You are on page 1of 3

Further treating steps are needed after syngas cooling and de-dusting, starting with

water scrubbing to remove trace solids, ammonia, and acids. Afterwards the syngas
enters the COS hydrolysis unit and COS is converted into H2S, which than is removed by
a FLEXSORB SE+ absorption process. FLEXSORB SE+ represents a very selective chemical
solvent well suited to remove low H2S concentration. After desorption the H2S is fed to
a CLINSULF reactor (comparable to Claus process; see figure 12-8) and converted to
elemental sulfur while the off gas leaving the CLINSULF unit is converted back to H2S by
hydrogenation and returns upstream to the FLEXSORB SE+ unit. Beyond sulfur removal
the FLEXSORB unit also absorbs naphthalene, which is formed in the HTW gasifier due
to its lower gasification temperature. The total energy losses of sulfur removal amounts
to about 1% and of air separation to about 3.3%.
The combined cycle in case of HTW gasification represents a highly integrated system of
importing and exporting steam and water on different pressure levels and temperature
condition. Although the entire IGCC net efficiency level is higher than for Shell
gasification (see table 12-4), the efficiency benefit is compensated by higher investment
and system integration in case of lignite application. Gas turbine integration on the air
and nitrogen side has been considered similar to the Shell case.

IGCC Concept with CO2 Capture Based on Hard Coal and SFG Gasification
and Siemens Combined Cycle
The SFG technology is currently based on a dry feeding system and a full water quench
for syngas outlet cooling to about 200°C and leads to a syngas water content of more
than 50 vol% when the syngas leaves the gasifier quench section. SFG gasification with
partial water quench system and heat recovery can also be applied for future application
presently under development, which in general leads to higher IGCC efficiency levels.
But if CO2 capture is required more than 50% syngas water level is needed to perform
the water gas shift reaction from CO into CO2 and H2. In this case a full water quench
solution such as SFG gasification offers the most economical and simplest IGCC
configuration. No or limited steam injection is needed to accommodate the water gas
shift reaction and the Siemens IGCC concept with CO2 capture comprises only few
interfaces between the combined cycle and gas island, which are shown in figure 12-18.

ISO ambient condition, a typical hard coal such as Douglas Premium, kind 90% CO2
capture have been assumed for performance estimation of an IGCC concept based on
SFG technology. The CO2 is assumed to be compressed to about 110 bar.
Before gasification the hard coal is milled, dried, and fed to the gasifier where the coal
reacts with oxygen and steam under lambda values of 0.4 to 0.5. After gasification and
water quench, the syngas is cleaned by water scrubbing to remove particles and acids,
and is then fed to a CO raw gas shift reactor to convert CO into CO2 and H2 by
exothermic water gas reaction. After leaving the shift reactor, the syngas contains about
42 vol% H2, 30 vol% CO2 and still 24 vol% H2O which depends on water/gas ratio and
uses catalyst material (iron or cobalt molybdenum). The syngas temperature rises during
shift reaction to more than 500°C and HP steam can be generated and exported to the
combined cycle. After shift conversion, the CO2, H2S, and COS as well as other syngas
traces are removed by a two stage Rectisol process. The sulfur compounds are absorbed
in a first column and converted to elemental sulfur in an OxyClaus process followed by
a tail gas treatment—hydrogenation—plant as sulfur recovery process. The CO2 is
removed in a second column, separated from solvent (methanol) by flashing on lower
pressure levels, and compressed for transport and sequestration. The syngas leaving the
Rectisol process contains of about 85 vol% hydrogen and needs to be diluted with
nitrogen and water vapor (saturator) to control NOx emission and reduce flame speed
during gas turbine combustion. To enhance IGCC efficiency an additional syngas
preheating step is assumed before the hydrogen-rich syngas enters the gas turbine
combustor. Main energy losses are caused by CO conversion, CO2 removal, and
compression. The entire IGCC net efficiency level is estimated to be about 34.5% based
on F-class gas turbine. Integration of gas turbine and air separation unit are considered
to be comparable to IGCC cases without capture. The water steam cycle is based on a
three-pressure reheat with only few interfaces to gasification and gas cleaning. Thus the
combined-cycle operation does not change between syngas/hydrogen and secondary
fuel operation.

IGCC Concept with CO2 Capture Based on Hard Coal and Shell Gasification
and Siemens Combined-Cycle Technology
The Shell gasification technology for IGCC with CO2 capture corresponds to the standard
Shell application, and performance estimations are based on ISO ambient condition, a
typical hard coal, and 90% CO, capture with CO2 compression to about 110bar (figure
12- 19). The syngas leaves the Shell gasification island after water scrubbing and contains
than about 9 vol% water vapor, 57 vol% CO, and 23 vol% hydrogen, which needs to be
converted to hydrogen and CO2 for downstream CO2 capture. To accommodate the
water gas shift reaction the syngas needs to be saturated first to about 50 vol% water
vapor. This can be done by adding a cooler/saturator cycle that transfers the heat for
water evaporation from shift reactor outlet to inlet side and by additional IP steam
injection to cover the remaining steam requirement. Thus the sensible heat generated
during exothermic water gas reaction is used efficiently, but significant investment and
higher plant integration need to be considered, too.
The shifted gas is then fed to a Rectisol process where CO2 and sulfur compounds are
removed in two separate columns. The process design of gas cleaning and conditioning
corresponds to the SFG concept consisting of dilution, saturation, and preheating of
hydrogen-rich syngas and the energy losses of CO shift, CO2, and sulfur removal are in
the same range as the previously described SFG concept. Hence, the total efficiency is
slightly higher and results in about 35.9% due to high temperature heat recovery from
the raw gas (figure 12-20). But compared to the previous concept the Shell based IGCC
design leads to higher investment and higher plant integration. The water steam cycle
represents a three-pressure reheat design and is highly integrated between gasification
and gas cleaning. Thus the heat exchanger surface of gas turbine heat recovery
generator is basically designed for syngas operation leading to different operational
concepts between syngas/ hydrogen and secondary fuel operation.