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Policy Adoption: Electoral, Process: Election Plebiscite and Referendum

 Policy Adoption Aka Legitimization


o Is the third phase of the policy process in which policies are adopted by government bodies for future
implementation
o Policy is legitimized as a result of the public statement or actions of government officials; both elected
and appointed – the president, Congress, state legislators, agency officials, and the courts. This includes
executive orders, budgets, laws and appropriations, rules and regulations, and administrative and
court decisions that set policy directions.
 What is Election
o Election is the means by which the people choose their officials for definite and fixed periods.
 What are the different types of electoral exercises?
o Regular Elections
 National
 Local
 Barangay
 ARMM
 Sangguniang Bayan (SK)
o Special Elections
 Plebiscite
 Referendum
 Initiative
 Recall
 How often is election held?
o Every 2nd Monday of May for national and local elections
 President and Vice – President: Every 6 years
 Senators, Congressmen, Provincial, City and Municipal officials: Every 3 years
o Every last Monday of October, every 3 years for barangay and SK officials
o Every 3 years from March 1993 – ARMM elections
 What is registration? ,,

o Registration refers to the act of accomplishing and filing of a sworn application for registration by a
qualified voter
 What are the requirements for registration?
o Filipino Citizen
o At least 18 years of age
o A resident of the Philippines for one year and of the city or municipality wherein he proposes to vote for
at least six months immediately preceding the election
o Not otherwise disqualified by law
 Why should I Register?
o To have the opportunity to choose our leaders
 What is validation of Registration?
o A process wherein fingerprints of the voter would be captured electronically at no expense to the voter.
 Where Should I Register?
o COMELEC Office
 Where should I validate my Registration?
o Barangay Office
o
 Our voting practices
o Voting by Popularity
o Vote Buying
 The Philippines is a Republican State
o We elect our officials directly
o Officials serve for fixed terms
o Officials are accountable to the people
 The Government
o Legislative
o Executive -
o Judicial – Appointed
 Executive
o Implements programs & projects
o Monitors programs & projects
o Provides basic services
o Performs ceremonial functions
 Legislative
o Reviews and evaluates proposals, position papers
o Conducts research on proposed bills and position papers
o Consults experts
o Defends and Analyzes proposed bills
 Election Irregularities and Problems with Philippine Electoral System
o Philippine elections are often marred by violence, fraud and irregularities
o Polling stations run out of ballots/Consolidation of votes – PCOS (It is a machine that reads votes based
on pencil markings on a special type of paper.)
o Ballot boxes go missing;
o Names of legitimate voters aren’t on voting lists;
o Dead people remain on lists that have not been updated;
o Stations run out of ink that keeps voters from voting twice.
o There has also been an allegation that computers have been manipulated to change results.
 Election Watch List Areas (EWAs)
 Negros Oriental
 Pangasinan
 Masbate
 Western Samar
 Maguindanao
 Lanao del Sur
 Abra
 Nueva Ecija
 Lanao del Norte
 What should I do?
 Pray for the election, the COMELEC, the candidates and the voters
 Organize/attend Candidate’s Forum to know their programs, track record and platforms
 Rally your community to vote right
 Help educate your friends to Vote Right
 Vote Right
 Watch the count, be a Poll Watcher
Suffrage and its Scope
o Suffrage also refers to the right and obligation of the citizens to vote in the election for government
officials and in deciding on public question submitted to them. Thus, it includes election, plebiscite,
referendum, initiative and recall.

o Petition
 Petition is the written instrument containing the proposition and the required number of
signatories.
o Initiative
 The power of the people to propose amendments to the Constitution or to propose and enact
legislation through an election called for the purpose.
 There are three (3) systems of initiative, namely:
1. Initiative on the Constitution which refers to a petition proposing amendments to the
Constitution.
2. Initiative on statures which refers to a petition proposing to enact a national legislation;
and
3. Initiative on local legislation which refers to a petition proposing to enact a regional,
provincial, city, municipal or barangay law, resolution or ordinance.
o Plebiscite
 The electoral process by which an initiative on the Constitution is approved or rejected by the
people.
 The popular vote on a proposal which include the entire populace? Voters are asked to either
reject or accept the proposal, with the outcome of the plebiscite determining the fate of the
proposed measure, action, constitution, or other political proposal. A plebiscite should not be
confused with a general election or regular voting, as no party candidates are included in it.
 The word plebiscite comes from the Latin word: “plebis” which means “the people” and
“scitum” which means “decree”. Under the plebiscite, the people are allowed to decide on an
issue of importance, and the outcome of the vote is like a decree from the citizens. Both
democracies and dictatorship use plebiscite, although for very different purposes. In both
instances, the vote cannot truly be called plebiscite unless all eligible voters are able to
participate.
o Referendum
 The power of the electorate to approve or reject a legislation through an election called for the
purpose

 Two Classes of REFERENDUM


1. Referendum on statues which refers to a petition to approve or reject an act or law, or part
thereof, passed by the Congress.
2. Referendum on Local Law which refers to a petition to approve or reject a law resolution or
ordinance enacted by regional assemblies and local legislative bodies.
Differences between REFERENDUM and INITIATIVE
 Both initiative and referendum are powers given to the voters to accept or reject a piece of legislation,
though initiative allows people to get the government to do what it should have and did not, while
referendum give people the power to get the government “not” to do what they wanted to do.
Initiative starts with votes, whereas Legislative Referendum initiates from the legislature and goes to the
public, to approve or reject the proposed legislation.
 Who may Exercise?
 The power of initiative and referendum may be exercised by all registered voters of the country,
autonomous regions, provinces, cities, municipalities and barangays.
Requirements (National)
 To exercise the power of initiative or referendum, at least ten per centum (10%) of the total number of
the registered voters, of which every legislative district is represented by at least three per centum (3%)
of the registered voters thereof, shall sign a petition for the purpose and register the same with the
Commission.
 A petition for an initiative on the 1987 Constitution must have at least twelve per centum (12%) of the
total number of registered voters as signatories, of which every legislative district must be represented by
at least three per centum (3%) of the registered voters therein. Initiative on the Constitution may be
exercised only after five (5) years from the ratification of the 1987 Constitution and only every fiver (5)
years thereafter.
THE PETITON SHALL STATE THE FOLLOWING
1. The contents or text of the proposed law sought to be enacted, approved or rejected, amended or repealed as
the case may be.
2. The proposition.
3. The reason or reasons therefor.
4. That it is not one of the exceptions provided herein.
5. Signatures of the petitioners or registered voters.
6. An abstract summary in not more than 100 words which shall be legibly written or printed at the top of
every page of the petition.

Requirements (Autonomous Region, Province or City)


A Referendum or Initiative affecting a law, resolution or ordinance passed by the legislative assembly is deemed
validly initiated if the petition thereof is signed by at least 10% of the registered voters in the province or city, of
which every legislative district must be represented by at least 3% of the registered voters therein. Since some
province or city is composed of only one (1) district, the at least each municipality in a province or each barangay in a city
should be represented by at least three per centum (3%) of the registered voters therein.
Requirements (Municipality)
A Referendum or Initiative on an ordinance in a municipality shall be deemed validly initiated if the petition therefor
is signed by at least 10% of the registered voters in municipality, of which every barangay is represented by at least
3% of the registered voters therein. Since some province or city is composed of only one (1) district, the at least each
municipality in a province or each barangay in a city should be represented by at least three per centum (3%) of the
registered voters therein.
Requirements (Barangay)
A Referendum or Initiative on barangay resolution or ordinance is deemed validly initiated if the petition therefor is
signed by at least 10% of the registered voters in said Barangay