not yet been properly assimilat- cepts by training future in-house What used to be termed quality
ed into the organization’s way of trainers and performing periodic management “job hoppers” might
doing business. retraining to keep the knowledge base actually be members of a new breed
External accountability. Consul- state-of-the-art. of transient, quasi-consultant, quality
tants rely on endorsements from pre- Blame bearer. If a project has a low practitioner “special forces” who go
vious and existing clients to attract probability of success, you can better where they are most needed, do what
new ones. Consequences for inappro- ensure potential project success and most needs doing and then move on
priate behavior by a consultant almost have somebody else to blame if the to the next organization in crisis.
immediately extend beyond the orga- project fails by hiring a qualified con- The cause of hiring decisions over-
nization for which the consultant is sultant. Out of fairness to the consul- whelmingly in favor of full-time qual-
working and can significantly impact tant, when one is hired for this ity managers might be as simple as a

62 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


general lack of understanding about pub/qualityprogress/salary_survey/index.html. Cosmetic Division, ASQ Region Seven (the
3. Jay Conrad Levinson and Michael W.
the benefits of hiring part-time quali- Southwest), and ASQ San Fernando Valley
McLaughlin, Guerrilla Marketing for Consultants,
ty consultants in some situations or John Wiley & Sons, 2005. Section 706. She holds ASQ certifications as a
the failure to properly identify this 4. Institute of Management Consultants, manager of quality/organizational excellence and
www.imcusa.org.
possible new breed of quasi-consul- quality engineer.
5. SCORE: Counselors to America’s Small
tants. Business (SCORE previously stood for “Senior
My recommendation is that organi- Corps of Retired Executives”). SCORE works
closely with the Small Business Administration
zations consider all their quality lead- (www.sba.gov). SCORE’s website is www.
ership options in relation to their score.org.
6. LinkedIn is an invitation only professional
overall strategic quality objectives. network at www.linkedin.com.
These options should include regular
full-time quality managers, part-time
or temporary quality consultants and
DIANE G. KULISEK of
some solutions in between, such as
the quasi-consultant quality practi-
Simi Valley, CA, is presi- Please
dent of CAPAtrak LLC comment
tioner special forces.
and an independent quality
If you would like to comment on
management consultant,
writer and motivational this article, please post your remarks
REFERENCES AND NOTES
speaker. She holds a mas- on the Quality Progress Discussion
1. Steve Wnuk and Rochelle Dickinson, 2005
ASQ market research results presented at the ter’s degree in engineer- Board at www.asq.org, or e-mail
ASQ Board of Directors meeting, February 2006. ing management from California State University, them to editor@asq.org.
2. Annual salary surveys published in
December issues of Quality Progress from 2001
Northridge. Kulisek is a senior member of ASQ
through 2006 can be found at www.asq.org/ and active with the ASQ Food, Drug and

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throughout the development of the project. Work actively with the
your first-person account related to many organizations and projects in the Laboratory to establish,
maintain and improve processes and procedures and support
quality—how or why you got into the specific projects to ensure their success.
field, how it helped your organization MS or PhD in Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering,
Electrical Engineering, Industrial Engineering or Physics with 7 +
or your career or how it’s enhanced
years of experience. Experience with establishing, maintaining,
your personal life. Limit your contribu- and complying with quality systems, such as AS9100, in a test
and fabrication environment, is required. Certification as an
tion to about 800 words and send it to AS9100 internal auditor is desired. Must have demonstrated the
ability to perform safety and reliability analysis, such as hazard
editor@asq.org. Only selected submis- assessment, fault tree development, and failure modes and
effects analysis. Experience with spacecraft and/or electronic
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M/F/D/V - U.S. Citizenship required.

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 63


STATISTICS
ROUNDTABLE

Likert Scales and Data Analyses


by I. Elaine Allen and Christopher A. Seaman

urveys are consistently used to the contention that parametric statisti-

S
TABLE 2 Likert Scale
measure quality. For example, cal tests (based on the central limit Example
surveys might be used to gauge theorem) are more powerful than
customer perception of product quali- nonparametric alternatives. Also, con- Compared to face-to-face learning, outcomes
ty or quality performance in service clusions and interpretations of para- from online learning are currently:
delivery. metric tests might be considered
2003 2004 2006
Likert scales are a common ratings
format for surveys. Respondents rank Superior 0.6% 1% 1.8%
quality from high to low or best to Somewhat superior 11.5% 10% 15.1%
worst using five or seven levels. Can this method
Statisticians have generally grouped Same 50.6% 50.6% 45%
data collected from these surveys into be used as interval Somewhat inferior 28.4% 28.4% 30.3%
a hierarchy of four levels of measure- measures? Inferior 10.1% 10.1% 7.8%
ment:
1. Nominal data: The weakest level Source: I. Elaine Allen and J.R. Seaman, “Making
the Grade: Online Education in the United States,”
of measurement representing www.sloan-c.org, 2006.
categories without numerical easier to interpret and provide more
representation. information than nonparametric alter-
2. Ordinal data: Data in which an natives.
ordering or ranking of responses However, treating ordinal data as tant consideration is to include at least
is possible but no measure of interval (or even ratio) data without five response categories. Some exam-
distance is possible. examining the values of the dataset ples of category groups appear in
3. Interval data: Generally integer and the objectives of the analysis can Table 1.
data in which ordering and dis- both mislead and misrepresent the The ends of the scale often are
tance measurement are possible. findings of a survey. To examine the increased to create a seven-point scale
4. Ratio data: Data in which mean- appropriate analyses of scalar data by adding “very” to the respective top
ingful ordering, distance, deci- and when its preferable to treat ordi- and bottom of the five-point scales.
mals and fractions between nal data as interval data, we will con- The seven-point scale has been shown
variables are possible. centrate on Likert scales. to reach the upper limits of the scale’s
Data analyses using nominal, inter- reliability.4 As a general rule, Likert
val and ratio data are generally Basics of Likert Scales and others recommend that it is best
straightforward and transparent. Likert scales were developed in to use as wide a scale as possible. You
Analyses of ordinal data, particularly 1932 as the familiar five-point bipolar can always collapse the responses into
as it relates to Likert or other scales in response that most people are familiar condensed categories, if appropriate,
surveys, are not. This is not a new with today.3 These scales range from a for analysis.
issue. The adequacy of treating ordi- group of categories—least to most— With that in mind, scales are some-
nal data as interval data continues to asking people to indicate how much times truncated to an even number of
be controversial in survey analyses in they agree or disagree, approve or categories (typically four) to eliminate
a variety of applied fields.1, 2 disapprove, or believe to be true or the “neutral” option in a “forced
An underlying reason for analyzing false. There’s really no wrong way to choice” survey scale. Rensis Likert’s
ordinal data as interval data might be build a Likert scale. The most impor- original paper clearly identifies there
might be an underlying continuous
variable whose value characterizes
the respondents’ opinions or attitudes
TABLE 1 Likert Scale Response Categories and this underlying variable is inter-
val level, at best.5
Scale 1 2 3 4 5
Analysis, Generalization
Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always
To Continuous Indexes
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree As a general rule, mean and stan-
Most Important Important Neutral Unimportant Not important at all dard deviation are invalid parameters
for descriptive statistics whenever

64 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


data are on ordinal scales, as are any FIGURE 1 Track Bar Combining Likert scales into index-
parametric analyses based on the nor- Examples es adds values and variability to the
mal distribution. Nonparametric pro- data. If the assumptions of normality
cedures—based on the rank, median are met, analysis with parametric pro-
or range—are appropriate for analyz- cedure can be followed. Finally, con-
ing these data, as are distribution free verting a five or seven category
methods such as tabulations, frequen- instrument to a continuous variable is
cies, contingency tables and chi- possible with a calibrated line or track
squared statistics. bar.
Kruskall-Wallis models can provide
the same type of results as an analysis
of variance, but based on the ranks REFERENCES

and not the means of the responses. 1. Gideon Vigderhous, “The Level of
Sources: Measurement and ‘Permissible’ Statistical
Given these scales are representative Analysis in Social Research,” Pacific Sociological
MSDN, http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.
of an underlying continuous measure, asp?url=/library/en-us/shellcc/platform/commctls/ Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1977, pp. 61-72.
one recommendation is to analyze 2. Ulf Jakobsson, “Statistical Presentation and
trackbar/trackbar.asp
Analysis of Ordinal Data in Nursing Research,”
them as interval data as a pilot prior DevX, http://archive.devx.com/dhtml/articles/ Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, Vol. 18,
to gathering the continuous measure. nm061102/Hand.html 2004, pp. 437-440.
3. Rensis Likert, “A Technique for the
Table 2 includes an example of mis- Measurement of Attitudes,” Archives of
leading conclusions, showing the Psychology, 1932, Vol. 140, No. 55.
results from the annual Alfred P. Sloan 4. Jum C. Nunnally, Psychometric Theory,
McGraw Hill, 1978.
Foundation survey of the quality and 5. Dennis L. Clasen and Thomas J. Dormody,
extent of online learning in the United combined to form indexes. However, “Analyzing Data Measured by Individual Likert-
States. Respondents used a Likert scale there is a strong caveat to this Type Items,” Journal of Agricultural Education,
Vol. 35, No. 4, 1994.
to evaluate the quality of online learn- approach: Most researchers insist such
ing compared to face-to-face learning. combinations of scales pass the
While 60%-plus of the respondents Cronbach’s alpha or the Kappa test of
perceived online learning as equal to intercorrelation and validity. BIBLIOGRAPHY

or better than face-to-face, there is a Also, the combination of scales to Jacoby, Jacob, and Michael S. Matell,
persistent minority that perceived form an interval level index assumes “Three-Point Likert Scales Are Good
online learning as at least somewhat this combination forms an underlying Enough,” Journal of Marketing Research,
inferior. If these data were analyzed characteristic or variable. Vol. 8, No. 4, 1971, pp. 495-500.
Jamieson, Susan, “Likert Scales: How to
using means, with a scale from 1 to 5
Alternative Continuous (Ab)use Them,” Medical Education, Vol.
from inferior to superior, this separa- 38, No. 12), 2004, pp. 1,217-1,218.
Measures for Scales
tion would be lost, giving means of
2.7, 2.6 and 2.7 for these three years, Alternatives to using a formal
respectively. This would indicate a Likert scale can be the use of a contin-
slightly lower than average agreement uous line or track bar. For pain mea- I. ELAINE ALLEN is an associate professor of
rather than the actual distribution of surement, a 100 mm line can be used statistics and entrepreneurship at Babson
the responses. on a paper survey to measure from College in Babson Park, MA. She has a doctor-
A more extreme example would be worst ever to best ever, yielding a con- ate in statistics from Cornell University in
to place all the respondents at the tinuous interval measure. Ithaca, NY. Allen is a senior member of ASQ.
extremes of the scale, yielding a In the advent of many online sur-
veys, this can be done with track bars CHRISTOPHER A. SEAMAN is a doctoral
mean of “same” but a completely
similar to those illustrated in Figure 1. student in mathematics at the Graduate Center
different interpretation from the ac-
of City University of New York.
tual responses. The respondents here can calibrate
Under what circumstances might their responses to continuous inter-
Likert scales be used with interval pro- vals that can be captured by survey
cedures? Suppose the rank data software as continuous values.
included a survey of income measur-
Conclusion
ing $0, $25,000, $50,000, $75,000 or Please
$100,000 exactly, and these were mea- Your initial analysis of Likert scalar comment
sured as “low,” “medium” and “high.” data should not involve parametric
The “intervalness” here is an statistics but should rely on the ordi- If you would like to comment on this
attribute of the data, not of the labels. nal nature of the data. While Likert article, please post your remarks on
Also, the scale item should be at least scale variables usually represent an the Quality Progress Discussion
five and preferably seven categories. underlying continuous measure, Board at www.asq.org, or e-mail
Another example of analyzing analysis of individual items should them to editor@asq.org.
Likert scales as interval values is use parametric procedures only as a
when the sets of Likert items can be pilot analysis.

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 65


STANDARDS
OUTLOOK

AS&D Standards’ Revisions


To Improve Supplier Performance
by L.L. “Buddy” Cressionnie

he International Aerospace version of ISO 9001 as its foundation, dard is published as AS9100 in the

T Quality Group (IAQG) is revis-


ing the IAQG 9100 family of
standards 1 to stay aligned with
changes to ISO 9001, drive supplier
with additional requirements based
on expectations of aerospace cus-
tomers set off in bold, italic type. The
IAQG 9100 family of standards is rec-
United States, EN9100 in Europe, JIS-
Q-9100 in Japan, and in other versions
around the world. In addition to
English and Japanese, the current ver-
improvements and broaden the scope ognized as an effective QMS by sion of the standard is available in
of the internationally harmonized French, Portuguese, German, Hebrew,
standards from “aerospace” to “avia- Russian, Chinese and Korean.
tion, space and defense” (AS&D). Figure 1 shows the rapid interna-
The main purposes of the AS&D
Goals include raising tional growth of IAQG 9100. Table 1
scope change were to add space satisfaction, meeting shows that of the nearly 7,000 certi-
industry emphasis and to facilitate the fied suppliers (including almost every
use and flowdown of the IAQG stan- new stakeholder major aerospace company in the
dards to stakeholders beyond aero- requirements and world), about 4,000 are in the
space, to include land and sea based Americas (North, Central and South
systems for defense applications. aligning interpretations. America).
Also, there was realization that many
complex weapons systems require Upcoming Revision
integration across all three industry authorities and regulatory agencies, International Organization for
sectors. This new AS&D focus will including the Federal Aviation Standardization technical committee
likely continue to fuel the explosive Administration, NASA and the De- 176 is currently amending ISO 9001,
growth of the current aerospace stan- partment of Defense. with publication expected in May
dards. The international IAQG 9100 stan- 2009. The ISO 9001 amendment is dri-

Background
Prior to the adoption of the interna- FIGURE 1 Number of Certified Suppliers in OASIS by Region
tionally harmonized aerospace stan-
dards, the industry was not efficient 8,000
in the flowdown of quality require-
ments to suppliers. Each aerospace Total
manufacturer levied company specific 7,000 Europe
requirements, processes and forms on Americas
its supplier base. 6,000
Number of certified suppliers

This meant the aerospace supplier Asia-Pacific


base was forced to follow different 5,000
requirements, complete a variety of
customer specific forms and endure
systems and product audits from their 4,000
aerospace customers. To help the sup-
ply base operate more efficiently 3,000
under a single set of requirements, the
aerospace prime manufacturers came 2,000
together to develop harmonized qual-
ity standards and requirements.
This was a win-win for the industry, 1,000
permitting suppliers to standardize
processes, and aerospace customers to 0
reduce supplier quality management
Oc 03
De ’03
Feb 03
Ap ’04
Jun 04
Au ’04
Oc 04
De ’04
Feb 04
Ap . ’05
Jun ’05
Au ’05
Oc 05

Feb 05
Ap . ’06
Jun ’06
Au ’06
Oc 06
De ’06
Feb 06
7
De ’05

. ’0
g. ’

c. ’

ril ’

g. ’

c. ’

g. ’

c. ’

g. ’

c. ’
t.

t.

t.
t.

system (QMS) audits and generate


ril

ril
Au

savings for the customers.


IAQG 9101 uses the entire current
OASIS = Online Aerospace Supplier Information System, www.iaqg.org/oasis.

66 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


TABLE 1 IAGQ 91000 Certifications by Region

Asia- Total
Standard Americas Europe
Pacific (4/19/07)
IAQG 9100: QMS—
3,947 2,700 312 6,959
Aerospace Requirements
IAQG 9110: QMS—
Aerospace—Requirements for 7 86 4 97
ving an update of IAQG 9100. This Maintenance Organizations
update started in 2005 at an interna- IAQG 9120: QMS—
tional planning meeting where a mile- Aerospace—Requirements 103 211 4 318
stone plan and schedule were created, for Stockist Distributors
stakeholders identified and design Total (4/19/07) 4,057 2,997 320 7,374
specification drafted.
The objectives for the 2009 revision
of IAQG 9100 include improving sup-
plier performance and customer satis-
faction by focusing on product quality quent review process resolved nearly completed for other-party audits. The
and on-time delivery, allowing its 400 comments received from the checklist has come under some criti-
common interpretation for auditors stakeholders. Some of the significant cism because it does not easily lend
and organizations and taking into topics addressed included: risk man- itself to a process based system.
account newly identified stakeholder agement, key/critical characteristics, An international IAQG 9101 team
requirements. configuration management, project was formed to develop a robust assess-
The IAQG 9100 team provided a management, positive recall, test ment process that will reinforce the on-
mechanism to receive feedback and report validation, statistical sampling, quality and on-schedule goals of IAQG.
performed data mining from the fol- first article inspection and key perfor- The team’s membership includes repre-
lowing stakeholder segments: mance indicators. sentatives from both the IAQG member
• Certification/registration bodies. The next steps will include comple- companies and from certification bodies
• Civil aviation authorities. tion of subteam activities and prepa- that use the checklist.
• Defense organizations, including ration of a first draft later this year. The IAQG 9101 team was chal-
the U.S. Department of Defense The IAQG 9100 revision will be offi- lenged to ensure the new version has
and NATO. cially balloted to voting members in three features:
• IAQG member companies. 2008 and 2009 and is expected to be 1. Performance to certification link-
• Space sector organizations, includ- released in mid-2009, depending on age.
ing NASA. the ISO 9001 revision publication 2. Process orientation rather than
• IAQG 9100 certified suppliers. schedule. clauses.
The IAQG 9100 team used a disci- 3. Efficiency and effectiveness.
plined process to consider proposed Upcoming IAQG 9110 At a kickoff meeting this January,
changes or additions to the standard. And IAQG 9120 Revision the team benchmarked certification/
Changes/additions being considered The IAQG 9110 2 and IAQG 9120 3 registration processes used by other
are those that: QMS standards are undergoing a revi- industries and assigned research and
• Constitute QMS requirements that sion process similar to that of IAQG review tasks to subteams: design spec-
are not contractual or do not con- 9100. Each has a team that has identi- ification, ISO 9001 audit practice
tain product specific requirements. fied its stakeholders and is perform- group5 materials, process audit meth-
• Enhance clarity of requirements or ing data mining. The next step will be ods, report content and format, and
address stakeholder needs. to process comments received from information sharing and customer
• Satisfy the needs of the broad data mining. performance.
IAQG 9100 user community The IAQG 9110 and IAQG 9120 The IAQG 9101 team envisions an
through requirements that are revisions are dependent on IAQG end state in which there will be one
suitable for use by all sizes and 9100 in that they use IAQG 9100 as a IAQG audit process standard used for
types of organizations in the avia- baseline. Their revisions are trailing IAQG 9100, 9110 and 9120; a more
tion, space and defense sectors. the IAQG 9100 revision process by process oriented assessment tool
• Provide benefits that outweigh the about six months and are expected to based on the plan-do-check-act model;
impact of implementation. be released by the end of 2009. and a complete description of the
• Are not prescriptive (establish audit process.
“what” but not “how”) and can be Upcoming IAQG 9101 The first draft of IAQG 9101 is
audited. Checklist Revision expected in late 2007. The revision
The data mining activities, which The IAQG 9100 series includes will be introduced into the other-
ended in March 2007, and the subse- IAQG 9101,4 a checklist that must be party audit process as organizations

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 67


STANDARDS
OUTLOOK

?
transition to the 2009 versions of
IAQG 9100, 9110 and 9120.

Updates on AS9003
Questions About Standards
There is another standard for
inspection and testing that gets little
publicity. AS90036 is a U.S. standard Send your general questions about quality and environmental
that is not harmonized internationally
or endorsed by IAQG. AS9003 is cur- management system standards and their derivatives to
rently being rewritten by the space
industry and its customers, including standardsquestions@asq.org. Include your daytime phone
NASA, to be more consistent with
number and e-mail address. The questions will be submitted
IAQG 9100 and ISO 9001.
AS9003 is targeted to organizations to one of QP’s regular “Standards Outlook” columnists.
that process aerospace products (for
example, heat treat, plating, coatings Look for answers to appear in future issues of QP.
or other special processes) or for very
small organizations that make prod-
uct following customer design and
have simple processes.
AS9003 is not intended for use in Systems—Aerospace—Requirements for Stockist
Programs (this standard will be re-
organizations that design or manufac- Distributors, IAQG, 2002.
numbered as 9104-1 in the next 4. IAQG (AS/EN/JIS-Q) 9101—Quality Manage-
ture complex aerospace components
revision). ment System Assessment, IAQG, 2006.
or critical items or for medium-size or 5. ISO 9001 Audit Practice Group, http://
2. 9104/2—Requirements for Oversight
larger organizations. www.tc176.org.
of Aerospace QMS Registration/ 6. SAE AS9003—Inspection and Test Quality
There is currently no assessment
Certifications Programs. System, SAQ International, 2001.
checklist for AS9003, although a third- 7. Online Aerospace Supplier Information
3. 9104/3—Requirements for Aerospace System, www.iaqg.org/oasis.
party AS9003 certification scheme is
Auditor Competency and Training
offered by some certification bodies.
Courses.
The revised AS9003 will be published
To manage the other-party certifica- L.L. “BUDDY” CRESSIONNIE is the
in late 2007 by SAE International.
tion scheme for the IAQG 9100 series, Americas’ lead for the IAQG 9100 team and
Other-Party Management Team IAQG developed the Online Aero- participates on the U.S. technical advisory
space Supplier Information System group to ISO/TC 176. He
IAQG has strengthened the existing
(OASIS) in 2003.7 This system includes represents Lockheed Mar-
third-party certification scheme by tin Aeronautics as the
information about IAQG member
developing an industry controlled company management
companies, national aerospace indus-
other-party process for certification of system integration man-
try associations, national accreditation
organizations to the IAQG 9100 ager. Cressionnie is an
bodies, approved certification/regis-
series. The IAQG other-party man- ASQ senior member with
tration bodies, aerospace experienced
agement team (OPMT) facilitates the quality manager and
auditors and certified suppliers. quality auditor certifica-
industry management of other-party
The certified supplier information tions. He is also a certi-
certifications.
includes certificate status (including fied RABQSA aerospace experienced auditor
OPMT is an IAQG oversight com-
scope of certification and copy of cer- and International Register of Certified
mittee chartered to manage the other-
tificate) and assessment results. OASIS Auditors lead auditor for ISO 9001 and ISO
party quality management schemes 14001. Cressionnie has a bachelor’s degree in
is useful for managing suppliers and
and assessment results performed by industrial and systems engineering from the
finding trend information for manag-
each of the global sector management University of Florida and an MBA from Texas
ing the IAQG 9100 scheme.
schemes. OPMT provides oversight of Christian University.
If you have questions about the
the accreditation bodies, certification
standards, e-mail them to the appro-
bodies and auditor authentication. In
priate leader through the IAQG
the Americas Aerospace Quality
Group (AAQG), the sector manage-
website at www.iaqg.sae.org/iaqg/ Please
publications/SDRs_listing.pdf. comment
ment scheme is the registration man-
agement committee. If you would like to comment on this
REFERENCES AND NOTES
The other-party certification scheme article, please post your remarks on
1. IAQG (AS/EN/JIS-Q) 9100—Quality Manage-
and OPMT adhere to a trio of IAQG ment Systems—Aerospace—Requirements, IAQG, the Quality Progress Discussion
9104 standards, often called the trilo- 2004. Board at www.asq.org, or e-mail
gy of standards: 2. IAQG (AS/EN) 9110—Quality Management
Systems—Aerospace—Requirements for Mainte- them to editor@asq.org.
1. 9104—Requirements for Aerospace nance Organizations, IAQG, 2003.
QMS Certification/Registration 3. IAQG (AS/EN) 9120—Quality Management

68 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


MEASURE
FOR MEASURE

Challenges of Instrument Innovations


by Graeme C. Payne

H
umans are innovators. We are Multifunction instruments are only a To visualize the basic concepts, a
always inventing new materi- little more complex to use and have a measuring instrument can be viewed
als, methods, devices or ideas. larger set of parameters to be calibrat- as a series of interconnected blocks.
From time to time, certain innovations ed but still are relatively simple. Many There is a signal conditioner that
cause major, unforeseen shifts in theo- measuring instruments now have receives, scales and standardizes the
ry and practice. microprocessors and are controlled by input; an analog-to-digital converter;
A few examples in my own lifetime permanent software. That software a user interface system and an opera-
and professional specialty include the does not add much to the calibration tion control system.
inventions of the integrated circuit and Traditionally, all of these are physi-
general purpose microprocessor, and cally in one unit, as shown in Figure 1.
the discoveries of the Josephson effect Synthetic instruments An instrument that produces an out-
and the quantum Hall effect. put is similar in concept, except that
A more recent innovation is the are the latest innova- the signal flow is in the opposite
development of synthetic instruments. tion in measurement direction. In both cases, the instru-
While this is certainly not as funda- ment manufacturer defines the hard-
mental as the other examples, it does science. ware and software features and
have important implications for quali- functions.
ty management and measurement sci- For the past 20 years or so, many
ence. effort, as it is tested by implication dur- ATE systems have used special instru-
ing the performance verification; if the ments that plug into a system rack
Instruments Until Now instrument responds properly to the and are only controlled through a
Until recently, measuring instru- input, the software has to be correct. computer program. The principal dif-
ments—however complex they might Even in large automated test equip- ference between these and conven-
appear—have been essentially single ment (ATE) systems, in which a num- tional instruments is that there are no
purpose tools. Such an instrument is ber of different instruments might be controls on the instrument itself—
relatively easy to understand, use and combined to perform a complex suite only inputs or outputs. Because they
calibrate. Measuring instruments of tests under external computer con- are software controlled, they have
might be built to perform multiple trol, each instrument is individually often been called virtual instruments,
functions, as with a digital multimeter understandable and calibratable. even though there is a real device at
that can measure voltage, current, An ATE system as a whole is more the other end of the computer inter-
resistance and maybe a few other complex because the operation of the face.
parameters. But that digital multime- system must be validated somehow
ter cannot be used as, for example, a after the individual instruments are The Rise of Synthetic
spectrum analyzer. calibrated. In the last several years, the innova-
tive idea of a synthetic instru-
ment has risen. This came out
of a Department of Defense
FIGURE 1 A Conventional Measuring Instrument initiative started in the mid-
Is Self-Contained 1990s to improve performance
and reduce costs of ATE sys-
tems.
Synthetic instruments go
Signal Analog to digital Measurement beyond conventional instru-
Input User interface
conditioning conversion system ments in an innovative way.
Each component of a synthetic
instrument—each functional
block—is a separate device. A
synthetic instrument is defined
Control as a reconfigurable system of
External control hardware and software ele-
system
ments, linked by standardized
(IEE-488, RS-232, Fieldbus, USB, LAN, etc.)
interfaces, to make measure-
Conventional measuring instrument ments or generate signals.
Figure 2 (p. 70) shows the

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 69


MEASURE
FOR MEASURE

same measuring function as Figure 1, FIGURE 2 A Synthetic Instrument:


but redrawn as a reconfigurable syn- A Temporary, Reconfigurable System
thetic instrument. Of Hardware and Software
What does this imply for quality
management and measurement sci-
ence? Several things must be consid- Signal conditioning
ered with synthetic instruments that
Interconnection system
would not be of concern in a more tra- Analog to digital conversion
ditional hardware and software envi-
ronment: Measurement processing Inputs
• In a system using synthetic instru-
ments, an instrument is no longer
a single, fixed assembly of hard-
ware and (usually) software.
Because modules and software are
easily reconfigured, the “instru-
ment” can actually become an
abstraction.
It is possible—even probable—
that modules being connected to Control system
form a synthetic instrument, as and user interface
well as the software used to oper-
ate them, are made by different
companies. potential to affect all uses of the most recent in a long line of innova-
• Hardware configuration control of test system. tions that affect the way we design
a synthetic instrument system is • Each hardware module will need measuring instruments, make mea-
critical. Any change to the hard- to be calibrated in terms of its own surements and control measuring
ware has the potential to affect inputs, outputs and functionality. devices. As an innovation like this is
every measurement the system But, calibration of each module introduced, we need to make certain
makes. does not ensure each synthetic the whole measurement system is
In an older system, changes in instrument is calibrated. maintained in a state that ensures the
one instrument—a voltmeter, for Each synthetic instrument creat- correct things are being measured—
example—would affect only the ed by the changing configurations with the correct instruments—and
measurements made by that or hardware and software will that all measurements are traceable to
instrument. In a system with syn- also have to be calibrated. That is the International System of Units.
thetic instruments, changing a the only way to ensure the mod-
module (an analog-to-digital con- ules and software all work togeth-
verter, for example) could affect er as intended to produce a GRAEME C. PAYNE is
every type of measurement that reliable and traceable measure- president of GK Systems,
a consulting firm special-
uses that module. ment or signal.
izing in measurement
• Software configuration control is • Parts of the software that are not
science. He is a contribu-
even more critical. Any change to fully exercised by calibration of tor to The Metrology
the software has the potential to each synthetic instrument calibra- Handbook (ASQ Qual-
affect every measurement the sys- tion in the system will also have to ity Press, 2004) and is
tem makes. be validated. For example, a digi- past chair of the ASQ
In a traditional system, one soft- tal multimeter might have internal Measurement Quality Division. Payne is a
ware module typically controls the statistical functions, such as the senior member of ASQ, a certified quality tech-
instruments required for one test. ability to report the mean and nician, calibration technician and quality engi-
In a system with synthetic instru- standard deviation of a user neer.
ments, the software will configure defined number of measurements.
and interconnect the hardware In a traditional instrument, those Please
modules needed for each synthetic functions are in the permanent comment
instrument, control the operation memory, so they only have to be If you would like to comment on this
of each instrument, possibly con- validated once. In an ATE com-
article, please post your remarks on
trol the unit under test and pro- posed of synthetic instruments,
those functions are in the control the Quality Progress Discussion
vide all of the user interfaces.
Some of the numeric processing software and will have to be reval- Board at www.asq.org, or e-mail
for measurement functions might idated whenever any of the hard- them to editor@asq.org.
be performed by software. Any ware or software is changed.
one software module has the Synthetic instruments are just the

70 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


QP
TOOLBOX
Sherwin-Williams Produces ments. This ensures reliable functionality
Coating for Inspection of electronic systems in products like pres-
sure sensors or small electric motors.
Sherwin-Williams Industrial and Marine Call: 248-355-3006; visit: www.
Coatings has introduced Duraplate ultra schreiner-usa.com.
high solids epoxy with fluorescing optical-
ly active pigments (OAP). Duraplate allows
tank lining applicators to check the coating Kinetic Systems Introduces
instantly for pinholes, holidays and other The MK26 is suitable for locations where
Low Vibration Workstation


discontinuities. It also helps to verify uni- external vibrations disturb sensitive
form coverage and proper film thickness. Kinetic Systems has introduced the equipment.
Duraplate is available as a single or multi MK26, an ultra low natural frequency vibra-
coat application. With the single coat appli- tion isolation workstation. The MK26 uses and mildew and an optional zipper door
cation, pinholes, holidays and improper the Minus K stiff spring and negative stiff- allows access to equipment in storage.
film thickness will appear black in contrast ness mechanism to achieve a low net verti- Shrinkwrap is available in three colors
to the fluoresce coating when viewed cal stiffness without affecting the static load to suit the climate. Blue absorbs heat,
under ultraviolet light. The opposite is true supporting capability. Horizontal isolation is which allows ice and snow to slide off.
for multi coat systems. When the primer provided by beam columns connected in White is best for warmer temperatures as
with OAP is used and the topcoat does not series with the vertical motion isolator. it reflects heat. Clear shrinkwrap allows
have OAP, pinholes with fluoresce are visi- The MK26 can be configured for a wide users to see the covered object and should
ble under inspection of the topcoat. variety of locations where disturbances be used for indoor applications with prop-
Call: 216-781-2400; e-mail: wschweiger@ due to external vibrations can adversely er ventilation in cooler temperatures.
edwardhoward.com. affect the operation of sensitive equip- Call: 800-968-5147; e-mail: drshrink@
ment. The MK26 is suitable for applications dr-shrink.com.
such as analytical balances, cell injection,
GMP Visually Reports confocal microscopes, patch clamping,
Real-Time Trouble optical microscopes, wafer probing, sensor Stainless Steel Replaces
calibration and atomic force microscopes. Glass in Line of Syringes
Lyons Information Systems has added Call: 617-522-8700; e-mail: sales@
the Global Performance Monitor (GPM) to kineticsystems.com. KD Scientific’s line of stainless steel
its Lyons quality audit tracking system syringes is designed to be used instead of
(LQATS). GPM allows apparel manufactur- glass syringes when pressures and forces
ers to view worldwide quality performance Penetrating Solvent Aids are high, eliminating syringe breakage. The
on one screen in real-time using any web syringes offer good resistance to most
browser.
In Routine Maintenance
aggressive liquids. Wetted parts are #316
LQATS manages garment and fabric CRC Industries has introduced Knock’er stainless steel and Viton featuring electron
quality audit and inspection information Loose Plus penetrating solvent, an indus- beam welding.
across apparel manufacturers’ mills and trial strength penetrant that drops the tem- The syringes are available in 2.5, 8, 20,
manufacturing and distribution centers perature of the area in contact with the 50, 100 and 200 ml sizes and have remov-
located worldwide. Manufacturers can spray. Knock’er Loose Plus permeates rust, able replacement tips. They are also com-
view this information prior to suppliers’ scale, gum, grease and corrosion with a patible with KD Scientific’s line of
shipments. GPM can help companies low surface tension formula that gets into automated syringe pumps.
identify real-time trouble spots visually as cracks, seams, threads and joints. It aids in Call: 508-429-6809; e-mail: info@
they develop to prevent manufacturing the disassembly of plant machinery, tools kdscientific.com.
losses. and equipment for routine maintenance
Call: 866-351-4287; visit: www. and emergency repairs.
lyonsinfo.com. Knock’er Loose Plus loosens rusted and Borescopes Check
corroded nuts, bolts, couplings, fittings, For Defects in Deep Bores
hinges and frozen components. It is also
Membrane Enhances NSF H2 registered for use in meat and The Hawkeye Pro and Classic Slim
Pressure Compensation Seals poultry plants. borescopes from Gradient Lens check for
E-mail: cbrown@crcindustries.com; defects in parts and products with very
Schreiner ProTech’s polytetrafluoroethyl- visit: www.crcindustries.com. deep bores. The scopes are appropriate for
ene (PTFE) membrane is an air permeable inspecting metal machined parts, firearms,
and waterproof material designed for tubing and other products. The scopes’ lens
ventilation of equipment housings. Shrinkwrap Available systems allow for relaying images at a long
Schreiner developed the PTFE membrane to For Three Climates distance while maintaining the quality of
enhance the effectiveness of its self-adhe- the image. Users can see defects and sur-
sive and nonadhesive pressure compensa- Dr. Shrink provides shrinkwrap as a way face finish in deep bores and crossholes.
tion seals (PCS), allowing air molecules to to protect equipment from dirt and the Available in 22 in. lengths, the scopes
pass through the PCS while restricting pas- damage that can happen on a factory floor feature a 0° direction-of-view and 42° field-
sage of water, oil and dirt particles. or job site. It covers a range of materials of-view and offer a rotating 90° direction-
The enhanced seals protect sensitive from backhoes and machinery to spare of-view with a mirror tube attachment.
electronic components by providing chem- parts and lumber piles. Shrinkwrap can be Call: 585-235-2620; e-mail: kindred@
ical and thermal resistance to extreme ele- ventilated with accessories to prevent mold gradientlens.com. QP

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 71


QP
REVIEWS
CMMI Getting the Kanban for the
Mary Beth Chrissis, Mike Konrad and Sandy Right Things Done Supply Chain
Shrum, Addison Wesley, 2007, 676 pp.,
Pascal Dennis, Lean Enterprise Institute, Stephen Cimorelli, Productivity Press, 2006,
$69.99 (book).
2006, 232 pp., $40 (book). 129 pp., $45 (book and CD-ROM).
Kanban for the Supply Chain: Fun-
The second edition of CMMI: Getting the Right Things Done pro- damental Practices for Manufacturing
Guidelines for Process Integration and vides an excellent presentation of strat- Management is designed to serve as a
Product Improvement is the official egy deployment with an emphasis on primer for supply chain management
version of the Capability Maturity practicality and lean. Dennis showcas- teams that want to implement kanban
Model Integration (CMMI) version 1.2. es the elements used to change a facili- pull techniques in their organizations.
It is well organized and clearly written. ty from a traditional command and This workbook gives readers an
In particular, it presents the continu- control mode to one in which employ- overview of kanban and logically takes
ous and staged representations of the ees at all levels are aligned, focused them through the steps of setting up a
model and makes the point that both and engaged in their business. kanban system.
representations are synergistic and The author gives a comprehensive The workbook begins by setting up
can be considered simultaneously. view of the process needed to success- an ABC classification system for inven-
The book serves as a guide for fully make such a conversion. Tools and tory and analyzing inventory behavior
improvement of organizational pro- methods are not overly emphasized. using sawtooth diagrams. After that, it
cesses. It consists of three parts. Part Moreover, emphasis is placed on imple- explains the concepts of lead time and
one is about CMMI for development, mentation and executions in achieving lot size using the estimated order
part two lists generic goals, generic a system cycle of stabilize, flow, pull and quantity formula and statistical ana-
practices and process areas, and part improve within the typical concerns of lyzation demand variability. The latter
three contains appendixes and a managing a major change. half of the workbook is devoted to cov-
detailed glossary. There are plenty of notes and exam- ering the physical implementation and
Of particular interest to the QP read- ples provided to make comprehension maintenance of a kanban pull system.
ership is the section linking CMMI to easier and to facilitate use. There are The major strength of this workbook
Six Sigma. Unfortunately, this section numerous side discussions concerning is it covers enough theory so that the
seems to imply that Six Sigma is the history, motivation and experience “whys” behind implementing a kan-
focused only on the manufacturing driving strategy deployment. ban system can be explained to man-
world when this is not the case. Six I found two minor weaknesses with agement and operations personnel
Sigma is widely applied in services this book. There are numerous double- without confusing anyone. It also has
such as banking and healthcare, and wide fold-out pages included. This is sufficient examples of the calculations
design for Six Sigma is clearly han- necessary to adequately show the necessary to implement a kanban sys-
dling issues in development process- examples used in the story. However, tem in enough detail that someone
es. A more strategic oriented it is a distraction. The second was con- with no experience in this area can
presentation of Six Sigma would have tinual reference to Toyota, although proceed with little difficulty. All of the
made the comparison more pertinent. that might have been unavoidable calculations can be performed in MS
However, the fact that Six Sigma and given that Toyota is the basis of Excel or any other spreadsheet pro-
CMMI are fully compatible is made Dennis’ experience as well as one of gram with relative ease.
clear. the largest, most successful users of If there is a weakness to this work-
The section on empirical software the technique. book, it is the accompanying CD.
engineering as a basis for process Although I am tiring of the use of Cimorelli could have included supple-
improvement is another interesting parables, fables and stories to impart mental material, adding to the text
aspect for quality experts. Overall, at information and teach, Dennis uses examples of the relevant calculations
CMMI Level 5 maturity, process the method well. All leaders, from the instead of rehashing the examples
improvement is an empirically based first line supervisor to the CEO, will already found in the workbook.
activity, turning software and system benefit from this material. It does not Overall, this is a great workbook,
engineering into a true engineering limit itself to manufacturing. Any and one I am using in my own work. I
discipline. industry, including service, can easily would recommend it to anyone who
The book contains many case stud- take the information presented and needs to learn how to implement a
ies covering large and small organiza- develop a fitting, workable course of kanban inventory system.
tions. Despite its size, it is easy to action following the suggestions and
navigate, providing both interesting model presented. I am looking for Brian Cocolicchio
reading and an excellent reference. opportunities to use what I have Quest Diagnostics
Overall, the book is the most up-to- learned from this book and apply that Teterboro, NJ
date and comprehensive volume on knowledge to more than just strategy
the market. I highly recommend it to deployment.
experts and practitioners alike.
Marc A. Feldman
Ron S. Kenett
Solvay Chemicals
KPA
Houston
Raanana, Israel

72 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


Doing More With Less award education criteria for the design R E C E N T R E L E A S E S
and operation of education systems.
Helen Zak, The Joint Commission
This reference book offers reports
Resources, 2006, 131 pp., $75 (book). Lean for Dummies: A Guide to
on how to use the Baldrige award’s
education criteria to transform educa- Improving Performance and
This short book serves as a leader- tion and school systems. Examples of
ship introduction primer for healthcare topics include: getting started, getting Profits for Any Business, Natalie
executives and quickly gets them up to buy-in, involving teachers and princi- J. Sayer and Bruce Williams, For
speed on lean thinking as it applies to pals, dealing with resistance, financial
Dummies, 2007, 362 pp., $21.99 (book).
the healthcare industry. Doing More impacts, challenges, assessment, and
With Less: Lean Thinking and Patient who to get on board as key players in
Safety in Health Care makes the case facilitating transformation. It is impor-
that there is a burning platform in tant to note the programs explored The Executive Guide to
healthcare and the current state of include higher education as well as Understanding and Implement-
affairs cannot continue. rural and urban K-12 school systems.
The Joint Commission Resources Though the book focuses on the ing Lean Six Sigma: The Finan-
takes all the lean gurus’ basic princi- Baldrige award, its value comes from cial Impact, Robert M. Meisel, Steven
ples and breaks them down into five insights about building and delivering
J. Babb, Steven F. Marsh and James P.
steps: value, value stream, flow, pull successes in transformational pro-
and perfection. Using these five steps, grams. It can be read cover-to-cover or Schlichting, ASQ Quality Press, 2007, 104
it applies them to real life healthcare by targeting specific questions. The pp., $16 member, $28 list (book).
examples. Next, the book addresses Baldrige applications with documenta-
specific challenges to lean in health- tion and details from specific identified
care, so professionals cannot say programs are presented on the CD-
“That’s OK for manufacturing, but it ROM accompanying the book. Quality Management Essen-
doesn’t apply to us.” I recommend this book for leaders tials, David Hoyle, Butterworth-
To drive the applicability even fur- influencing quality transformation in
Heinemann, 2007, 216 pp., $29.95 (book).
ther, three case studies are explored in educational programs. It should be
detail: Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare, passed on to others considering
the Cancer Treatment Centers of change, improvement and ensuring
America at Midwestern Regional quality-as-process and quality-as-
Medical Center and ThedaCare. result in an education program.
This book is a good introduction to
lean and should help convince health- Jerry Brong
care administrators and professionals Ellensburg, WA
that there is a light at the end of the
tunnel and a way out of the current
morass.

Bill Baker
ADVERTISERS INDEX
Speed to Excellence ADVERTISER PAGE PHONE WEB
Santa Fe, NM
AssurX Inc. 5 408-778-1376 www.assurx.com

Transformation to Communications, ASQ 81 414-272-8575 www.asq.org


Performance Excellence EtQ, Inc. 1 516-293-0949 www.etq.com
Sandra Cokeley, Margaret A. Byrnes, Geri
Markley and Suzanne Keely, ASQ Quality InfinityQS International, Inc. 60 703-961-0200 www.infinityqs.com
Press, 2007, 168 pp., $22 member, $36 list
(book and CD-ROM). Membership, ASQ 38 414-272-8575 www.asq.org

PQ Systems, Inc. 57 800-777-3020 www.pqsystems.com


Transformation to Performance
Excellence: Baldrige Education Quality Council of Indiana 10, 11 812-533-4215 www.qualitycouncil.com
Leaders Speak Out is a collection of
questions and answers and success SAI Global 2 800-374-3818 www.xlp.com
stories based on ideas specific to the
use of the Malcolm Baldrige National Statistical Process Controls 7 865-584-5005 www.spcpress.com
Quality Award resources. It is a first
person account of how those success- StatPoint, LLC IFC 540-364-0420 www.statpoint.com
es were delivered. The book is a quick
read organized with an effective index StatSoft, Inc. 82 918-749-1119 www.statsoft.com
with direct answers to specific ques-
tions from leaders using Baldrige Upper Iowa University 15 515-369-7777 www.uiu.edu

QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 73


QP
CALENDAR
To receive information or to register for ASQ 30-31 Advanced Quality Management 24-26 8th Annual Quest Forum Best
Education Courses and Conferences, contact System Auditing for the Aviation, Space Practices Conference. Dallas. Call Quest
Learning Offerings, ASQ, 600 N. Plankinton and Defense Industry. Hartford, CT. Call Forum at 972-661-6420 or e-mail
Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53203, 800-248-1946, the Integrated Performance Leadership information@questforum.org.
Group at 239-283-2839 or e-mail training@
414-272-8575, fax 414-272-1734, website
theiplgroup.com. 24-26 ASQ Education Course. Certified
www.asq.org. Manager of Quality/Organization Refresher.
Toronto.
S E P T E M B E R
A U G U S T 24-29 Achieving Business Results
5-6 Internal Consulting: Managing Through Performance Improvement.
8-10 Process Management: Applying When You Don’t Have Control. Chicago. Phoenix. Call the International Society for
Process Mapping to Analyze and Improve Call Numerof & Associates at 314-997-1587 Performance Improvement at 301-587-8570
Your Operation. San Francisco. Call the or visit www.nai-consulting.com. or visit www.ispi.org.
American Management Assn. at 800-262-
9699 or visit www.amaseminars.org. 5-6 Public Green Belt Certificate
Course. Williamsburg, VA. Call the Quality
O C T O B E R
14 Lean Implementation Through Value Function Deployment Institute at 734-995-
Stream Mapping. Deerfield, WI. Call the 0847 or visit www.qfdi.org.
1-2 ASQ Conference. 16th Annual
Assn. for Manufacturing Excellence at 224-
11-13 7th Annual Automotive Com- Service Quality Conference. San Diego.
232-5980 or visit www.ame.org.
posites Conference and Exhibition. Troy,
11-12 ASQ Conference. 16th Annual
14-15 Practical Reliability Engineer- MI. Call the Society of Plastics Engineers
Audit Conference. Atlanta.
ing. Portland, OR. Call Hobbs Engineering Automotive Division at 248-244-8993 or
at 303-465-5988 or visit www.hobbsengr. visit www.4spe.org.
16-17 ASQ Conference. International
com. Conference on Software Quality.
16-18 37th S-Business World Confer-
Lakewood, CO.
15-17 Statistical Analysis for Process ence and Expo. Orlando, FL. Call the Assn.
Improvement Using Minitab. San Fran- for Services Management International at
cisco. Call Exsilon Data and Statistical 239-275-7887 x18 or e-mail csheppard@
Solutions at 800-930-8528 or visit www. afsmi.org.
exsilondata.com.
18-19 Great Lakes 2007 Exposition
20-22 Managing Process Data for and Conference. Grand Rapids, MI. Call the
Continual Improvement. Atlanta. Call Stat- Society of Manufacturing Engineers at 800-
A-Matrix at 800-472-6477 or visit www. 733-4763 or visit www.sme.org/greatlakes. Have an event you’d like
statamatrix.com. included in “QP Calendar”?
19-20 Six Sigma in Healthcare
22 US Food Labeling Under the Food Conference. Boston. Call the World Con- Submit information at least
and Drug Administration. Guelph, Ontario. ventions and Business Forums at
three months in advance to
Call Guelph Food Technology Center at 800-959-6549 or visit www.wcbf.com/
519-821-1246 or visit www.gftc.ca. quality. vfunk@asq.org. Non-ASQ

organizations may list one


28-30 Software Testing Certification: 24-25 How to Create Well Defined
Foundation Level Training. Columbus, OH. Processes. Los Angeles. Call Jan Fitzgerald event per issue.
Call Software Quality Engineering at 888- at 800-466-9953 or e-mail jan@bizmanualz.
268-8770 or visit www.sqe.com/register. com.

74 I JULY 2007 I www.asq.org


For information on placing an ad,

Professional Services contact Ramona Garcia at 800-248-1946,


or 414-272-8575, or e-mail rgarcia@asq.org

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QUALITY PROGRESS I JULY 2007 I 79


ONE GOOD
IDEA

Under One Roof by Ronald L. Sedlock

uality function deployment departments, the roof would be made Auditing interactions would require

Q (QFD) is a great tool for design-


ing a business based on the voice
of the customer. Many quality tools are
up of 28 interactions. Is it necessary to
audit all 28 interactions? Probably not.
You can always do a Pareto chart and
audit the six vital few interactions.
you to expand the scope of audits to
include more than one department or
process. Auditing several departments
multifaceted. Here is how QFD and its or processes might sound impossible
house of quality can be used to better Which six? Probably by consensus we with time and budget constraints. But
schedule and scope audits. can agree on four or five interactions remember, scope down audits of suppli-
One of the guiding principles of ers to a specific commodity in the main
quality is cross functionality. This It makes sense to use process you are auditing. If nothing else,
principle is embedded in many cur- make sure all your audits cover at least
rent quality management standards. the house of quality two departments or two processes. You
For instance, ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9001- must begin auditing the way the busi-
2000 says the following: for cross functionality ness actually operates—a system of
“The application of a system of and interactions. processes, including interactions.
processes within an organization, Another use of the roof is to deter-
together with the identification and mine how to build cross functional
interactions of these processes, and of the six vital few. teams, perhaps to tackle a Six Sigma
their management, can be referred to Not only do we have four bad (–) project. If you know there is a weak
as the ‘process approach.’ interactions, we also have four good relationship between two functions,
“An advantage of the process (+) ones. You can audit for objective why not put representatives from
approach is the ongoing control that it evidence of the bad interactions to these areas on the same team with a
provides over the linkage between the begin a process of determining root single purpose? I have seen a weak
individual processes within the sys- cause and implementing effective cor- relationship become strong through a
tem of processes, as well as over their rective action. We can audit the posi- team building process. Moreover, this
combination and interaction.” tive interactions to collect “what we strong team relationship might have a
How do you audit interaction? In do well” information (the appreciative spillover effect on day-to-day busi-
Figure 1’s example, the columns are the inquiry method). ness operations.
general departments at most companies For example, you can audit the bad Whether forming cross functional
(or they could be specific processes). interaction between the engineering teams or auditing process interac-
The roof becomes all the interactions and production departments to objec- tions, you will provide value added
between any two departments. tively shed light on the problem. You information for management review
There are eight departments in this can audit how the engineering depart- of the effectiveness of the quality sys-
example, making the number of two- ment produces and delivers standards tem. Using the house of quality for
way interactions 28 (8C2). With eight to the production department. You cross functionality and interactions
can audit the production department makes sense.
FIGURE 1 Example of on how useful it finds the engineering After all, aren’t your departments
Interactions department’s standards. A revealing and processes under one roof?
Under One Roof exercise is to see if the supplier output
is equal to the customer input, as BIBLIOGRAPHY
+ illustrated in Figure 2. ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9001-2000 Quality
+
As a positive example, you can audit Management Systems—Requirements,
– ANSI/ASQ, 2001.
+ the interaction between the HR and
– – + – Juran, J.M., and Frank M. Gryna (ed.),
production departments to identify
Engineering

Accounting

Juran’s Quality Control Handbook, fourth


Purchasing
Production

something you want to continue and


Shipping

edition, McGraw-Hill, 1988.


Service

perhaps replicate. You can audit HR on Cooperrider, David, and Suresh Srivastva,
Sales

how it hires production workers. Research in Organizational Change and


HR

Perhaps you would find that HR goes Development, Vol. 1, 1987, pp. 129-169.
(+) = positive interaction between departments
(–) = negative interaction between departments to observe the actual work environ-
ment. You can audit RONALD L. SEDLOCK is
the principal consultant
how the production
and trainer at the quality
FIGURE 2 Supplier Output, Customer Input department’s new
Catalyst in Melrose, FL. He
hires perform. Per- earned a bachelor’s degree
haps you would in science from Cleveland
discover that HR State University. Sedlock is
Supplier Output = Input Customer receives feedback a senior member of ASQ
one month later on and past chair of ASQ sec-
how a new hire is tions 1313 in Boulder, CO and of 1506
working out. Jacksonville-Northeastern Florida.

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