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Computer and Info. Science Department Complex Systems and Brain Sciences

University of Pennsylvania Florida Atlantic University

200 South 33rd Street 777 Glades Road, P.O. Box 3091

Philadelphia, PA 19104 Boca Raton, FL 33431

los 1995).

We present a method for the generation of real-time In our dynamic system approach to this problem, the

navigation of dynamic autonomous agents in game en- early methods were restricted to the generation of in-

vironments. The method is based on the use of dy- dividual behaviors such as navigation toward a

xed

namic systems theory which allows the development of

sets of dierential equations that exhibit distinct be- goal. Recently, however, methods have been developed

haviors. The dierential equations are a carefully de- to allow an agent to arbitrate among a large number

signed set of attractor and repeller elds. Coupled to- of potential behaviors, and to generate complex se-

gether with a \behavioral" selection of the relevant con- quences of activity in a manner that is robust, yet ex-

tributions at each time instant are capable of exhibit- ible in the face of a changing environment (Steinhage

ing useful steering behaviors in complex environments. & Schoner 1997 Large, Christensen, & Bajcsy" 1999

To avoid local minima, carefully designed noise terms Goldenstein, Large, & Metaxas 1999). To achieve this

are added. Using this approach we are able to demon- result a second dynamical system is de

ned that op-

strate in real time behaviors such as single/multiple erates in the space of task constraints. This dynamic

target tracking with stationary and moving obstacles. approach, forces task constraints to compete for repre-

Keywords: Digital Agents, Game Animation, Motion

Planning, Dynamical Systems. sentation at the behavioral level. Thus, at any given

time the behavioral vector

eld (and the observed be-

havior) comprises a subset of possible task constraints.

Introduction The parameters of the dynamical system are chosen in

such a way that the agent's behavior is appropriate to

The importance of game and simulation applications the current situation.

grows everyday, as does the need for animated agents In this paper, we discuss an alternative methodol-

that operate autonomously in these environments. ogy that has its roots in behavior-based robotics and

These agents must be able to exhibit certain behaviors is based on a novel way of combining dierential equa-

autonomously, without user intervention. Among the tions exhibiting particular behaviors. According to this

various methods higher levels of behavior, and move- methodology, one de

nes a representation whose dimen-

ment decisions were investigated

rst in the pioneering sions correspond to agent behavior. Using this type of

work by Reynolds (Reynolds 1987), and then in work approach, Schoner and colleagues have developed a dy-

by others (Bates, Loyall, & Reilly 1992 Noser & Thal- namical system for robot path planning and control. In

mann 1993 Reynolds 1993 Tu & Terzopoulos 1994 this system a set of behavioral variables, namely head-

Noser et al. 1995). AI approaches (Lethebridge & C ing direction and velocity, de

nes a state space in which

1989 Funge, Tu, & Terzopoulos 1999) are capable of a dynamics of robot behavior is described (Schoner,

generating autonomous behavior, but typical such tech- Dose, & Engels 1996). Path planning is governed by

niques require complex inferencing mechanisms. This a nonlinear dynamical system that generates a time

may require considerable computational resources, rais- course of the behavioral variables. The system dy-

ing the question of scaling up such systems as the num- namics are speci

ed as a nonlinear vector

eld, while

ber of independent agents grows, or when each agent the task that the agent will execute depends upon the

has a completely dierent goal and behavioral direc- task constraints. Task constraints are modeled as com-

tives. In addition to these factors, agents must be able ponent forces, de

ning attractors and repellers of the

to interact with real-time moving objects that might ei- dynamical system. The individual constraint contribu-

ther contribute to or compromise the

nal goal. Other tions are additively combined into a single vector

eld,

approaches to this problem employ learning, percep- which determines the observed behavior.

Copyright c 2000, American Association for Articial In- Here we adapt the above methodology to develop au-

telligence (www.aaai.org). All rights reserved. tonomous dynamic behaviors for games. In particular,

we devise a set of time adaptive dierential equations targets (Section . In our formulation, the heading speed

to rule the heading angle and forward speed of a given is modi

ed by either the heading angle information or

digital autonomous agent. Based on a principled com- the relative location of the obstacles (Section ).

bination of these equations we create a whole set of Based on our formulation, an agent ignores targets

relatively complex \low-level" behaviors which are re- or obstacles, depending on the scene geometry around

active in nature. To avoid unstable

xed points in the the agent at each time instance. It is modeled based

dierential equations1 we add a Gaussian noise term in on another type of nonlinear dynamical system, run-

each equation. Using this system decisions are made ning on a more re

ned time scale. This system out-

on-line and do not require any previous memory, train- puts weights that linearly combine the dierent attrac-

ing or global planning. The set of targets and obstacles tor and repeller contributions as calculated by the

rst

can change during the course of the simulation, since system. An important aspect of our methodology is

the agent is able to make \smart" local decisions based that it scales linearly with the number of obstacles and

on its current global knowledge of the dynamic envi- targets in the environment.

ronment it is situated. An example of such a behavior In the following we present the details of each of each

is that the agent will temporarily disregard a target if of the two dynamical systems.

there is an unsurpassable moving/stantionary obstacle

immediately between them. It will then focus like a

human would do to

rst avoid the obstacle and then

The Basic Movement Dynamics

refocus on the target. The

rst dynamical system models the control of the

Our system allows single/multiple target tracking in basic movement of each autonomous agent. The move-

the presence of multiple static/moving obstacles. The ment is de

ned by a 2D vector representing the agent's

design of the dierential equations allows the tracking of heading angle and forward speed.

targets whenever their position is within the visible cone The heading angle of a given agent is controlled by

of an agent requiring only the estimation of its current a dynamical system of the type:

position. However, obstacles are processed in a local _ = f (env) (1)

fashion based on their relative location to the agent

and the target. Given our applications, in our current where env is the vector of variables which models the

implementation our agents are memoryless, reactive in environment (e.g., the geometry and position of the ob-

nature and depending on the situation (emergence of stacles and targets) and we describe in detail below.

new obstacles and/or targets) their movement can be According to our dynamical system formulation each

discontinuous. element of the environment can \attract" or \repel" an

In the following sections, we present previous related agent. We will therefore use attractors to model targets

work in the area, the design of our system and the series and repellers to model objects that should be avoided.

of real-time experiments. We model an attractor as

Movement Dynamics ftar = a sin( ; ) (2)

In our methodology we combine two distinct dynamic where is the angle of the target's location relative to

systems to model the movement and behavior of each the agent's location and a is a constant parameter.

autonomous agent. The

rst system controls the move-

ment of the agent. The state space of this system is two In order to model complex environment obstacles, en-

dimensional, the

rst parameter represents the head- emies or hazards are distinct entities. Fire-pits, for ex-

ing direction, while the other speci

es its velocity. The ample, are clearly more dangerous than a large wall.

second system controls the agent's movement decision Therefore the repeller de

nition should have enough

making, i.e., its behavior. The state space of this sys- parameters to model the dierent types of objects. We

tem is the space of the agent's behaviors. The param- achieve this by de

ning a repeller to be the multiplica-

eter values of the state vector components determine tion of three dierent functions, Ri Wi Di , which result

which \elements" of the environment (e.g., obstacles, in being able to model the type of repeller, its distance

targets) will be used in the calculation of the agent's to the agent and the extent of its inuence to the envi-

movement and therefore behavior. ronent. We therefore repeller as

Each autonomous agent movement is described in po- fobsi = Ri Wi Di : (3)

lar coordinates. It consists of a heading direction and

a forward velocity v. The heading angle is controlled by Function Ri models a generic repeller, and is con-

a one dimensional non-linear dynamical system, which structed as:

consists of \repellers" placed in the subtended angle of ;i

the obstacles, and attractors in the subtended angles of Ri = ( ;i ) e 1; i (4)

i

1

In dierential equation terminology a xed point is a

point where the derivative is zero and acts like a trap re- where i is the angle of obstacle i and i is the angle

sulting in the agent not to be able to move. subtended by it.

The second function, Wi , is responsible for limiting graphic) and obstacle function (middle right graphic).

the angular range of the repeller's inuence in the en- The presence of two

nal attractors, indicated by the

vironment and is modeled as two arrows in the lower right graph, show the two pos-

sible obvious ways to get to the target and avoid the

Wi = 12 tanh(h1 (cos( ; i ) ; obstacle.

cos(2i + ))) + 1] (5) Configuration Vector Field Components

2

attractor

0

Ftar

tar

−2

ψ ≅0 −π −π/2 0 π/2 π

tar

2

repellor

is modeled by

F obs

0

ψ −2

obs −π −π/2 0 π/2 π

φ

Summed Vector Field

attractors

0

φ

.

−2

−π −π/2 0 π/2 π

φ

of the obstacle to the environment by taking into ac- Figure 1: Attractor and Repeller interaction.

count the distance of the obstacle from the agent and A second more complex example consists of the agent

is modeled as facing two dierent obstacles located side by side. If

Di = e; d0i

r

(7) the obstacles are too far apart, the agent should be

able to pass between them, otherwise it will have to

where ri is the relative distance between them, and d0 go around them. This decision is taken automatically,

controls the strength of this inuence as the distance as it can be seen in Fig. . Fig. 2(a) depicts the case

changes. where two obstacles are too close, Fig. 2(b) depicts the

The resulting inuence on the agent from all obstacles case where the distance between the obstacles is exactly

i = 1 : : : n, is the sum of the respective repellers

fobs =

Xn f obsi : (8)

equal to the size of the agent, a critical condition, and

Fig. 2(c) depicts the case when the obstacles are far

apart to allow the easy passage of the agent between

i=1 them. For this simple case (no target and two obstacles)

Therefore, the de

nition of the dynamical system we have plotted at the bottom of each

gure (9) as a

controlling the heading angle in (1) is obtained as: function of the angle between the agent orientation and

the y axis (assuming that the noise term n is zero).

_ = f (env) == jwtar jftar + jwobs jfobs + n: (9) These functions clearly show that the dynamical system

exhibits the correct behavior in terms of the value of the

The weights wtar and wobs are intended to eliminate _ . For example in Fig. 2(a) _ = 0 depicts an unstable

spurious attractors that can occur by the direct sum-

xed point which would result in the agent trying to

ming of the nonlinear functions modeling the vari- go through the obstacles. However, the insertion of a

ous obstacles and targets in the environement. These small amount of noise n will overcome this situation

weights are obtained through a \constrain competi- easily given the function diagram.

tion", the second dyanamical system mentioned previ-

ously and described in details in Section . They are the

essence of the \low-level" behavior modeling. Finally,

the noise term n is an extremely important factor. It

allows the system to escape from unstable

xed points

in the de

nition of (9) (e.g., the \center" of a repeller,

where _ = 0, but any slight diplacement would make it 1 1 1

0.5 0.5 0.5

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3

nal system.

Let's

rst consider a simple example (Fig. ), the result (a) (b) (c)

of a simple interaction between a target, an attractor,

and an obstacle, a repeller. Let's also take the simple Figure 2: Interaction of repellers of two obstacles.

case that the location of the obstacle is close to the

straight line between the agent and the target.

It is then clear that the agent will have to go around Constrain Competition

the obstacle in order to hit the target. In this case, Individually, the attractors and repellers de

ned in sec-

the modeling of the agent's heading direction _ based tion work well, but because of their non-linear char-

on (9) is shown in the lower right graph of Fig. . It acteristics their direct sum might not always yield the

is the composition of the target function (upper right expected results. For instace, in the example shown in

Configuration Vector Field Components

2

leads to a situation where the target and the obstacle

contributions in (9) are turned o. Obviously this case

target

0

tar

−2

−π −π/2 0 π/2 π

obstacles

0

−2

−π −π/2 0 π/2 π

φ

1

Summed Vector Field

The second case (wtar wobs ) = (0 1) occurs when

0

φ

.

of Fig. ). It is stable as long as obs,tar > tar .

−1

−π −π/2 0 π/2 π

φ

Figure 3: Attractor of the angle dynamical system. The third case (wtar wobs ) = (1 0) happens when

obstacles are ignored. This may occur, for example,

when there are no obstacles near the target. This case

Figure , the sum of one attractor with the two repellers is stable when tar,obs > obs .

propose an impossible path inbetween the two obstacles The last case is when the values of both weights

{ they are too close from each other to allow the agent's are nonzero, (wtar wobs ) = (Atar Aobs ), also known

passage. as the \averaging" solution. The following two con-

To avoid this kind of problem, the composition of the ditions have to be satis

ed for this case to be stable

attractors and repeller functions is not obtained by a di- obs > tar,obs and tar > obs,tar . This is de

netely a

rect sum, but though an weighted average by weights desirable situation.

wi . These weights are the result of the second dynam- It is important to note that conditions two and three

ical system, which runs at a more re

ned time scale are not mutually exclusive, and they can happen simul-

wrt the dynamical system in (9). This second system taneously. In this case we have a situation of bistability,

is modeled as X

w_ i = i wi (1 ; wi2 ) ; j i wj2 wi (10)

where the stable condition that will prevail depends on

the initial conditions. In this case there can be constant

j 6=i alternation between behaviors. A possible solution to

avoid this problem is to give a \hysteresis" to the chang-

where in the simple case where only obstacles and ing of the weights.

targets are modeled, the state space (wi ) consists of Based on the above, the design of i and ij should

(wtar wobs ), as used in (9). create the dierent stable points according to the en-

This system is completely de

ned by the parameter vironment parameters. This process is described with

functions i , termed competitive advantage, the param- details in (Large, Christensen, & Bajcsy" 1999), and

eter functions ji , termed competitive interaction, and the functions for this two-dimensional case are:

the initial value of its state space. At each time in- e;c2Ptar Pobs

stant these parameters will be computed according to obs tar = tar obs = 0:05

the geometry of the environment, and through (10) we

obtain the weights to be used in (9). At a given time

instance in the computation of (9), the computation of tar = atar

ec2

obs = tanh

Xn Di

the weights based on (10) is not done in one step but i=1

in multiple steps. This is in order to ensure that the where Ptar and Pobs are:

computed weights result in a stable

xed point of (10)

as we will explain below. This explains why the whole Ptar = sgn( dFdtar )ec1 jFtar j (11)

system runs in multiple time scales { (10) is evaluated

at a much faster rate compared to (9).

The correct design of the parameter functions i and Pobs = Wobs sgn( dFdobs )ec1 jFobs j (12)

ji will provide the desired low level behaviors. There- and also atar is such that whenever there is competition

fore it is important to understand the stability of this among targets and obstacles, targets will loose, but it

system (for more details see (Perko 1991)), and incorpo- will always be active if there is only a \background"

rate the geometry of the environment in the \low-level" noise. This is set here to be 0:4(1 ; obs ). Di (7) is

behaviors. Table 1 shows the stability analysis for (10): the function used in the distance contribution of each

wtar wobs Stability obstacle repeller, and their sum gives a good estimative

of the concentration of obstacles around and near the

0 0 Unstable tar obs > 0 agent.

0 1 Stable obs,tar > tar

1 0 Stable tar,obs > obs Modeling the Agent's Velocity

Atar Aobs Stable obs > tar,obs Many dierent approaches can be used for modeling

and tar > obs,tar the forward velocity. A possible approach is to assign a

constant value to the forward velocity. This approach

Table 1: Stability Analysis. has drawbacks in a real time changing environment: if

There are four distinct cases each one related to a an obstacle is suddenly in front of the agent, there might

dierent behavior. The

rst case, (wtar wobs ) = (0 0) not be enough time for the agent to change direction

and will result in a collision. A better approach is to There is a whole set of parameters to control the ex-

have the agent move faster when there are no objects pected low-level behavior of the overall system. Unfor-

around and slower in a crowded area. The agent should tunately this set is not intuitive for an animator. We

also retreat when it is too close to an obstacle. An are currently working towards making the whole pro-

equation for the forward velocity that satis

es the above cess of modeling a behavior both more high-level and

design criteria is the following \user-friendly" as well as exible enough for dierent

applications. New functions are being analyzed in or-

v = rmint2;c d1 (13) der to achieve a signi

cantly larger and more complex

set of behaviors.

where rmin is the distance to the closest obstacle, d1 Acknowledgments

the safety distance and t2c is the time to contact. This

method basically applies a constant time to contact ap- The

rst author was supported by a Ph.D fellowship

proach. If the closest obstacle is far then the forward from CNPq, Brazil. The second author was partially

velocity is large. Also if the closest obstacle is at a dis- supported by an ONR YIP and an NSF Career Award.

tance smaller than d1 , then the resulting forward veloc-

ity will be negative, meaning that the agent will retreat. References

Note that only obstacles in front of the agent should be Bates, J. Loyall, A. and Reilly, W. 1992. An architecture

considered for this calculation. We have used the above for action, emotion, and socialbehavior. In Proceedings of

method in all our examples. the Fourth Europeans Workshop on Modeling Autonomous

Agents in a multi Agents World.

Experimental Results Funge, J. Tu, X. and Terzopoulos, D. 1999. Cognitive

The system was implemented in C, using lua modeling: Knowledge, reasoning and planning for intelli-

(R. Ierusalimschy & Celes 1996) as an extensible em- gent characters. Proc. of SIGGRAPH 99 29{38.

bedded language to describe both the scene and the Goldenstein, S. Large, E. and Metaxas, D. 1999. Non-

target(s)/agent(s) movement. linear dynamical system apprach to behavior modeling.

The constant a in (2) was set to 1 and the The Visual Computer 15:349{369.

safety margin in (6) was set to 0.8. The Eu- Grzeszczuk, R., and Terzopoulos, D. 1995. Automated

ler integration time step was 0:25 and all the sim- learning of Muscle-Actuated locomotion through control

ulations run in faster than real time. All ex- abstraction. In Proc. of SIGGRAPH.

periments described below can be found on-line at Large, E. Christensen, H. and Bajcsy", R. 1999. Scal-

http://www.cis.upenn.edu/siome/research/aaai2000 ing the dynamic approach to path planning and control:

In the

rst experiment we used a single static target Competition among behavioral constraints. Int. Journal

of Robotics Research 18(1).

and a series of static obstacles between it's location and Lethebridge, T., and C, C. W. 1989. A simple heuristically-

the target's initial position. Note that in this case d0 based method for expressive stimulus-response animation.

was 3:0. Computers and Graphics 13(3).

In the second experiment the scene is composed of Noser, H., and Thalmann, D. 1993. L-system-based be-

one static target and multiple moving obstacles. The havioral animation. In Proc. Pacic Graphics.

agent avoids colision by changes of direction and some- Noser, H. Renault, O. Thalmann, D. and Thalmann.,

times by a velocity reduction or even a complete stop. N. 1995. Navigation for digital actors based on synthetic

In this simulation d0 was set to 2:0. vision, memory and learning. Computer and Graphics.

In the third experiment there is a group of static Perko, L. 1991. Dierential Equations and Dynamical Sys-

obstacles and a moving target. The agent successfully tems. Springer Verlag.

reaches the target and avoids the moving obstacles. In R. Ierusalimschy, L. F., and Celes, W. 1996. Lua - an

this case d0 was set to 0:8 and the

nal velocity was the extensible extension language. Software: Practice & Expe-

result of the method scaled by 0:8. rience 26(6).

In the last experiment we illustrate the exibility of Reynolds, C. 1987. Flocks, herds, and schools: A dis-

our method by showing multiple moving and static tar- tributed behavioral model. In Proc. SIGGRAPH '87.

gets together with moving and static obstacles . The Reynolds, C. 1993. An evolved, vision-based behavioral

constant d0 was set to 1:0. model of coordinated group motion. In Proc. 2nd Int. Conf.

In the videos all experiments appear rendered based on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior.

on the use of the rendering package Pov-Ray. Schoner, G. Dose, M. and Engels, C. 1996. Dynamics of

Conclusions behaviour: theory and applications for autonomous robot

architectures. Robotics and Autonomous Systems 16(2{4).

We have presented a technique to model autonomous Steinhage, A., and Schoner, G. 1997. The dynamic ap-

agents navigation for game environments. Using a dy- proach to autonomous robot navigation. In Proc. IEEE

namical system approach we control the agent's head- Int. Symposium on Industrial Electronics.

ing direction and its velocity. We have demonstrated Tu, X., and Terzopoulos, D. 1994. Articial shes: Physics,

natural low-level agent behavior in envirnments with locomotion, perception, behavior. In Proc. of SIGGRAPH.

multiple targets and stationary/moving obstacles.

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