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DRAFT

Lecture Notes

Introduction to

CONTINUUM MECHANICS

and Elements of

Elasticity/Structural Mechanics

c VICTOR

E. SAOUMA

Dept. of Civil Environmental and Architectural Engineering University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0428

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Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

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PREFACE

Une des questions fondamentales que l’ing´nieur des Mat´riaux se pose est de connaˆ le comportee e itre ment d’un materiel sous l’eﬀet de contraintes et la cause de sa rupture. En d´ﬁnitive, c’est pr´cis´ment la e e e r´ponse ` c/mat es deux questions qui vont guider le d´veloppement de nouveaux mat´riaux, et d´terminer e a e e e leur survie sous diﬀ´rentes conditions physiques et environnementales. e L’ing´nieur en Mat´riaux devra donc poss´der une connaissance fondamentale de la M´canique sur le e e e e plan qualitatif, et ˆtre capable d’eﬀectuer des simulations num´riques (le plus souvent avec les El´ments e e e Finis) et d’en extraire les r´sultats quantitatifs pour un probl`me bien pos´. e e e Selon l’humble opinion de l’auteur, ces nobles buts sont id´alement atteints en trois ´tapes. Pour e e commencer, l’´l`ve devra ˆtre confront´ aux principes de base de la M´canique des Milieux Continus. ee e e e Une pr´sentation d´taill´e des contraintes, d´formations, et principes fondamentaux est essentiel. Par e e e e la suite une briefe introduction a l’Elasticit´ (ainsi qu’` la th´orie des poutres) convaincra l’´l`ve qu’un ` e a e ee probl`me g´n´ral bien pos´ peut avoir une solution analytique. Par contre, ceci n’est vrai (` quelques e e e e a exceptions prˆts) que pour des cas avec de nombreuses hypoth`ses qui simpliﬁent le probl`me (´lasticit´ e e e e e lin´aire, petites d´formations, contraintes/d´formations planes, ou axisymmetrie). Ainsi, la troisi`me e e e e et derni`re ´tape consiste en une briefe introduction a la M´canique des Solides, et plus pr´cis´ment e e ` e e e au Calcul Variationel. A travers la m´thode des Puissances Virtuelles, et celle de Rayleigh-Ritz, l’´l`ve e ee sera enﬁn prˆt ` un autre cours d’´l´ments ﬁnis. Enﬁn, un sujet d’int´rˆt particulier aux ´tudiants en e a ee e e e Mat´riaux a ´t´ ajout´, a savoir la R´sistance Th´orique des Mat´riaux cristallins. Ce sujet est capital e ee e ` e e e pour une bonne compr´hension de la rupture et servira de lien a un ´ventuel cours sur la M´canique de e ` e e la Rupture. Ce polycopi´ a ´t´ enti`rement pr´par´ par l’auteur durant son ann´e sabbatique a l’Ecole Polye ee e e e e ` technique F´d´rale de Lausanne, D´partement des Mat´riaux. Le cours ´tait donn´ aux ´tudiants en e e e e e e e deuxi`me ann´e en Fran¸ais. e e c Ce polycopi´ a ´t´ ´crit avec les objectifs suivants. Avant tout il doit ˆtre complet et rigoureux. A e eee e tout moment, l’´l`ve doit ˆtre ` mˆme de retrouver toutes les ´tapes suivies dans la d´rivation d’une ee e a e e e ´quation. Ensuite, en allant a travers toutes les d´rivations, l’´l`ve sera ` mˆme de bien connaˆ les e ` e ee a e itre limitations et hypoth`ses derri`re chaque model. Enﬁn, la rigueur scientiﬁque adopt´e, pourra servir e e e d’exemple a la solution d’autres probl`mes scientiﬁques que l’´tudiant pourrait ˆtre emmen´ ` r´soudre ` e e e ea e dans le futur. Ce dernier point est souvent n´glig´. e e Le polycopi´ est subdivis´ de fa¸on tr`s hi´rarchique. Chaque concept est d´velopp´ dans un parae e c e e e e graphe s´par´. Ceci devrait faciliter non seulement la compr´hension, mais aussi le dialogue entres ´lev´s e e e e e eux-mˆmes ainsi qu’avec le Professeur. e Quand il a ´t´ jug´ n´cessaire, un bref rappel math´matique est introduit. De nombreux exemples ee e e e sont pr´sent´s, et enﬁn des exercices solutionn´s avec Mathematica sont pr´sent´s dans l’annexe. e e e e e L’auteur ne se fait point d’illusions quand au complet et a l’exactitude de tout le polycopi´. Il a ´t´ ` e ee enti`rement d´velopp´ durant une seule ann´e acad´mique, et pourrait donc b´n´ﬁcier d’une r´vision e e e e e e e e extensive. A ce titre, corrections et critiques seront les bienvenues. Enﬁn, l’auteur voudrait remercier ses ´lev´s qui ont diligemment suivis son cours sur la M´canique e e e de Milieux Continus durant l’ann´e acad´mique 1997-1998, ainsi que le Professeur Huet qui a ´t´ son e e ee hˆte au Laboratoire des Mat´riaux de Construction de l’EPFL durant son s´jour a Lausanne. o e e `

Victor Saouma Ecublens, Juin 1998

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

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PREFACE

One of the most fundamental question that a Material Scientist has to ask him/herself is how a material behaves under stress, and when does it break. Ultimately, it its the answer to those two questions which would steer the development of new materials, and determine their survival in various environmental and physical conditions. The Material Scientist should then have a thorough understanding of the fundamentals of Mechanics on the qualitative level, and be able to perform numerical simulation (most often by Finite Element Method) and extract quantitative information for a speciﬁc problem. In the humble opinion of the author, this is best achieved in three stages. First, the student should be exposed to the basic principles of Continuum Mechanics. Detailed coverage of Stress, Strain, General Principles, and Constitutive Relations is essential. Then, a brief exposure to Elasticity (along with Beam Theory) would convince the student that a well posed problem can indeed have an analytical solution. However, this is only true for problems problems with numerous simplifying assumptions (such as linear elasticity, small deformation, plane stress/strain or axisymmetry, and resultants of stresses). Hence, the last stage consists in a brief exposure to solid mechanics, and more precisely to Variational Methods. Through an exposure to the Principle of Virtual Work, and the Rayleigh-Ritz Method the student will then be ready for Finite Elements. Finally, one topic of special interest to Material Science students was added, and that is the Theoretical Strength of Solids. This is essential to properly understand the failure of solids, and would later on lead to a Fracture Mechanics course. These lecture notes were prepared by the author during his sabbatical year at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Lausanne) in the Material Science Department. The course was oﬀered to second year undergraduate students in French, whereas the lecture notes are in English. The notes were developed with the following objectives in mind. First they must be complete and rigorous. At any time, a student should be able to trace back the development of an equation. Furthermore, by going through all the derivations, the student would understand the limitations and assumptions behind every model. Finally, the rigor adopted in the coverage of the subject should serve as an example to the students of the rigor expected from them in solving other scientiﬁc or engineering problems. This last aspect is often forgotten. The notes are broken down into a very hierarchical format. Each concept is broken down into a small section (a byte). This should not only facilitate comprehension, but also dialogue among the students or with the instructor. Whenever necessary, Mathematical preliminaries are introduced to make sure that the student is equipped with the appropriate tools. Illustrative problems are introduced whenever possible, and last but not least problem set using Mathematica is given in the Appendix. The author has no illusion as to the completeness or exactness of all these set of notes. They were entirely developed during a single academic year, and hence could greatly beneﬁt from a thorough review. As such, corrections, criticisms and comments are welcome. Finally, the author would like to thank his students who bravely put up with him and Continuum Mechanics in the AY 1997-1998, and Prof. Huet who was his host at the EPFL.

Victor E. Saouma Ecublens, June 1998

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

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Contents

I CONTINUUM MECHANICS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0–9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–1 1–1 1–2 1–4 1–4 1–5 1–6 1–6 1–8 1–8 1–10 1–10 1–10 1–10 1–11 1–11 1–11 1–11 1–11 1–13 1–13 1–13 1–14 1–14 1–14 1–15 2–1 2–1 2–3 2–4 2–5 2–6 2–7 2–8 2–9 2–9 2–10 2–10 2–11 2–11

1 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES; Part I Vectors and Tensors 1.1 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 Coordinate Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2.1 †General Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2.1.1 †Contravariant Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2.1.2 Covariant Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2.2 Cartesian Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Indicial Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 Tensor Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.1 Sum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.2 Multiplication by a Scalar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.3 Contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.4 Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.4.1 Outer Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.4.2 Inner Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.4.3 Scalar Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.4.4 Tensor Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.5 Product of Two Second-Order Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Dyads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.4 Rotation of Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.5 Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.6 Inverse Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.7 Principal Values and Directions of Symmetric Second Order Tensors 1.2.8 Powers of Second Order Tensors; Hamilton-Cayley Equations . . . . 2 KINETICS 2.1 Force, Traction and Stress Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Traction on an Arbitrary Plane; Cauchy’s Stress Tensor E 2-1 Stress Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Symmetry of Stress Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Cauchy’s Reciprocal Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Principal Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 Invariants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 Spherical and Deviatoric Stress Tensors . . . . . 2.5 Stress Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 2-2 Principal Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 2-3 Stress Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1 Plane Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2 Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . 4–3 . . . . . . . . .2 Displacements. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–6 . . . . . . . . E 3-4 Stress Vector normal to the Tangent of a Cylinder . . . . . . . . 4–8 . . . . E 3-2 Divergence . . . . . . . . . Small Deformation Theory 4. . . 4. . . . . 4–2 . . . . . 4–11 . .1. . . . . . . . . . . u∇x ) . . . .3 †Mohr’s Stress Representation Plane Simpliﬁed Theories. . . . .2 Second-Order Tensor . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . E 4-2 Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 3-6 Curl of a vector . . 4. . . . . . . . 4–3 . 2. .1 Finite Strain Tensors . . . . . E 3-1 Tangent to a Curve . . . . . . . E 4-1 Displacement Vectors in Material and Spatial Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–13 . . . . .1 Lagrangian Inﬁnitesimal Strain Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . 4–13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . 4–15 . . .4 Gradient . . . . . . .2 Derivative WRT to a Scalar . 3. . . . . . . . . . .2 Strain Tensor . 3.4. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 4–16 Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Green’s Deformation Tensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Victor Saouma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . .1 Position and Displacement Vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–4 . . . . . .1 Introduction . . .2 Inﬁnitesimal Strain Tensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–10 . . . x(X. . . .6 Some useful Relations . . . . . . . . . .6 E 2-4 Mohr’s Circle in Plane Stress . . .2. .2. . . . . . . 4–12 . . . . .2 Gradients . . . 4–14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 4–6 . . .3 Examples . . . . . . . . . 4–1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t) . . . . 4. . . . . . X) . . . . . .1 Cauchy’s Deformation Tensor. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . 4–1 . . . . . E 3-5 Gradient of a Vector Field . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–6 . . 4 KINEMATIC 4. . . . . . .2. . . .1. . . . .2. . . .4. . . . . . . 4–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .2. . . . . . . . (u∇X . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .2. 4. . . . .1 Small and Finite Strains in 1D . . . . . . . . . . 3 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. .3 Deformation Tensors . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Curl . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . X∇x ) . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . 4–10 . . .2. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 4. . . . E 4-4 Material Deformation and Displacement Gradients . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–13 2–15 2–15 2–16 2–19 3–1 3–1 3–1 3–3 3–4 3–4 3–6 3–7 3–8 3–8 3–8 3–9 3–10 3–11 3–12 3–12 3–13 3–13 DIFFERENTIATION . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .2. . (dx)2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–14 . . . . . . . Stress Resultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Draft 0–2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . 3. . . . . .2. . . . . (dX)2 . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . .2 Eulerian Inﬁnitesimal Strain Tensor .1. . . . . . . E 4-3 Change of Volume and Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–1 . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–5 . . . . . . .3 Mathematica Solution . .1 Lagrangian/Green’s Tensor . . . . . . .2. . . . 4–7 . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions. . .1 Vector .2 Vector . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .2 Small Strains in 2D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–15 . .1 Elementary Deﬁnition of Strain . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .1 Deformation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 3-3 Gradient of a Scalar . . . . . 3. . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 4-5 Green’s Deformation Tensor . . . . . .1 Arch . . . 4–8 . . . . . .3. . . . .2 † Change of Volume Due to Deformation .1 Scalar . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (dx)2 − (dX)2 . . (x∇X . 4. .6. . .1 † Change of Area Due to Deformation . . 4. . . . . . . . . .2 Plates . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . t). . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . E 4-6 Lagrangian Tensor . . . . . .2 Eulerian/Almansi’s Tensor . . . . (x. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X(x. . . . . 4–13 . . . . . . . . . 2. 4. . . . . 4. . .4 Strains. . .3 Divergence . . . . .3. . . . . 4. Part II VECTOR 3. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . E 4-10 Polar Decomposition I . . . 4. . . .2 Examples . . .3 Examples . . . . . Lagrangian Stresses. . . . .3 4. . Piola Kirchoﬀ Stress Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Conservation of Mass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Finite Strain. 4–16 . . . . . . . . . . . . E 6-1 Equilibrium Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 4-9 Linear strain tensor. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 †Explicit Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . .1 First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Green. . . . . . .2. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 5 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. E 4-7 Lagrangian and Eulerian Linear Strain Tensors . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotation vector . . 4–36 . . . † Experimental Measurement of Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .6. . . . . . . . E 5-1 Physical Interpretation of the Divergence Theorem . . 5. . 4–29 . . . . . . . . . 4–38 . . 4–24 . . . . . . . . .6 4. .1 Lagrangian Formulation . . . . . . . . . . Strain Invariants. .6. . . . . . . . E 4-13 Strain Compatibility . . . . Victor Saouma . 4–27 . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Small Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . linear rotation tensor. . . . . .9 Compatibility Equation . . . . . . . . . 4–26 . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–38 . . . . . . E 4-14 Piola-Kirchoﬀ Stress Tensors . . . . . . . . 6. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Symmetry of the Stress Tensor . . . . . 4–24 . . . . . . 6. . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Wheatstone Bridge Circuits . . . . . . .3. . .1 Integral of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–38 . . . . . . . . . 4–27 . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . Initial or Thermal Strains . . . . .2 Moment of Momentum Principle . 4–23 . . . . . . 4–43 . . . . . 5–1 5–1 5–1 5–2 5–2 5–2 5–2 5–3 6–1 6–1 6–1 6–2 6–3 6–3 6–4 6–5 6–5 6–6 6–7 6–7 4. . . 4. . . 4–43 . . . . . . . . .2 Second . . . . . . . . . . 4–40 . . . . 4. . . 4–35 . . . . . 4–17 . . . . .4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . .3 Linear Momentum Principle. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . .2 Material Form . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 4–29 . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Summary and Discussion . . . . . . 4.3. . . . . . . . . . . 4–45 . . . .1 Conservation Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 4-16 Mohr’s Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–37 . . . . . . . . . . .6 Linear Strain and Rotation Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . 6. . . 4–21 . . . . . . . Equation of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stretch Ratio .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .2 Fluxes . . . . . 4–25 . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . Hydrostatic and Deviatoric Strain . . . . . . .2 Quarter Bridge Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2. . . . . .4 Gauss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Divergence Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Physical Interpretation of the Strain Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 4–36 . . . . . . .3 Integration by Parts . . . . . .3 Finite Strain. . . Polar Decomposition . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . 5. E 4-15 Strain Invariants & Principal Strains . . . . . . . E 4-12 Polar Decomposition III . . . . . . Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . . Gradient Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mohr Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS 6. . 4–16 . . . . E 4-8 Relative Displacement along a speciﬁed direction . . . .2 Line Integral . . . . . . . .1 Momentum Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–17 . . 4–21 . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0–3 . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .5 4. . 4–21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–24 .1 Spatial Form . . . . . . .5. . . . 4–42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 4-11 Polar Decomposition II . .3. 4–34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Draft CONTENTS 4. 4–45 . . Principal Strains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Small Strain . . . . . . . Part III VECTOR INTEGRALS 5. . .5 Stoke’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .2 Eulerian Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Orthotropic Material . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . .1 Anisotropic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . 7. .5 Elastic Potential or Strain Energy Function .5.1 Young’s Modulus . . . . 7. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Experimental Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . .3. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Gibbs Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . Volumetric and Deviatoric Strains . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . .1 Entropy . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .2 Transversly Isotropic Case . . . 7. . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . First Principle of Thermodynamics 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Spatial Gradient of the Velocity . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Axisymmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . Second Principle of Thermodynamics . . . . .4 Thermodynamic Potentials . . . . .6 Updated Balance of Equations and Unknowns .5. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . 7. . . . . . .1 Navier-Cauchy Equations . . .4 Linear Thermoelasticity . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . .5. . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . .1. 7. . .3. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . .5. . . 9–1 9–1 9–1 9–4 9–4 9–5 9 BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS in 9. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .2 Bulk Modulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . . . . . . . . 7. 8 INTERMEZZO II ELASTICITY/SOLID MECHANICS ELASTICITY . . .1 Statistical Mechanics . . .1 Simple 2D Derivation . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Transversely Isotropic Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .1. . . . .2. . . . . . .2 †Generalized Derivation . . .3 Plane Stress . 7. . 6. . . . . . . . . Part I LINEAR 7. .2 Clausius-Duhem Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .2 First Principle . . . .1. . . . . . . . 7.5 Isotropic Material . . . . 7. . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . † Elements of Heat Transfer . 7. . . . . . 6. .Draft 0–4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .1. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Stress-Strain Relations in Generalized Elasticity . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .3. . . .5. .1 State Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Compacted Forms . . .5. . . . . . . . . 6–8 6–8 6–8 6–10 6–11 6–11 6–11 6–12 6–13 6–14 6–15 6–16 7–1 7–1 7–1 7–2 7–3 7–3 7–4 7–5 7–6 7–6 7–7 7–7 7–8 7–9 7–9 7–10 7–12 7–12 7–12 7–13 7–14 7–15 7–15 7–15 7–16 7–16 7–16 7–17 7–18 8–1 7 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS. . . . . . . . . .1 Engineering Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .1. . . 7. . . . . . .2 Bulk’s Modulus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .1 Preliminary Considerations . . . . . . . 7. . . .2 Special 2D Cases . . . . . .3 Restriction Imposed on the Isotropic Elastic Moduli 7. . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . .1. . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .3. 6. . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . 8–3 . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . .2 Classical Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Plane Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Balance of Equations and Unknowns . . . . . .2 Boundary Conditions . .3. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Thermal Equation of State . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . .3 Boundary Value Problem Formulation 9. .5 Fourrier Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hooke’s Law . . .1 Isotropic Case . 7. . . . . . . Equation of State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Monotropic Material . . . . .7 Conservation of Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .1. . . . .1 † Thermodynamic Approach . . . . 7. . . . . . . . .1.5. . . . . . . . . . .3. . .

12–5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–11 . . . .2. . 0–5 9–5 9–5 9–5 9–6 9–6 9–7 9–8 9–9 9–10 9–11 9–11 10 SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–12 . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . 9. 12 BEAM THEORY 12. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Shear & Moment Diagrams . 12. . 12. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . 10–9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a . . .7 9. . . . . . .3. . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . .1 Plane Strain Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . .8 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . Circular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.4. . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . .1 Cartesian Coordinates. . .8. . . . . . . . 9. . . . 10–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–3 . . 10–1 . . 12–1 . . . . . . . 10–7 . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Beltrami-Mitchell Equations . . .1 Plane Strain . 12–5 . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 ΣM = 0. Section Properties 12.4 Static Determinacy . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . 12–6 . . . . .2. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . 12–4 . . . . . Curvature 12. . . . .3 Example: Thick-Walled Cylinder . . . . . . . . 12–9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Stress-Strain Relations . . . . . . . .3 Equations of Conditions . . . . . .4 Beam Formula . . . . . . . . .5 Geometric Instability . . . . . . . 12–9 . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Examples . . . . . . .2. . E 12-1 Simply Supported Beam . . . 12–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Example: Hollow Sphere . . 12–7 .3. . . . . . . . . 10. . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Plane Stress . .1 Basic Kinematic Assumption. . . . . . 10–7 . . . . 11–3 .2 Theoretical Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Load. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 11. 10–1 . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .1 Design Sign Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . 10–3 . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . Moment Relations . . . . . .2 Polar Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Statics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 12. . . .2. . 12–2 . . . . . .2 Reactions . . . . . 10. . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . .1 ΣFx = 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Examples . . . . .8. . . . . .2 Ideal Strength in Terms of Engineering Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Example: Torsion of a Circular Cylinder . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .5 Example: Stress Concentration due to . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Size Eﬀect. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hole . . . .3 Ellipticity of Elasticity Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . 11–3 . . . . . .8. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 12–4 . . . .1 Strains . . . . . . 12–5 . . . . . . . . . . . 12–13 . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–1 . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . 12–13 11 THEORETICAL STRENGTH OF PERFECT CRYSTALS 11. . . Shear. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment of Inertia . . . .2. .1 Equilibrium . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . . . . .4 Beam Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in a Plate 10–1 . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Draft CONTENTS 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . Neutral Axis . . . . . . . . . .2 Axially Symmetric Case . . . . . . . . . Strain Energy and Extenal Work . 12.1 Ideal Strength in Terms of Physical Parameters . . . . . . . . . 10. Plane Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . 11–6 12–1 . . .1. . Griﬃth Theory . . . . 9. . .2 Airy Stress Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Example: Cantilever Beam . . . . .6 9. 12–12 . . 9. . . . . . . .1 Semi-Inverse Method . . E 12-2 Simple Shear and Moment Diagram . . . .2 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 12–10 . . . . . . Cylindrical Coordinates . . . . . . .2 Stress-Strain Relations . 10. . 10–11 11–1 . . . . . . . 12–2 . . .2. Uniqueness of the Elastostatic Stress and Strain Field Saint Venant’s Principle . . . . 12. . .3 Internal Equilibrium. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .3 Virtual Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Principle of Virtual Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . 13.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E C-2 Flexure of a Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–11 . E 13-3 Uniformly Loaded Simply Supported Beam. . . . . . . . 13–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Euler Equation . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . 13–1 .3 Potential Energy . . . . . . .1. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 13–16 . . . . . . . E C-1 Extension of a Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Principle of Virtual Work and Complementary Virtual Work . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .2 Principle of Complementary Virtual Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Preliminary Deﬁnitions . Virtual Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Potential Energy . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 14 INELASTICITY (incomplete) A SHEAR. .6 Example . . E 13-2 Tapered Cantilivered Beam. . . . . . . . . . .4 Complementary Virtual Work . 13–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–7 . 13. . . . . . . . 13–17 –1 A–1 B–1 Part IV VARIATIONAL METHODS C–1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . 13–2 . Virtual Displacement . . . . . . C–4 . . . 13. . . . . . MOMENT and DEFLECTION DIAGRAMS for BEAMS B SECTION PROPERTIES C MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. . 13. . . 12–14 E 12-3 Design Example . . . . 12–14 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . .1 Internal Strain Energy . 13–6 . . . . C–1 . . . . . . . . .1 Internal Virtual Work . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . 13. 13–4 . . . . . . . . . 13–12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–8 . . . . 13–12 . . 13. . . C. . . 13–6 . . . . . . . 13–5 . . . . . . D MID TERM EXAM E MATHEMATICA ASSIGNMENT and SOLUTION CONTENTS 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Limitations of the Beam Theory . . . . . . . .2 External Work . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 13–1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Draft 0–6 13 VARIATIONAL METHODS 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .1. . .2 Rayleigh-Ritz Method . . 13–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . 13–14 . .1. . .1. . . . . . . . . . 13–4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .3. . . E 13-1 Tapered Cantiliver Beam. . . . . . . . . . C–6 D–1 E–1 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . . . . . . . .1 Derivation . . . . . 12–14 . Polynomial Approximation 13. .2 External Virtual Work δW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . 2–19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Curvature of a Curve . . . . . . . . .8 Direction Cosines (to be corrected) . . . . . . . . . . . . Stresses . Flux Through Area dA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . .2 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mohr Circle for Plane Stress .1 3. . . .7 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relative Displacement du of Q relative to P . .5 2. .6 4. . . . . Elementary Deﬁnition of Strains in 2D . . . . . Mathematica Solution for the Gradients of a Scalar and of Mathematica Solution for the Curl of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–16 . . . . . . . .12 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . Diﬀerentiation of position vector p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inﬁnitesimal Element for the Evaluation of the Divergence Mathematica Solution for the Divergence of a Vector . 2–17 . . . . . Numerical Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cauchy’s Reciprocal Theorem . . . . . . . . . Unit Sphere in Physical Body around O . Undeformed and Deformed Conﬁgurations of a Continuum Physical Interpretation of the Strain Tensor . . . . Cross Product of Two Vectors . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . . .9 2. . . . . 2–15 . . . . . .6 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plane Stress Mohr’s Circle. . . . . . . Position and Displacement Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–18 . . . . . . .6 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diﬀerential Shell Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radial Stress vector in a Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . .9 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . Diﬀerential Shell Element. . . Mohr Circle for Strain . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vectors of Stress Couples Stresses and Resulting Forces in a Plate . . . . . . Principal Stresses . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . Diﬀerential Shell Element. . . . a . . . Vector Field Crossing a Solid Region . . . . . . . . . . Arbitrary 3D Vector Transformation Rotation of Orthonormal Coordinate . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Draft List of Figures 1. . . . . . . .12 2.4 1. . . . .5 1.7 2. Vector . . . . . . . . . 1–2 1–2 1–3 1–4 1–5 1–7 1–8 Stress Components on an Inﬁnitesimal Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–3 .1 2. . . . . . . . . . Strain Deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . .4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mohr Circle for Stress in 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–2 . . . . System .10 2. Coordinate Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .13 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cauchy’s Tetrahedron . . . . . . . . .7 4. . . . . . . Cross Product of Two Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elongation of an Axial Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vector Addition . . 2–17 . . . . . . . . . 2–14 . . . . . . . . . . Mathematica Solution for the Tangent to a Curve in 3D . . . . . . . 3–2 3–2 3–3 3–4 3–5 3–5 3–6 3–7 3–9 3–11 3–12 3–14 4–1 4–2 4–3 4–11 4–18 4–21 4–31 4–40 Examples of a Scalar and Vector Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . .11 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stresses as Tensor Components . . . . Gradient of a Vector . . .8 2. . . . . . . . 2–12 . . . . .

. . . .Draft 0–2 4. . . .4 12. . . 10–12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . test . . . . . . . . .10 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . . . . . . . . Deformation of a Beam under Pure Bending . . . . . . . . . . Pressurized Hollow Sphere .5 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single DOF Example for Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 11. . . .5 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . 5–3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boundary Conditions in Elasticity Problems Boundary Conditions in Elasticity Problems Fundamental Equations in Solid Mechanics St-Venant’s Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polar Strains . . . . . . . . . . . .12 5. . . . . . . . . . v-kv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–4 .5 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 11. . . . 12–7 . . . . . . . . .2 11. . . . . . . . .3 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–5 . . . . . . . . . . .2 13. . . . . . .1 10. . Uniformly Loaded Simply Supported Beam Analyzed by the Rayleigh-Ritz Method Summary of Variational Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Duality of Variational Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . visﬂ . . .1 9.4 9. *Strain Energy and Complementary Strain Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stresses in Polar Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–43 4–44 4–45 4–46 Physical Interpretation of the Divergence Theorem . . 10–2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 12. .2 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–2 13–8 13–11 13–13 13–14 13–16 13–18 13–19 –1 –2 –2 –3 –3 –3 Elliptical Hole in an Inﬁnite Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . Inclined Roller Support . . . . . .4 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free Body Diagram of an Inﬁnitesimal Beam Segment . . Graphical Representation of the Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylindrical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . Geometric Instability Caused by Concurrent Reactions . . . .1 14. . Pressurized Thick Tube . . . . .3 12. . . . . . 12–5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear and Moment Sign Conventions for Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examples of Static Determinate and Indeterminate Structures . . . . . . . . 11–4 . .2 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress Strain Relation at the Atomic Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Torsion of a Circular Bar . . . . .7 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equilibrium of Stresses. . .11 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . 12–7 . . . . . . . . 11–5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wheatstone Bridge Conﬁgurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quarter Wheatstone Bridge Circuit . . . . . . . .2 9. . . .3 14. . . . .5 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . Flux Through Sides of Diﬀerential Element . . . *Flow through a surface Γ . . . 11–2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of Supports . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cartesian Coordinates Flux vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . comp . . . Circular Hole in an Inﬁnite Plate . .7 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Bonded Resistance Strain Gage . Uniformly Stressed Layer of Atoms Separated by a0 Energy and Force Binding Two Adjacent Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 13. 12–11 . . . .6 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–3 6–6 6–15 6–16 6–17 9–2 9–3 9–4 9–7 9–7 9–8 9–9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–3 . . . . . . . . . . . .7 13. .2 12.8 14. . . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . Flux Through Area dS . . . . LIST OF FIGURES . . . .3 13. . 11–3 . . . . . . . . . . . . Tapered Cantilivered Beam Analysed by the Vitual Displacement Method . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–11 .3 9.3 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tapered Cantilevered Beam Analysed by the Virtual Force Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Griﬃth’s Experiments . . . . . . . mod1 . . . . . . . . . . . visﬂ . . . . . . .5 9. . . . Strain Gage Rosette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . .7 epp . . . . . . . –4 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Variational and Diﬀerential Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C–2 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Draft LIST OF FIGURES 0–3 14. . . . –3 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 ehs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Draft 0–4 LIST OF FIGURES Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

D.D. M L−3 N. IE IIσ . L−1 M T −2 N. L−1 M T −2 L−1 M T −2 L2 M T −2 SI Unit m2 Pa JKg −1 JKg −1 m4 Pa J m Pa W W m−6 JKg −1 K −1 JK −1 s K JKg −1 J J J J J T −1 Pa Kgm−3 Pa Pa Pa J Deﬁnition SCALARS A Area c Speciﬁc heat e Volumetric strain E Elastic Modulus g Specicif free enthalpy h Film coeﬃcient for convection heat transfer h Speciﬁc enthalpy I Moment of inertia J Jacobian K Bulk modulus K Kinetic Energy L Length p Pressure Q Rate of internal heat generation r Radiant heat constant per unit mass per unit time s Speciﬁc entropy S Entropy t Time T Absolute temperature u Speciﬁc internal energy U Energy U∗ Complementary strain energy W Work W Potential of External Work Π Potential energy α Coeﬃcient of thermal expansion µ Shear modulus ν Poisson’s ratio ρ mass density γij Shear strains 1 Engineering shear strain 2 γij λ Lame’s coeﬃcient Λ Stretch ratio µG Lame’s coeﬃcient λ Lame’s coeﬃcient Φ Airy Stress Function Ψ (Helmholtz) Free energy First stress and strain invariants Iσ .D. IIE Second stress and strain invariants IIIσ . L−1 M T −2 L2 T −2 L2 T −2 L4 L−1 M T −2 L2 M T −2 L L−1 M T −2 L2 M T −3 M T −3 L−4 L2 T −2 Θ−1 M L2 T −2 Θ−1 T Θ L2 T −2 L2 M T −2 L2 M T −2 L2 M T −2 L2 M T −2 L2 M T −2 Θ−1 L−1 M T −2 N. Stress vector Speciﬁed tractions along Γt Displacement vector Θ K N Kg −1 M T −3 L−1 M T −2 L−1 M T −2 L W m−2 Pa Pa m Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . IIIE Third stress and strain invariants Θ Temperature TENSORS order 1 b b q t t u Body force per unit massLT −2 Base transformation Heat ﬂux per unit area Traction vector. N.D.D.Draft Symbol LIST OF FIGURES 0–5 NOTATION Dimension L2 N.

D. Rate of deformation tensor. qn are speciﬁed L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L3 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m3 FUNCTIONS.D. Lagrangian (or Green’s) ﬁnite strain tensor N. Spatial deformation gradient N. Stretching tensor N. Material deformation gradient N. Idendity matrix N. Green’s deformation tensor.D. u are speciﬁed temperatures. right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor N.D. qc are speciﬁed ﬂux.D. Material displacement gradient N.D. metric tensor.D. Lagrangian Stress Tensor L−1 M T −2 Second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor L−1 M T −2 Right stretch tensor Left stretch tensor Spin tensor.Draft 0–6 u(x) u x X σ0 σ(i) Speciﬁed displacements along Γu Displacement vector Spatial coordinates Material coordinates Initial stress vector Principal stresses TENSORS order 2 B−1 C D E E∗ E F H I J k K L R T0 ˜ T U V W ε0 k κ σ. Thermal conductivity LM T −3Θ−1 Spatial displacement gradient N. t are speciﬁed displacements.D. T T Ω ω LIST OF FIGURES L L L L L−1 M T −2 L−1 M T −2 m m m m Pa Pa Cauchy’s deformation tensor N.D.D. vorticity tensor. OPERATORS Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Strain deviator N. V Contour line Surface of a body Surface Boundary along which Boundary along which Boundary along which Boundary along which Boundary along which Volume of body surface tractions. Eulerian (or Almansi) ﬁnite strain tensor N. T are speciﬁed convection ﬂux. SURFACES. VOLUMES L−1 M T −2 Pa C S Γ Γt Γu ΓT Γc Γq Ω. Linear lagrangian rotation tensor Initial strain vector Conductivity Curvature Cauchy stress tensor L−1 M T −2 Deviatoric stress tensor L−1 M T −2 Linear Eulerian rotation tensor Linear Eulerian rotation vector TENSORS order 4 W m−1 K −1 - Pa Pa Pa Pa D Constitutive matrix CONTOURS. Spatial gradient of the velocity Orthogonal rotation tensor First Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor.D.

Draft u ˜ δ L ∇φ ∇·u ∇2 LIST OF FIGURES 0–7 Neighbour function to u(x) Variational operator Linear diﬀerential operator relating displacement to strains Divergence. (gradient operator) on vector (div . (gradient operator) on scalar ∂φ ∂φ ∂φ T ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂u Divergence. u = ∂ux + ∂yy + ∂x Laplacian Operator ∂uz ∂z Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

Draft 0–8 LIST OF FIGURES Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

Draft Part I CONTINUUM MECHANICS .

Draft .

3-b) (1.1-a) (1.1-c) i·i = j·j = k·k = 1 i·j = j·k = k·i = 0 Such a set of base vectors constitutes an orthonormal basis. e3 ) such that: i×j = k. The rectangular Cartesian coordinate system is the most often used one (others are the cylindrical.Draft Chapter 1 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. 4 5 An arbitrary vector v may be expressed by v = vx i + vy j + vz k (1. For this reason. with corresponding unit vector triad i.1 Vectors 2 A vector is a directed line segment which can denote a variety of quantities. k (or e1 . spherical or curvilinear systems).3-a) (1. Fig. . j. e2 . but some are more suitable than others (axes corresponding to the major direction of the object being analyzed).1. The rectangular system is often represented by three mutually perpendicular axes Oxyz. (1. 3 A vector may be deﬁned with respect to a particular coordinate system by specifying the components of the vector in that system. or a traction. 1. The choice of the coordinate system is arbitrary.1-b) (1. such as position of point with respect to another (position vector). Part I Vectors and Tensors 1 Physical laws should be independent of the position and orientation of the observer. a force. k×i = j.3-c) are the projections of v onto the coordinate axes. physical laws are vector equations or tensor equations. 1. since both vectors and tensors transform from one coordinate system to another in such a way that if the law holds in one coordinate system.2) where vx vy vz = = = v·i = v cos α v·j = v cos β v·k = v cos γ (1. j×k = i. it holds in any other coordinate system.

Fig.1. 8 We will denote the contravariant components of a vector by superscripts v k .1.2.1: Direction Cosines (to be corrected) The unit vector in the direction of v is given by ev = v = cos αi + cos βj + cos γk v (1.1. 1. and its covariant components by subscripts vk (the signiﬁcance of those terms will be clariﬁed in Sect.Draft 1–2 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.4) 6 Since v is arbitrary. 1.2. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .1 Operations Addition: of two vectors a + b is geometrically achieved by connecting the tail of the vector b with the head of a. Part I Vectors and Tensors Y V β γ α X Z Figure 1. it follows that any unit vector will have direction cosines of that vector as its Cartesian components. u θ u+v v Figure 1. 1.2: Vector Addition Scalar multiplication: αa will scale the vector into a new one with components Vector Multiplications of a and b comes in three varieties: αa1 αa2 αa3 . 7 The length or more precisely the magnitude of the vector is denoted by v = 2 2 2 v1 + v2 + v3 . Analytically the sum vector will have components a1 + b1 a2 + b2 a3 + b3 .

5) b cos θ(a. 1.10) and is equal to the area of the parallelogram described by a and b. Fig.3: Cross Product of Two Vectors A(a.Draft 1.9) (1.6) Cross Product (or vector product) c of two vectors a and b is deﬁned as the vector c = a×b = (a2 b3 − a3 b2 )e1 + (a3 b1 − a1 b3 )e2 + (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )e3 which can be remembered from the determinant expansion of a×b = e1 a1 b1 e2 a2 b2 e3 a3 b3 (1.12) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .8) (1. The dot product measures the relative orientation between two vectors. The dot product of base vectors gives rise to the deﬁnition of the Kronecker delta deﬁned as ei ·ej = δij where δij = 1 0 if if i=j i=j (1.11) (1.1 Vectors 3 1–3 Dot Product (or scalar product) is a scalar quantity which relates not only to the lengths of the vector.3.7) The dot product of a with a unit vector n gives the projection of a in the direction of n. The dot product is both commutative a·b = b·a and distributive αa·(βb + γc) = αβ(a·b) + αγ(a·c) (1. b) = a×b Victor Saouma (1. b) is the cosine of the angle between the vectors a and b. axb A(a.b)=||a x b|| b a Figure 1. b) = i=1 ai b i where cos θ(a. a·b ≡ a (1. but also to the angle between them.

c) = = (a×b)·c = a·(b×c) ax ay az bx by bz cx cy cz (1. Part I Vectors and Tensors The cross product is not commutative.1 9 Coordinate Transformation †General Tensors Let us consider two bases bj (x1 . but satisﬁes the condition of skew symmetry a×b = −b×a The cross product is distributive αa×(βb + γc) = αβ(a×b) + αγ(a×c) (1. x3 ) and bj (x1 . one of which is itself a cross product. b.2.2. j.20) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . b.1.15) (1. x2 . 1. Using this notation.3 is 1 → 2 → 3 → 1.19) 1. Fig. j.13) Triple Scalar Product: of three vectors a. j. 1. k) are in cyclic order 0 if any of (i. Fig. k) are in acyclic order (1.Draft 1–4 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. (1. we can rewrite c = a×b ⇒ ci = εijk aj bk (1.18) Vector Triple Product is a cross product of two vectors.4: Cross Product of Two Vectors V (a. k) are equal (ei ×ej )·ek = εijk ≡ −1 if (i.17) The scalars εijk is the permutation tensor. n=a x b ||a x b|| c c. x2 x3 ). and c is desgnated by (a×b)·c and it corresponds to the (scalar) volume deﬁned by the three vectors. an acyclic one would be 1 → 3 → 2 → 1. a×(b×c) = (a·c)b − (a·b)c = d and the product vector d lies in the plane of b and c.5.2 1. A cyclic permutation of 1.n b a Figure 1.16) The triple scalar product of base vectors represents a fundamental operation 1 if (i.4. Each unit vector in one basis must be a linear combination of the vectors of the other basis bj = ap bp and bk = bk bq q j (1.1.14) (1.

1. This is why these components are called contravariant. curvilinear. spherical or cylindrical.Draft 1.22) diﬀerent from zero (the superscript is a label and not an exponent). 13 Generalizing.5: Coordinate Transformation The transformation must have the determinant of its Jacobian ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x3 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x3 ∂x3 10 J= =0 (1.1 Vectors 1–5 (summed on p and q respectively) where ap (subscript new.23) since the base vectors bq are linearly independent. the coeﬃcients of bq must all be zero hence v q = bq v k and inversely v p = ap v j j k (1. the coordinate systems are completely general and may be Cartesian.1 †Contravariant Transformation 12 The vector representation in both systems must be the same v = v q bq = v k bk = v k (bq bq ) ⇒ (v q − v k bq )bq = 0 k k (1. superscript old) and bk are the coeﬃcients q j for the forward and backward changes respectively from b to b respectively. Explicitly 1 1 1 1 b 1 b 2 b 3 e1 a1 a2 a3 e 1 e1 e1 1 1 e2 e2 e2 e2 = b2 b2 b2 and = a1 a2 a3 (1.24) showing that the forward change from components v k to v q used the coeﬃcients bq of the backward k change from base bq to the original bk .2.21) 1 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 e3 b1 b2 b3 e3 e3 a1 a2 a3 e3 3 3 3 X2 X2 X1 2 cos a1 -1 X1 X3 X3 Figure 1. 11 It is important to note that so far. a Contravariant Tensor of order one (recognized by the use of the superscript) transforms a set of quantities rk associated with point P in xk through a coordinate transformation into Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .1.1.

Part I Vectors and Tensors a new set r q associated with xq rq = ∂xq k r ∂xk bq k (1. e2 . the Contravariant tensors of order two requires the tensor components to obey the following transformation law r ij = ∂xi ∂xj rs r ∂xr ∂xs (1. any vector v can be expressed in one system or the other v = vj ej = v j ej (1.2.1.29) 1. e2 . e3 }.32) which arise from the dot products of base vectors as the direction cosines. e3 } and {e1 . 1. those values are nothing else than the cosines of the angles between the nine pairing of base vectors. (Since we have an orthonormal system.2 Covariant Transformation 15 Similarly to Eq.2. xj ) i (1.Draft 1–6 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.) 20 Thus.25) 14 By extension. 16 Finally transformation of tensors of order one and two is accomplished through rq r ij = = ∂xk rk ∂xq r ∂x ∂xs rrs ∂xi ∂xj (1.24.1. 1. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . one set of vector components can be expressed in terms of the other through a covariant transformation similar to the one of Eq. the covariant transformation uses the same transformation coeﬃcients as the ones for the base vectors. we consider the dot product of v with one (any) of the base vectors ei ·v = v i = vj (ei ·ej ) (1.27) We note that contrarily to the contravariant transformation. a covariant component transformation (recognized by subscript) will be deﬁned as v j = ap vp and inversely vk = bk v q q j (1.28) (1.2 17 Cartesian Coordinate System If we consider two diﬀerent sets of cartesian orthonormal coordinate systems {e1 .1.31) (since v j (ej ·ei ) = v j δij = v i ) 19 We can thus deﬁne the nine scalar values aj ≡ ei ·ej = cos(xi .30) 18 To determine the relationship between the two sets of components.26) 1.27.

33) (1.35) 23 (1. let us consider the transformation of a vector V from (X. for the 2D case and from Fig. y. aZ ) direction cosines of y with respect to X.36) and aj is the direction cosine of axis i with respect to axis j i • aj = (ax X. Y and Z x x x • aj = (ay X. aY .1 Vectors vj vk = = 21 22 1–7 ap vp j bk v q q (1. aY .6: Arbitrary 3D Vector Transformation Eq. and β = 2 matrix becomes π 2 − α. Fig. Y. Because of the orthogonality of the unit vector we have as as = δpq and am an = δmn .38) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . aY . aZ ) direction cosines of x with respect to X.37) but since γ = π + α. Y and Z y y y • aj = (az X.6: Figure 1. 1. then cos γ = − sin α and cos β = sin α. z). the transformation matrix is written as T = a1 1 a1 2 a2 1 a2 2 = cos α cos β cos γ cos α (1.7.Draft 1. 1.34) we note that the free index in the ﬁrst and second equations appear on the upper and lower index respectively. 1. Y and Z z z z 24 Finally. Z) coordinate system to (x.33 would then result in Vx = aX VX + aY VY + aZ VZ x x x or X ax Vx Vy = aX y Vz aX z aY x aY y aY z aZ VX x aZ VY y VZ aZ z (1. aZ ) direction cosines of z with respect to X. thus the transformation T = cos α sin α − sin α cos α (1. p q r r As a further illustration of the above derivation.

ui = Ti.39-b) 27 † In general the vectors may be represented by either covariant or contravariant components vj or v j .7: Rotation of Orthonormal Coordinate System 1. 29 30 31 1. In general 3-D space the number of components of a tensor is 3n where n is the order of the tensor. ui = = T ij vj i T. A Tensor of order zero is speciﬁed in any coordinate system by one coordinate and is a scalar. it often leads to long and repetitive equations. Tensors frequently arise as physical entities whose components are the coeﬃcients of a linear relationship between vectors. A tensor of order one has three coordinate components in space. We designate this operation by T·v or simply Tv.j .j vj . A tensor is classiﬁed by the rank or order.2. the tensor and the dyadic form will lead to shorter and more compact forms. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .j or Ti.2 Tensors 25 We now seek to generalize the concept of a vector by introducing the tensor (T). Part I Vectors and Tensors X X2 2 α β γ α X1 X1 Figure 1.Draft 1–8 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. which essentially exists to operate on vectors v to produce other vectors (or on tensors to produce other tensors!).39-a) (1. A force and a stress are tensors of order 1 and 2 respectively.1 32 Indicial Notation Whereas the Engineering notation may be the simplest and most intuitive one. the contravariant components T ij and the mixed comi ponents T.j v j (1. it is also a physical quantity. independent of any particular coordinate system yet speciﬁed most conveniently by referring to an appropriate system of coordinates. hence it is a vector. 26 We hereby adopt the dyadic notation for tensors as linear vector operators u = T·v or ui = Tij vj u = v·S where S = TT (1. Alternatively. Thus we can have diﬀerent types of linear transformations ui ui = Tij v j .40) involving the covariant components Tij . 28 Whereas a tensor is essentially an operator on vectors (or other tensors).

For example: ∂Φ ∂xi 35 a1 a2 a3 (1. The following rules deﬁne indicial notation: 1.j.48) = = = c11 z1 + c12 z2 + c13 z3 c21 z1 + c22 z2 + c23 z3 c31 z1 + c32 z2 + c33 z3 (1. For instance: a1 a2 ai = ai = a1 a2 a3 = i = 1. εijk uj vk • Second order tensor (such as stress or strain) will have two free indeces.j ∂Ti. 4 for him). Hence. and that when the summation involved a product of two terms. A repeated index will take on all the values of its range. δij uk vk .47-a) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . If there is one letter index. he decided that there is no need to include the summation sign if there was repeated indices (i).i ∂vi ∂xi = vi.41) a3 assuming that n = 3.46) this simple compacted equation.2 Tensors 33 34 1–9 While working on general relativity. Derivatives of tensor with respect to xi is written as . An index that is not repeated is called free index and assumed to take a value from 1 to 3. when expanded would yield: x1 x2 x3 Similarly: Aij = Bip Cjq Dpq Victor Saouma (1.44) = Φ.i ∂vi ∂xj = vi.43) (1. • A fourth order tensor (such as Elastic constants) will have four free indeces. Einstein got tired of writing the summation symbol with its range of summation below and above (such as n=3 aij bi ) and noted that most of the time the upper range i=1 (n) was equal to the dimension of space (3 for us.j ∂xk = Ti.Draft 1. 2. 3 (1. D11 D22 D13 Dij = D21 D22 D23 D31 D32 D33 other examples Aijip . that index goes from i to n (range of the tensor). the summation was over a repeated index (i in our example). i.45) 36 Usefulness of the indicial notation is in presenting systems of equations in compact form. For instance: xi = cij zj (1. Fikk . and thus any repeated index is a dummy index and is summed over the range 1 to 3.42) a1i xi = a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 3. Tensor’s order: • First order tensor (such as force) has only one free index: ai = ai = other ﬁrst order tensors aij bj . and the resulting tensors summed. For instance: (1.k (1. Hence. this so called indicial notation is also referred to Einstein’s notation. 4.

there is one free index p thus there are three equations.2.2 39 Multiplication by a Scalar The multiplication of a (second order) tensor by a scalar is deﬁned by: Sij = λTij (1.49-a) 37 Using indicial notation.sn Eij ak Ampr qs → → → → → Tii . r Amr = B.52) 1.3 40 Contraction In a contraction.51) we note that in the second equation. Part I Vectors and Tensors = B11 C11 D11 + B11 C12 D12 + B12 C11 D21 + B12 C12 D22 = B11 C11 D11 + B11 C12 D12 + B12 C11 D21 + B12 C12 D22 = B21 C11 D11 + B21 C12 D12 + B22 C11 D21 + B22 C12 D22 = B21 C21 D11 + B21 C22 D12 + B22 C21 D21 + B22 C22 D22 (1.. thus producing a tensor of order two less than that to which it is applied.2.2.1 38 Tensor Operations Sum The sum of two (second order) tensors is simply deﬁned as: Sij = Tij + Uij (1. thus each equation has nine terms..54) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .s . qr 2 2 4 3 5 → → → → → 0 0 2 1 3 (1.50) a·b = ai bi and of the cross product a×b = εpqr aq br ep (1. mp Ampr = Bq .2.2. there are two repeated (dummy) indices q and r.2. we may rewrite the deﬁnition of the dot product (1. we make a ubscript equal to the superscript). For example: Tij ui vj Amr .53) 1. 1. ui vi .sm Eij ai = cj .2. .2 1.Draft 1–10 A11 A12 A21 A22 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. we make two of the indeces equal (or in a mixed tensor.

2.4.57) T : U = Tij Uij in any rectangular system.k .2.2 Inner Product 42 The inner product is obtained from an outer product by contraction involving one index from each tensor.58-c) (1.56-c) (1. the tensor product of two vectors provides a fundamental building block of second-order tensors and will be examined next.55-b) (1.4.k Ai Bi → ai b i → ai Eik = fk → Eij Fjm = Gim .56-d) 1.58-d) 1.Draft 1.4.2.1 Products Outer Product 41 1–11 The outer product of two tensors (not necessarily of the same type or order) is a set of tensor components obtained simply by writing the components of the two tensors beside each other with no repeated indices (that is by multiplying each component of one of the tensors by every component of the other).k → Ai Bi = Dk (1.2.56-a) (1.2.2.2.55-c) vi Tjk 1.2. For example ai b j ai Ejk Eij Fkm .4.58-a) (1.56-b) (1.3 Scalar Product 43 The scalar product of two tensors is deﬁned as (1.2.2. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . For example ai b j .58-b) (1.j = Sijk (1.k A Bj i = Tij = C i.2 Tensors 1.4 1.55-a) (1. 44 The following inner-product axioms are satisﬁed: T:U T : (U + V) α(T : U) T:T = U:T = T:U+T:V = (αT) : U = T : (αU) > 0 unless T = 0 (1.4 Tensor Product 45 Since a tensor primary objective is to operate on vectors.

48 The second order tensor T can be expressed in terms of its components Tij relative to the base tensors ei ⊗ ej as follows: 3 3 T = i=1 j=1 3 3 Tij [ei ⊗ ej ] Tij [ei ⊗ ej ] ek i=1 j=1 (1.60-b) (1. Again. 1. Part I Vectors and Tensors The Tensor Product of two vectors u and v is a second order tensor u ⊗ v which in turn operates on an arbitrary vector w as follows: [u ⊗ v]w ≡ (v·w)u (1.65) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .61) 49 Now we can see how the second order tensor T operates on any vector v by examining the components of the resulting vector Tv: Tv = 3 3 Tij [ei ⊗ ej ] 3 3 3 3 vk ek k=1 = i=1 j=1 k=1 Tij vk [ei ⊗ ej ]ek (1.60-a) Tek [ei ⊗ ej ] ek Tek = (1.63) which is clearly a vector. We can thus deﬁne the tensor component as follows Tij = ei ·Tej (1. and has length equal to (v·w)||u||.64) 50 The identity tensor I leaves the vector unchanged Iv = v and is equal to I ≡ ei ⊗ ei (1.60-c yields 3 3 Tv = i=1 j=1 Tij vj ei (1. and now the tensor product of base vectors in turn provides a formalism to express the components of a tensor. The ith component of the vector Tv being 3 (Tv)i = i=1 Tij vj (1. or the original length of u times the dot (scalar) product of v and w. we started with base vectors which themselves provide a basis for expressing any vector.60-d) = (ej ·ek )ei = δjk ei 3 = i=1 Tik ei Thus Tik is the ith component of Tek . With three base vectors.60-c) (1.59) In other words when the tensor product u ⊗ v operates on w (left hand side). we have a set of nine second order tensors which provide a suitable basis for expressing the components of a tensor.62) i=1 j=1 which when combined with Eq.Draft 1–12 46 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. 47 Of particular interest is the tensor product of the base vectors ei ⊗ ej . the result (right hand side) is a vector that points along the direction of u.

2.73) (1. Pij = Tik Ukj (1.2.39-a From Eq.69) D = a1 b1 + a2 b2 · · · an bn The conjugate dyadic of D is written as Dc = b1 a1 + b2 a2 · · · bn an (1.66) the action of P on v gives Pv = v − (v·n)n. 53 The following axioms hold (T·U)·R = T·(U·R) T·R + t·U R·T + U·T (αT)·U = T·(αU) T·1 = T (1.Draft 1.70) 1.68-e) T·(R + U) = (R + U)·T = α(T·U) = 1T = Note again that some authors omit the dot. 1. Finally.72) i p hence T ip Tjq Victor Saouma = aj aq Tjq in Matrix Form [T ] = [A]T [T ][A] i p = aj aq T ip in Matrix Form [T ] = [A][T ][A]T i p (1.39-a) in the barred system.33 From Eq. equating these two expressions we obtain T ip − (aj aq Tjq )v p = 0 (1. the operation is not commutative 1.2.68-a) (1.68-c) (1.71) But we also have ui = T ip v p (again from Eq.3 Dyads 54 The indeterminate vector product of a and b deﬁned by writing the two vectors in juxtaposition as ab is called a dyad.5 52 Product of Two Second-Order Tensors The product of two tensors is deﬁned as P = T·U. 1.2. √ its dot product with n must be zero. To convince ourselves that the vector Pv lies on the plane.33 (1.68-b) (1. 1.67) in any rectangular system.74) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . A dyadic D corresponds to a tensor of order two and is a linear combination of dyads: (1.4 55 Rotation of Axes The rule for changing second order tensor components under rotation of axes goes as follow: ui = = = aj u j i aj Tjq vq i aj Tjq aq v p p i From Eq.68-d) (1. accordingly Pv·n = v·n − (v·n)(n·n) = 0 . 1.2 Tensors 51 1–13 A simple example of a tensor and its operation on vectors is the projection tensor P which generates the projection of a vector v on the plane characterized by a normal n: P≡I−n⊗n (1. 1.

Draft 1–14 56 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.78) −1 −1 alternatively T−1 T = TT−1 = I. Part I Vectors and Tensors By extension. this last equation can be rewritten as sin2 θ 2 sin θ cos θ cos2 θ T xx Txx (1.75-a) (1.77) 1.2.2. If we consider the 2D case. using sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α and cos 2α = cos2 α−sin2 α.7 59 Principal Values and Directions of Symmetric Second Order Tensors Since the two fundamental tensors in continuum mechanics are of the second order and symmetric (stress and strain). a vector given by the inner product vi = Tij nj (1. 1. higher order tensors can be similarly transformed from one coordinate system to another. or Tik Tkj = δij and Tik Tkj = δij 1.76) Tyy cos2 θ −2 sin θ cos θ sin2 θ = T yy Txy − sin θ cos θ cos θ sin θ cos2 θ − sin2 θ T xy 1.75-c) 1 2 (− sin 2αTxx + sin 2αTyy + 2 cos 2αTxy sin2 αTxx + cos α(cos αTyy − 2 sin αTxy 0 0 0 0 (1. From Eq. (1. denoted tr T is a scalar invariant function of the tensor and is deﬁned as tr T ≡ Tii Thus it is equal to the sum of the diagonal elements in a matrix.6 58 Inverse Tensor An inverse tensor is simply deﬁned as follows T−1 (Tv) = v and T(T−1 v) = v (1. For every symmetric tensor Tij deﬁned at some point in space. we examine some important properties of these tensors.79) 60 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . there is associated with each direction (speciﬁed by unit normal nj ) at that point.75-b) (1.2.5 57 Trace The trace of a second-order tensor.38 cos α sin α 0 A = − sin α cos α 0 0 0 1 Txx Txy 0 T = Txy Tyy 0 0 0 0 T xx T xy 0 T = AT T A = T xy T yy 0 0 0 0 2 2 cos αTxx + sin αTyy + sin 2αTxy = 1 (− sin 2αTxx + sin 2αTyy + 2 cos 2αTxy 2 0 (1.75-d) alternatively.

Since ni = δij nj .88) 0 0 λ(3) 65 By direct matrix multiplication.81) (1. If those values are distinct. 1. this can be rewritten as (1.85) (1.2 Tensors If the direction is one for which vi is parallel to ni .83) 61 Expansion of this determinant leads to the following characteristic equation λ3 − IT λ2 + IIT λ − IIIT = 0 (1. |Tij − λδij | = 0 (1.8 64 Powers of Second Order Tensors. the cube as Tik Tkm Tmn .2. Therefore the nth power of Tij can be written as 0 0 λn (1) λn 0 (1.87) are called the ﬁrst.84) the roots are called the principal values of Tij and IT IIT IIIT = Tij = tr Tij 1 (Tii Tjj − Tij Tij ) = 2 = |Tij | = det Tij (1. 62 It is customary to order those roots as λ1 > λ2 > λ3 63 For a symmetric tensor with real components. second and third invariants respectively of Tij .80) and the direction ni is called principal direction of Tij .Draft 1. (T11 − λ)n1 + T12 n2 + T13 n3 T21 n1 + (T22 − λ)n2 + T23 n3 T31 n1 + T32 n2 + (T33 − λ)n3 = 0 = 0 = 0 1–15 (1. the three principal directions are mutually orthogonal. the principal values are also real.86) (1. the inner product may be expressed as Tij nj = λni (Tij − λδij )nj = 0 which represents a system of three equations for the four unknowns ni and λ. the quare of the tensor Tij is given by the inner product Tik Tkj . Hamilton-Cayley Equations When expressed in term of the principal axes. the tensor array can be written in matrix form as 0 0 λ(1) 0 λ(2) T = 0 (1.82-a) To have a non-trivial slution (ni = 0) the determinant of the coeﬃcients must be zero.89) Tn= 0 (2) 0 0 λn (3) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .

Draft 1–16 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. then the tensor itself will satisfy Eq.90) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .84 and because the diagonal matrix form of T given above.84. (1. 1. This equation is called the Hamilton-Cayley equation. 1. Part I Vectors and Tensors Since each of the principal values satisﬁes Eq. T 3 − IT T 2 + IIT T − IIIT I = 0 where I is the identity matrix.

1) Most authors limit the term traction to an actual bounding surface of a body. electromagnetic ﬁelds. (σ31 . σ12 .1 is a second order cartesian tensor. Fig 2. σ33 ) which correspond to . σ13 ).2) t σ31 σ32 σ33 3 5 In fact the nine rectangular components σij of σ turn out to be the three sets of three vector components (σ11 . Those will be deﬁned in terms of force per unit area. When the vectors acting at a point on three such mutually perpendicular planes is given. gravity. t1 σ11 σ12 σ13 σ = σij = σ21 σ22 σ23 = t2 (2.1 1 Force. and the second one (j) to the direction of component force. The traction vectors on planes perpendicular to the coordinate axes are particularly useful. σ22 . dF = ρbdV ol. tdS = i S S tx dS + j S ty dS + k S tz dS (2.g. e. 2 The surface force per unit area acting on an element dS is called traction or more accurately stress vector.Draft Chapter 2 KINETICS Or How Forces are Transmitted 2. σ23 ). Traction and Stress Vectors There are two kinds of forces in continuum mechanics body forces: act on the elements of volume or mass inside the body. the stress vector at that point on any other arbitrarily inclined plane can be expressed in terms of the ﬁrst set of tractions. σ32 . surface forces: are contact forces acting on the free body at its bounding surface. (σ21 . 3 4 A stress. and use the term stress vector for an imaginary interior surface (even though the state of stress is a tensor and not a vector). σij where the 1st subscript (i) refers to the direction of outward facing normal.

Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . and they can be decomposed into a normal and shear traction if need be). it requires the second-order tensor with all nine components.1: Stress Components on an Inﬁnitesimal Element the three tractions t1 . 2. Fig. X3 X3 V3 σ33 t3 σ31 σ13 σ σ 11 t1 12 σ 32 V σ 23 t2 σ 21 V2 X2 σ 22 X2 V1 X1 (Components of a vector are scalars) X 1 Stresses as components of a traction vector (Components of a tensor of order 2 are vectors) Figure 2. t2 and t3 which are acting on the x1 .Draft 2–2 σ13 KINETICS X3 σ33 σ 32 σ31 σ σ σ 11 ∆X2 X1 σ 23 21 ∆X3 X2 σ 22 12 ∆X1 Figure 2. In other words.2: Stresses as Tensor Components 6 The state of stress at a point cannot be speciﬁed entirely by a single vector with three components. x2 and x3 faces (It should be noted that those tractions are not necesarily normal to the faces. stresses are nothing else than the components of tractions (stress vector).2.

6) In Fig.Draft 2. 2. (2. ∆S3 = ∆Sn3 . 2.3: Cauchy’s Tetrahedron (2.5) which when combined with the preceding equation yields ∆S1 = ∆Sn1 . Hence h = OAn1 = OBn2 = OCn3 9 ∆V * Figure 2. n2 = cos( BON).3 are also shown the average values of the body force and of the surface tractions (thus the asterix).3) The altitude ON. This will be done through the so-called Cauchy’s tetrahedron shown in Fig. 10 ∆S2 = ∆Sn2 .2 2. X2 -t 1 B ∆ * 1 S n -t * 3 ∆ S3 * tn ∆ S O C h N A X1 -t 2 ∆ S2 * X3 ρb * 8 The components of the unit vector n are the direction cosines of its direction: n1 = cos( AON). or ∆Si = ∆Sni .2 Traction on an Arbitrary Plane. The negative sign appears because t∗ denotes the average i Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .3. of length h is a leg of the three right triangles ANO. (2. BNO and CNO with hypothenuses OA. OB and OC.4) The volume of the tetrahedron is one third the base times the altitude 1 1 1 1 ∆V = h∆S = OA∆S1 = OB∆S2 = OC∆S3 3 3 3 3 (2. Cauchy’s Stress Tensor 7 Let us now consider the problem of determining the traction acting on the surface of an oblique plane (characterized by its normal n) in terms of the known tractions normal to the three principal axis. n3 = cos( CON). Cauchy’s Stress Tensor 2–3 Traction on an Arbitrary Plane. t1 . t2 and t3 .

This principle states that the vector sum of all external forces acting on the free body is equal to the rate of change of the total momentum1 .7) Substituting for ∆V .3. We seek to determine t∗ . This equation is a vector equation. Since we are considering the momentum of a given collection of ∗ ∗ particles. 4. the momentum principle yields t∗ ∆S + ρ∗ b∗ ∆V − t∗ ∆S1 − t∗ ∆S2 − t∗ ∆S3 = ρ∗ ∆V n 1 2 3 dv∗ dt (2. 12 It is important to note that this result was obtained without any assumption of equilibrium and that it applies as well in ﬂuid dynamics as in solid mechanics. Hence.8) n 1 2 3 3 3 dt and now we let h → 0 and obtain tn = t1 n1 + t2 n2 + t3 n3 = tini (2.9) We observe that we dropped the asterix as the length of the vectors approached zero. ∆Si from above. Example 2-1: Stress Vectors 1 This is really Newton’s second law F = ma = m dv dt Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . The total momentum is vdm.Draft 2–4 11 KINETICS traction on a surface whose outward normal points in the negative xi direction. dividing throughout by ∆S and rearanging we obtain dv 1 1 t∗ + hρ∗ b∗ = t∗ n1 + t∗ n2 + t∗ n3 + hρ∗ (2. ∆m does not change with time and ∆m dv = ρ∗ ∆V dv where ρ∗ is the average dt dt density.10) We have thus established that the nine components σij are components of the second order tensor. this is equal to v∗ ∆m where v∗ is average value of the velocity. and this issue will be revisited in Sect. n We invoke the momentum principle of a collection of particles (more about it later on) which is postulated to apply to our idealized continuous medium. Cauchy’s stress tensor. 14 15 Note that this stress tensor is really deﬁned in the deformed space (Eulerian). By the ∆m mean-value theorem of the integral calculus. and the corresponding algebraic equations for the components of tn are tn1 tn2 tn3 Indicial notation tni dyadic notation tn = = = = = σ11 n1 + σ21 n2 + σ31 n3 σ12 n1 + σ22 n2 + σ32 n3 σ13 n1 + σ23 n2 + σ33 n3 σji nj n·σ = σ T ·n 13 (2.

Draft

2.3 Symmetry of Stress Tensor

2–5

**if the stress tensor at point P is given by
**

t1 7 −5 0 σ = −5 3 1 = t2 t 0 1 2 3

(2.11)

We seek to determine the traction (or stress vector) t passing through P and parallel to the plane ABC where A(4, 0, 0), B(0, 2, 0) and C(0, 0, 6). Solution: The vector normal to the plane can be found by taking the cross products of vectors AB and AC: e1 e2 e3 N = AB×AC = −4 2 0 −4 0 6 = 12e1 + 24e2 + 8e3 The unit normal of N is given by 6 2 3 n = e1 + e2 + e3 7 7 7 Hence the stress vector (traction) will be

3 7 6 7 2 7

(2.12-a) (2.12-b)

(2.13)

7 −5 0 −5 3 1 = 0 1 2

−9 7

5 7

10 7

(2.14)

and thus t = − 9 e1 + 5 e2 + 7 7

10 e 7 3

2.3

16

Symmetry of Stress Tensor

From Fig. 2.1 the resultant force exerted on the positive X1 face is σ11 ∆X2 ∆X3 σ12 ∆X2 ∆X3 σ13 ∆X2 ∆X3 (2.15)

similarly the resultant forces acting on the positive X2 face are σ21 ∆X3 ∆X1 σ22 ∆X3 ∆X1 σ23 ∆X3 ∆X1

17

(2.16)

We now consider moment equilibrium (M = F×d). The stress is homogeneous, and the normal force on the opposite side is equal opposite and colinear. The moment (∆X2 /2)σ31 ∆X1 ∆X2 is likewise balanced by the moment of an equal component in the opposite face. Finally similar argument holds for σ32 .

18

The net moment about the X3 axis is thus M = ∆X1 (σ12 ∆X2 ∆X3 ) − ∆X2 (σ21 ∆X3 ∆X1 ) (2.17)

**which must be zero, hence σ12 = σ21 .
**

Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

2–6

19 20

KINETICS

We generalize and conclude that in the absence of distributed body forces, the stress matrix is symmetric, σij = σji (2.18)

A more rigorous proof of the symmetry of the stress tensor will be given in Sect. 6.3.2.1. 2.3.1 Cauchy’s Reciprocal Theorem

21 If we consider t1 as the traction vector on a plane with normal n1 , and t2 the stress vector at the same point on a plane with normal n2 , then

t1 = n1 ·σ and t2 = n2 σ or in matrix form as {t1 } = n1 [σ] and {t2 } = n2 [σ]

(2.19) (2.20)

If we postmultiply the ﬁrst equation by n2 and the second one by n1 , by virtue of the symmetry of [σ] we have (2.21) [n1 σ]n2 = [n2 σ]n1 or t1 ·n2 = t2 ·n1

22

(2.22)

**In the special case of two opposite faces, this reduces to
**

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 n 1 0 1 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 1 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 111 1 000 0 1 0 1 11 1 0 00 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 1 0 1 111 1 0 000 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 1 0 1 111 1 0 000 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 1 0 1 111 1 0 000 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 1 0 1 111 1 0 000 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 111 000 1 111 1 0 000 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 111 000 1 0 1 1 0 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 1 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 111 000 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 11 00 111 000 11 00 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 11 00 11 00 1111 0000 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 11 00 1111 0000 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 11 1 00 0 11 00 11111111111111111111111 1 0 1111 111 0000 000 Γ00000000000000000000000 1 0 1111 111 0000 000 1 0 1111 111 0000 000 1 0 1111 111 0000 000 1 0 11 111 00 000 1 0 11 111 00 000 111 000 1 0 111 000 1 0 1 0 1 0 -n 1 0 1 0

n 1 0

t

Ω

t

Γ

t

-n

Figure 2.4: Cauchy’s Reciprocal Theorem

tn = −t−n

Victor Saouma

(2.23)

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

23

2.4 Principal Stresses

2–7

We should note that this theorem is analogous to Newton’s famous third law of motion To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

2.4

24

Principal Stresses

Regardless of the state of stress (as long as the stress tensor is symmetric), at a given point, it is always possible to choose a special set of axis through the point so that the shear stress components vanish when the stress components are referred to this system of axis. these special axes are called principal axes of the principal stresses.

25 To determine the principal directions at any point, we consider n to be a unit vector in one of the unknown directions. It has components ni . Let λ represent the principal-stress component on the plane whose normal is n (note both n and λ are yet unknown). Since we know that there is no shear stress component on the plane perpendicular to n,

σ 12 σ 11

Initial (X1) Plane

tn σ = t 12 n2

n

σ 11= t

n1 n2 n1

tn σ s t t n2

n1

n

σ s =0

n

σn

σ=tn n

t n2

Arbitrary Plane

tn1

Principal Plane

Figure 2.5: Principal Stresses

**the stress vector on this plane must be parallel to n and tn = λn
**

26

(2.24)

From Eq. 2.10 and denoting the stress tensor by σ we get n·σ = λn (2.25)

in indicial notation this can be rewritten as nr σrs = λns or (σrs − λδrs )nr = 0 in matrix notation this corresponds to n ([σ] − λ[I]) = 0

Victor Saouma

(2.26) (2.27)

(2.28)

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

2–8

27

KINETICS

where I corresponds to the identity matrix. We really have here a set of three homogeneous algebraic equations for the direction cosines ni . Since the direction cosines must also satisfy n2 + n2 + n2 = 1 1 2 3 (2.29)

they can not all be zero. hence Eq.2.28 has solutions which are not zero if and only if the determinant of the coeﬃcients is equal to zero, i.e σ11 − λ σ12 σ13 σ21 σ22 − λ σ23 = 0 (2.30) σ31 σ32 σ33 − λ |σrs − λδrs | = 0 (2.31) |σ − λI| = 0 (2.32)

28

For a given set of the nine stress components, the preceding equation constitutes a cubic equation for the three unknown magnitudes of λ. Cauchy was ﬁrst to show that since the matrix is symmetric and has real elements, the roots are all real numbers.

29

30 The three lambdas correspond to the three principal stresses σ(1) > σ(2) > σ(3) . When any one of them is substituted for λ in the three equations in Eq. 2.28 those equations reduce to only two independent linear equations, which must be solved together with the quadratic Eq. 2.29 to determine the direction cosines ni of the normal ni to the plane r on which σi acts.

31

The three directions form a right-handed system and n3 = n1 ×n2 (2.33)

32

**In 2D, it can be shown that the principal stresses are given by: σ1,2 = σx + σy ± 2 σx − σy 2
**

2 2 + τxy

(2.34)

2.4.1

33

Invariants

The principal stresses are physical quantities, whose values do not depend on the coordinate system in which the components of the stress were initially given. They are therefore invariants of the stress state. When the determinant in the characteristic Eq. 2.32 is expanded, the cubic equation takes the form λ3 − Iσ λ2 − IIσ λ − IIIσ = 0 (2.35)

34

where the symbols Iσ , IIσ and IIIσ denote the following scalar expressions in the stress components:

Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

2.5 Stress Transformation

2–9

Iσ = σ11 + σ22 + σ33 = σii = tr σ 2 2 2 IIσ = −(σ11 σ22 + σ22 σ33 + σ33 σ11 ) + σ23 + σ31 + σ12 1 1 2 1 (σij σij − σii σjj ) = σij σij − Iσ = 2 2 2 1 2 = (σ : σ − Iσ ) 2 1 IIIσ = detσ = eijk epqr σip σjq σkr 6

(2.36) (2.37) (2.38) (2.39) (2.40)

35

In terms of the principal stresses, those invariants can be simpliﬁed into Iσ = σ(1) + σ(2) + σ(3) (2.41) IIσ = −(σ(1) σ(2) + σ(2) σ(3) + σ(3) σ(1) ) (2.42) IIIσ = σ(1) σ(2) σ(3) (2.43)

2.4.2

36

Spherical and Deviatoric Stress Tensors

If we let σ denote the mean normal stress p 1 1 1 σ = −p = (σ11 + σ22 + σ33 ) = σii = tr σ 3 3 3 (2.44)

then the stress tensor can be written as the sum of two tensors: Hydrostatic stress in which each normal stress is equal to −p and the shear stresses are zero. The hydrostatic stress produces volume change without change in shape in an isotropic medium. σhyd −p 0 0 −p 0 = −pI = 0 0 0 −p

(2.45)

Deviatoric Stress: which causes the change in shape. σdev σ11 − σ σ12 σ13 σ22 − σ σ23 = σ21 σ31 σ32 σ33 − σ (2.46)

2.5

37

Stress Transformation

From Eq. 1.73 and 1.74, the stress transformation for the second order stress tensor is given by σ ip = aj aq σjq in Matrix Form [σ] = [A]T [σ][A] (2.47) i p σjq = aj aq σ ip in Matrix Form [σ] = [A][σ][A]T i p (2.48)

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

28 we have (3 + 2)n3 + n3 + n3 = 0 1 2 3 n3 + 2n3 + 2n3 = 0 ⇒ n3 = 0. then from Eq. 1 2 3 1 2 n + 2n2 − n2 = 0 3 1 2 3 1 n2 = − √ . 1 2 3 1 n3 + 2n3 + 2n3 = 0 1 2 3 1 n3 = √ .49) Example 2-2: Principal Stresses The stress tensor is given at a point by 3 1 1 σ= 1 0 2 1 2 0 determine the principal stress values and the corresponding directions.54) Finally.53) Finally. Solution: From Eq.52) Similarly If we let x2 axis be the one corresponding to the direction of σ(2) and n2 be the i direction cosines of this axis. 2. thus the roots are σ(1) = 4.32 we have 3−λ 1 1 1 0−λ 2 =0 1 2 0−λ (2. 2 3 1 n2 = − √ 3 3 (2. 2 6 1 n1 = − √ 3 6 (2. if we let x3 axis be the one corresponding to the direction of σ(1) and n1 be the i direction cosines of this axis. Example 2-3: Stress Transformation Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 2 2 1 n3 = − √ 3 2 (2. We also note that those are the three eigenvalues of the stress tensor. −n1 + n1 + n1 = 0 1 2 3 2 n1 − 4n1 + 2n1 = 0 ⇒ n1 = − √ . we can convince ourselves that the two stress tensors have the same invariants Iσ .2. 1 2 3 1 1 n + 2n1 − 4n1 = 0 6 1 2 3 1 n1 = − √ . σ(2) = 1 and σ(3) = −2.51) Or upon expansion (and simpliﬁcation) (λ + 2)(λ − 4)(λ − 1) = 0.Draft 2–10 38 KINETICS For the 2D plane stress case we rewrite Eq.76 σ xx σ yy σ xy σxx cos2 α sin2 α 2 sin α cos α 2 2 cos α −2 sin α cos α σyy sin α = − sin α cos α cos α sin α cos2 α − sin2 α σxy (2. 2n2 + n2 + n2 = 0 1 2 3 1 n2 − n2 + 2n2 = 0 ⇒ n2 = √ .50) (2. If we let x1 axis be the one corresponding to the direction of σ(3) and n3 be the i direction cosines of this axis. IIσ and IIIσ . 1.

5.49 and after some algebraic manipulation we obtain σ xx = σ xy 1 1 (σxx + σyy ) + (σxx − σyy ) cos 2α + σxy sin 2α 2 2 1 = σxy cos 2α − (σxx − σyy ) sin 2α 2 (2. 2.Draft 2.1 39 Plane Stress Plane stress conditions prevail when σ3i = 0. σxy ).57-b) 43 Points (σxx .6.58-a) (2. σxy ) at an arbitrary plane (inclined by α) in terms of the original one (σxx .5 Stress Transformation 2–11 Show that the transformation tensor of direction cosines previously determined transforms the original stress tensor into the diagonal principal axes stress tensor. 2. σ yy .55-a) (2.e when one of the dimensions is much smaller than the other two. 2.2 Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress Conditions 41 The Mohr circle will provide a graphical mean to contain the transformed state of stress (σ xx . σyy .5. 0) and [(σxx + σyy )/2. 40 Plane stress condition prevail in (relatively) thin plates. Solution: From Eq. and thus we have a biaxial stress ﬁeld. (σyy . (σxx . 0] are plotted in the stress representation of Fig. 2. i. Then we observe that 1 (σxx − σyy ) = R cos 2β 2 σxy = R sin 2β Victor Saouma (2.47 σ = 0 1 √ 3 2 − √6 1 √ 2 1 − √3 1 − √6 −2 0 0 = 0 1 0 0 0 4 1 1 2 √ − √2 − √6 3 1 1 0 3 1 1 1 1 − √3 1 0 2 √2 − √3 − √6 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 − √6 − √2 − √3 − √6 (2.57-a) (2.55-b) 2. Substituting sin2 α = 1−cos 2α cos2 α = 1+cos 2α 2 2 2 2 cos 2α = cos α − sin α sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α (2.56) 42 into Eq. 0).58-b) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . σxy ).

2 β − 2α τxy τyx σyy σxx σ1 σn τyx 1 ( σ +σ ) xx yy 2 1 ( σ +σ ) 1 2 2 1 (σ .6: Mohr Circle for Plane Stress Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 2–12 KINETICS σyy y σyy y y y A τyx x τyx τxy σxx α x τxy σxx Q α x σxx x τxy τyx B σyy σxx τxy τyx σyy (a) (b) τn τ xy σxx σxx τxy x O X( σxx τ xy ) . R σ2 D σ yy C 2α 2β α X( σxx τ xy ) .σ ) xx yy 2 1(σ -σ ) 1 2 2 (c) (d) Figure 2.

The terminal side CX of this angle intersects the circle in point X whose coordinates are (σ xx . 44 By eliminating the trigonometric terms. and c) the maximum shear stresses.5 Stress Transformation 2–13 1 2 (σxx − σyy )2 + σxy 4 2σxy tan 2β = σxx − σyy R = 1 (σxx + σyy ) + R cos(2β − 2α) (2.59-a) (2. Using the Mohr’s circle determine: a) the stresses acting on an element rotated through an angle θ = +40o (counterclockwise). indicates that σ xx and σ xy are on a circle centered at 1 (σxx + σyy ) and of radius R. This locates point D which is at the opposite end of the diameter through X.59-b) then after substitution and simpliﬁation. The coordinates of D are (σ yy . Eq. consider the plane whose normal makes an angle α + 1 π with the 2 positive x axis in the physical plane. 0]. R and β are 2 deﬁnite numbers for a given state of stress. 3. b) the principal stresses. C : [ 1 (σxx + σyy ).60) 2 = R sin(2β − 2α) (2.57-b would result in σ xx = σ xy We observe that the form of these equations. the Cartesian equation of the circle is given 1 [σ xx − (σxx + σyy )]2 + σ 2 = R2 xy 2 (2.7: Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . the previous equations provide a graphical solution for the evaluation of the rotated stress σ xx and σ xy for various angles α. Furthermore. the graphical solution for the state of stresses at an inclined plane is summarized as follows 1. 0). 4. σ xy ). To determine the point that represents any plane in the physical body with normal making a counterclockwise angle α with the x direction. Draw the line CX. (σyy . 2. Solution: With reference to Fig. σxy ).57-a and 2. σyy = 5 and τxy = 4. since σxx .62) by 45 Finally. To determine σ yy . 2 2. −σ xy ) Example 2-4: Mohr’s Circle in Plane Stress An element in plane stress is subjected to stresses σxx = 15. Draw a circle with center C and radius R = CX. this will be the reference line corresponding to a plane in the physical body whose normal is the positive x direction. The corresponding angle on the circle is 2α + π measured clockwise from the reference line CX. 5. lay oﬀ angle 2α clockwise from CX. 2. Plot the points (σxx . and X : (σxx . 0).61) (2. Show all results on sketches of properly oriented elements. σyy .Draft where 2.

33o (2.34 o 80 15 15 θ=19.4 o θ=109. The center of the circle is located at 1 1 (σxx + σyy ) = (15 + 5) = 10.34o with respect to the axis.403 sin(180o − 41. The stresses acting on a plane at θ = +40o are given by the point making an angle of −80o (clockwise) with respect to point X(15. 2 2 2.3 15 o 5 o 38.66 41. 4.64-b) (2.81 o 10.00 40 4.3 5 o 3. Thus.65-b) 5.3 o σn 4 4 5 4 θ=40 θ=90 10 o o θ=64.66o.403 4 2(4) = 0.34 = −4.19 τ xy = 6. tan 2β = 15 − 5 R = (2.00 o Figure 2.7 10.34o = 14.23 Victor Saouma (2.19 14.64-a) β = 19. by inspection the stresses on the x face are σ xx = 10 + 6.Draft 2–14 5 KINETICS τn θ=−25. 4) or −80o + 38.7 o 4 4 4 X(15.6 5. Numerical Example 1.8 ⇒ 2β = 38.65-a) (2.4 o 19.66-b) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .66-a) (2. The radius and the angle 2β are given by 1 (15 − 5)2 + 42 = 6.23 16.403 cos −41.4) θ=0 o 6.3 6.34o) = 4.403 cos(180o − 41.34o) = 5.40 25.23 o (2.63) 3.7: Plane Stress Mohr’s Circle.81 τ xy = 6. Similarly. the stresses at the face y are given by σ yy = 10 + 6.403 sin −41.66o = −41.

67-b) σ(1) acts on a plane deﬁned by the angle of +19.8.4 σ(2) = 10 − 6.6 48 Simpliﬁed Theories. 7.68) 2 2. However.e 6.4 = 3.3o clockwise from the x axis. in many (civil/mechanical)applications. i.3o with respect to the x axis. 2.8: Unit Sphere in Physical Body around O 47 It can be shown that all possible sets of σn and τn which can act on the point O are within the shaded area of Fig. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .6 Simpliﬁed Theories.5. The maximum and minimum shear stresses are equal to the radius of the circle.6 (2.4 at an angle of 90o − 38. Stress Resultants For many applications of continuum mechanics the problem of determining the threedimensional stress distribution is too diﬃcult to solve. Fig. 2. The principal stresses are simply given by σ(1) = 10 + 6.67-a) (2.3 †Mohr’s Stress Representation Plane 46 There can be an inﬁnite number of planes passing through a point O. and o o σ(2) acts at an angle of 38. To each plane will correspond a set of σn and τn . Y σII B H E G β F O γ N α A J C Z σIII Figure 2.66 2+180 = 109. Stress Resultants 2–15 6.9.70 (2.4 = 16. D 2.Draft 2. each characterized by their own normal vector along ON.66o = 25.

6. we solve for certain stress resultants (normal.11 and for simpliﬁcation those acting per unit length of the middle surface are shown in Fig. The net resultant forces Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . and engineering theories prove to be either too restrictive or inapplicable. 2.12. In those problems. 2. 2. we may apply “engineering theories” for shells.σ ) Ι ΙΙ 2 σn C III 1 ( σ +σ ) ΙΙ ΙΙΙ 2 1 ( σ +σ ) Ι ΙΙΙ 2 Figure 2. shear forces. 50 Alternatively. plates or beams. if a continuum solution is desired.σ ) ΙΙ ΙΙΙ 2 σ III KINETICS τn O C I σ CII II σ I 1 ( σ.1 Arch 51 Fig. The resulting forces in turn are shown in Fig. we can use numerical techniques (such as the Finite Element Method) to solve the problem.σ ) Ι ΙΙΙ 2 1 ( σ.9: Mohr Circle for Stress in 3D one or more dimensions is/are small compared to the others and possess certain symmetries of geometrical shape and load distribution. We consider separately two of those three cases. and Moments and torsions) resulting from an integration over the body. instead of solving for the stress components throughout the body. 2. 49 In those cases.Draft 2–16 1 ( σ.10 illustrates the stresses acting on a diﬀerential element of a shell structure.

Draft 2. Stresses Figure 2. Stress Resultants 2–17 Figure 2. Forces Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .10: Diﬀerential Shell Element.6 Simpliﬁed Theories.11: Diﬀerential Shell Element.

12: Diﬀerential Shell Element.69) z τ 1− dz r −h 2 Qx = Qy = +h 2 −h 2 +h 2 −h 2 τxz 1 − τyz z dz ry z 1− dz rx Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Vectors of Stress Couples are given by: Membrane Force +h 2 −2 +h 2 −h 2 +h 2 −h 2 +h 2 −h 2 Nxx = Nyy = Nxy = Nyx = σxx 1 − h σyy σxy σxy N = +h 2 z σ 1− dz r −h 2 z ry z 1− rx z 1− ry z 1− rx dz dz dz dz Bending Moments Mxx = Myy Mxy Myx M = +h 2 z σz 1 − dz h r −2 Transverse Shear Forces Q = +h 2 z dz ry z = σyy z 1 − dz rx −h 2 +h z 2 = − h σxy z 1 − dz ry −2 +h z 2 = σxy z 1 − dz h rx −2 −h 2 +h 2 +h 2 σxx z 1 − (2.Draft 2–18 KINETICS Figure 2.

we ignore the eﬀect of the membrane forces.2 52 2. Stress Resultants 2–19 Plates Considering an arbitrary plate. the stresses and resulting forces are shown in Fig.70-a) σyy zdz σxy zdz Membrane Force N = t 2 t −2 σdz t −2 t 2 t −2 t 2 Bending Moments M = t 2 t −2 t −2 t 2 σzdz t −2 t 2 t −2 Transverse Shear Forces V = t 2 −2 τ dz t t −2 t 2 τxz dz τyz dz t −2 53 Note that in plate theory.13.6 Simpliﬁed Theories. those in turn will be accounted for in shells.Draft 2.13: Stresses and Resulting Forces in a Plate t 2 t −2 t 2 Nxx = Nyy = Nxy = Mxx = Myy = Mxy = Vx = Vy = t 2 σxx dz σyy dz σxy dz σxx zdz (2. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . and resultants per unit width are given by Figure 2.6. 2.

Draft 2–20 KINETICS Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION 3.2 4 Derivative WRT to a Scalar The derivative of a vector p(u) with respect to a scalar u.1 or Tensor Field T(x). 2 We ﬁrst introduce the diﬀerential vector operator “Nabla” denoted by ∇ ∇≡ ∂ ∂ ∂ i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂z (3. This includes. Fig.1) 3 We also note that there are as many ways to diﬀerentiate a vector ﬁeld as there are ways of multiplying vectors. Scalar Field g(x). Vector Field v(x).2) .1: Similarities Between Multiplication and Diﬀerentiation Operators 3. the analogy being given by Table 3. 3. Multiplication u·v dot u×v cross u ⊗ v tensor Diﬀerentiation ∇·v divergence ∇×v curl ∇v gradient Tensor Order ❄ ✲ ✻ Table 3.1 1 Introduction A ﬁeld is a function deﬁned over a continuous region. Fig.Draft Chapter 3 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.1.2 is deﬁned by p(u + ∆u) − p(u) dp ≡ lim du ∆u→0 ∆u (3. 3.

ContourShading −> FalseD 2 1 0 -1 -2 -2 Ö ContourGraphics Ö Plot3D@Exp@−Hx ^ 2 + y ^ 2LD. −2. 2<. −2. 2<. 8y. 8x.nb 1 ‡ Scalar and Vector Fields ContourPlot@Exp@−Hx ^ 2 + y ^ 2LD. 2<.Draft 3–2 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.5 0.p(u) C ) ∆u (u+ p p (u) Figure 3. Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION m−fields. FaceGrids −> AllD -1 0 1 2 1 0. 8x. 2<.75 0.2: Diﬀerentiation of position vector p Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . −2. 8y.25 0 -2 -1 0 1 2 -2 Ö SurfaceGraphics Ö 2 1 0 -1 Figure 3.1: Examples of a Scalar and Vector Fields ∆ p=p (u+∆ u). −2.

3) is a vector along the tangent to the curve. if we consider a curve C deﬁned by the function p(u) then is a vector tangent ot C.7) (3. Fig. y = 4t − 3. and if u is the curvilinear coordinate s measured from any point along the curve. If u is the time t. then dp is a unit tangent vector to C T. and we have the ds dp du N T C B Figure 3. z = 2t2 − 6t for t = 2. then dp dt is the velocity 7 In diﬀerential geometry.5) (3.3: Curvature of a Curve following relations dp = T ds dT = κN ds B = T×N κ curvature 1 Radius of Curvature ρ = κ we also note that p· dp = 0 if ds dp ds (3.3.2 Derivative WRT to a Scalar 3–3 If p(u) is a position vector p(u) = x(u)i + y(u)j + z(u)k. then dp dx dy dz = i+ j+ k du du du du (3.8) = 0.4) (3.6) (3. Example 3-1: Tangent to a Curve Determine the unit vector tangent to the curve: x = t2 + 1. Solution: Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 5 6 3. 3.

Draft 3–4 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. 3.4 m−par3d. The volume of the body is v(B). and that the body is surrounded by a vector ﬁeld v(x).9-b) (3.nb 1 (3. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Fig.4: Mathematica Solution for the Tangent to a Curve in 3D 3. 4<D 10 5 0 5 0 0 5 10 15 Ö Graphics3D Ö Figure 3. 4 t − 3.5 is deﬁned by considering that each point of the surface has a normal n. Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION d dp = (t2 + 1)i + (4t − 3)j + (2t2 − 6t)k = 2ti + 4j + (4t − 6)k dt dt dp = (2t)2 + (4)2 + (4t − 6)2 dt 2ti + 4j + (4t − 6)k T = (2t)2 + (4)2 + (4t − 6)2 2 4i + 4j + 2k 2 1 = i + j + k for t = 2 = 3 3 3 (4)2 + (4)2 + (2)2 Mathematica solution is shown in Fig.1 8 Divergence Vector The divergence of a vector ﬁeld of a body B with boundary Ω.9-a) (3.9-d) ‡ Parametric Plot in 3D ParametricPlot3D@8t ^ 2 + 1. 0.3. 3.9-c) (3. 2 t ^ 2 − 6 t<.3 3. 8t.

11) or ∆x1 .7. and ∆x3 . Fig.10) where v.n Figure 3. ∆x2 .12-a) ·e1 ∆x1 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .3 Divergence 3–5 n Ω B v(x) Figure 3.∆x2 . The deﬁnition is clearly independent of the shape of the solid region.∆x2 . however we can gain an insight into the divergence by considering a rectangular parallelepiped with sides ∆x1 . If we also consider the corner closest to the origin as located at x.n is often referred as the ﬂux and represents the total volume of “ﬂuid” that passes through dA in unit time. 10 The divergence thus measure the rate of change of a vector ﬁeld. Fig. then the contribution (from Eq.6 This volume is then equal to the base of the n dA v Ω v. 3.5: Vector Field Crossing a Solid Region 9 The divergence of the vector ﬁeld is thus deﬁned as div v(x) ≡ lim 1 v(B)→0 v(B) v·ndA Ω (3.Draft 3. 3. 3.∆x3 →0 lim 1 ∆x2 ∆x3 v(x + ∆x1 e1 ) − v(x) ·e1 dx2 dx3 = ∆x1 ∆x2 ∆x3 ∆x1 →0 lim ∆v (3. while those normal to it let it out most eﬃciently. We note that the streamlines which are tangent to the boundary do not let any ﬂuid out.∆x3 →0 lim 1 ∆x1 ∆x2 ∆x3 ∆x2 ∆x3 [v(x + ∆x1 e1 )·e1 + v(x)·(−e1 )]dx2 dx3 (3.6: Flux Through Area dA cylinder dA times the height of the cylinder v·n. and with normal vectors pointing in the directions of the coordinate axies.10) of the two surfaces with normal vectors e1 and −e1 is 11 ∆x1 .

13) 12 ∂ ∂ ∂ e1 + e2 + e3 )·(v1 e1 + v2 e2 + v3 e3 ) (3. We note that the Laplacian Operator is deﬁned as ∇2 F ≡ ∇∇F = F.16) 14 Example 3-2: Divergence Determine the divergence of the vector A = x2 zi − 2y 3 z 2 j + xy 2 zk at point (1. we can generalize div v(x) = or alternatively div v = ∇·v = ( ∂v(x) ·ei ∂xi ∂v ·e1 ∂x1 (3. 1).i (3.12-b) (3.17-b) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .ii (3. Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION x3 e3 -e 2 -e 1 ∆ x3 e2 x2 ∆ x2 ∆ x1 e1 -e 3 x1 Figure 3.15) = ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂xi 13 The divergence of a vector is a scalar.17-a) (3.Draft 3–6 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. Solution: ∇·v = ∂ ∂ ∂ i+ j + k ·(x2 zi − 2y 3z 2 j + xy 2 zk) ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 3 2 ∂xy 2 z ∂x z ∂ − 2y z + + = ∂x ∂y ∂z (3. −1.14) ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂v2 ∂v3 ∂vi ∂v1 + + = = ∂i vi = vi.7: Inﬁnitesimal Element for the Evaluation of the Divergence = hence.

8y. y. 10<. "Y". 10<. x y ^ 2 z<. −10. Axes −> Automatic.18) which is the vector ﬁeld ∇·T = ∂Tpq eq ∂xp (3. 8x. the divergence of a second-order tensor ﬁeld T is ∇·T = div T(x) ≡ lim 1 v(B)→0 v(B) T·ndA Ω (3. −10. 10<. AxesLabel −> 8"X". −1. Cartesian@x.8 m−diver. Cartesian@x. zDD. 3. −10.3. Div@V.2 15 Second-Order Tensor By analogy to Eq. 1) (3. 8z.8: Mathematica Solution for the Divergence of a Vector 3.Draft 3.10.19) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . zDD -6 z2 y2 + x y2 + 2 x z << Graphics‘PlotField3D‘ PlotVectorField3D@8x ^ 2 z. y. x y ^ 2 z<. zDD 0 Figure 3. −2 y ^ 3 z ^ 2. −2 y ^ 3 z ^ 2.nb 1 ‡ Divergence of a Vector << Calculus‘VectorAnalysis‘ V = 8x ^ 2 z. "Z"<D Y 0 -5 -10 10 10 10 5 5 Z 0 -5 -10 -10 -5 0 X 5 10 Ö Graphics3D Ö Div@Curl@V.3 Divergence 3–7 = 2xz − 6y 2z 2 + xy 2 = 2(1)(1) − 6(−1)2 (1)2 + (1)(−1)2 = −3 at (1.17-d) Mathematica solution is shown in Fig. y. Cartesian@x.17-c) (3. 3.

Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION 3. −1) along the direction 2i − j − 2k.1 16 The gradient of a scalar ﬁeld g(x) is a vector ﬁeld ∇g(x) such that for any unit vector v.4 Gradient Scalar 3. the directional derivative dg/ds in the direction of v is given by dg = ∇g·v ds (3. ∇g(x)·n gives the rate of change of the scalar ﬁeld in the direction of n.21-b) or ∇φ ≡ ∂ ∂ ∂ i+ j+ k φ ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂φ ∂φ ∂φ i+ j+ k = ∂x ∂y ∂z (3. the gradient is pointing along the normal to the plane tangent to the surface).4.22) (3.23-b) and note that it deﬁnes a vector ﬁeld. 17 To ﬁnd the components in any rectangular Cartesian coordinate system we use dp dxi = ei ds ds dg ∂g dxi = ds ∂xi ds v = which can be substituted and will yield ∇g = ∂g ei ∂xi (3.21-a) (3. 18 The physical signiﬁcance of the gradient of a scalar ﬁeld is that it points in the direction in which the ﬁeld is changing most rapidly (for a three dimensional surface.24-a) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .20) where v = dp We note that the deﬁnition made no reference to any coordinate system.Draft 3–8 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. 19 Example 3-3: Gradient of a Scalar Determine the gradient of φ = x2 yz + 4xz 2 at point (1. ds The gradient is thus a vector invariant. −2. The length of the vector ||∇g(x)|| is perpendicular to the contour lines. Solution: ∇φ = ∇(x2 yz + 4xz 2 ) = (2xyz + 4z 2 )i + (x2 zj + (x2 y + 8xz)k Victor Saouma (3.23-a) (3.

Draft 3.9: Radial Stress vector in a Cylinder Solution: At point P . the stress tensor is given by 6 5 0 √ 0 σ= 5 √ 2 3 0 2 3 0 Victor Saouma (3.24-c) (3. 2 3 x3 n x2 P 2 1 3 x1 Figure 3. 3.9.24-b) 1 2 j− k 3 3 = 37 16 1 20 + + = 3 3 3 3 (3. −1) 2 2i − j − 2k = i− n = 3 (2)2 + (−1)2 + (−2)2 1 2 2 ∇φ·n = (8i − j − 10k)· i − j − k 3 3 3 (3. 1.24-d) Since this last value is positive. Example 3-4: Stress Vector normal to the Tangent of a Cylinder The stress tensor throughout a continuum is given with respect to Cartesian axes as 3x1 x2 5x2 0 2 0 2x2 σ = 5x2 2 3 0 2x3 0 (3.25) √ Determine the stress vector (or traction) at the point P (2.4 Gradient 3–9 = 8i − j − 10k at (1. −2. Fig.26) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 3) of the plane that is tangent to the cylindrical surface x2 + x2 = 4 at P . φ increases along that direction.

Note the diference between v∇x and ∇x v.31) ∇x v(x) ≡ lim v ⊗ ndA v(B)→0 v(B) Ω and with a construction similar to the one used for the divergence.5. it can be shown that ∇x v(x) = ∂vi (x) [ei ⊗ ej ] ∂xj (3.2 Vector (3. 21 The components of ∇x v are simply the various partial derivatives of the component functions with respect to the coordinates: [∇x v] = [v∇x ] = ∂vx ∂x ∂vx ∂y ∂vx ∂z ∂vx ∂x ∂vy ∂x ∂vz ∂x ∂vy ∂x ∂vy ∂y ∂vy ∂z ∂vx ∂y ∂vy ∂y ∂vz ∂y ∂vz ∂x ∂vz ∂y ∂vz ∂z ∂vx ∂z ∂vy ∂z ∂vz ∂z (3. 22 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Fig.34) that is [∇v]ij gives the rate of change of the ith component of v with respect to the jth coordinate axis. Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION The unit normal to the surface at P is given from ∇(x2 + x2 − 4) = 2x2 22 + 2x3 e3 2 3 (3.Draft 3–10 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. then the gradient of the vector ﬁeld v(x) is a second order tensor deﬁned by 1 (3.27) (3. √ ∇(x2 + x2 − 4) = 222 + 2 3e3 2 3 √ 3 1 e3 n = e1 + 2 2 and thus the unit normal at P is (3. In matrix representation.29) Thus the traction vector will be determined from 6 5 0 √ 0 5/2 1/2 3 0 σ= 5 √ 2 3 √ = √ 3/2 3 0 2 3 0 √ or tn = 5 e1 + 3e2 + 3e3 2 3.32) where summation is implied for both i and j.30) 20 We can also deﬁne the gradient of a vector ﬁeld.28) At point P . If we consider a solid domain B with boundary Ω. 3.4. one is the transpose of the other.33) (3.

then we get the rate of change as we move in the speciﬁed direction. 3.10.35) v(x+∆ s m ) -v(x) v(x+∆ s m ) x3 v(x) a ∆ sm b x2 x1 Figure 3.36-b) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . if we divide this change by ∆s.e ∆s is very small). Example 3-5: Gradient of a Vector Field Determine the gradient of the following vector ﬁeld v(x) = x1 x2 x3 (x1 e1 +x2 e2 +x3 e3 ). the change in vector. taking the limit as ∆s goes to zero. Finally.Draft 3. The value of the vector ﬁeld at a is v(x) and the value of the vector ﬁeld at b is v(x + ∆sm). then we compare the diﬀerences between those two vectors.36-a) (3. and let the unit vector m points in the direction from a to b. We can interpret the gradient of a vector geometrically.4 Gradient 23 24 3–11 The gradient of a vector is a tensor of order 2. The vector connecting the heads of v(x) and v(x + ∆sm) is v(x + ∆sm) − v(x). If we consider two points a and b that are near to each other (i.10: Gradient of a Vector The quantity Dv(x)·m is called the directional derivative because it gives the rate of change of the vector ﬁeld as we move in the direction m. Since the vector ﬁeld changes with position in the domain. Solution: ∇x v(x) = 2x1 x2 x3 [e1 ⊗ e1 ] + x2 x3 [e1 ⊗ e2 ] + x2 x2 [e1 ⊗ e3 ] 1 1 2 +x2 x3 [e2 ⊗ e1 ] + 2x1 x2 x3 [e2 ⊗ e2 ] + x1 x2 [e2 ⊗ e3 ] 2 +x2 x2 [e3 ⊗ e1 ] + x1 x2 [e3 ⊗ e2 ] + 2x1 x2 x3 [e3 ⊗ e3 ] 3 3 2 x1 /x2 x1 /x3 2 x2 /x3 = x1 x2 x3 x2 /x1 x3 /x1 x3 /x2 2 Victor Saouma (3. Thus. Fig. those two vectors are diﬀerent both in length and orientation. we obtain ∆s→0 lim v(x + ∆sm) − v(x) ≡ Dv(x)·m ∆s (3. If we now transport a copy of v(x) and place it at b.

10<. x2. "x3"<D 2 1 x2 0 -10 10 f = x ^ 2 y z + 4 x z ^ 2.= 3 3 3 Gradf .. 8x2. Axes -> Automatic. 0. zDD 8 x3+ 2 x y z. -1<. vect 37 3 Gradient of a Vector vecfield = x1 x2 x3 8x1. Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION 3. 8x. 3. -3. vect = 82. -10. 0<D -10 -10 0 x1 Graphics3D MatrixForm@Grad@vecfield. y. -2. y x2 + 8 z x< 4 z2 0 << Graphics‘PlotField3D‘ PlotGradientField3D@f. z = -1. 10 Gradf = Grad@f. y = -2. x1 x22 x3. 8y. x3< Figure 3. Cartesian@x1.5 26 Curl When the vector operator ∇ operates in a manner analogous to vector multiplication.11: Mathematica Solution for the Gradients of a Scalar and of a Vector 8 2 x2 x3. "x2". 10<. 8z. x2 z.. m−grad. AxesLabel -> 8"x1". -10.Draft 3–12 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. -1. curl v called the curl of the vector ﬁeld v (sometimes called the rotation). the result is a vector.3 25 Mathematica Solution Mathematica solution of the two preceding examples is shown in Fig. 8x3. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Cartesian@x. x2.nb Gradient Scalar PlotVectorField3D@vecfield.11..4. x1 x2 x32 < x1 3. 10<. x3DDD i2 x1 x2 x3 x12 x3 x12 x2 y z j z j z j z j j z j x22 x3 2 x1 x2 x3 x1 x22 z z j z j z j z j z j 2 2 x1 x3 2 x1 x2 x3 { k x2 x3 10 Graphics3D x = 1. -10. 8x1. 2<. -2< Sqrt@4 + 1 + 4D 2 1 2 9 .

Solution: ∇×A = = ∂ ∂ ∂ i+ j + k ×(xz 3 i − 2x2 yzj + 2yz 4 k) ∂x ∂y ∂z i j k xz = ∂ ∂x 3 (3. 3.Draft curl 3.39) Example 3-6: Curl of a vector Determine the curl of the following vector A = xz 3 i − 2x2 yzj + 2yz 4 k at (1. −1.41-c) (3.12.41-f) (3. −1.41-d) (3.6 27 Some useful Relations Some useful relations d(A·B) d(A×B) ∇(φ + ξ) ∇×(A + B) ∇·v ∇·(φA) ∇·(A×B) ∇(A·B) A·dB + dA·B A×dB + dA×B ∇φ + ∇ξ ∇×A + ∇×B v∇ (∇φ)·A + φ(∇×A) B·(∇×A) − A·(∇×B) (B·∇)A + (A·∇)B + B×(∇×A) + A×(∇×B) ∂2φ ∂2φ ∂2φ + 2 + 2 Laplacian Operator ∇·(∇φ) ≡ ∇2 φ ≡ ∂x2 ∂y ∂z ∇·(∇×A) = 0 ∇×(∇φ) = 0 = = = = = = = = (3. 1).41-h) (3.41-k) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .41-g) (3.40-e) Mathematica solution is shown in Fig.41-a) (3. 3.38) (3.37) v1 v2 v3 ∂v2 ∂v3 ∂v1 ∂v3 ∂v1 ∂v2 − e1 + − e2 + − e3 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂x2 = eijk ∂j vk (3.40-c) k ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y = (2z 4 + 2x2 y)i + 3xz 2 j − 4xyzk (3.6 Some useful Relations 3–13 e1 v = ∇×v = = ∂ ∂x1 e2 ∂ ∂x2 e3 ∂ ∂x3 (3.40-b) ∂2yz 4 ∂ − 2x2 yz ∂xz 3 ∂2yz 4 ∂ − 2x2 yz ∂xz 3 − − − i+ j+ (3. 1) (3.41-j) (3.41-e) (3.41-b) (3.41-i) (3.40-d) = 3j + 4k at (1.40-a) −2x yz 2yz 4 ∂ ∂y 2 ∂ ∂z (3.

-4 x y z< << Graphics‘PlotField3D‘ PlotVectorField3D@CurlOfA. 2<. 8y.12: Mathematica Solution for the Curl of a Vector Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 4< 2 Figure 3. Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION m−curl. 0. −2. CurlOfA 80. y = −1.nb 1 ‡ Curl << Calculus‘VectorAnalysis‘ A = 8x z ^ 3. zDD 82 z4 + 2 x2 y. −2 x ^ 2 y z. zDD 0 x = 1. 2 y z ^ 4<. Cartesian@x. Cartesian@x.5 0 0 0. CurlOfA = Curl@A. 2<. Axes −> Automatic.Draft 3–14 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. AxesLabel −> 8"x".5 1 1. 0. 0<.5 -2 2 2 1. "z"<D 0 y -0. z = 1. 8z. y. y. 8x. 3 x z2 .5 -1 -1.5 x Ö Graphics3D Ö Div@CurlOfA. 3. "y".5 z 1 0.

6 Some useful Relations 3–15 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 3.

Draft 3–16 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

We ﬁrst deﬁne the stretch of the rod as 22 λ≡ l l0 (4. and subjected to a deformation ∆l into a ﬁnal deformed length of l.1 20 Elementary Deﬁnition of Strain We begin our detailed coverage of strain by a simpliﬁed and elementary set of deﬁnitions for the 1D and 2D cases. there are diﬀerent possibilities to introduce the notion of strain.Draft Chapter 4 KINEMATIC Or on How Bodies Deform 4. Following this a mathematically rigorous derivation of the various expressions for strain will follow.1.1 Small and Finite Strains in 1D 21 We begin by considering an elementary case. Fig. 4.1: Elongation of an Axial Rod We seek to quantify the deformation of the rod and even though we only have 2 variables (l0 and l). an axial rod with initial lenght l0 .1.1) This stretch is one in the undeformed case. and greater than one when the rod is elongated. 4. l0 l ∆l Figure 4. .

∂Y 1 1 εxy = γxy = 2 2 ∂ux ∂uy + ∂Y ∂X (4. 26 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . we used tan θ ≈ θ which is applicable as long as θ is small compared to one radian.2 and are given by Uniaxial Extension Pure Shear Without Rotation ∆ uy ∆Y ∆X ∆Y ∆ ux θ2 ψ ∆X ∆ ux θ1 ∆ u y Figure 4. l and λ we next introduce four possible deﬁnitions of the strain in 1D: Engineering Strain ε Natural Strain η Lagrangian Strain E Eulerian Strain ≡ = ≡ l−l0 l0 l−l0 l 2 2 1 l −l0 2 2 l0 2 l2 −l0 1 2 l2 = λ−1 1 = 1− λ = 1 (λ2 − 1) 2 = 1 2 (4. and the Eulerian and the natural strain on the other.3-a) (4.3-b) (4. This corresponds to the Lagrangian strain representation. 4. and lower case letters for the ﬁnal or current position coordinates (x = X + ux ).Draft 4–2 23 KINEMATIC Using l0 . 24 The choice of which strain deﬁnition to use is related to the stress-strain relation (or constitutive law) that we will later adopt.3-c) (4. then εxx = ∂ux . 4.4) We note that in the expression of the shear strain. ∂X εyy = ∂uy .2: Elementary Deﬁnition of Strains in 2D εxx ≈ εyy γxy εxy ∆ux ∆X ∆uy ≈ ∆Y π − ψ = θ2 + θ1 = 2 1 1 ∆ux ∆uy γxy ≈ + = 2 2 ∆Y ∆X (4.2 Small Strains in 2D 25 The elementary deﬁnition of strains in 2D is illustrated by Fig.3-d) In the limit as both ∆X and ∆Y approach zero.1.2) E∗ ≡ 1− 1 λ2 we note the strong analogy between the Lagrangian and the engineering strain on the one hand. We have used capital letters to represent the coordinates in the initial state.

In the deformed conﬁguration.3 we will derive expressions for the position and displacement vectors of a single point P from the undeformed to the deformed state. the particle P0 has now moved to the new position P and has the following position vector 31 x = x1 e1 + x2 e2 + x3 e3 which is expressed in terms of the spatial coordinates.3 the undeformed conﬁguration of a material continuum at time t = 0 together with the deformed conﬁguration at coordinates for each conﬁguration. with reference to Fig.2 27 28 4. X3 ).6) 32 The relative orientation of the material axes (OX1 X2 X3 ) and the spatial axes (ox1 x2 x3 ) is speciﬁed through the direction cosines aX . (x. The presentation will proceed as follow. Then. First.Draft 4. 4.1 Position and Displacement Vectors. X) 29 We consider in Fig. we will use some of the expressions in the introduction of the strain between two points P and Q.2. 4.3: Position and Displacement Vectors 1 t=t P u i3 o i1 X2 x1 x i2 Spatial x2 X I2 Material b 30 In the initial conﬁguration P0 has the position vector X = X 1 I 1 + X2 I 2 + X3 I 3 (4.2 Strain Tensor 4–3 Strain Tensor Following the simpliﬁed (and restrictive) introduction to strain. x3 X3 t=0 U P0 I3 O I X1 Figure 4. x Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . (4.5) which is here expressed in terms of the material coordinates (X1 . X2 . we now turn our attention to a rigorous presentation of this important deformation tensor. 4.

7-a) (4. and X3 = (x3 − Ax2 )/(1 − A2 ).7-b) again Uk and uk are interrelated through the direction cosines ik = aK IK .9 the displacement ﬁeld can be written in material coordinates as u1 = x1 − X1 = 0 u2 = x2 − X2 = AX3 u3 = x3 − X3 = AX2 2.10-c) x1 1 0 0 X1 x2 = 0 1 A X2 x 0 A 1 X3 3 or upon inversion (4. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 4.11) X1 X 2 X 3 x1 1 − A2 0 0 1 0 1 −A x2 = 1 − A2 x 0 −A 1 3 (4. The displacement ﬁeld can be written in matrix form as (4. From Eq. X2 + X3 = 1/(1 − A2 ) if A = 1/2. and x3 = AX2 + X3 where A is constant.12) that is X1 = x1 . X2 = (x2 − Ax3 )/(1 − A2 ). x2 = X2 + AX3 .10-b) (4.9) Example 4-1: Displacement Vectors in Material and Spatial Forms With respect to superposed material axis Xi and spatial axes xi . Substituting k above we obtain (4.8) u = uk (aK IK ) = UK IK = U ⇒ UK = aK uk k k 34 The vector b relates the two origins u = b + x − X or if the origins are the same (superimposed axis) uk = xk − Xk (4.Draft 4–4 33 KINEMATIC The displacement vector u connecting P0 ann P is the displacement vector which can be expressed in both the material or spatial coordinates U = Uk Ik u = uk ik (4. Solution: 1.10-a) (4. Determine the displaced location of material particles which originally comprises 2 2 the plane circular surface X1 = 0. the displacement ﬁeld of a continuum body is given by: x1 = X1 . Determine the displacement vector components in both the material and spatial form. 2. 1.

x(X.Draft 4. 3 5x2 − 8x2 x3 + 5x2 = 3 . 2 3 4. the circular surface becomes 2 2 the elliptical surface (1 + A )x2 − 4Ax2 x3 + (1 + A2 )x2 = (1 − A2 ) or for A = 1/2. t). For the circular surface. and by direct substitution of X2 = (x2 − Ax3 )/(1 − A2 ). x2 . 36 (4.2. t) are the Lagrangian and Eulerian variables respectivly. x3 . xi = xi (X1 . t) or x = x(X.1. x2 . X2 . t) (4.13-a) (4. t) is linear.2 Strain Tensor 4–5 3.16) |J| = ∂Xi Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . then the deformation is said to be homogeneous and plane sections remain plane.1 35 Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions.15) (X. A necessary and unique condition for the inverse functions to exist is that the determinant of the Jacobian should not vanish ∂xi =0 (4. t) and (x. x3 ) at time t. they must be the unique inverses of one another. 38 For both formulation to constitute a one-to-one mapping. X3 . The displacement ﬁeld can be written now in spatial coordinates as u1 = x1 − X1 = 0 A(x3 − Ax2 ) u2 = x2 − X2 = 1 − A2 A(x2 − Ax3 ) u3 = x3 − X3 = a − A2 (4.13-c) 4.14) Eulerian Formulation: provides a tracing of its original position of the particle that now occupies the location (x1 . and is a mapping of the initial conﬁguration into the current one. t) When the continuum undergoes deformation (or ﬂow). and is a mapping of the current conﬁguration into the initial one. t) and the independent variables are the coordinates xi and t. 37 If X(x. the particles in the continuum move along various paths which can be expressed in either the material coordinates or in the spatial coordinates system giving rise to two diﬀerent formulations: Lagrangian Formulation: gives the present location xi of the particle that occupied the point (X1 X2 X3 ) at time t = 0. Xi = Xi (x1 . t) or X = X(x.13-b) (4. with continuous partial derivatives. and 2 2 X3 = (x3 − Ax2 )/(1 − A2 ) in X2 + X3 = 1/(1 − A2 ). X(x.

the Lagrangian description given by x1 = X1 + X2 (et − 1).2. and x3 = e2 X3 where e is a constant. Show that the jacobian does not vanish and determine the Eulerian equations describing the motion.20) 4. X2 = . x2 = X1 (e−t − 1) + X2 . In symbolic notation ∂xi /∂Xj is represented by the dyadic F ≡ x∇X = The matrix form of F is x1 F = x2 x 3 ∂ ∂X1 ∂ ∂X2 ∂ ∂X3 ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂xi e1 + e2 + e3 = ∂X1 ∂X2 ∂X3 ∂Xj ∂x1 ∂X1 ∂x2 ∂X1 ∂x3 ∂X1 (4.2 4. X3 = x3 1 − et − e−t 1 − et − e−t (4.2. x3 = X3 (4.2. X∇x ) Partial diﬀerentiation of Eq.21) = ∂x1 ∂X2 ∂x2 ∂X2 ∂x3 ∂X2 ∂x1 ∂X3 ∂x2 ∂X3 ∂x3 ∂X3 = ∂xi ∂Xj (4.19) 1 0 (e2 − 1) 0 1 (e2 − e−2 ) 2 0 0 e X1 = x1 + (e−2 − 1)x3 1 0 (e−2 − 1) = 0 1 (e−4 − 1) ⇒ X2 = x2 + (e−4 − 1)x3 X = e−2 x 0 0 e−2 3 3 (4. 4. Solution: The Jacobian is given by 1 0 (e2 − 1) 0 1 (e2 − e−2 ) = e2 = 0 0 0 e2 Inverting the equation −1 (4. x2 = X2 + X3 (e2 − e−2 ).22) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .14 with respect to Xj produces the tensor ∂xi /∂Xj which is the material deformation gradient. (x∇X .Draft 4–6 KINEMATIC For example.17) has the inverse Eulerian description given by X1 = −x1 + x2 (et − 1) x1 (e−t − 1) − x2 .18) Example 4-2: Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions The Lagrangian description of a deformation is given by x1 = X1 + X3 (e2 − 1).1 39 Gradients Deformation.

Draft 40 4. the rectangular area formed by them at the reference time t0 is 43 dA0 = dX(1) ×dX(2) = dX1 dX2 e3 = dA0 e3 44 (4.26) In order to facilitate the derivation of the Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor later on. and c. b. and the new area is dA = FdX(1) ×FdX(2) = dX1 dX2 Fe1 ×Fe2 = dA0 Fe1 ×Fe2 = dAn (4.1. Thus. dX(1) deforms into dx(1) = FdX(1) and dX(2) into dx(2) = FdX(2) . 4. Fe1 ·dAn = Fe2 ·dAn = 0 (4.2.15 with respect to xj produces the spatial deformation gradient H = X∇x ≡ The matrix form of H is X1 H = X2 X 3 41 ∂X ∂X ∂X ∂Xi e1 + e2 + e3 = ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂xj ∂X1 ∂x ∂X1 2 ∂x1 ∂X3 ∂x1 (4.2.28-a) (4. (4.23) ∂ ∂x1 ∂ ∂x2 ∂ ∂x3 = ∂X1 ∂x2 ∂X2 ∂x2 ∂X3 ∂x2 ∂X1 ∂x3 ∂X2 ∂x3 ∂X3 ∂x3 = ∂Xi ∂xj (4.29) and recalling that a·b×c is equal to the determinant whose rows are components of a. 4.31) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .27) At time t. we need to derive an expression for the change in area due to deformation.28-b) where the orientation of the deformed area is normal to Fe1 and Fe2 which is denoted by the unit vector n.30) Fe3 ·dA = dA0 (Fe3 ·Fe1 ×Fe2 ) det(F) or e3 ·FT n = Victor Saouma dA0 det(F) dA (4.2 Strain Tensor 4–7 Similarly.25) and thus F −1 = H or H = F−1 (4.1 42 † Change of Area Due to Deformation If we consider two material element dX(1) = dX1 e1 and dX(2) = dX2 e2 emanating from X.24) The material and spatial deformation tensors are interrelated through the chain rule ∂Xi ∂xj ∂xi ∂Xj = = δik ∂Xj ∂xk ∂xj ∂Xk (4. diﬀerentiation of Eq.

Draft 4–8 KINEMATIC and FT n is in the direction of e3 so that FT n = dA0 det Fe3 ⇒ dAn = dA0 det(F)(F−1 )T e3 dA (4.39) and thus the Jacobian is a measure of deformation. and x3 = λ2 X2 .35) (4.2. ﬁnd the deformed volume for a unit cube and the deformed area of the unit square in the X1 − X2 plane. 46 We observe that if a material is incompressible than det F = 1.36) (4.38) and J is called the Jacobian and is the determinant of the deformation gradient F J= ∂x1 ∂X1 ∂x2 ∂X1 ∂x3 ∂X1 ∂x1 ∂X2 ∂x2 ∂X2 ∂x3 ∂X2 ∂x1 ∂X3 ∂x2 ∂X3 ∂x3 ∂X3 (4.37) (4. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .33) If we consider an inﬁnitesimal element it has the following volume in material coordinate system: 4. Example 4-3: Change of Volume and Area For the following deformation: x1 = λ1 X1 . x2 = −λ3 X3 .2 45 † Change of Volume Due to Deformation dΩ0 = (dX1 e1 ×dX2 e2 )·dX3 e3 = dX1 dX2 dX3 in spatial cordiantes: dΩ = (dx1 e1 ×dx2 e2 )·dx3 e3 If we deﬁne Fi = then the deformed volume will be dΩ = (F1 dX1 ×F2 dX2 )·F3 dX3 = (F1 ×F2 ·F3 )dX1 dX2 dX3 or dΩ = det FdΩ0 ∂xi ei ∂Xj (4.2.1.34) (4. A generalization of the preceding equation would yield dAn = dA0 det(F)(F−1 )T n0 (4.32) which implies that the deformed area has a normal in the direction of (F−1 )T e3 .

40-d) (4. u∇x ) 47 We now turn our attention to the displacement vector ui as given by Eq.2 Strain Tensor 4–9 [F] = det F ∆V ∆A0 n0 ∆An = = = = = = ∆An = λ1 λ2 e2 λ1 0 0 0 0 −λ3 0 λ2 0 λ1 λ2 λ3 λ1 λ2 λ3 1 −e3 (1)(det F)(F−1 )T 1 0 0 0 0 λ1 1 0 = λ1 λ2 λ1 λ2 λ3 0 0 − λ3 0 −1 1 0 λ2 0 (4.44) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .2.40-g) (4. 4.40-b) (4.41) = − δij or J ≡ u∇X = F − I ∂Xj ∂Xj The matrix form of J is u1 J = u2 u 3 ∂ ∂X1 ∂ ∂X2 ∂ ∂X3 = ∂u1 ∂X1 ∂u2 ∂X1 ∂u3 ∂X1 ∂u1 ∂X2 ∂u2 ∂X2 ∂u3 ∂X2 ∂u1 ∂X3 ∂u2 ∂X3 ∂u3 ∂X3 = ∂ui ∂Xj (4.40-h) 4. 4.2. diﬀerentiation of Eq.40-a) (4.40-c) (4.2 Displacements. (u∇X .40-e) (4.40-f) (4.43) = δij − or K ≡ u∇x = I − H ∂xj ∂xj The matrix form of K is u1 K = u2 u 3 ∂ ∂x1 ∂ ∂x2 ∂ ∂x3 = ∂u1 ∂x ∂u1 ∂x2 1 ∂u3 ∂x1 ∂u1 ∂x2 ∂u2 ∂x2 ∂u3 ∂x2 ∂u1 ∂x3 ∂u2 ∂x3 ∂u3 ∂x3 = ∂ui ∂xj (4.42) 48 Similarly. 4.9.9 with respect to xj produces the spatial displacement gradient ∂Xi ∂ui (4.9 with respect to Xj produces the material displacement gradient ∂ui ∂xi (4.Draft Solution: 4. Partial diﬀerentiation of Eq.

X3 and spatial coordinates ox1 x2 x3 are superimposed.47-a) = 2X1 X2 0 ∂x1 ∂X2 ∂x2 ∂X2 ∂x3 ∂x3 ∂X1 ∂X2 2 1 + X3 (4. X2 .45-a) 0 2X1 X3 2 X1 0 2 X2 2X2 X3 (4.4. determine the material deformation gradient F and the material displacement gradient J. 50 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .2.47-b) 0 2X1 X3 2 1 + X1 0 2 2X2 X3 1 + X2 (4. We consider next the initial (undeformed) and ﬁnal (deformed) conﬁguration of a continuum in which the material OX1. Fig.2.45-b) Since x = u + X.2.47-c) We observe that the two second order tensors are related by J = F − I.3 49 Deformation Tensors ∂x Having derived expressions for ∂Xij and ∂Xji we now seek to determine dx2 and dX 2 ∂x where dX and dx correspond to the distance between points P and Q in the undeformed and deformed cases respectively.3 Examples KINEMATIC Example 4-4: Material Deformation and Displacement Gradients 2 2 2 A displacement ﬁeld is given by u = X1 X3 e1 + X1 X2 e2 + X2 X3 e3 . the displacement ﬁeld is also given by 2 2 2 x = X1 (1 + X3 ) e1 + X2 (1 + X1 ) e2 + X3 (1 + X2 ) e3 x1 x2 x3 (4. and verify that J = F − I.Draft 4–10 4.46) and thus F = x∇X ≡ = ∂x1 ∂X1 ∂x2 ∂X1 ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂xi e1 + e2 + e3 = ∂X1 ∂X2 ∂X3 ∂Xj ∂x1 ∂X3 ∂x2 ∂X3 ∂x3 ∂X3 (4. Solution: The material deformation gradient is: ∂ui = J = u∇x = = ∂Xj ∂uX 1 ∂X ∂uX1 2 ∂X1 = 2X1 X2 0 ∂uX3 ∂X1 2 X3 ∂uX1 ∂X2 ∂uX2 ∂X2 ∂uX3 ∂X2 ∂uX1 ∂X3 ∂uX2 ∂X3 ∂uX3 ∂X3 (4. Neighboring particles P0 and Q0 in the initial conﬁgurations moved to P and Q respectively in the ﬁnal one. 4. 4.

4.1 51 Cauchy’s Deformation Tensor.15 the distance diﬀerential dXi is dXi = ∂Xi dxj or dX = H·dx ∂xj (4. introduced by Cauchy in 1827.2 Strain Tensor 4–11 X 3 . Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .49) thus the squared length (dX)2 in Eq.50-a) (4. (dX)2 The Cauchy deformation tensor. 52 This tensor is the inverse of the tensor B which will not be introduced until Sect.51) is Cauchy’s deformation tensor. x 1 Figure 4. x 2 X 1.3.2. 4. 4.2.48 may be rewritten as (dX)2 = ∂Xk ∂Xk −1 dxi dxj = Bij dxi dxj ∂xi ∂xj = dx·B−1 ·dx (4. x3 t=0 Q 0 t=t Q u +du dX dx u x P X+ dX X P 0 O X 2.6.3.48) 53 however from Eq. The square of the diﬀerential element connecting Po and Q0 is (dX)2 = dX·dX = dXi dXi (4. B−1 (alternatively denoted as c) gives the initial square length (dX)2 of an element dx in the deformed conﬁguration.50-b) in which the second order tensor −1 Bij = ∂Xk ∂Xk or B−1 = ∇x X·X∇x ∂xi ∂xj Hc ·H (4.Draft 4.4: Undeformed and Deformed Conﬁgurations of a Continuum 4.

54-b) in which the second order tensor Cij = ∂xk ∂xk or C = ∇X x·x∇X ∂Xi ∂Xj Fc ·F (4. referred to in the undeformed conﬁguration. 4.52 may be rewritten as (dx)2 = ∂xk ∂xk dXi dXj = Cij dXidXj ∂Xi ∂Xj = dX·C·dX (4. gives the new square length (dx)2 of the element dX is deformed. introduced by Green in 1841. (dx)2 The Green deformation tensor. 4.2. 4. 55 The square of the diﬀerential element connecting Po and Q0 is now evaluated in terms of the spatial coordinates (dx)2 = dx·dx = dxi dxi (4. and x3 = X3 + AX2 where A is a constant. Solution: From Eq.55 yields C−1 = B−1 or B−1 = (F−1 )T ·F−1 (4.21 as F = ∂xi ∂Xj 1 0 0 = 0 1 A 0 A 1 (4.57-a) (4. 4. 56 Inspection of Eq. C (alternatively denoted as B−1 ). 4.57-b) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .55) is Green’s deformation tensor also known as metric tensor.2 54 KINEMATIC Green’s Deformation Tensor.53) thus the squared length (dx)2 in Eq.3.51 and Eq.Draft 4–12 4.55 C = Fc ·F where F was deﬁned in Eq.56) Example 4-5: Green’s Deformation Tensor A continuum body undergoes the deformation x1 = X1 .54-a) (4. 4. x2 = X2 + AX3 .14 the distance diﬀerential dxi is dxi = ∂xi dXj or dx = F·dX ∂Xj (4. or deformation tensor or right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor.52) however from Eq. Determine the deformation tensor C.

54-a and 4.58-a) (4.41 in the preceding equation.58-b) 4.1 58 Finite Strain Tensors We start with the most general case of ﬁnite strains where no constraints are imposed on the deformation (small).2.59-b) in which the second order tensor Eij = 1 2 ∂xk ∂xk − δij ∂Xi ∂Xj 1 or E = (∇X x·x∇X −I) 2 Fc ·F=C (4.48 this diﬀerence is expressed as (dx)2 − (dX)2 = ∂xk ∂xk − δij dXidXj = 2Eij dXi dXj ∂Xi ∂Xj = dX·(Fc ·F − I)·dX = 2dX·E·dX (4.4.2. (dx)2 − (dX)2 With (dx)2 and (dX)2 deﬁned we can now ﬁnally introduce the concept of strain through (dx)2 − (dX)2 . 60 To express the Lagrangian tensor in terms of the displacements. the Lagrangian ﬁnite strain tensor can be rewritten as Eij = 1 2 ∂ui ∂uj ∂uk ∂uk + + ∂Xj ∂Xi ∂Xi ∂Xj 1 or E = (u∇X + ∇X u + ∇X u·u∇X ) 2 J+Jc Jc · J (4.2 Strain Tensor 4–13 C = Fc ·F = 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 2A 0 1 A 0 1 A = 0 1+A 0 2A 1 + A2 0 A 1 0 A 1 T (4. 4.60) is called the Lagrangian (or Green’s) ﬁnite strain tensor which was introduced by Green in 1841 and St-Venant in 1844. we substitute Eq.4.Draft and thus 4.1.2. and after some simple algebraic manipulations. Using Eqs.1 59 The diﬀerence (dx)2 − (dX)2 for two neighboring particles in a continuum is used as the measure of deformation. 4. Lagrangian/Green’s Tensor 4.61) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 4.59-a) (4.4 57 Strains.

63-b) (4.1.62-a) (4.4.2 Eulerian/Almansi’s Tensor Alternatively. (4. the diﬀerence (dx)2 − (dX)2 for the two neighboring particles in the continuum can be expressed in terms of Eqs.2.62-b) (4.52 and 4.63-c) 4. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .64-a) (4.62-c) E12 = 1 ∂u1 ∂u2 + 2 ∂X2 ∂X1 ··· = ··· + 1 ∂u1 ∂u1 ∂u2 ∂u2 ∂u3 ∂u3 + + 2 ∂X1 ∂X2 ∂X1 ∂X2 ∂X1 ∂X2 Example 4-6: Lagrangian Tensor Determine the Lagrangian ﬁnite strain tensor E for the deformation of example 4.Draft 4–14 KINEMATIC or: E11 ∂u1 ∂u1 1 = + ∂X1 2 ∂X1 2 ∂u2 + ∂X1 2 ∂u3 + ∂X1 2 (4. Solution: 1 0 0 2A C = 0 1 + A2 2 0 2A 1+A 1 E = (C − I) 2 0 0 0 1 = 0 A2 2A 2 0 2A A2 Note that the matrix is symmetric.50-b this same diﬀerence is now equal to 61 (dx)2 − (dX)2 = ∂Xk ∂Xk ∗ dxi dxj = 2Eij dxi dxj ∂xi ∂xj = dx·(I − Hc ·H)·dx = 2dx·E∗ ·dx δij − (4.3.65) is called the Eulerian (or Almansi) ﬁnite strain tensor.64-b) in which the second order tensor ∗ Eij = 1 ∂Xk ∂Xk δij − 2 ∂xi ∂xj 1 or E∗ = (I − ∇x X·X∇x ) 2 Hc ·H=B−1 (4.63-a) (4.2. 4.2.

59-b and 4.4.2 Strain Tensor 4–15 For inﬁnitesimal strain it was introduced by Cauchy in 1827. 4. the Eulerian ﬁnite strain tensor can be rewritten as ∗ Eij = 1 2 ∂uk ∂uk ∂ui ∂uj + − ∂xj ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj 1 or E∗ = (u∇x + ∇x u − ∇x u·u∇x ) 2 K+Kc K c ·K (4.2 65 Inﬁnitesimal Strain Tensors. we substitute 4. 4. in the other it is not. then the third term are negligible and may be dropped.61 and 4. for = 10−3 and 10−1 .59-b and 4. then we would obtain 0.2.61 if the displacement gradient components ∂Xij are each small compared to unity.Draft 62 63 4. The fundamental measure of deformation is the diﬀerence (dx)2 − (dX)2 .68) E11 = Victor Saouma ∂u1 ∂X1 (4.66) 64 Expanding ∗ E11 ∂u1 1 ∂u1 = − ∂x1 2 ∂x1 2 ∂u2 + ∂x1 2 ∂u3 + ∂x1 2 (4.69-a) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .4. For instance.1 Lagrangian Inﬁnitesimal Strain Tensor ∂u In Eq.64-b respectively.001 and 0. Small Deformation Theory The small deformation theory of continuum mechanics has as basic condition the requirement that the displacement gradients be small compared to unity. If the displacement gradients are small.43 in the preceding equation. which may be expressed in terms of the displacement gradients by inserting Eq. The resulting tensor is the Lagrangian inﬁnitesimal strain tensor denoted by 67 Eij = or: 1 2 ∂uj ∂ui + ∂Xj ∂Xi 1 or E = (u∇X + ∇X u) 2 J+Jc (4. the ﬁnite strain tensors in Eq.64-b reduce to inﬁnitesimal strain tensors and the resulting equations represent small deformations. 4.2. if we were to evaluate + 2 .66 into 4.67-c) ∗ E12 = 1 ∂u1 ∂u2 + 2 ∂x2 ∂x1 ··· = ··· − 1 ∂u1 ∂u1 ∂u2 ∂u2 ∂u3 ∂u3 + + 2 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x2 4. and after some simple algebraic manipulations. and for ﬁnite strain by Almansi in 1911. In the ﬁrst case 2 is “negligible” compared to .67-b) (4.67-a) (4. To express the Eulerian tensor in terms of the displacements.2. 66 4.11 respectively.001001 ≈ 0.

and compare them for the case where A is very small. 4.73) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .4.2.71-c) 4.72-c) (4.72-a) (4. then the third term are negligible and may be dropped. Solution: The displacements are obtained from Eq.4. 4.71-a) (4. 4.71-b) (4.72-b) (4.Draft 4–16 4.69-c) Note the similarity with Eq.9 uk = xk − Xk or u1 = x1 − X1 = X1 + AX2 − X1 = AX2 u2 = x2 − X2 = X2 + AX3 − X2 = AX3 u3 = x3 − X3 = X3 + AX1 − X3 = AX1 then from Eq. The resulting tensor is the Eulerian inﬁnitesimal strain tensor denoted by 68 ∗ Eij = 1 2 ∂ui ∂uj + ∂xj ∂xi 1 or E∗ = (u∇x + ∇x u) 2 K+Kc (4.2 KINEMATIC E12 = 1 ∂u1 ∂u2 + 2 ∂X2 ∂X1 ··· = ··· (4.2.2. Eulerian Inﬁnitesimal Strain Tensor ∂ui Similarly.4.69-b) (4.66 if the displacement gradient components ∂xj are each small compared to unity. x3 = X3 + AX1 where A is constant.41 0 A 0 J ≡ u∇X = 0 0 A A 0 0 Victor Saouma (4.3 Examples Example 4-7: Lagrangian and Eulerian Linear Strain Tensors A displacement ﬁeld is given by x1 = X1 + AX2 . Calculate the Lagrangian and the Eulerian linear strain tensors. x2 = X2 + AX3 . 4.70) 69 Expanding ∂u1 ∂x1 1 ∂u1 ∂u2 ∗ + E12 = 2 ∂x2 ∂x1 ··· = ··· ∗ E11 = (4. inn Eq.

78-a) (4. 4. 4.5.78-b) + (4. thus inverting the displacement ﬁeld given above: x1 x 2 x 3 1 A 0 X1 = 0 1 A X2 A 0 1 X3 X1 ⇒ X2 X 3 1 −A A2 x1 1 2 1 −A x2 = A 1 + A3 −A A2 x 1 3 (4.78-c) as A is very small. 4.4.74-b) To determine the Eulerian tensor. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . A2 and higher power may be neglected with the results.4. 4. then E∗ → E.68: 0 A 0 0 0 A 2E = (J + Jc ) = 0 0 A + A 0 0 A 0 0 0 A 0 0 A A = A 0 A A A 0 (4.1 70 Physical Interpretation of the Strain Tensor Small Strain We ﬁnally show that the linear lagrangian tensor in small deformation Eij is nothing else than the strain as was deﬁned earlier in Eq.5 4.2.2.43 (4.2 Strain Tensor 4–17 From Eq.76-b) 1 + A3 1 + A3 1 A(x1 − Ax2 + A2 x3 ) = x3 − X3 = x3 − (−Ax1 + A2 x2 + x3 ) = (4.75) thus from Eq.74-a) (4.9 uk = xk − Xk we obtain u1 = x1 − X1 = x1 − u2 u3 1 A(A2 x1 + x2 − Ax3 ) (x1 − Ax2 + A2 x3 ) = (4.Draft 4. we need the displacement u in terms of x.77) Finally.76-a) 1 + A3 1 + A3 1 A(−Ax1 + A2 x2 + x3 ) = x2 − X2 = x2 − (A2 x1 + x2 − Ax3 ) = (4.66 2E∗ = K + Kc A 1 −A A 1 = −A A2 1 + A3 1 −A A2 2A2 1 − A A 2A2 = 1−A 1 + A3 1 − A 1 − A 2 A −A 1 A A2 −A 1 3 1+A −A 1 A2 1−A 1−A 2 2A 2 (4. 4.76-c) 1 + A3 1 + A3 A2 1 −A A 1 −A A2 K ≡ u∇x = 3 1+A 1 −A A2 From Eq. from Eq.

dX With reference to Fig. and is called the normal strain for the line element having direction cosines dXi .59-b as (dx)2 − (dX)2 = (dx − dX)(dx + dX) = 2Eij dXi dXj or 2 2 (dx) − (dX) = (dx − dX)(dx + dX) = dX·2E·dX (4. 4. X3 73 P Q0 dX Normal x3 X2 e3 0 M θ n3 n2 X1 Q x 2 P X3 e1 e2 M0 dX P0 dX 2 3 u x 1 Shear Q0 X2 X1 Figure 4.Draft 4–18 71 KINEMATIC We rewrite Eq.80 becomes (with ui = xi − Xi ): dX dx − dX ∂u2 = E22 = dX ∂X2 Victor Saouma (4. Therefore.79-b) but since dx ≈ dX under current assumption of small deformation. then the previous equation can be rewritten as du dx − dX dXi dXj = Eij = Eij ξi ξj = ξ·E·ξ dX dX dX 72 (4.80) We recognize that the left hand side is nothing else than the change in length per unit original length. 4.80 is applied to the diﬀerential element P0 Q0 which lies along the X2 axis. the result will be the normal strain because since dX1 = dX3 = 0 dX dX and dX2 = 1. 4. 4. Eq.81) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .5: Physical Interpretation of the Strain Tensor Normal Strain: When Eq.5 we consider two cases: normal and shear strain.79-a) (4.

and recalling that for small strain theory γ23 is very small it follows that 74 γ23 ≈ sin γ23 = sin(π/2 − θ) = cos θ = 2E23 . 4.86) ε33 We note that a similar development paralleling the one just presented can be made for the linear Eulerian strain tensor (where the straight lines and right angle will be in the deformed state). 74 The Engineering shear strain is deﬁned as one half the tensorial shear strain.82-a) (4. (4.96 (dui = ∂ui dXj ) a ﬁrst order approximation gives the unit vector at P in the direction ∂Xj P0 of Q. Finite Strain. and the resulting tensor is written as ε11 1 Eij = 2 γ12 1 γ 2 13 75 1 γ 2 12 ε22 1 γ 2 23 1 γ 2 13 1 γ 2 23 (4. the original right angle between the lines becomes the angle θ. Shear Strain: For the diagonal terms Eij we consider the two line elements originally located along the X2 and the X3 axes before deformation.84) (4. These components are called the shear strains.2 Strain Tensor 4–19 Likewise for the other 2 directions. After deformation.Draft 4. and M as: n2 = n3 ∂u1 ∂u3 e1 + e2 + e3 ∂X2 ∂X2 ∂u1 ∂u2 = e1 + e2 + e3 ∂X3 ∂X3 ∂u1 ∂u1 ∂u2 ∂u3 + + ∂X2 ∂X3 ∂X3 ∂X2 (4.85) Therefore the oﬀ diagonal terms of the linear strain tensor represent one half of the angle change between two line elements originally at right angles to one another.82-b) and from the deﬁnition of the dot product: cos θ = n2 ·n3 = or neglecting the higher order term cos θ = ∂u2 ∂u3 + = 2E23 ∂X3 ∂X2 (4. Stretch Ratio 4.5. Hence the diagonal terms of the linear strain tensor represent normal strains in the coordinate system.83) Finally taking the change in right angle between the elements as γ23 = π/2 − θ. From Eq.2.2 76 The simplest and most useful measure of the extensional strain of an inﬁnitesimal dx element is the stretch or stretch ratio as dX which may be deﬁned at point P0 in the Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .

thus Eq. m = e2 and therefore dX1 /dX = dX3 /dX = 0 and dX2 /dX = 1. and Eq.90) 79 we note that in general Λe 2 = λe2 since the element originally along the X2 axis will not be along the x2 after deformation. 4. Fig. the unit extension is 80 (4. 4.87 (with Eq. Furthermore Eq.1). 4. e e 78 (4. 4.93) For the two diﬀerential line elements of Fig. 4.54-a. and 1 dx − dX = E(2) = (1 + 2E22 ) 2 − 1 dX which is identical to Eq. we obtain 1 ∗ = 1 − 2E22 λ2 2 e (4. ??) yields Λ22 = C22 = 1 + 2E22 e and similar results can be obtained for Λ21 and Λ23 .60 the squared stretch at P0 for the line element dX along the unit vector m = dX is given by Λ2 ≡ m dx dX 2 = Cij P0 dXi dXj or Λ2 = m·C·m m dX dX (4. 4.92) 1 1 + 2E22 − 1 2 E22 (4. 4.50-b.5.88) Similarly from Eq.Draft 4–20 77 KINEMATIC undeformed conﬁguration or at P in the deformed one (Refer to the original deﬁnition given by Eq.5. from Eq. while the elements of E must be greater than − 1 and those of E∗ must 2 be greater than + 1 .87) Thus for an element originally along X2 . this equation reduces to Eq. the change in angle γ23 = given in terms of both Λe2 and Λe3 by 81 π 2 − θ is (4.94) sin γ23 = 2E23 2E23 √ =√ Λe2 Λe3 1 + 2E22 1 + 2E33 Again. Hence. 4. 1 + 2E22 − 1 (4. 4. the reciprocal of the squared stretch for the line element at P along the unit vector n = dx is given by dx 1 ≡ λ2 n dX dx 2 −1 = Bij P 1 dxi dxj or 2 = n·B−1 ·n dx dx λn (4. when deformations are small. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Fig.89 show that in the matrices of rectangular cartesian components the diagonal elements of both C and B−1 must be positive.81.91) dx − dX = E(2) = Λe2 − 1 = dX for small deformation theory E22 << 1. 4.5. 2 The unit extension of the element is dx dx − dX = − 1 = Λm − 1 dX dX and for the element P0 Q0 along the X2 axis.87 and 4. 4.89) Again for an element originally along X2 .85.

Q u Q0 Q0 du dx dX u P0 Figure 4.6 82 83 4.95) is called the relative displacement vector of the particle originally at Q0 with respect to the one originally at P0 .2. Not all kinds of relative motion give rise to strain (and stresses).1 Lagrangian Formulation 85 Neglecting higher order terms.6 the displacements of two neighboring particles are represented by the vectors uP0 and uQ0 and the vector dui = uQ0 − uP0 or du = uQ0 − uP0 i i (4.96) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 4.6.6: Relative Displacement du of Q relative to P P0 p 4.6. 4. the rotational part of its motion produces relative displacement. and through a Taylor expansion dui = ∂ui ∂Xj dXj or du = (u∇X )P0 dX P0 (4.2 Strain Tensor 4–21 Linear Strain and Rotation Tensors Strain components are quantitative measures of certain type of relative displacement between neighboring parts of the material.2.1 84 From Fig. Thus the general problem is to express the strain in terms of the displacements by separating oﬀ that part of the displacement distribution which does not contribute to the strain. Small Strains 4.1. A solid material will resist such relative displacement giving rise to internal stresses. If a body moves as a rigid body.2.

98-a) 1 1 du = (u∇X + ∇X u) + (u∇X − ∇X u) ·dX 2 2 E W 1 2 ∂u2 ∂X1 ∂u3 ∂X1 ∂u1 + ∂X2 ∂u2 ∂X2 ∂u2 + ∂X3 ∂u2 ∂X1 ∂u3 ∂X2 1 2 1 2 ∂u1 + ∂X3 ∂u2 + ∂X3 ∂u3 ∂X3 ∂u3 ∂X1 ∂u3 ∂X2 (4.97) ∂u The material displacement gradient ∂Xij can be decomposed uniquely into a symmetric and an antisymetric part.102) w = −W23 e1 − W31 e2 − W12 e3 (4.101) In a displacement for which Eij is zero in the vicinity of a point P0 .98-b) or E= 1 2 1 2 ∂u1 ∂X1 ∂u1 ∂X2 ∂u1 ∂X3 + + (4. the relative displacement at that point will be an inﬁnitesimal rigid body rotation.Draft 4–22 86 87 KINEMATIC We also deﬁne a unit relative displacement vector dui /dX where dX is the magnitude of the diﬀerential distance dXi .103) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .99) 1 2 We thus introduce the linear lagrangian rotation tensor Wij = in matrix form: 1 2 ∂ui ∂uj − ∂Xj ∂Xi or W = 1 (u∇X − ∇X u) 2 (4. we rewrite the previous equation as dui = or 1 2 ∂ui ∂uj 1 + + ∂Xj ∂Xi 2 Eij ∂ui ∂uj − ∂Xj ∂Xi Wij dXj (4.100) 0 −1 2 ∂u1 ∂X2 ∂u1 ∂X3 1 2 W = −1 2 − − ∂u1 ∂X2 ∂u2 ∂X1 ∂u3 ∂X1 − 0 ∂u2 ∂X1 ∂u3 ∂X2 1 2 1 2 −1 2 ∂u2 ∂X3 − ∂u1 ∂X3 ∂u2 ∂X3 − − 0 ∂u3 ∂X1 ∂u3 ∂X2 (4. or dXi = ξi dX. then dui ∂ui dXj ∂ui du = = = u∇X ·ξ = J·ξ ξj or dX ∂Xj dX ∂Xj dX (4. It can be shown that this rotation is given by the linear Lagrangian rotation vector 88 wi = or 1 2 ijk Wkj 1 or w = ∇X ×u 2 (4.

110) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .108) in matrix form: 0 −1 2 ∂u1 ∂x2 ∂u1 ∂x3 1 2 W = −1 2 − − ∂u1 ∂x2 ∂u2 ∂x1 ∂u3 ∂x1 − 0 ∂u2 ∂x1 ∂u3 ∂x2 1 2 1 2 −1 2 ∂u2 ∂x3 − ∂u1 ∂x3 ∂u2 ∂x3 − − 0 ∂u3 ∂x1 ∂u3 ∂x2 (4.2.109) and the linear Eulerian rotation vector will be ωi = 1 2 ijk ωkj 1 or ω = ∇x ×u 2 (4.2 Strain Tensor Eulerian Formulation 4–23 The derivation in an Eulerian formulation parallels the one for Lagrangian formulation.106-a) 1 1 du = (u∇x + ∇x u) + (u∇x − ∇x u) ·dx 2 2 ∗ E Ω (4.Draft 4.1. ∂ui dui = dxj or du = K·dx (4.6.2 89 4.106-b) or E= 1 2 1 2 ∂u1 ∂x1 ∂u1 ∂x2 ∂u1 ∂x3 1 2 ∂u2 ∂x1 ∂u3 ∂x1 1 2 + + ∂u1 + ∂x2 ∂u2 ∂x2 ∂u2 + ∂x3 ∂u2 ∂x1 ∂u3 ∂x2 1 2 1 2 ∂u1 + ∂x3 ∂u2 + ∂x3 ∂u3 ∂x3 ∂u3 ∂x1 ∂u3 ∂x2 (4.107) 92 We thus introduced the linear Eulerian rotation tensor wij = 1 2 ∂ui ∂uj − ∂xj ∂xi or Ω = 1 (u∇x − ∇x u) 2 (4.104) ∂xj The unit relative displacement vector will be dui = ∂ui ∂ui dxj du = = u∇x ·η = K·β ηj or ∂xj dx ∂xj dx ∂ui ∂xj 90 (4.105) 91 The decomposition of the Eulerian displacement gradient 1 2 results in dxj dui = or ∂ui ∂uj + ∂xj ∂xi ∗ Eij 1 + 2 ∂ui ∂uj − ∂xj ∂xi Ωij (4. Hence.

the linear rotation tensor and the rotation vector at point P (0.75e3 ) uQ3 − uP = 4 1 (−e1 − e2 + 3. rotation vector Under the restriction of small deformation theory E = E∗ . 15/8. 1.113-a) (4. Example 4-9: Linear strain tensor. −1) and compute their directions with the direction of du.6.875e3 ) uQ4 − uP = 8 −1 = −1 4 (4. Determine the linear strain tensor.5e3 ) uQ2 − uP = 2 1 (−e1 − e2 + 3. 4. Determine the relative displacements uQi − uP for Q1 (1.114-b) (4. 2. 3/2.2 Examples KINEMATIC Example 4-8: Relative Displacement along a speciﬁed direction 2 2 2 A displacement ﬁeld is speciﬁed by u = X1 X2 e1 + (X2 − X3 )e2 + X2 X3 e3 . Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Solution: From Eq. linear rotation tensor. −1). 7/4.Draft 4–24 4.114-c) (4.111) thus from Eq. Q2 (1.114-d) and it is clear that as Qi approaches P . −1). J = u∇X or 2 2X1 X2 X1 0 ∂ui 0 1 −2X3 = ∂Xj 2 0 2X2 X3 X2 (4. −1).114-a) (4. −1) and Q4 (1. the direction of the relative displacements of the two particles approaches the limiting direction of du. 4. Q3 (1.2.96 du = (u∇X )P dX in the direction of −X2 or 4 1 0 0 {du} = 0 1 2 −1 0 −4 4 0 By direct calculation from u we have uP = 2e1 + e2 − 4e3 uQ1 = e1 − e3 thus uQ1 − uP = −e1 − e2 + 3e3 1 (−e1 − e2 + 3.112) (4.41. 2. a displacement ﬁeld is given by u = (x1 − x3 )2 e1 + (x2 + x3 )2 e2 − x1 x2 e3 . −1).113-b) (4. Determine the relative displacement vector du in the direction of the −X2 axis at P (1.

95 we call this a polar decomposition and it should decompose the deformation gradient in the product of two tensors. ∂ui 4. we have ﬁrst a rigid body translation to x.117) Finite Strain. 94 Thus in this case. 97 The interpretation of the above equation is obtained by inserting the above equation ∂x into dxi = ∂Xij dXj dxi = Rik Ukj dXj = Vik Rkj dXj or dx = R·U·dX = V·R·dX (4. followed by a rotation (R) and ﬁnally a stretching (by V). we will have a multiplicative decomposition. and U and V are positive symmetric tensors known as the right stretch tensor and the left stretch tensor respectively. the orders are reversed.3 93 (4.103 w = −W23 e1 − W31 e2 − W12 e3 = −1e1 4.116) (4. 4. Eq.115-b) P Decomposing this matrix into symmetric and antisymmetric components give: 2 0 −2 0 0 0 [Eij ] + [wij ] = 0 2 1 + 0 0 1 −2 1 0 0 −1 0 and from Eq. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft Solution: 4. 4. one of which represents a rigid-body rotation.2. then we no longer can decompose ∂Xij (Eq.2 Strain Tensor 4–25 the matrix form of the displacement gradient is 2(x1 − x3 ) 0 −2(x1 − x3 ) ∂ui 0 2(x2 + x3 ) 2(x2 + x3 ) ] = [ ∂xj −x1 0 −x2 ∂ui ∂xj 2 0 −2 = 0 2 2 −2 0 0 (4.119) and we observe that in the ﬁrst form the deformation consists of a sequential stretching (by U) and rotation (R) to be followed by a rigid body displacement to x. while the other is a symmetric positive-deﬁnite tensor.6. rather than having an additive decomposition.104) into a unique sum of symmetric and skew parts (pure strain and pure rotation).96) or ∂xj (Eq. We apply this decomposition to the deformation gradient F: Fij ≡ ∂xi = Rik Ukj = Vik Rkj or F = R·U = V·R ∂Xj (4. In the second case. Polar Decomposition ∂u When the displacement gradients are ﬁnite.118) 96 where R is the orthogonal rotation tensor.115-a) (4.

ﬁnd the deformation gradient F.124) Example 4-10: Polar Decomposition I Given x1 = X1 .22 F= From Eq. x2 = −3X3 .125) (4. Solution: From Eq.121) R = FU−1 (4.128) (4.126) (4. x3 = 2X2 .Draft 4–26 98 KINEMATIC To determine the stretch tensor from the deformation gradient FT F = (RU)T (RU) = UT RT RU = UT U (4.123 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 V = FRT = 0 0 −3 0 0 1 = 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 −1 0 0 0 2 ∂x1 ∂X1 ∂x2 ∂X1 ∂x3 ∂X1 ∂x1 ∂X2 ∂x2 ∂X2 ∂x3 ∂X2 ∂x1 ∂X3 ∂x2 ∂X3 ∂x3 ∂X3 1 0 0 = 0 0 −3 0 2 0 (4.120) Recalling that R is an orthonormal matrix. the right stretch tensor U.123) V = FRT 99 It can be shown that U = C1/2 and V = B1/2 (4.122 R = FU−1 Finally. from Eq. 4. 4. 4. and thus RT = R−1 then we can compute the various tensors from √ U = FT F (4. 4. the rotation tensor R.127) 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 = 0 0 −3 0 1 0 = 0 0 −1 2 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 3 (4. and the left stretch tensor V.129) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .122) (4.121 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 U2 = FT F = 0 0 2 0 0 −3 = 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 −3 0 0 0 9 thus 1 0 0 U= 0 2 0 0 0 3 From Eq.

131) (4. ﬁnd the rotation tensor.133) 0 1 λ2 0 0 1 0 0 0 = 0 0 −1 (4. Solution: λ1 0 0 [F] = 0 0 −λ3 0 λ2 0 [U]2 = [F]T [F] λ1 0 0 λ1 0 0 λ2 0 0 1 0 λ2 0 0 −λ3 = 0 λ2 0 = 0 2 0 0 λ2 0 −λ3 0 0 λ2 0 3 λ1 0 0 [U] = 0 λ2 0 0 0 λ3 [R] = [F][U]−1 λ1 0 0 λ 1 = 0 0 −λ3 0 0 λ2 0 0 1 (4.Draft 4. and x3 = λ2 X2 .134) 1 0 1 0 λ3 Thus we note that R corresponds to a 90o rotation about the e1 axis.130) (4. Example 4-12: Polar Decomposition III Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .132) (4.2 Strain Tensor 4–27 Example 4-11: Polar Decomposition II For the following deformation: x1 = λ1 X1 . x2 = −λ3 X3 .

707 0. 3D CST = Transpose@FD . b). i 0. −v2. 0. 80. 1<< 0.382683 j z j z j 0.92388 0 y i 0.1716 0 z to the ei basis with respect j z j z Out[7]= j z j z Solve for C j z In[12]:= In[2]:= i 5.171573. z j z j z j z 0.707 y 0. %. 1. 1.828 0 0y 0 0 1. 0. 3 k +2X2 x2 =X2 . 0. 4D z j z j z j In[10]:= . z { z j i z j z z j z j0 1 0z z j z 0. 0. a) -1 matrix U and U with respect to the principal directions.82843< 0.707 2.382683 0 z j 2. 2. c) the 1 0.92388 -0.414 j z j z j j z 0 0. { k Out[8]= In[3]:= In[9]:= Out[3]= Eigenvectors N@Eigenvalues@CSTDD Ueigenminus1 = Inverse@UeigenD 81.707 z j z z j Determine U with respect z z j2 5 0z j Out[2]= 0. z j z Out[12]= i -0. Ueigen the principal values of Given x1 =XU_e = .N@vnormalizedObtain C. y j z j z j 1 2 0 y 0. 1.414 1. y i 0.0x{ =X3 .707 0. 1. 0<. z 0. z z j Out[10]= z j z j z j 0.707 0.12 -0. y z j LinearAlgebra‘Orthogonalization‘ z j In[5]:= << j 0.414214 j z j z j j z 0.12 0. y i z j j Polar Decomposition Using Mathematica z j -2. F i 0.4142 1. 4DD j j z Determine R 0 0. d) Obtain the matrix U and U -1 with respect to the ei bas obtain the matrix R with respect to the ei basis. { k In[6]:= vnormalized = GramSchmidt@8v3.Draft 4–28 m−polar. v1<D Determine the F matrix In[11]:= In[1]:= Out[6]= Out[11]= Out[1]= In[7]:= Determine U and U -1 with respect to the ei basis 0 0 1. 0<.707 0. 4D 0 0y i 2. 0 z z j Out[4]= U_einverse = N@Inverse@%D. 3DC and the corresponding directions. 80. { k R = N@F .4142 0 z j z j Eigenvalues and z Determine j z 0 0 1. z 0. 0.707 0. { k Out[9]= Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . vnormalized. { z j k In[8]:= to the principal directions z j z j k0 0 1{ Ueigen = N@Sqrt@CSTeigenD. CST .707 0. v3< = N@Eigenvectors@CSTD.707 0.41421 0. 2. 5. z j z j1 2 0 0 0 j k -0. vnormalized.nb 2 In[4]:= KINEMATIC m− 8v1. v2. z j z j y i j z z 1.. { j k j z j z k0 0 1{ CSTeigen = Chop@N@vnormalized . 3D F = 881. 1.

2 2 2 2 ds = dx + dy + dz (4.137-b) (4. but the displacements are small. Similarities between the two approaches is facilitated by Table 4. the distance between them is ds ds2 = dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 (4.8 101 †Explicit Derivation If the derivations in the preceding section was perceived as too complex through a ﬁrst reading.7 100 4. 3. The previous derivation was carried out using indicial notation.2. we deduce the following observations: 1. use the Lagrangian ﬁnite strain representation. If the displacement gradients are small. 4. this section will present a “gentler” approach to essentially the same results albeit in a less “elegant” mannser. but the displacements are large. If both the displacement gradients and the displacements themselves are small.136) 104 The displacement of point A to A is given by u = x − x ⇒ dx = du + dx v = y − y ⇒ dy = dv + dy w = z − z ⇒ dz = dw + dz (4. 4. we obtain ds = dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 +2dudx + 2dvdy + 2dwdz + du2 + dv 2 + dw 2 ds2 2 (4.7.137-c) 105 Substituting these equations into Eq. then ∂ui ∂ui ≈ ∂xj and thus the Eulerian and the Lagrangian inﬁnitesimal strain tensors may ∂Xj ∗ be taken as equal Eij = Eij . 2. If both the displacement gradients and the displacements are large. and B to B the distance between the two points is ds . in this section we repeat the derivation using explicitly.135) 102 103 As a result of deformation. point A moves to A .138) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Fig.2 Strain Tensor 4–29 Summary and Discussion From the above.Draft 4. Considering two points A and B in a 3D solid. 12.136.2. If the displacements gradients are large.137-a) (4. 4. we should use the Eulerian inﬁnitesimal representation.2. use the Eulerian ﬁnite strain representation.

t) GRADIENTS H = X∇x ≡ ∂Xji ∂x H = F−1 ∂ui ∂Xi ∂xj = δij − ∂xj or K ≡ u∇x = I − H TENSOR dx2 = dX·C·dX Green ∂x ∂x Cij = ∂Xk ∂Xk or i j C = ∇X x·x∇X = Fc ·F C−1 = B−1 STRAINS Eulerian/Almansi dx2 − dX 2 = dx·2E∗ ·dx ∗ Eij = ∂x = ∂Xi − δij or j J = u∇X = F − I Deformation dX 2 = dx·B−1 ·dx Cauchy −1 k k Bij = ∂Xi ∂Xj or ∂x ∂x B−1 = ∇x X·X∇x = Hc ·H Lagrangian dx2 − dX 2 = dX·2E·dX Finite Strain Eij = E= 1 2 1 2 (∇X x·x∇X −I) ∂xk ∂xk ∂Xi ∂Xj − δij or E = ∗ Fc ·F ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u Eij = 1 ∂Xi + ∂Xji + ∂Xk ∂Xk or 2 j i j E = 1 (u∇X + ∇X u + ∇X u·u∇X ) 2 Hc ·H ∂u ∂ui ∗ Eij = 1 ∂xj + ∂xj − ∂uk ∂uk or 2 ∂xi ∂xj i E∗ = 1 (u∇x + ∇x u − ∇x u·u∇x ) 2 ∂Xk ∂Xk 1 2 δij − ∂xi ∂xj 1 2 (I − ∇x X·X∇x ) or Small Deformation Small deformation Finite Strain J+Jc +Jc ·J K+Kc −Kc ·K ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂ui ∗ Eij = 1 ∂Xi + ∂Xji Eij = 1 ∂xj + ∂xj 2 2 j i E = 1 (u∇X + ∇X u) = 1 (J + Jc ) E∗ = 1 (u∇x + ∇x u) = 1 (K + Kc ) 2 2 2 2 ROTATION TENSORS ∂u ∂u [ 1 ∂Xi + ∂Xji + 1 ∂Xi − ∂Xji ]dXj 2 2 j j 1 1 [ (u∇X + ∇X u) + (u∇X − ∇X u)]·dX 2 2 E W ∂u ∂u dxj 1 1 [ (u∇x + ∇x u) + (u∇x − ∇x u)]·dx 2 2 + E∗ 1 2 ∂ui ∂xj ∂uj ∂xi + 1 2 ∂ui ∂xj − ∂uj ∂xi Ω F = R·U = V·R STRESS TENSORS Piola-Kirchoﬀ T T0 = (det F)T F−1 T ˜ T = (det F) F−1 T F−1 Cauchy First Second Victor Saouma Table 4. x 1 LAGRANGIAN Material Position Vector Deformation Displacement x = x(X. x 2 X 1.Draft 4–30 x3 X3 t=0 U P0 I3 O I X1 1 KINEMATIC X 3 . t) F = x∇X ≡ ∂ui ∂Xj ∂xi ∂Xj EULERIAN Spatial X = X(x. x3 t=t P u i3 o i1 X2 x1 x t=t Q t=0 u +du dX dx Q x2 0 u x P X X+ d X I2 Material b i2 Spatial X P 0 O X 2.1: Summary of Major Equations Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

u3 Eij Explicit x. dX x1 . z . w εij Table 4. x2 . x3 .2 Strain Tensor 4–31 Tensorial X1 . X2 . v.7: Strain Deﬁnition Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . ds u. dx u1 . ds x .Draft 4.2: Tensorial vs Explicit Notation Figure 4. y . X3 . z. y. u2 .

otherwise the solid is strained. rigid body motion).139-c) 107 ∂u 1 = 2 + ∂x 2 ∂x 1 ∂u + + 2 ∂y 2 ∂y 1 ∂u + + 2 ∂z 2 ∂z + 2 ∂w ∂v ∂u 2 ∂v + ∂x + ∂v ∂y ∂v ∂z 2 ∂w + ∂x + ∂w ∂y ∂w ∂z 2 2 2 2 + + dx2 2 dy 2 2 dz 2 2 ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w + + + + dxdy ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂w ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w + + + + + 2 dxdz ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂w ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w + + + + dydz + 2 ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z (4.139-a) (4.Draft 4–32 106 KINEMATIC From the chain rule of diﬀerrentiation ∂u ∂u ∂u dx + dy + dz ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂v ∂v ∂v dv = dx + dy + dz ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂w ∂w ∂w dx + dy + dz dw = ∂x ∂y ∂z du = Substituting this equation into the preceding one yields the ﬁnite strains ds − ds2 2 (4.140-a) We observe that ds 2 − ds2 is zero if there is no relative displacement between A and B (i.139-b) (4.141) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Hence ds 2 − ds2 can be selected as an appropriate measure of the deformation of the solid.e. and we deﬁne the strain components as 108 ds − ds2 = 2εxx dx2 + 2εyy dy 2 + 2εzz dz 2 + 4εxy dxdy + 4εxz dxdz + 4εyz dydz where 2 (4.

εik is the Green-Lagrange strain tensor.j + uj. the resulting equations reduce to Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . We deﬁne the engineering shear strain as γij = 2εij (i = j) (4. and the resulting strains are referred to as the Almansi strain which is the preferred one in ﬂuid mechanics.145) (4.146) (4.142) (4. y. z in the undeformed state.149) 2. The strains have been expressed in terms of the coordinates x. i.143) (4.148) 1.144) (4. in the Lagrangian coordinate which is the preferred one in structural mechanics. 6. we note that: (4.i + uk.Draft 4.e. In most cases the deformations are small enough for the quadratic term to be dropped. y . 5.147) ∂v 1 ∂u + = ∂y 2 ∂y 2 2 ∂w 1 ∂u + = ∂z 2 ∂z 1 2 1 = 2 1 = 2 2 2 2 εxy = εxz εyz or ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w + + + + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂w ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w + + + + ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂w ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w + + + + ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z 1 (ui. Eulerian coordinates x .e. z . 4. i. 3.iuk. Alternatively we could have expressed ds 2 − ds2 in terms of coordinates in the deformed state.2 Strain Tensor 2 2 2 4–33 2 εxx εyy εzz ∂u 1 ∂u + = ∂x 2 ∂x ∂v + ∂x ∂v + ∂y ∂v + ∂z ∂w + ∂x ∂w + ∂y ∂w + ∂z (4. If the strains are given.j ) 2 εij = From this equation. then these strain-displacements provide a system of (6) nonlinear partial diﬀerential equation in terms of the unknown displacements (3).

150) (4.154) (4.159) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .151) (4.k + uk. Hence the system is overdetermined. but due to symmetry.Draft 4–34 KINEMATIC εxx = εyy = εzz = γxy = γxz = γyz = or εij = which is called the Cauchy strain 109 ∂u ∂x ∂v ∂y ∂w ∂z ∂v ∂u + ∂x ∂y ∂w ∂u + ∂x ∂z ∂w ∂v + ∂y ∂z (4. and there must be some linear relations between the strains. 111 It can be shown (through appropriate successive diﬀerentiation of the strain expression) that the compatibility relation for strain reduces to: ∂ 2 εik ∂ 2 εjj ∂ 2 εjk ∂ 2 εij + − − = 0.156) In ﬁnite element.152) (4.i) then we have six diﬀerential equations (in 3D the strain ten2 sor has a total of 9 terms. the strain is often expressed through the linear operator L ε = Lu (4.9 110 Compatibility Equation If εij = 1 (ui.157) or εxx εyy εzz εxy εxz εyz ε = ∂ ∂x 0 0 ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂z 0 ∂ ∂y 0 ∂ ∂x 0 ∂ ∂z L 0 0 ∂ ∂x ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂y 0 0 ux uy uz u (4.i) 2 (4.153) (4. or ∇x ×L×∇x = 0 ∂xj ∂xj ∂xi ∂xk ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj ∂xk (4. there are 6 independent ones) for determining (upon integration) three unknowns displacements ui .155) 1 (ui.158) 4.2.j + uj.

160-a) (4.160-e) (4.164-a) (4.161) When he compatibility equation is written in term of the stresses. it yields: ∂ 2 σ11 ∂σ22 2 ∂ 2 σ22 ∂ 2 σ11 ∂ 2 σ21 −ν + −ν = 2 (1 + ν) ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x2 2 2 1 1 (4.164-b) (4.Draft 4.162) Example 4-13: Strain Compatibility For the following strain ﬁeld 1 2 X1 2 +X 2 ) 2(X1 2 − X 2X2 2 +X 0 X1 2 2 2(X1 +X2 ) 0 0 0 0 0 (4. but only six are distinct ∂ 2 ε11 ∂ 2 ε22 + ∂x2 ∂x2 2 1 2 2 ∂ ε22 ∂ ε33 + ∂x2 ∂x2 3 2 2 2 ∂ ε33 ∂ ε11 + ∂x2 ∂x2 1 3 ∂ ∂ε23 ∂ε31 ∂ε12 − + + ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂ε23 ∂ε31 ∂ε12 ∂ − + ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂ε23 ∂ε31 ∂ε12 ∂ + − ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 = 2 = = = = = ∂ 2 ε12 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂ 2 ε23 2 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂ 2 ε31 2 ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂ 2 ε11 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂ 2 ε22 ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂ 2 ε33 ∂x1 ∂x2 (4.160-d) (4.2 Strain Tensor 4–35 There are 81 equations in all.160-b) (4.) 112 (4.160-f) In 2D.164-c) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .160-c) (4.163) does there exist a single-valued continuous displacement ﬁeld? Solution: 2 2 2 ∂E11 (X 2 + X2 ) − X2 (2X2 ) X2 − X 1 = − 1 = 2 2 2 2 ∂X2 (X1 + X2 )2 (X1 + X2 )2 2 2 2 2 ∂E12 (X1 + X2 ) − X1 (2X1 ) X2 − X 1 2 = = 2 2 2 2 ∂X1 (X1 + X2 )2 (X1 + X2 )2 ∂E22 = 0 2 ∂X1 (4. this results in (by setting i = 2. j = 1 and l = 2): ∂ 2 γ12 ∂ 2 ε11 ∂ 2 ε22 + = ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x2 2 1 (recall that 2ε12 = γ12 .

it does not describe the actual intensity of the force. Hence we had df = tdA t = Tn (4.Draft 4–36 KINEMATIC ⇒ ∂ 2 E11 ∂ 2 E22 ∂ 2 E12 √ + = 2 2 2 ∂X2 ∂X1 ∂X1 ∂X2 (4.165) to which we could add the rigid body displacement ﬁeld (if any). 117 The ﬁrst Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor (also known as Lagrangian Stress Tensor) is thus the linear transformation T0 such that t0 = T0 n0 (4.166-b) (note the use of T instead of σ).168) dA t dA0 and for which df = t0 dA0 = tdA ⇒ t0 = Victor Saouma (4. u3 = 0 (4. The deformed conﬁguration being the natural one in which to characterize stress. 4. if we were to deﬁne the strain in material coordinates (in terms of X). Piola Kirchoﬀ Stress Tensors In Sect. 2.166-a) (4. that is the one where equilibrium must hold.169) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . we deﬁne 116 df ≡ t0 dA0 (4. 114 However.1 First 115 The ﬁrst Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor T0 is deﬁned in the undeformed geometry in such a way that it results in the same total force as the traction in the deformed conﬁguration (where Cauchy’s stress tensor was deﬁned). however it has the same direction as Cauchy’s stress vector t. Hence.3 113 Lagrangian Stresses. X1 u2 = 0. Thus. we need also to express the stress as a function of the material point X in material coordinates.164-d) Actually. Hence the Cauchy stress tensor was really deﬁned in the Eulerian space. it can be easily veriﬁed that the unique displacement ﬁeld is given by u1 = arctan X2 . 4.167) where t0 is a pseudo-stress vector in that being based on the undeformed area.2 the discussion of stress applied to the deformed conﬁguration dA (using spatial coordiantesx). there are certain advantages in referring all quantities back to the undeformed conﬁguration (Lagrangian) of the body because often that conﬁguration has geometric features and symmetries that are lost through the deformation.3.

120 ˜ The second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor is a linear transformation T such that ˜ = Tn0 t ˜ (4.172) (4.171) (4. Thus. T is formulated diﬀerently. then for dA0 and 1 n0 from dA0 n0 = det F FT n (assuming unit area dA). To determine the corresponding stress vector.177) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . it gives the force df a material vector dX at X is related by the deformation to the corresponding spatial vector dx at x.3 Lagrangian Stresses. we solve for T0 ﬁrst. 4.174-b) where d˜ is the pseudo diﬀerential force which transforms.33 dAn = dA0 (det F) (F−1 ) n0 we obtain T0 n0 = T(det F) F−1 the above equation is true for all n0 .174-a) (4.Draft 4.3. if we let d˜ f = ˜ 0 tdA and df = Fd˜ f (4.173) and we note that this ﬁrst Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor is not symmetric in general. 4. the pseudo vector t is in general in a diﬀernt direction than that of the Cauchy stress vector t.168 df = t0 dA0 = T0 n0 dA0 Victor Saouma (4.167 and 4.175) thus the preceding equations can be combined to yield ˜ df = FTn0 dA0 we also have from Eq. and ﬁnally t0 = T0 n0 .168 the preceding equation becomes T0 n0 = dA TdAn Tn = dA0 dA0 T (4.166-b and 4. 118 4. Piola Kirchoﬀ Stress Tensors 4–37 using Eq. Instead of the ˜ related to the force df in the same way that actual force df on dA.2 119 Second ˜ The second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor.176) (4.170) and using Eq. 4. the (actual) diﬀerential force df at the deformed position (note similarity with dx = FdX). under the deformation f gradient F. Thus. therefore T0 = (det F)T F−1 1 1 T0 FT or Tij = (T0 )im Fjm T = (det F) (det F) T T n0 (4.

5 94 Principal Strains.Draft 4–38 KINEMATIC and comparing the last two equations we note that ˜ T = F−1 T0 (4. if we deﬁne (4. 3 4.172 ˜ T = (det F) F−1 T F−1 T (4. strain invariants and the Mohr circle for strain parallel the one for stresses (Sect. we solve for T ﬁrst. 121 Finally the relation between the second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor and the Cauchy stress tensor can be obtained from the preceding equation and Eq. ˜ To determine the corresponding stress vector. and ﬁnally ˜ = Tn0 .181) We note that E measures the change in shape of an element. while the spherical or hydrostatic strain 1 e1 represents the volume change.4 93 Hydrostatic and Deviatoric Strain The lagrangian and Eulerian linear strain tensors can each be split into spherical and deviator tensor as was the case for the stresses.4) and will not be repeated Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .178) which gives the relationship between the ﬁrst Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor T0 and the ˜ second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor T. Strain Invariants. Hence. 122 Example 4-14: Piola-Kirchoﬀ Stress Tensors 4.179) and we note that this second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor is always symmetric (if the Cauchy stress tensor is symmetric).180) 1 1 e = tr E 3 3 then the components of the strain deviator E are given by 1 1 Eij = Eij − eδij or E = E − e1 3 3 (4. 4. then for dA0 and 1 T t ˜ n0 from dA0 n0 = det F F n (assuming unit area dA). Mohr Circle Determination of the principal strains (E(3) < E(2) < E(1) . 2.

1<D 0<D t0second MatrixForm@CST . 0<. its magnitude is one fourth of that of the Cauchy stress vector. -2. ‡ Cuchy stress vector 0<. 0. 0.0the e3 plane in the 80. 80.nb 3 ‡ Second Piola−Kirchoff Stress Tensor Piola−Kirchoff Stress Tensors MatrixForm@Transpose@FD . y 0<. its undeformed area dA0 n0 is given by dA0 n0 = ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ det F TfirstDet@FD CST .ÄÄÄÄÄ =. ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ . 0<= 4 t01st = MatrixForm@Tfirst . 0<D ‡ F tensor MatrixForm@%D i 0 y z j j 0 z j z j 0 z0 0 j i 25 z CST = 880. Finverse = Inverse@FD y i 0 y i 0 z z j z j 25 z z j 0 z z j ÄÄÄÄÄÄ z z j 4 z j j 100z j z { k 1 0 { 0<. 90. 0. 0. 4. 0<. 0. 1< i0 0 0y j j 0 0. 0 on n0 we obtain Thus n0 =e2 and tensors =T 90. . 0 { We note that this vector is in the0. Mohr Circle 4–39 m−piola. 0 0 z j z j z k 0 25 0 { Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 0. 0. 0<= k 982. 0=. What are the corresponding first and second Piola−Kirchoff stress tensors. 0. 0<. 0<< 1 ‡ Pseudo−Stress vector associated with the First Piola−Kirchoff stress tensor ‡ First Piola−Kirchoff Stress Tensor FT n MatrixForm@%D n = 80. Transpose@FinverseD detF = = Det@FD 880. 880.5 Principal Strains. . 0. 80. ÄÄÄÄÄ =. 80. 4. 0. 0. 80. 0. 25. 0<= 2 2 tcauchy == MatrixForm@Tsecond 0. 80. If the Cauchy stress tensor is j z j z j z 100 0 0 y = Inverse@FD . 0. n ê detFD i0y j z The deformed4configuration of a body is described by x1 =X 1 ê 2. deformed state. respective stressusing t0<. 0<. 0=. Strain Invariants. j z { k j z 25 j z j z j 0 ÄÄÄÄÄÄ 0 z 4 j z j z k 0 0 0<. 80. 0<< ‡ Pseudo−Stress vector associated with the Second Piola−Kirchoff stress tensor Can be obtained from t=CST n 1 1 99 ÄÄÄÄÄ . 100<< same direction as the Cauchy stress vector. 80. 0. 80. 1.Draft m−piola. and calculate the z j given byj z j z z j k 0 0 0{ 25 980. 1. 1< z j z 80. because the undeformed area is 4 times that of the deformed area F = 881 ê 2. x2 =−X2 /2. x3 =4X3 . 80. 80. 0.nb 2 4. 80. For a unit area in the deformed state in the e3 direction. 4 We see that this pseudo stress vector is in a different direction from that of the Cauchy stress vector (and we note that the tensor F transforms e2 into e3 ). Tfirst Tsecond i j z j k0{ z j z j 0 0 0 z MPa. 80. −1 ê 2<. 90. 80. 100<< 0.

186) (4.Draft 4–40 KINEMATIC γ 2 εIII ε II ε εI Figure 4. λ3 − IE λ2 − IIE λ − IIIE = 0 (4.185) (4.183) (4. 4.86. IIE and IIIE denote the following scalar expressions in the strain components: IE = E11 + E22 + E33 = Eii = tr E 2 2 2 IIE = −(E11 E22 + E22 E33 + E33 E11 ) + E23 + E31 + E12 1 1 2 1 (Eij Eij − Eii Ejj ) = Eij Eij − IE = 2 2 2 1 2 = (E : E − IE ) 2 1 IIIE = detE = eijk epqr Eip Ejq Ekr 6 95 (4.182) where the symbols IE .184) (4.188) IIE = −(E(1) E(2) + E(2) E(3) + E(3) E(1) ) (4.189) (4. 4. Fig.187) In terms of the principal strains.8: Mohr Circle for Strain here. those invariants can be simpliﬁed into IE = E(1) + E(2) + E(3) (4.8 Example 4-15: Strain Invariants & Principal Strains Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .190) IIIE = E(1) E(2) E(3) 96 The Mohr circle uses the Engineering shear strain deﬁnition of Eq.

3 = λ(1) = 2 = λ(2) = 1 √ 1 − 13 = λ(3) = = −1.5 Principal Strains.3 2 √ (4.195-b) n2 (1) 2 = 1 ⇒ n1 = 0.191) The strain invariants are given by IE = Eii = 2 1 (Eij Eij − Eii Ejj ) = −1 + 3 = +2 IIE = 2 IIIE = |Eij | = −3 The principal strains by Eij − λδij √ 1√ λ − 3 0 = 3 −λ 0 0 0 1−λ √ √ 1 + 13 1 − 13 λ− = (1 − λ) λ − 2 2 √ 1 + 13 = 2. Mohr Circle 4–41 Determine the planes of principal strains for √ 1 3 √ 3 0 0 0 the following strain tensor 0 0 1 (4.193-d) (4.8.8 0.192-b) (4.6 0 (4.Draft Solution: 4.192-c) (4.195-d) ⇒ n(1) = Victor Saouma For the second eigenvector λ(2) = 1: √ (2) n 1 1√ 1 − 3 0 (2) 3 −1 0 n2 (2) 0 0 1 − 1 n3 3n √ (2) 2 (2) = 3n1 − n2 0 √ (2) 0 = 0 0 (4. 2 (4.192-a) (4.193-c) (4.195-c) (4.193-e) E(1) E(2) E(3) The eigenvectors for E(1) = 1+ 2 13 give the principal directions n(1) : √ √ √ √ 1 − 1+ 13 n(1) + 3n(1) n(1) 1 2 1 − 1+2 13 3 0 1 2 √ √ √ (1) (1) √ (1) 1+ 13 1+ 13 3n1 − n2 3 − 2 0 √ n2 = √ 2 (1) (1) 1+ 13 1+ 13 n3 0 0 1− 2 1− 2 n3 which gives (1) n1 0 = 0 0 (4.193-a) (4.196) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .195-a) (4. Strain Invariants.193-b) (4.194) n3 (1) n(1) ·n(1) √ 1 + 13 (1) √ n2 = 2 3 = 0 √ 1 + 2 13 + 13 +1 = 12 0.

197) Finally.6 0 0 0 1 Therefore n(1) 0.3 (4. the third eigenvector can be obrained by the same manner.6 0 0 1 −0.Draft 4–42 KINEMATIC which gives (with the requirement that n(2) ·n(2) = 1) n(2) = 0 0 1 (4.201) 2 B 1 2 60o 1 2 3 4 5 6 εn D E Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .3 0 0 0.8 0.8 j ai = n(2) = 0 (3) 0.6 0 1 3 0 √ 0 1 3 0 0 [a][E][a]T = 0 0.6 2.6e1 − 0.6 −0.6 n and this results can be checked via √ 0.199) 0.6 0 −0.8e2 (4. but more easily from e1 e2 e3 n(3) = n(1) ×n(2) = det 0.8 0 0 0 1 = 0.198) 0.8 0 (4.8 = 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 −1.200) Example 4-16: Mohr’s Circle Construct the Mohr’s circle for the following plane strain case: 0 0 √ 0 3 5 0 √ 0 3 3 Solution: εs 3 F (4.8 0.8 0 0.

ttwo of the circles are drawn as shown. The gage is glued to the carefully prepared test specimen by a thin layer of epoxy. the tiny wires either contract or elongate depending upon a tensile or compressive state of stress in the specimen. and resistance.202) Plane Stress Plane Strain note there is no shear strains caused by thermal expansion. Initial or Thermal Strains Initial (or thermal strain) in 2D: εij = α∆T 0 0 α∆T = (1 + ν) α∆T 0 0 α∆T (4. One type of gage that allows for the complete state of strain at a point in a plane to be determined is a strain gage rosette.10.9: Bonded Resistance Strain Gage These gages use a grid of ﬁne wire or a metal foil grid encapsulated in a thin resin backing. The most common type of strain gage used today for stress analysis is the bonded resistance strain gage shown in Figure 4. a measure of the change in resistance can be converted to arrive at the strain in the material. The epoxy acts as the carrier matrix to transfer the strain in the specimen to the strain gage. Figure 4. patterns. It contains three gages aligned radially from a common point at diﬀerent angles from each other. the transducer to measure strains in a material is the strain gage.6 97 4. as shown in Figure 4. 99 100 Bonded resistance strain gages are produced in a variety of sizes. The cross sectional area will increase for compression and decrease in tension.7 98 † Experimental Measurement of Strain Typically.203) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 4.6 Initial or Thermal Strains 4–43 We note that since E(1) = 0 is a principal value for plane strain. 1 R α A .9. Because the wire has an electrical resistance that is proportional to the inverse of the cross sectional area. The strain transformation equations to convert from the three strains a t any angle to the strain at a point in a plane are: a = x cos2 θa + y sin2 θa + γxy sin θa cos θa (4. 4. As the gage changes in length.

In addition the principal strains may then be computed by Mohr’s circle or the principal strain equations. are measured at their corresponding angles from the reference axis and substituted into the above equations the state of strain at a point may be solved. corrections for transverse strains should be computed and applied to the strain data.204) (4.205) Figure 4. and c .10: Strain Gage Rosette 101 When the measured strains a . From a simple calculation. for a strain of 1 µ (µ = 10−6 ) with Introduction to Continuum Mechanics 106 Victor Saouma . Strain gages are produced with diﬀerent temperature expansion coeﬃcients. The resistance of the gage and the gage factor will change due to the variation of resistivity and strain sensitivity with temperature. many factors must be considered in choosing the right gage for a particular application. Bonded resistance strain gages are well suited for making accurate and practical strain measurements because of their high sensitivity to strains. Kt . b . The measure of the change in electrical resistance when the strain gage is strained is known as the gage factor. The gage factor is deﬁned as the fractional change in resistance ∆R R divided by the fractional change in length along the axis of the gage. 103 Common strain gages utilize a grid pattern as opposed to a straight length of wire in order to reduce the gage length. The change in resistance of bonded resistance strain gages for most strain measurements is very small. namely. and simple operation. 102 Due to the wide variety of styles of gages. The transverse sensitivity factor. This grid pattern causes the gage to be sensitive to deformations transverse to the gage length. and stability of installation all inﬂuence gage selection. GF = ∆L Common L gage factors are in the range of 1. Therefore. 104 105 A ﬁnal consideration for maintaining accurate strain measurement is temperature compensation. y . is deﬁned GFtransverse as the transverse gage factor divided by the longitudinal gage factor. x . Operating temperature.5-2 for most resistive strain gages. In order to avoid this problem. Kt = GFlongitudinal These sensitivity values are expressed as a percentage and vary from zero to ten percent. and γxy . the expansion coeﬃcient of the strain gage should match that of the specimen. Some gages come with the tranverse correction calculated into the gage factor. If no large temperature change is expected this may be neglected. low cost.Draft 4–44 b c KINEMATIC = = cos2 θb + 2 x cos θc + x sin2 θb + γxy sin θb cos θb 2 y sin θc + γxy sin θc cos θc y (4. state of strain.

One or more of the legs of the bridge may be a resistive transducer. Wheatstone Bridge Circuits Due to their outstanding sensitivity. For large strains a simple multi-meter may suﬃce. This unbalance causes a voltage to appear across the middle of the bridge. and capacitance. It consists of 4 resistors arranged in a diamond orientation. When the circuit is unbalanced Vout = Vin ( R1R1 2 − R2 +R Rgage ). The other legs of the bridge are simply completion resistors with resistance equal to that of the strain gage(s). the circuit is known as a quarter bridge circuit.2 108 Quarter Bridge Circuits If a strain gage is oriented in one leg of the circuit and the other legs contain ﬁxed resistors as shown in Figure 4. As the resistance of one of the legs changes. inductance. or excitation voltage.11. it is the fractional change in resistance that is important and the number to be measured will be in the order of a couple of µ ohms. Wheatstone bridge circuits are very advantageous for the measurement of resistance. but in order to acquire sensitive measurements in the µΩ range a Wheatstone bridge circuit is necessary to amplify this resistance.11: Quarter Wheatstone Bridge Circuit 4. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics 109 Victor Saouma .7.Draft 4. A Wheatstone bridge is shown in Figure 4. When the output voltage is zero. the change in resistance produced by the gage is ∆R = 1 × 10−6 × 120 × 2 = 240 × 10−6 Ω.1 107 4. Figure 4. such as a strain gage. The Wheatstone bridge is described next.7. is applied between the top and bottom of the diamond and the output voltage is measured across the middle. the previously balanced bridge is now unbalanced. This induced voltage may be measured with a voltmeter or the resistor in the opposite leg may be adjusted to re-balance the bridge. Wheatstone bridges are widely used for strain measurements. Furthermore. The gage circuit is balanced when R1 = RR3 . An input DC voltage. the bridge is said to be balanced. by a change in strain from a resistive strain gage for example. Rgage +R3 Wheatstone bridges may also be formed with two or four legs of the bridge being composed of resistive transducers and are called a half bridge and full bridge respectively. In either case the change in resistance that caused the induced voltage may be measured and converted to obtain the engineering units of strain.11.7 † Experimental Measurement of Strain 4–45 a 120 Ω gage and a gage factor of 2.

12: Wheatstone Bridge Conﬁgurations Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . E is the excitation voltage in Volts. This will correspond to the upper Wheatstone bridge conﬁguration of Figure 4. the equations for these circuits will vary as shown in Figure 4.Draft 4–46 110 KINEMATIC Depending upon the type of application and desired results. The formula then is Figure 4. Here E0 is the output voltage in mVolts. In order to illustrate how to compute a calibration factor for a particular experiment.12. is strain and ν is Poisson’s ratio. suppose a single active gage in uniaxial compression is used.12.

207 is the calibration factor in units of strain per volt.207) Here.47 microstrain per volt. E = 5. where V is now in Volts. G = 1000.07)(1000)(5) or 386. For most measurements a gain is necessary to increase the output voltage from the Wheatstone bridge. For common 4 values where F = 2.07. Because this term is quite small compared to the other term in the denominator it will be ignored.Draft 111 4. the calibration factor is simply (2. The gain relation for the output voltage may be written as V = GE0 (103 ). Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .7 † Experimental Measurement of Strain 4–47 E0 F (10−3 ) = E 4 + 2F (10−6) (4. so Equation 4.206) The extra term in the denominator 2F (10−6) is a correction factor for non-linearity.206 becomes F (10−3 ) V = EG(103 ) 4 4 = V F EG 112 (4. Equation 4.

Draft 4–48 KINEMATIC Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

2 21 Line Integral Given r(u) = x(u)e1 + y(u)e2 + z(u)e3 where r(u) is a position vector deﬁning a curve C connecting point P1 to P2 where u = u1 and u = u2 respectively. y. then (5.4) 23 It can be shown that if A = ∇φ then P2 P1 C A·dr is independent of the path C connecting P1 to P2 along a closed contour line (5.Draft Chapter 5 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.5-a) (5. then the integral of the tangential component of A along C from P1 to P2 is given by P2 P1 A·dr = C A·dr = C A1 dx + A2 dy + A3 dz (5.5-b) A·dr = 0 . 22 If the contour is closed.3) If A were a force. anf given A(x.1 20 Integral of a Vector The integral of a vector R(u) = R1 (u)e1 + R2 (u)e2 + R3 (u)e3 is deﬁned as R(u)du = e1 R1 (u)du + e2 d du R2 (u)du + e3 R3 (u)du (5. z) = A1 e1 + A2 e2 + A3 e3 being a vectorial function deﬁned and continuous along C. then this integral would represent the corresponding work.2) d (S(u)) du = S(u) + c du 5.1) if a vector S(u) exists such that R(u) = R(u)du = (S(u)). Part III VECTOR INTEGRALS 5. then we deﬁne the contour integral as C A·dr = C A1 dx + A2 dy + A3 dz (5.

5.10) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . we have ∇·qdA = qT nds s (5. 26 For 2D-1D transformations.ndΓ or Γ Ω Ω vi. Gradient Theorem Green’s theorem in plane is a special case of Stoke’s theorem.idΩ = Γ vi ni dΓ (5.8) A 27 This theorem is sometime refered to as Green’s theorem in space.6 29 Green.Draft 5–2 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. (Rdx + Sdy) = Γ ∂S ∂R − dxdy ∂x ∂y (5.4 25 Gauss. Part III VECTOR INTEGRALS 5.9) where S is an open surface with two faces conﬁned by C 5.6) 5.3 24 Integration by Parts The integration by part formula is b a u(x)v (x)dx = u(x)v(x)|b − a b a v(x)u (x)dx (5. Divergence Theorem The divergence theorem (also known as Ostrogradski’s Theorem) comes repeatedly in solid mechanics and can be stated as follows: ∇·vdΩ = v.7) That is the integral of the outer normal component of a vector over a closed surface (which is the volume ﬂux) is equal to the integral of the divergence of the vector over the volume bounded by the closed surface.5 28 Stoke’s Theorem Stoke’s theorem states that A·dr = S C (∇×A)·ndS = S (∇×A)·dS (5.

12-b) ∂vx ∆x∆y∆z ∂x ∂vy ∆x∆y∆z ∂y ∆Vy = Victor Saouma (5.1: Physical Interpretation of the Divergence Theorem vx |x. z) with dimensions ∆x.13-a) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .6 Green. 5. ∆y. y. ∆z.y. Fig. y.1-a.z ≈ vx 1 ∂vx ∆x AFED 2 ∂x 1 ∂vx vx x+∆x/2. Z D E ∆Z V V Y C V V B ∆Y A P(X.11-c) ≈ vx − ∆Vx = = Similarly vx + 1 ∂vx 1 ∂vx ∆x ∆y∆z − vx − ∆x ∆y∆z 2 ∂x 2 ∂x (5.11-b) (5.11-a) (5.12-a) (5.y.Y.y. z) and we ﬁrst seek to determine the net inﬂow per unit time per unit volume in a parallelepiped centered at P (x.z (5.Z) H F ∆X G a) X n V∆t dS S dV=dxdydz n dS b) c) Figure 5. Solution: A ﬂuid has a velocity ﬁeld v(x.z ≈ vx + ∆x GHCB 2 ∂x The net inﬂow per unit time across the x planes is vx x−∆x/2.Draft 5. Gradient Theorem 5–3 Example 5-1: Physical Interpretation of the Divergence Theorem Provide a physical interpretation of the Divergence Theorem.

15) which is the divergence theorem. the total increase per unit volume and unit time will be given by ∂vx ∂x + ∂vy ∂y + ∂vz ∂z ∆x∆y∆z ∆x∆y∆z = div v = ∇·v (5.Draft 5–4 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. But this is equal to ∇·vdV (Eq. thus surface S per unit time is S V v·ndS = S V ∇·vdV (5. Part III VECTOR INTEGRALS ∆Vz = ∂vz ∆x∆y∆z ∂z (5. Fig.14).1-c. 5.14) Furthermore.1-b.13-b) Hence. 5. Thus for an arbitrary volume. if we consider the total of ﬂuid crossing dS during ∆t. it will be given by (v∆t)·ndS = v·ndS∆t or the volume of ﬂuid crossing dS per unit time is v·ndS. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Fig. 5. the total amount of ﬂuid crossing a closed v·ndS.

1 Conservation Laws 21 22 23 24 Conservation laws constitute a fundamental component of classical physics. that was the compatibility equation. They will apply to any continuous medium. For that we need to wait for the next chapter where constitututive laws relating stress and strain will be introduced. 6. momentum and energy. In general. we will derive additional diﬀerential equations governing the way stress and deformation vary at a point and with time. We have also obtained only one diﬀerential equation.1 20 Introduction We have thus far studied the stress tensors (Cauchy. such a law may be expressed as d dt AdV + αdS = V Source AdV (6.1) V S Rate of variation Exchange by Diffusion . Piola Kirchoﬀ). and yet we will not have enough equations to determine unknown tensor ﬁeld. those tensors will vary from point to point and represent a tensor ﬁeld. These diﬀerential equations of balance will be derived from integral forms of the equation of balance expressing the fundamental postulates of continuum mechanics.1.Draft Chapter 6 FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS 6. In this chapter. In its most general form. and several other tensors which describe strain at a point. A conservation law establishes a balance of a scalar or tensorial quantity in voulme V bounded by a surface S. In this chapter we shall derive diﬀerential equations expressing locally the conservation of mass. Only with constitutive equations and boundary and initial conditions would we be able to obtain a well deﬁned mathematical problem to solve for the stress and deformation distribution or the displacement or velocity ﬁelds.

1 (If v·n is negative. and energy.. then the volume of “material” ﬂowing through the inﬁnitesimal surface area dS in time dt is equal to the volume of the cylinder with base dS and slant height vdt parallel to the velocity vector v. 30 We can generalize this deﬁnition and deﬁne the following ﬂuxes per unit area through dS: Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . constitute what is commonly known as the fundamental laws of continuum mechanics. and to modify A which is the quantity of interest.2-b) (6. 29 The ﬂux across a surface can be graphically deﬁned through the consideration of an imaginary surface ﬁxed in space with continuous “medium” ﬂowing through it.2 Fluxes 27 28 Prior to the enunciation of the ﬁrst conservation law. Hence.2-a) (6.3) where the last form is for rectangular cartesian components.Draft 6–2 25 FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS where A is the volumetric density of the quantity of interest (mass. 6. 6. and take n in the positive sense. equilibrium and symmetry of the stress tensor. energy. .1.. and α is the rate of surface density of what is lost through the surface S of V and will be a function of the normal to the surface n. we deﬁne the volume ﬂux as Volume Flux = S v·ndS = S vj nj dS (6. momentum. then the ﬂow is in the negative direction). and the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. the resulting diﬀerential equations will provide additional interesting relation with regard to the imcompressibiltiy of solids (important in classical hydrodynamics and plasticity theories). Fig. The enunciation of the preceding three conservation laws plus the second law of thermodynamics. we need to deﬁne the concept of ﬂux across a bounding surface. The dimensions of various quantities are given by dim(a) = dim(AL−3 ) dim(α) = dim(AL−2 t−1 ) dim(A) = dim(AL−3 t−1 ) (6. If we assign a positive side to the surface. A is the rate of volumetric density of what is provided from the outside. Hence.) a. linear momentum. we read the previous equation as: The input quantity (provided by the right hand side) is equal to what is lost across the boundary.2-c) 26 Hence this chapter will apply the previous conservation law to mass.

We note that this spatial form in terms of x is most common in ﬂuid mechanics.6) (6.9) where ρ(x.1 31 Conservation of Mass.8) = S ρv(v·n)dS = 1 2 ρv (v·n)dS = S2 q·ndS = S S ρvk vj nj dS 1 ρvi vi vj nj dS S2 = = = qj nj dS Jj nj dS J·ndS = S S 6. ﬁxed in space. t)dV (6. Hence.Draft 6. if no mass is created or destroyed inside V . Continuity Equation 6–3 v vdt n dS vn dt Figure 6.2 Conservation of Mass.11) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .4) (6.7) (6. The outﬂow is equal to v·n. Continuity Equation Spatial Form If we consider an arbitrary volume V .1: Flux Through Area dS Mass Flux Momentum Flux Kinetic Energy Flux Heat ﬂux Electric ﬂux = S ρv·ndS = S ρvj nj dS S (6. 32 The rate of increase of the total mass in the volume is ∂M ∂ρ = dV ∂t V ∂t (6. then the total mass in V is M= V ρ(x.10) The Law of conservation of mass requires that the mass of a speciﬁc portion of the continuum remains constant. t) is a continuous function called the mass density. and bounded by a surface S.2.2 6. thus the inﬂow will be equal to −v·n.5) (6. If a continuous medium of density ρ ﬁlls the volume at time t. then the preceding equation must eqaul the inﬂow of mass (of ﬂux) through the surface. 33 S (−ρvn )dS = − S ρv·ndS = − V ∇·(ρv)dV (6.

t0 )dV0 = ρ(x. then we obtain ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂(ρvi ) =0 + ∇·(ρv) or + ∂t ∂t ∂xi 34 (6.15) dt ∂t ∂t ∂xi where the ﬁrst term gives the local rate of change of the density in the neighborhood of the place of x. the conservation of mass. implies V0 ρ(X.16) The vector form is independent of any choice of coordinates.17) = 0 or ∇·v = 0 ∂xi this is the condition of incompressibility 6.2 38 Material Form If material coordinates X are used. while the second term gives the convective rate of change of the density in the neighborhood of a particle as it moves to a place having a diﬀerent density. ∂t must be equal to Thus ∂ρ + ∇·(ρv) dV = 0 ∂t (6.Draft 6–4 FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS ∂M . The ﬁrst term vanishes in a steady ﬂow.12) V since the integral must hold for any arbitrary choice of dV . so that the density in the neighborhood of each material particle remains constant as it moves. This equation shows that the divergence of the velocity vector ﬁeld equals (−1/ρ)(dρ/dt) and measures the rate of ﬂow of material away from the particle and is equal to the unit rate of decrease of density ρ in the neighborhood of the particle.18) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . t)|J|dV0 (6.14) It can be shown that the rate of change of the density in the neighborhood of a particle instantaneously at x by dρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ = + v·∇ρ = + vi (6. 35 36 Upon substitution in the last three equations. t)dV = V V0 ρ(x. 4.38 (dV = |J|dV0 ). 37 If the material is incompressible. then the continuity equation takes the simpler form ∂vi (6.2. while the second term vanishes in a uniform ﬂow. and using Eq.13) The chain rule will in turn give ∂ρ ∂vi ∂(ρvi ) =ρ + vi ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi (6. we obtain the continuity equation ∂vi dρ dρ +ρ + ρ∇·v = 0 = 0 or dt ∂xi dt (6.

Draft

or

6.3 Linear Momentum Principle; Equation of Motion

6–5

V0

[ρ0 − ρ|J|]dV0 = 0

(6.19)

and for an arbitrary volume dV0 , the integrand must vanish. If we also suppose that the initial density ρ0 is everywhere positive in V0 (no empty spaces), and at time t = t0 , J = 1, then we can write ρJ = ρ0 (6.20) or d (ρJ) = 0 dt (6.21)

**which is the continuity equation due to Euler, or the Lagrangian diﬀerential form of the continuity equation.
**

39

We note that this is the same equation as Eq. 6.16 which was expressed in spatial form. Those two equations can be derived one from the other. The more commonly used form if the continuity equation is Eq. 6.16.

40

6.3

6.3.1

41

**Linear Momentum Principle; Equation of Motion
**

Momentum Principle

The momentum principle states that the time rate of change of the total momentum of a given set of particles equals the vector sum of all external forces acting on the particles of the set, provided Newton’s Third Law applies. The continuum form of this principle is a basic postulate of continuum mechanics. tdS +

S V

ρbdV =

d dt

ρvdV

V

(6.22)

Then we substitute ti = Tij nj and apply the divergence theorm to obtain ∂Tij + ρbi dV ∂xj V ∂Tij dvi + ρbi − ρ dV ∂xj dt =

V

ρ

dvi dV dt

(6.23-a) (6.23-b)

= 0

V

or for an arbitrary volume ∂Tij dvi dv + ρbi = ρ or ∇T + ρb = ρ ∂xj dt dt (6.24)

which is Cauchy’s (ﬁrst) equation of motion, or the linear momentum principle, or more simply equilibrium equation.

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

6–6

42

FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS

When expanded in 3D, this equation yields: ∂T11 ∂T12 ∂T13 + + + ρb1 = 0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂T21 ∂T22 ∂T23 + + + ρb2 = 0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂T31 ∂T32 ∂T33 + + + ρb3 = 0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3

(6.25-a)

We note that these equations could also have been derived from the free body diagram shown in Fig. 6.2 with the assumption of equilibrium (via Newton’s second law) considering an inﬁnitesimal element of dimensions dx1 × dx2 × dx3 . Writing the summation of forces, will yield

43

**Tij,j + ρbi = 0 where ρ is the density, bi is the body force (including inertia).
**

σ σyy δ yy d y + δy δ τ yx y d δy σxx + δ σxx d x δx

(6.26)

+ τyx

dy

σ xx τ xy τ yx σyy dx + τxy

δ τ xy x d δx

Figure 6.2: Equilibrium of Stresses, Cartesian Coordinates

**Example 6-1: Equilibrium Equation In the absence of body forces, does the following stress distribution
**

**x2 + ν(x2 − x2 ) −2νx1 x2 0 2 1 x 2 2 2 −2νx1 x2 x1 + ν(x2 − x1 ) 0 0 0 ν(x2 + x2 ) 1 2 where ν is a constant, satisfy equilibrium?
**

Victor Saouma

(6.27)

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

Solution:

6.3 Linear Momentum Principle; Equation of Motion

6–7

∂T1j ∂xj ∂T2j ∂xj ∂T3j ∂xj

√ ∂T11 ∂T12 ∂T13 + + = 2νx1 − 2νx1 = 0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 √ ∂T21 ∂T22 ∂T23 = + + = −2νx2 + 2νx2 = 0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 √ ∂T31 ∂T32 ∂T33 = + + =0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 =

(6.28-a) (6.28-b) (6.28-c)

Therefore, equilibrium is satisﬁed.

6.3.2

44

Moment of Momentum Principle

The moment of momentum principle states that the time rate of change of the total moment of momentum of a given set of particles equals the vector sum of the moments of all external forces acting on the particles of the set. Thus, in the absence of distributed couples (this theory of Cosserat will not be covered in this course) we postulate the same principle for a continuum as (r×t)dS +

S V

45

(r×ρb)dV =

d dt

(r×ρv)dV

V

(6.29)

6.3.2.1

46

Symmetry of the Stress Tensor

We observe that the preceding equation does not furnish any new diﬀerential equation of motion. If we substitute tn = Tn and the symmetry of the tensor is assumed, then the linear momentum principle (Eq. 6.24) is satisﬁed.

47 Alternatively, we may start by using Eq. 1.18 (ci = εijk aj bk ) to express the cross product in indicial form and substitute above:

S

(εrmn xm tn )dS +

V

(εrmn xm bn ρ)dV =

d dt

V

(εrmn xm ρvn )dV

(6.30)

we then substitute tn = Tjn nj , and apply Gauss theorem to obtain εrmn ∂xm Tjn + xm ρbn dV = ∂xj εrmn d (xm vn )ρdV dt (6.31)

V

V

but since dxm /dt = vm , this becomes εrmn xm ∂Tjn + ρbn + δmj Tjn dV = ∂xj εrmn vm vn + xm dvn ρdV dt (6.32)

V

V

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

6–8

FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS

but εrmn vm vn = 0 since vm vn is symmetric in the indeces mn while εrmn is antisymmetric, and the last term on the right cancels with the ﬁrst term on the left, and ﬁnally with δmj Tjn = Tmn we are left with

V

εrmn Tmn dV = 0

(6.33)

or for an arbitrary volume V , εrmn Tmn = 0 at each point, and this yields for r = 1 for r = 2 for r = 3 T23 − T32 = 0 T31 − T13 = 0 T12 − T21 = 0 (6.35) (6.34)

establishing the symmetry of the stress matrix without any assumption of equilibrium or of uniformity of stress distribution as was done in Sect. 2.3.

48

The symmetry of the stress matrix is Cauchy’s second law of motion (1827).

6.4

Conservation of Energy; First Principle of Thermodynamics

49

The ﬁrst principle of thermodynamics relates the work done on a (closed) system and the heat transfer into the system to the change in energy of the system. We shall assume that the only energy transfers to the system are by mechanical work done on the system by surface traction and body forces, by heat transfer through the boundary. 6.4.1 Spatial Gradient of the Velocity

50

We deﬁne L as the spatial gradient of the velocity and in turn this gradient can be decomposed into a symmetric rate of deformation tensor D (or stretching tensor) and a skew-symmeteric tensor W called the spin tensor or vorticity tensor1 . Lij = vi,j or L = v∇x (6.36) L = D+W (6.37) 1 1 (v∇x + ∇x v) and W = (v∇x − ∇x v) (6.38) D = 2 2

**this term will be used in the derivation of the ﬁrst principle. 6.4.2
**

51

First Principle

If mechanical quantities only are considered, the principle of conservation of energy for the continuum may be derived directly from the equation of motion given by

1 Note

similarity with Eq. 4.106-b.

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

6.4 Conservation of Energy; First Principle of Thermodynamics

6–9

Eq. 6.24. This is accomplished by taking the integral over the volume V of the scalar product between Eq. 6.24 and the velocity vi .

V

vi Tji,j dV +

V

ρbi vi dV =

V

ρvi

dvi dV dt

(6.39)

If we consider the right hand side ρvi d dvi dV = dt dt 1 d ρvi vi dV = dt V 2 1 2 dK ρv dV = dt V 2 (6.40)

V

which represents the time rate of change of the kinetic energy K in the continuum. Also we have vi Tji,j = (vi Tji ),j − vi,j Tji and from Eq. 6.37 we have vi,j = Lij + Wij . It can be shown that since Wij is skew-symmetric, and T is symmetric, that Tij Wij = 0, ¨ and thus Tij Lij = Tij Dij . TD is called the stress power.

52 53

If we consider thermal processes, the rate of increase of total heat into the continuum is given by ρrdV (6.41) Q = − qi ni dS +

S V 2 −3

Q has the dimension of power, that is ML T , and the SI unit is the Watt (W). q is the heat ﬂux per unit area by conduction, its dimension is MT −3 and the corresponding SI unit is W m−2 . Finally, r is the radiant heat constant per unit mass, its dimension is MT −3 L−4 and the corresponding SI unit is W m−6 .

54

**We thus have dK + dt
**

V

Dij Tij dV =

V

(vi Tji ),j dV +

V

ρvi bi dV + Q

(6.42)

55

We next convert the ﬁrst integral on the right hand side to a surface integral by the divergence theorem ( V ∇·vdV = S v.ndS) and since ti = Tij nj we obtain dK + dt

V

Dij Tij dV

=

S

vi ti dS +

V

ρvi bi dV + Q (6.43) (6.44)

dK dU + dt dt

=

dW +Q dt

this equation relates the time rate of change of total mechanical energy of the continuum on the left side to the rate of work done by the surface and body forces on the right hand side.

56

If both mechanical and non mechanical energies are to be considered, the ﬁrst principle states that the time rate of change of the kinetic plus the internal energy is equal to the sum of the rate of work plus all other energies supplied to, or removed from the continuum per unit time (heat, chemical, electromagnetic, etc.). For a thermomechanical continuum, it is customary to express the time rate of change of internal energy by the integral expression d dU = dt dt ρudV

V

57

(6.45)

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

A change in time of those state variables constitutes a thermodynamic process. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .48) 59 This equation expresses the rate of change of internal energy as the sum of the stress power plus the heat added to the continuum. 60 In ideal elasticity. This description is speciﬁed. heat transfer is considered insigniﬁcant. Second Principle of Thermodynamics The complete characterization of a thermodynamic system is said to describe the state of a system (here a continuum). and functional relationships exist among them through equations of state. however.5 62 Equation of State.47) (6. In terms of energy integrals. hence if we really need to evaluate this quantity. but dissipated by the deformation process causing an increase in the body’s temperature and eventually being conducted away as heat. the ﬁrst principle can be rewritten as Rate of increae Exchange d 1 d ρudV = ti vi dS + ρvi vi dV + dt V 2 dt V S dK dt dU dt dW dt Source V Source V Exchange S ρvi bi dV + ρrdV − Q qi ni dS (6. Usually state variables are not all independent. the major part of the input work into a deforming material is not recoverably stored. kinetic and potential energy can be easily transformed from one to the other in the absence of friction or other dissipative mechanism. and the SI unit is the Joule.Draft 6–10 58 FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS where u is the internal energy per unit mass or speciﬁc internal energy. In general. In classical mechanics. 61 6. It places no restriction on the direction of the process. The dimension of U is one of energy dim U = ML2 T −2 . maintaining an energy balance. by several thermodynamic and kinematic state variables. 63 The ﬁrst principle of thermodynamics can be regarded as an expression of the interconvertibility of heat and work. we need to have a reference value for which U will be null. collect terms and use the fact that dV is arbitrary to obtain ρ ρ du dt du dt = or = T:D + ρr − ∇·q Tij Dij + ρr − ∂qj ∂xj (6. which can be recovered as work when the body is unloaded. and all of the input work is assumed converted into internal energy in the form of recoverable stored elastic strain energy.46) we apply Gauss theorem to convert the surface integral. Any state variable which may be expressed as a single valued function of a set of other state variables is known as a state function. We note that U appears only as a diﬀerential in the ﬁrst principle. in general. similarly dim u = L2 T −2 with the SI unit of Joule/Kg.

θ is absolute temperature. If thermal processes are involved (friction) dissipative processes are irreversible processes.52) θ rev Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .51) S = kN[ln V + lnθ] + C 2 where S is the total entropy.1 68 In statistical mechanics. 69 6. the change in speciﬁc entropy s is given by dq ds = (6.5.1 Entropy The basic criterion for irreversibility is given by the second principle of thermodynamics through the statement on the limitation of entropy production. i.1. Thus increased entropy means increased disorder.Draft 64 6.5 Equation of State.5.50-a) (6. 6. It is found that changes of states are more likely to occur in the direction of greater disorder when a system is left to itself.50-b) 67 Entropy expresses a variation of energy associated with a variation in the temperature. 66 Thus we can write (6. and for a gas this would give 3 (6. and C is a constant and N is the number of molecules. entropy is related to the probability of the occurrence of that state among all the possible states that could occur.2 70 Classical Thermodynamics In a reversible process (more about that later). Hence Boltzman’s principle postulates that entropy of a state is proportional to the logarithm of its probability. θ is a positive quantity.e. and ds is the internal increase. and ds(e) > 0 irreversible process ds(i) = 0 reversible process (6.5.49) ds = ds(e) + ds(i) (e) (i) where ds is the increase due to interaction with the exterior. Statistical Mechanics 6. the total entropy is in a system is the sum of the entropies of its parts. 2. This law postulates the existence of two distinct state functions: θ the absolute temperature and S the entropy with the following properties: 65 1.1. and it will be up to the second principle of thermodynamics to put limits on the direction of such processes. k is Boltzman’s constant. V is volume. Entropy is an extensive property. Second Principle of Thermodynamics 6–11 The ﬁrst principle leaves unanswered the question of the extent to which conversion process is reversible or irreversible.

Sθ Internal production Exchange Γ ≥ 0 (6. and assuming that the speciﬁc energy u is only a function of temperature θ. The assumption that u = u(θ) implies that cv is a function of θ only and that du = cv (θ)dθ 72 (6.55) (6. dt θ Γ≥0 (6.53) where R is the gas constant.59) Rate of Entropy Increase Q dS = + Γ.58) which gives the change in entropy for any reversible process in an ideal gas. and Γ > 0 in irreversible ones.54) wher cv is the speciﬁc heat at constant volume. and the SI unit S = for entropy is Joule/Kelvin. 6.v0 θ θ θ0 cv (θ) v dθ + R ln θ v0 (6. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . then the ﬁrst principle takes the form du = dq − pdv and for constant volume this gives du = dq = cv dθ (6. and write the second principle d dt ρs V = r ρ dV − V θ Sources q ·ndS + Γ . entropy is a state function which returns to its initial value whenever the temperature returns to its initial value that is p and v return to their initial values.56) Hence we rewrite the ﬁrst principle as dq = cv (θ)dθ + Rθ dv v (6.2 73 Clausius-Duhem Inequality We restate the deﬁnition of entropy as heat divided by temperature.v dq = p0 .60) Γ = 0 for reversible processes.5.57) or division by θ yields s − s0 = p. In this case.Draft 6–12 71 FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS If we consider an ideal gas governed by pv = Rθ (6. 74 v The second principle postulates that the time rate of change of total entropy S in a continuum occupying a volume V is always greater or equal than the sum of the entropy inﬂux through the continuum surface plus the entropy produced internally by body sources. The dimension of ρsdV is one of energy divided by temperature or L2 MT −2 θ−1 .

65) 6.63) but since θ is always positive.6 Balance of Equations and Unknowns 6–13 The previous inequality holds for any arbitrary volume. we obtain T:D − ρ ds du 1 −θ − q·∇θ ≥ 0 dt dt θ (6.62) thus (6. ρθ (6. Let us count them. dρ ∂v + ρ ∂xii = 0 dt ∂Tij + ρbi = ρ dvi ∂xj dt ρ du = Tij Dij + ρr dt Continuity Equation Equation of motion ∂q Coupled 1 3 1 5 Uncoupled 1 3 4 − ∂xj Energy equation j Total number of equations 78 Assuming that the body forces bi and distributed heat sources r are prescribed. 6.Draft 75 6.61) Rate of Entropy Increase 76 We next seek to express the Clausius-Duhem inequality in terms of the stress tensor.47 ρ hence. for both the coupled and uncoupled cases. then we have the following unknowns: Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . ∇· 1 1 1 1 q = ∇·q − q·∇ = ∇·q − 2 q·∇θ θ θ θ θ θ ρ 1 1 ρr ds ≥ − ∇·q + 2 q·∇θ + dt θ θ θ 1 ds ≥ −∇·q + ρr + q·∇θ dt θ (6. substituting. thus after transformation of the surface integral into a volume integral.66) du = T:D + ρr − ∇·q dt (6. we obtain the following local version of the Clausius-Duhem inequality which must holds at every point ρ ds dt ≥ ρr q − ∇· θ θ Sources Exchange (6.6 77 Balance of Equations and Unknowns In the preceding sections several equations and unknowns were introduced.64) where −∇·q + ρr is the heat input into V and appeared in the ﬁrst principle Eq.

this section will provide some elementary concepts of heat transfer. The energy equation is essentially the integral of the equation of motion. There are three fundamental modes of heat transfer: 83 84 Conduction: takes place when a temperature gradient exists within a material and is governed by Fourier’s Law. or at most.7 82 † Elements of Heat Transfer One of the relations which we will need is the one which relates temperature to heat ﬂux.68) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . We note that for the uncoupled case 1.67) (6. 3. These will be later on supplied by: 6 3 2 11 constitutive equations temperature heat conduction thermodynamic equations of state Total number of additional equations 80 The next chapter will thus discuss constitutive relations.3 on Γq : qx = −kx qy Victor Saouma ∂T ∂x ∂T = −ky ∂y (6. 81 6. and a subsequent one will separately discuss thermodynamic equations of state. Fig. the heat-conduction problem must be solved separately and independently from the mechanical problem. 6. The 6 missing equations will be entirely supplied by the constitutive equations.Draft 6–14 FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS Coupled Density ρ 1 Velocity (or displacement) vi (ui ) 3 Stress components Tij 6 Heat ﬂux components qi 3 Speciﬁc internal energy u 1 Entropy density s 1 Absolute temperature θ 1 Total number of unknowns 16 ds dt Uncoupled 1 3 6 10 q θ and in addition the Clausius-Duhem inequality production must hold. 2. This constitutive realtion will be discussed in the next chapter under Fourrier’s law. 79 ≥ r θ 1 − ρ div which governs entropy We thus need an additional 16 − 5 = 11 additional equations to make the system determinate. The temperature ﬁeld is regarded as known. However to place the reader in the right frame of reference to understand Fourrier’s law.

y) is the temperature ﬁeld in the medium.o C or Btu/h-ft2 .o F). h is the convection heat transfer coeﬃcient or ﬁlm coeﬃcient (W/m2 . This mode will not be covered. ?? (note similarity Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .70) 2. ∂T are the temperature gradients along the ∂x ∂y x and y respectively.69) where q is the convective heat ﬂux. qx and qy are the componenets of the heat ﬂux (W/m2 or Btu/h-ft2). k is the thermal conductivity (W/m. hence the negative sign. T and T∞ are the surface and ﬂuid temperature. This mode is considered as part of the boundary condition.3: Flux vector where T = T (x. It depends on various factors. type of ﬂuid. such as whether convection is natural or forced. laminar or turbulent ﬂow. and geometry of the body. Radiation: is the energy transferred between two separated bodies at diﬀerent temperatures by means of electromagnetic waves.1 85 Simple 2D Derivation If we consider a unit thickness.7. Heat ﬂux across the boundary of the element is shown in Fig. The fundamental law is the StefanBoltman’s Law of Thermal Radiation for black bodies in which the ﬂux is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature. Rate of heat generation/sink is I2 = Qdxdy (6.o C or Btu/h-ft-oF) and ∂T . Convection: heat transfer takes place when a material is exposed to a moving ﬂuid which is at diﬀerent temperature.4 then 1..7 † Elements of Heat Transfer 6–15 Figure 6. It is governed by the Newton’s Law of Cooling q = h(T − T∞ ) on Γc (6. 6. which causes the problem to be nonlinear. Note that heat ﬂows from “hot” to “cool” zones. Fig. 2D diﬀerential body of dimensions dx by dy. respectively.Draft 6. 6.

Change in stored energy is dφ .2 87 †Generalized Derivation The amount of ﬂow per unit time into an element of volume Ω and surface Γ is I1 = q(−n)dΓ = Γ Γ D∇φ. I3 = cρ From the ﬁrst law of thermodaynamics.5 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .7.72) dt where we deﬁne the speciﬁc heat c as the amount of heat required to raise a unit mass by one degree.74) where n is the unit exterior normal to Γ.71) 3.73-a) (6.4: Flux Through Sides of Diﬀerential Element with equilibrium equation) I1 = qx + ∂qx dx − qx dx dy + ∂x qy + ∂qy ∂qy ∂qx dy − qy dy dx = dxdy + dydx ∂y ∂x ∂y (6.Draft 6–16 qx FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS ✻y + q ∂qy ∂y dy ✲ Q qx + ✲ ∂qx ∂x dx ✻ dy ❄ ✻ ✛ qy dx ✲ Figure 6.73-b) 6. thus 86 I1 + I2 − I3 = 0 ∂qy dφ ∂qx dxdy + dydx + Qdxdy − cρ dxdy = 0 ∂x ∂y dt I1 I2 I3 (6.dxdy (6.ndΓ (6. energy produced I2 plus the net energy across the boundary I1 must be equal to the energy absorbed I3 . 6. Fig.

y.75) Eq. and the equation of equilibrium ∂ 2 ux ∂σxx ∂σxy + + ρbx = ρm 2 ∂x ∂y ∂t ∂σyy ∂σxy ∂ 2 uy + + ρby = ρm 2 ∂y ∂x ∂t Victor Saouma (6.78) Ω where ρ is the density.83-a) (6.Draft 88 6.81) (6. z inside Ω is Q(x.7 † Elements of Heat Transfer 6–17 Figure 6. if the instantaneous volumetric rate of “heat” generation or removal at a point x.80) 1. z. Note that another expression of I3 is ∆t(I1 + I2 ).74 transforms into I1 = 89 div (D∇φ)dΩ Ω (6.83-b) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .82) (6.76) Furthermore. then div (D∇φ) + Q − ρc or div (D∇φ) + Q = ρc This equation can be rewritten as ∂φ ∂qx ∂qy + + Q = ρc ∂x ∂y ∂t (6. 6. we deﬁne the speciﬁc heat of a solid c as the amount of heat required to raise a unit mass by one degree. thus 91 Ω I1 + I2 − I3 = 0 ∆φ div (D∇φ) + Q − ρc dΩ = 0 ∆t ∂φ =0 ∂t ∂φ ∂t (6. Thus if ∆φ is a temperature change which occurs in a mass m over a time ∆t.79-b) but since t and Ω are both arbitrary. y. t)dΩ (6. or conservation law states that the energy produced I2 plus the net energy across the boundary I1 must be equal to the energy absorbed I3 . or I3 = ρc∆φdΩ (6.79-a) (6. z. Note the similarity between this last equation. y.77) Ω 90 Finally.5: *Flow through a surface Γ Using the divergence theorem vndΓ = Γ Ω div vdΩ (6. t). then the corresponding amount of heat that was added must have been cm∆φ. then the total amount of heat/ﬂow produced per unit time is I2 = Q(x. The balance equation.

Draft 6–18 FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS 2.86) (6. For steady state isotropic problems. For steady state problems. 4. then the previous equation reduces to ∂2φ ∂2φ ∂2φ + 2 + 2 =0 ∂x2 ∂y ∂z (6.84) 3. 5.85) which is an Elliptic (or Laplace) equation.87) which is a parabolic (or Heat) equation. the previous equation does not depend on t. then we obtain ρc ∂φ ∂ ∂φ = kx +Q ∂t ∂x ∂x (6. and for 2D problems. 6. If the heat input Q = 0. Solutions of Laplace equations are termed harmonic functions (right hand side is zero) which is why Eq. ∂2φ ∂2φ ∂2φ Q + 2 + 2 + =0 ∂x2 ∂y ∂z k which is Poisson’s equation in 3D.84 is refered to as the quasi-harmonic equation. If the function depends only on x and t. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . it reduces to ∂ ∂φ ∂φ ∂ kx + ky ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y +Q=0 (6.

but are otherwise left arbitrary in the general formulation. This assumes that there exists a caloric equation 23 .Draft Chapter 7 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS.1. just one additional dimensionally independent scalar paramer suﬃces to determine the speciﬁc internal energy u. In ideal elasticity we have nine substate variables the components of the strain or deformation tensors. 1676 Ut tensio sic vis Hooke.1 20 † Thermodynamic Approach State Variables The method of local state postulates that the thermodynamic state of a continuum at a given point and instant is completely deﬁned by several state variables (also known as thermodynamic or independent variables). ν2 .1 7. 21 The time derivatives of these variables are not involved in the deﬁnition of the state. A change in time of those state variables constitutes a thermodynamic process. 1678 7. Any state variable which may be expressed as a single valued function of a set of other state variables is known as a state function. Part I LINEAR ceiinosssttuu Hooke. this postulate implies that any evolution can be considered as a succession of equilibrium states (therefore ultra rapid phenomena are excluded). The basic assumption of thermodynamics is that in addition to the n substate variables. 22 The thermodynamic state is speciﬁed by n + 1 variables ν1 . νn and s where νi are the thermodynamic substate variables and s the speciﬁc entropy. and functional relationships exist among them through equations of state. · · · . Usually state variables are not all independent. The former have mechanical (or electromagnetic) dimensions.

8) dνp 1 − q·∇θ ≥ 0 dt θ (7.Draft 7–2 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS.4) we obtain T:D + ρ ∂u ds θ− dt ∂s + Ap ν (7. ν τj ≡ ∂u ∂νj . ν. Part I LINEAR of state u = u(s. s.3 can be rewritten as ds dνp du = θ + τp dt dt dt (7. n (7.2) where the subscript outside the parenthesis indicates that the variables are held constant. 6. 2. 7.1.5) but the second principle must be satisﬁed for all possible evolution and in particular the one for which D = 0. 25 For instance we can deﬁne the thermodynamic temperature θ and the thermodynamic “tension” τj as θ≡ ∂u ∂s . X) 24 (7. dνp = 0 and ∇θ = 0 for any value of ds thus the coeﬃcient of ds dt dt dt is zero or ∂u θ= (7.7) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 26 By extension Ai = −ρτi would be the thermodynamic “force” and its dimension depends on the one of νi . · · · . 7.νi(i=j) j = 1.2 27 Gibbs Relation From the chain rule we can express du = dt ∂u ∂s ds dνp + τp dt dt (7.1) In general the internal energy u can not be experimentally measured but rather its derivative.66 T:D − ρ 1 ds du − q·∇θ ≥ 0 −θ dt dt θ dνp 1 − q·∇θ ≥ 0 dt θ (7.3) ν 28 substituting into Clausius-Duhem inequality of Eq.6) ∂s ν thus T:D + Ap and Eq.

νj ← s. 7. 7.1.4 32 Based on the assumed existence of a caloric equation of state.2 it follows that the temperature and the thermodynamic tensions are functions of the thermodynamic state: (7. τj θ.1 † Thermodynamic Approach 7–3 and if we adopt the diﬀerential notation. 7. τj Table 7.Draft 29 7.1 to obtain an alternative form of the caloric equation of state with corresponding thermal equations of state (obtained by simple substitution). and the the deﬁnitions of Eq.3 30 Thermal Equation of State From the caloric equation of state. and the thermodynamic tension conjugate to the speciﬁc volume v is −p. Those potentials are derived through the LegendrePotential Internal energy Helmholtz free energy Enthalpy Free enthalpy u Ψ h g Relation to u u Ψ = u − sθ h = u − τj νj g = u − sθ − τj νj Independent Variables s. but some caution is necessary in interpreting the tesnisons as stresses and the νj as strains.1.11) θ = θ(s. Thermodynamic Potentials 7.1. θ. 7.14) (7.12) and substitute this into Eq.1. the Gibbs relation takes the form du = θds − pdv.13) (7.1: Thermodynamic Potentials Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .15) The thermal equations of state resemble stress-strain relations.9) −p ≡ ∂u ∂v (7. and θ ≡ ∂u ∂s . we obtain Gibbs relation du = θds + τp dνp For ﬂuid. four thermodynamic potentials are introduced. Table 7. ν. ν) we assume the ﬁrst one to be invertible (7. ν) s = s(θ. X) νi = νi (θ.10) s where p is the thermodynamic pressure. v (7. ν). u = u(θ. Eq. ν. X) 31 ← (7. νj θ. τj = τj (s. bX) τi = τi (θ. just as θ is conjugate to s.

5 35 Elastic Potential or Strain Energy Function Green deﬁned an elastic material as one for which a strain-energy function exists.16-a) (7.νi(i=j) (7. 7. ∂θ ν θ= ∂h . In any actual or hypothetical change obeying the equations of state. ∂s ν ∂Ψ s=− .16-c) (7. 36 For the fully recoverable case of isothermal deformation with reversible heat conduction we have ∂Ψ ˜ (7.17-d) θ where the free energy Ψ is the portion of the internal energy available for doing work at constant temperature.19) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .16-d) and from these diﬀerentials we obtain the following partial derivative expressions ∂u . any one of the potentials can be expressed in terms of any of the four choices of state variables listed in Table 7. By means of the preceding equations.1. Such a material is called Green-elastic or hyperelastic if there exists an elastic potential function W or strain energy function.νi(i=j) ← θ (7. whose derivative with respect to a strain component determines the corresponding stress component. we have du dΨ dh dg = = = = θds + τj dνj −sdθ + τj dνj ← θds − νj dτj −sdθ − νj dτj (7. it is a function of the strains alone and is purely mechanical ∂W (E) ˜ TIJ = ∂EIJ (7.18) TIJ = ρ0 ∂EIJ θ hence W = ρ0 Ψ is an elastic potential function for this case. the enthalpy h (as deﬁned here) is the portion of the internal energy that can be released as heat when the thermodynamic tensions are held constant.1. Part I LINEAR Fenchel transformation on the basis of selected state variables best suited for a given problem.16-b) (7. 37 Hyperelasticity ignores thermal eﬀects and assumes that the elastic potential function always exists.Draft 7–4 33 34 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS. a scalar function of one of the strain or deformation tensors.17-a) s.17-c) νj = − νj = − ∂h ∂τj ∂g ∂τj s. ∂s τ ∂g .17-b) (7. while W = ρ0 u is the potential for adiabatic isentropic case (s = constant). =− ∂θ τ θ= τj = τj = ∂u ∂νj ∂Ψ ∂νj (7.

then we obtain Tij = ∂W ∂Eij (7. the second term represents the energy due to residual stresses. 38 We assume that the elastic potential is represented by a power series expansion in the small-strain components.20 to the quadratic expression of W and obtain for instance ∂W = 2c6 + c1112 E11 + c2212 E22 + c3312 E33 + c1212 E12 + c1223 E23 + c1231 E31 (7. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . then c6 = 0. and then the bulk modulus. the simplicity of the experiment is surrounded by the intriguing character of Hooke. 7. 1 1 W = c0 + cij Eij + cijkmEij Ekm + cijkmnp Eij Ekm Enp + · · · 2 3 (7. the deformation gradient F and the Lagrangian strain tensor E. cijkmnp denote tensorial properties required to maintain the invariant property of W .20) which is written in terms of Cauchy stress Tij and small strain Eij . Physically.2 41 Experimental Observations We shall discuss two experiments which will yield the elastic Young’s modulus.Draft 7. Thus the elastic potential function is a homogeneous quadratic function of the strains and we obtain Hooke’s law 7. and similarly all the coeﬃcients in the ﬁrst row of the quadratic expansion of W . thus c0 = 0.22) we require that W vanish in the unstrained state. and the fourth one indicates nonlinear behavior. and in the later. cijkm.2 Experimental Observations 7–5 and W (E) is the strain energy per unit undeformed volume.23) ∂E12 T12 = if the stress must also be zero in the unstrained state. If the displacement gradients are small compared to unity. In the former. the bulk modulus is mathematically related to the Green deformation tensor C. the third one refers to the strain energy which corresponds to linear elastic deformation. 39 Neglecting terms higher than the second degree in the series expansion.21) where c0 is a constant and cij . then W is quadratic in terms of the strains W = c0 + c1 E11 + c2 E22 + c3 E33 + 2c4 E23 + 2c5 E31 + 2c6 E12 1 2 + 2 c1111 E11 + c1122 E11 E22 + c1133 E11 E33 + 2c1123 E11 E23 + 2c1131 E11 E31 2 + 1 c2222 E22 + c2233 E22 E33 + 2c2223 E22 E23 + 2c2231 E22 E31 2 2 + 1 c3333 E33 + 2c3323 E33 E23 + 2c3331 E33 E31 2 2 +2c2323 E23 + 4c2331 E23 E31 2 +2c3131 E31 + 2c1112 E11 E12 + 2c2212 E22 E12 + 2c3312 E33 E12 + 4c2312 E23 E12 + 4c3112 E31 E12 2 +2c1212 E12 (7. 40 We next apply Eq.

Draft

7–6

CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS; Part I LINEAR

7.2.1

42

Hooke’s Law

Hooke’s Law is determined on the basis of a very simple experiment in which a uniaxial force is applied on a specimen which has one dimension much greater than the other two (such as a rod). The elongation is measured, and then the stress is plotted in terms of the strain (elongation/length). The slope of the line is called Young’s modulus. Hooke anticipated some of the most important discoveries and inventions of his time but failed to carry many of them through to completion. He formulated the theory of planetary motion as a problem in mechanics, and grasped, but did not develop mathematically, the fundamental theory on which Newton formulated the law of gravitation. His most important contribution was published in 1678 in the paper De Potentia Restitutiva. It contained results of his experiments with elastic bodies, and was the ﬁrst paper in which the elastic properties of material was discussed. “Take a wire string of 20, or 30, or 40 ft long, and fasten the upper part thereof to a nail, and to the other end fasten a Scale to receive the weights: Then with a pair of compasses take the distance of the bottom of the scale from the ground or ﬂoor underneath, and set down the said distance, then put inweights into the said scale and measure the several stretchings of the said string, and set them down. Then compare the several stretchings of the said string, and you will ﬁnd that they will always bear the same proportions one to the other that the weights do that made them”. This became Hooke’s Law σ = Eε (7.24)

43

44

Because he was concerned about patent rights to his invention, he did not publish his law when ﬁrst discovered it in 1660. Instead he published it in the form of an anagram “ceiinosssttuu” in 1676 and the solution was given in 1678. Ut tensio sic vis (at the time the two symbols u and v were employed interchangeably to denote either the vowel u or the consonant v), i.e. extension varies directly with force. 7.2.2 Bulk Modulus

45

If, instead of subjecting a material to a uniaxial state of stress, we now subject it to a hydrostatic pressure p and measure the change in volume ∆V . From the summary of Table 4.1 we know that: = (det F)V0 √ det F = det C = therefore, V + ∆V = V det[I + 2E] (7.26) V (7.25-a) det[I + 2E] (7.25-b)

46

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

7.3 Stress-Strain Relations in Generalized Elasticity

7–7

we can expand the determinant of the tensor det[I + 2E] to ﬁnd det[I + 2E] = 1 + 2IE + 4IIE + 8IIIE (7.27)

IIE IIIE since the ﬁrst term is linear in E, the second is but for small strains, IE quadratic, and the third is cubic. Therefore, we can approximate det[I + 2E] ≈ 1 + 2IE , hence we deﬁne the volumetric dilatation as ∆V ≡ e ≈ IE = tr E V this quantity is readily measurable in an experiment. (7.28)

7.3

7.3.1

47

**Stress-Strain Relations in Generalized Elasticity
**

Anisotropic

**From Eq. 7.22 and 7.23 we obtain the stress-strain relation for homogeneous anisotropic material
**

**T11 T22 T33 T12 T23 T31
**

Tij

c1111

c1112 c2222

=

c1133 c1112 c2233 c2212 c3333 c3312 c1212

SYM.

cijkm

c1123 c2223 c3323 c1223 c2323

c1131 c2231 c3331 c1231 c2331 c3131

**E11 E22 E33 2E12 (γ12 ) 2E23 (γ23 ) 2E31 (γ31 )
**

Ekm

(7.29)

**which is Hooke’s law for small strain in linear elasticity.
**

48

We also observe that for symmetric cij we retrieve Clapeyron formula 1 W = Tij Eij 2 (7.30)

49 In general the elastic moduli cij relating the cartesian components of stress and strain depend on the orientation of the coordinate system with respect to the body. If the form of elastic potential function W and the values cij are independent of the orientation, the material is said to be isotropic, if not it is anisotropic.

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

7–8

50

CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS; Part I LINEAR

**cijkm is a fourth order tensor resulting with 34 = 81 terms. c1,1,1,1 c1,1,2,1 c1,1,3,1 c2,1,1,1 c2,1,2,1 c2,1,3,1 c3,1,1,1 c3,1,2,1 c3,1,3,1 c1,1,1,2 c1,1,2,2 c1,1,3,2 c2,1,1,2 c2,1,2,2 c2,1,3,2 c3,1,1,2 c3,1,2,2 c3,1,3,2 c1,1,1,3 c1,1,2,3 c1,1,3,3 c2,1,1,3 c2,1,2,3 c2,1,3,3 c3,1,1,3 c3,1,2,3 c3,1,3,3
**

c1,3,1,3 c1,3,2,3 c1,3,3,3 c2,3,1,3 c2,3,2,3 c2,3,3,3 c3,3,1,3 c3,3,2,3 c3,3,3,3 (7.31) But the matrix must be symmetric thanks to Cauchy’s second law of motion (i.e symmetry of both the stress and the strain), and thus for anisotropic material we will have a symmetric 6 by 6 matrix with (6)(6+1) = 21 independent coeﬃcients. 2 By means of coordinate transformation we can relate the material properties in one coordinate system (old) xi , to a new one xi , thus from Eq. 1.27 (vj = ap vp ) we can j rewrite 1 1 1 W = crstu Ers Etu = crstu ar as at au E ij E km = cijkm E ij E km (7.32) i j k m 2 2 2 thus we deduce cijkm = ar as at au crstu (7.33) i j k m

51

c1,2,1,1 c1,2,2,1 c1,2,3,1 c2,2,1,1 c2,2,2,1 c2,2,3,1 c3,2,1,1 c3,2,2,1 c3,2,3,1

c1,2,1,2 c1,2,2,2 c1,2,3,2 c2,2,1,2 c2,2,2,2 c2,2,3,2 c3,2,1,2 c3,2,2,2 c3,2,3,2

c1,2,1,3 c1,2,2,3 c1,2,3,3 c2,2,1,3 c2,2,2,3 c2,2,3,3 c3,2,1,3 c3,2,2,3 c3,2,3,3

c1,3,1,1 c1,3,2,1 c1,3,3,1 c2,3,1,1 c2,3,2,1 c2,3,3,1 c3,3,1,1 c3,3,2,1 c3,3,3,1

c1,3,1,2 c1,3,2,2 c1,3,3,2 c2,3,1,2 c2,3,2,2 c2,3,3,2 c3,3,1,2 c3,3,2,2 c3,3,3,2

that is the fourth order tensor of material constants in old coordinates may be transformed into a new coordinate system through an eighth-order tensor ar as at au i j k m 7.3.2 Monotropic Material

52 A plane of elastic symmetry exists at a point where the elastic constants have the same values for every pair of coordinate systems which are the reﬂected images of one another with respect to the plane. The axes of such coordinate systems are referred to as “equivalent elastic directions”.

**If we assume x1 = x1 , x2 = x2 and x3 = deﬁned through 1 j ai = 0 0
**

53

**−x3 , then the transformation xi = aj xj is i 0 0 1 0 0 −1
**

(7.34)

where the negative sign reﬂects the symmetry of the mirror image with respect to the x3 plane. a1 a1 a2 a3 c1123 1 1 2 3 We next substitute in Eq.7.33, and as an example we consider c1123 = ar as at au crstu = 1 1 2 3 = (1)(1)(1)(−1)c1123 = −c1123 , obviously, this is not possible, and the only way the relation can remanin valid is if c1123 = 0. We note that all terms in cijkl with the index 3 occurring an odd number of times will be equal to zero. Upon substitution,

54

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

we obtain

7.3 Stress-Strain Relations in Generalized Elasticity

7–9

c1111

c1122 c2222

cijkm =

c1133 c1112 c2233 c2212 c3333 c3312 c1212

0 0 0 0 c2323

SYM.

c2331

0 0 0 0

(7.35)

**c3131 we now have 13 nonzero coeﬃcients. 7.3.3
**

55

Orthotropic Material

If the material possesses three mutually perpendicular planes of elastic symmetry, (that is symmetric with respect to two planes x2 and x3 ), then the transformation xi = aj xj i is deﬁned through 1 0 0 aj = 0 −1 0 (7.36) i 0 0 −1 where the negative sign reﬂects the symmetry of the mirror image with respect to the x3 plane. Upon substitution in Eq.7.33 we now would have

c1111

c1122 c2222

cijkm =

c1133 c2233 c3333

0 0 0 c1212

0 0 0 0 c2323

SYM.

0 0 0 0 0 c3131

(7.37)

We note that in here all terms of cijkl with the indices 3 and 2 occuring an odd number of times are again set to zero.

56

Wood is usually considered an orthotropic material and will have 9 nonzero coeﬃcients. Transversely Isotropic Material

7.3.4

57

A material is transversely isotropic if there is a preferential direction normal to all but one of the three axes. If this axis is x3 , then rotation about it will require that cos θ sin θ 0 aj = − sin θ cos θ 0 i 0 0 1

(7.38)

substituting Eq. 7.33 into Eq. 7.41, using the above transformation matrix, we obtain c1111 = (cos4 θ)c1111 + (cos2 θ sin2 θ)(2c1122 + 4c1212 ) + (sin4 θ)c2222 c1122 = (cos2 θ sin2 θ)c1111 + (cos4 θ)c1122 − 4(cos2 θ sin2 θ)c1212 + (sin4 θ)c2211 +(sin2 θ cos2 θ)c2222 c1133 = (cos2 θ)c1133 + (sin2 θ)c2233

Victor Saouma

(7.39-a) (7.39-b) (7.39-c) (7.39-d)

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

7–10

CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS; Part I LINEAR

c2222 = (sin4 θ)c1111 + (cos2 θ sin2 θ)(2c1122 + 4c1212 ) + (cos4 θ)c2222 (7.39-e) 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 (7.39-f) c1212 = (cos θ sin θ)c1111 − 2(cos θ sin θ)c1122 − 2(cos θ sin θ)c1212 + (cos θ)c1212 2 2 4 (7.39-g) +(sin θ cos θ)c2222 + sin θc1212 . . .

But in order to respect our initial assumption about symmetry, these results require that c1111 = c2222 c1133 = c2233 c2323 = c3131 1 c1212 = (c1111 − c1122 ) 2 yielding

(7.40-a) (7.40-b) (7.40-c) (7.40-d)

c1111

c1122 c2222

cijkm =

c1133 c2233 c3333

SYM.

0 0 0 1 (c1111 − c1122 ) 2

0 0 0 0 c2323

0 0 0 0 0 c3131

(7.41)

**we now have 5 nonzero coeﬃcients.
**

58

It should be noted that very few natural or man-made materials are truly orthotropic (certain crystals as topaz are), but a number are transversely isotropic (laminates, shist, quartz, roller compacted concrete, etc...). 7.3.5 Isotropic Material

59

An isotropic material is symmetric with respect to every plane and every axis, that is the elastic properties are identical in all directions.

To mathematically characterize an isotropic material, we require coordinate transformation with rotation about x2 and x1 axes in addition to all previous coordinate transformations. This process will enforce symmetry about all planes and all axes.

60 61

**The rotation about the x2 axis is obtained through cos θ 0 − sin θ 1 0 aj = 0 i sin θ 0 cos θ
**

(7.42)

we follow a similar procedure to the case of transversely isotropic material to obtain c1111 = c3333 1 (c1111 − c1133 ) c3131 = 2

Victor Saouma

(7.43-a) (7.43-b)

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

45-a) (7.49) Or in terms of λ and µ.51) E= 2µ(3λ + 2µ) 2µ It should be emphasized that Eq. or 63 cijkm λ 0 0 0 λ 0 0 0 λ + 2µ 0 0 0 = µ 0 0 SYM.29.48) and we are thus left with only two independent non zero coeﬃcients λ and µ which are called Lame’s constants. and c = 1 (c3333 − c1133 ). b = 1 (c2222 − c2233 ). 64 Substituting the last equation into Eq.29) that is γij = 2Eij for i = j.46) with a = 1 (c1111 − c1122 ). 7.45-b) (7. 2 2 2 If we denote c1122 = c1133 = c2233 = λ and c1212 = c2323 = c3131 = µ then from the previous relations we determine that c1111 = c2222 = c3333 = λ + 2µ. Hooke’s Law for an isotropic body is written as Tij = λδij Ekk + 2µEij 1 λ δij Tkk Eij = Tij − 2µ 3λ + 2µ 65 or or T = λIE + 2µE (7.47 is written in terms of the Engineering strains (Eq.47) (7.45-c) c1111 cijkm = c1133 0 0 0 c2233 0 0 0 c3333 0 0 0 a 0 0 SYM. 7.Draft 62 7.50) −λ 1 IT + T (7. 7. µ 0 µ = λδij δkm + µ(δik δjm + δim δkj ) λ + 2µ λ λ + 2µ (7. Tij = [λδij δkm + µ(δik δjm + δim δkj )]Ekm (7.3 Stress-Strain Relations in Generalized Elasticity 7–11 next we perform a rotation about the x1 axis 1 0 0 j ai = 0 cos θ sin θ 0 − sin θ cos θ it follows that c1122 = c1133 1 c3131 = (c3333 − c1133 ) 2 1 c2323 = (c2222 − c2233 ) 2 which will ﬁnally give (7. On the other hand the preceding equations are written in terms of the tensorial strains Eij Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . b 0 c c1122 c2222 (7.44) (7.

52-c) ε22 69 Yet we have the elementary relations in terms engineering constants E Young’s modulus and ν Poisson’s ratio σ (7.1.54) (7.µ = G = (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) 2(1 + ν) (7.5.52-a) (7.Draft 7–12 7.1.1 66 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS.56-a) (7.ν = E µ(3λ + 2µ) 2(λ + µ) νE E λ = .5.3.5. then from Eq.1 7. we adopt the usual engineering notation Tij → σij and Eij → εij 68 If we consider a simple uniaxial state of stress in the x1 direction. we have σ21 = σ12 = τ all other σij = 0 τ 2ε12 = G and the µ is equal to the shear modulus G. in the following sections we will reformulate those relations in terms of “engineering constants” (Young’s and the bulk’s modulus).53-b) ν = − ε11 ε11 then it follows that λ+µ λ 1 = .3. 7. Isotropic Case 7. Hooke’s law for isotropic material in terms of engineering constants becomes Introduction to Continuum Mechanics (7.3. This will be done for both the isotropic and transversely isotropic cases.1.52-b) (7.56-b) 71 Victor Saouma .53-a) ε11 = E ε33 ε22 =− (7. Part I LINEAR Engineering Constants The stress-strain relations were expressed in terms of Lame’s parameters which can not be readily measured experimentally.55) 70 Similarly in the case of pure shear in the x1 x3 and x2 x3 planes.1 Young’s Modulus 67 In order to avoid certain confusion between the strain E and the elastic constant E.51 λ+µ σ µ(3λ + 2µ) −λ = ε33 = σ 2µ(3λ + 2µ) 0 = ε12 = ε23 = ε13 ε11 = (7. As such.

1. Volumetric and Deviatoric Strains We can express the trace of the stress Iσ in terms of the volumetric strain Iε From Eq.58) When the strain equation is expanded in 3D cartesian coordinates it would yield: εxx εyy εzz γxy (2εxy ) γyz (2εyz ) γzx (2εzx ) = 1 E 1 −ν −ν 0 0 0 −ν 1 −ν 0 0 0 −ν −ν 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1+ν 0 0 0 0 0 0 1+ν 0 0 0 0 0 0 1+ν σxx σyy σzz τxy τyz τzx (7.2 Bulk’s Modulus.1.50 (7.62) K =λ+ µ 3 74 We can provide a complement to the volumetric part of the constitutive equations by substracting the trace of the stress from the stress tensor.59) 73 If we invert this equation. we obtain σxx σyy σzz τxy τyz τzx = 1−ν ν ν E ν 1−ν ν (1+ν)(1−2ν) ν ν 1−ν 0 0 G 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 εxx εyy εzz γxy (2εxy ) γyz (2εyz ) γzx (2εzx ) (7. hence we deﬁne the deviatoric stress and strains as as 1 σ ≡ σ − (tr σ)I (7.66) where p ≡ 1 tr (σ) is the pressure. 3 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .60) 7.57) (7.5. and σ = σ − pI is the stress deviator.63) 3 1 ε ≡ ε − (tr ε)I (7.61) σii = λδii εkk + 2µεii = (3λ + 2µ)εii ≡ 3Kεii or 2 (7.Draft σij = εij 72 7.3.65) (7. 7.64) 3 and the corresponding constitutive relation will be 75 σ = KeI + 2µε p 1 ε = I+ σ 3K 2µ (7.3 Stress-Strain Relations in Generalized Elasticity 7–13 E ν E ν δij εkk or σ = Iε εij + ε+ 1+ν 1 − 2ν 1+ν 1 − 2ν ν 1+ν ν 1+ν σij − δij σkk or ε = σ − Iσ = E E E E (7.

we observe that ν = pressibility. we obtain the following expression for the isotropic strain energy 1 W = Ke2 + GEij Eij 2 and since positive work is required to cause any deformation W > 0 thus 2 λ+ G≡K > 0 3 G > 0 ruling out K = G = 0. it can be expressed in terms of volumetric (hydrostatic) and deviatoric components as dW = −pde + σij dEij (7.68) substituting p = −Ke and σij = 2GEij .70-b) (7. ν 3Kν 1+ν 3K(1−2ν) 2(1+ν) µ 2µ(1+ν) 3(1−2ν) µ µE 3(3µ−E) K 3K(1 − 2ν) ν E ν 2µ(1 + ν) ν E E 2µ − 1 Table 7.70-a) (7.72) E .5. µ µ(E−2µ) 3µ−E K.Draft 7–14 7.3 76 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS. −1 < ν < 1 2 (7. 78 1 2 implies G = µ.67) but since dW is a scalar invariant (energy). Part I LINEAR Restriction Imposed on the Isotropic Elastic Moduli We can rewrite Eq. and integrating. we are left with E > 0. ν νE (1+ν)(1−2ν) E 2(1+ν) E 3(1−2ν) E.20 as dW = Tij dEij (7.1.71) (7.1.69) 77 The isotropic strain energy function can be alternatively expressed as 1 W = λe2 + GEij Eij 2 (7.2: Conversion of Constants for an Isotropic Elastic Material 79 The elastic properties of selected materials is shown in Table 7. µ λ µ λ + 2µ 3 µ(3λ+2µ) λ+µ λ 2(λ+µ) E. 7.3. ν 2µν 1−2ν and 1 K = 0 or elastic incom- λ µ K E ν λ. 3 From Table 7.2. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .3.

000 2.5.2 81 Special 2D Cases Often times one can make simplifying assumptions to reduce a 3D problem into a 2D one.3. E 1 µ (7.Draft 7. E a13 = − a33 = − a44 = − (7. 5. E 1 . and µ is shear moduli for the plane of isotropy. replacing into Eq.3. Plane Strain 7.1 For problems involving a long body in the z direction with no variation in load or geometry.000 ν 0.75) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .74) where E is the Young’s modulus in the plane of isotropy and E the one in the plane normal to it.3 Stress-Strain Relations in Generalized Elasticity Material A316 Stainless Steel A5 Aluminum Bronze Plexiglass Rubber Concrete Granite E (MPa) 196.2.73) and a11 = 1 .33 0. Thus. then εzz = γyz = γxz = τxz = τyz = 0.5. E ν a12 = − .3: Elastic Properties of Selected Materials at 200c 7.3.3 0.000 61. 7.2 Transversly Isotropic Case 80 For transversely isotropic.2 we obtain 82 σxx σyy σzz τxy Victor Saouma = E (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) (1 − ν) ν ν (1 − ν) ν ν 0 0 0 0 0 1−2ν 2 εxx εyy γxy (7.2 0. ν corresponding to the transverse contraction in the plane of isotropy when tension is applied normal to the plane.27 7–15 Table 7.000 60. µ corresponding to the shear moduli for the plane of isotropy and any plane normal to it.34 0. we can express the stress-strain relation in tems of εxx εyy εzz γxy γyz γxz = = = = = = a11 σxx + a12 σyy + a13 σzz a12 σxx + a11 σyy + a13 σzz a13 (σxx + σyy ) + a33 σzz 2(a11 − a12 )τxy a44 τxy a44 τxz ν .1.900 2 60.4 →0.000 68. ν corresponds to the transverse contraction in the plane of isotropy when tension is applied in the plane.5 0.5.

2 we obtain: 85 εxx σxx 1 ν 0 1 σyy ν 1 0 εyy = 1 − ν 2 0 0 1−ν γ τ xy xy 2 1 ν(εxx + εyy ) εzz = − 1−ν (7. then τyz = τxz = σzz = γxz = γyz = 0 throughout the thickness. and Eij temperature ﬁeld.76-c) (7.76-a) (7.80) Eij = α(Θ − Θ0 )δij Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . we can use a polar coordinate sytem and ∂u εrr = ∂r u εθθ = r ∂w εzz = ∂z ∂u ∂w + εrz = ∂z ∂r The constitutive relation is again analogous to 3D/plane strain (7.76-d) 84 σrr σzz σθθ τrz 7.76-b) (7. the components of the linear strain tensor Eij may be considered as the sum of (T ) (Θ) (7.5.3 = E (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) 1−ν ν ν ν 1−ν ν ν ν 1−ν ν ν 1−ν 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1−2ν 2 εrr εzz εθθ γrz (7.77) Plane Stress If the longitudinal dimension in z direction is much smaller than in the x and y directions.2.78-b) 7.79) Eij = Eij + Eij where Eij is the contribution from the stress ﬁeld. 5. (T ) (Θ) the contribution from the 87 When a body is subjected to a temperature change Θ−Θ0 with respect to the reference state temperature.2 Axisymmetry 83 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS.78-a) (7.Draft 7–16 7.3. Again. Part I LINEAR In solids of revolution.4 Linear Thermoelasticity 86 If thermal eﬀects are accounted for.2. substituting into Eq. the strain componenet of an elementary volume of an unconstrained isotropic body are given by (Θ) (7.5.3.

22.5 Fourrier Law 7–17 where α is the linear coeﬃcient of thermal expansion. (Sect.85) Θ Tij = Eα 1 − 2ν 91 In terms of deviatoric stresses and strains we have Tij = 2µEij and Eij = Tij 2µ (7.81) which is known as Duhamel-Neumann relations. for isotropic cases we obtain Tij = λEkk δij + 2µEij − βij (Θ − Θ0 )δij (7. we would have ck = −βk (Θ − Θ0 ) for k = 1 to 6 and would have to add like terms to Eq. we suppose that βij is independent from the strain and cijrs independent of temperature change with respect to the natural state.86) and in terms of volumetric stress/strain: p = −Ke + β(Θ − Θ0 ) and e = p + 3α(Θ − Θ0 ) K (7. Inserting the preceding two equation into Hooke’s law (Eq. 7. we required the constants c1 to c6 in Eq. 7. 7.. Finally. we obtain the thermoelastic constitutive equation: Tij = λδij Ekk + 2µEij − (3λ + 2µ)αδij (Θ − Θ0 ) (7.51) yields Eij = 1 λ Tij − δij Tkk + α(Θ − Θ0 )δij 2µ 3λ + 2µ (7. leading to 90 Tij = −βij (Θ − Θ0 ) + cijrs Ers (7. 89 If we invert this equation.Draft 88 7. chemical. 7.87) 7.22 to be zero in order that the stress vanish in the unstrained state.82) Alternatively.) The rate of transfer per unit area is q Introduction to Continuum Mechanics 93 Victor Saouma . etc. 7.5 92 Fourrier Law Consider a solid through which there is a ﬂow q of heat (or some other quantity such as mass.5)..83) for linear theory.1. 1−2ν Hence (7.82 with β = Eα .84) which is identical to Eq. If we accounted for the temperature change Θ − Θ0 with respect to the reference state temperature. if we were to consider the derivation of the Green-elastic hyperelastic equations.

it would be appropriate to revisit our balance of equations and unknowns. piezometric head.91) Note that for ﬂow through porous media.. ν) Equations of state Total number of equations and we repeat our list of unknowns 10 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . but could be. Darcy. Fick.6 95 Updated Balance of Equations and Unknowns In light of the new equations introduced in this chapter. Part I LINEAR The direction of ﬂow is in the direction of maximum “potential” (temperature in this case. dρ ∂v + ρ ∂xii = 0 dt ∂Tij + ρbi = ρ dvi ∂xj dt du ρ dt = Tij Dij + ρr Continuity Equation Equation of motion − ∂qj ∂xj Coupled 1 3 1 6 3 2 16 Uncoupled 1 3 6 Energy equation T = λIE + 2µE Hooke’s Law q = −D∇φ Heat Equation (Fourrier) Θ = Θ(s. ν).). 7. Darcy’s equation is only valid for laminar ﬂow. or ion concentration) decreases (Fourrier.90) (7. ∂φ qx ∂x = −D ∂φ = −D∇φ (7. τj = τj (s.88) q = qy ∂y ∂φ q z ∂z D is a three by three (symmetric) constitutive/conductivity matrix The conductivity can be either Isotropic 1 0 0 D = k 0 1 0 0 0 1 Anisotropic kxx kxy kxz D = kyx kyy kyz kzx kzy kzz Orthotropic kxx 0 0 D = 0 kyy 0 0 0 kzz (7..Draft 7–18 94 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS.89) (7.

Draft 7. 96 ≥ r Θ 1 − ρ div which governs entropy Hence we now have as many equations as unknowns and are (almost) ready to pose and solve problems in continuum mechanics. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .6 Updated Balance of Equations and Unknowns 7–19 Coupled Density ρ 1 Velocity (or displacement) vi (ui ) 3 Stress components Tij 6 Heat ﬂux components qi 3 Speciﬁc internal energy u 1 Entropy density s 1 Absolute temperature Θ 1 Total number of unknowns 16 ds dt Uncoupled 1 3 6 10 q Θ and in addition the Clausius-Duhem inequality production must hold.

Draft 7–20 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS. Part I LINEAR Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

Hence. the reader may be at a loss as to what are the most important ones to remember.Draft Chapter 8 INTERMEZZO In light of the lengthy and rigorous derivation of the fundamental equations of Continuum Mechanics in the preceding chapter.1-a) (8.1-e) .1-b) 1 ∂ui ∂uj ∂uk ∂uk + − 2 ∂xj ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj Engineering Strain Equilibrium 1 ε11 2 γ12 1 γ13 2 1 = 2 γ12 ε22 1 γ23 2 1 1 γ γ ε33 2 13 2 23 γ23 ≈ sin γ23 = sin(π/2 − θ) = cos θ = 2E23 ∂Tij dvi + ρbi = ρ ∂xj dt (8.1-d) (8.1-c) (8. X3 X3 V3 σ33 t3 σ31 σ13 σ σ 11 t1 12 σ 32 σ 23 t2 σ 22 X2 V1 X1 V V2 X2 σ 21 (Components of a vector are scalars) X 1 Stresses as components of a traction vector (Components of a tensor of order 2 are vectors) Stress Vector/Tensor Strain Tensor ti = Tij nj ∗ Eij = (8. this handout seeks to summarize the most fundamental relations which you should always remember. since the complexity of some of the derivation may have eclipsed the ﬁnal results.

Draft 8–2 INTERMEZZO Boundary Conditions Energy Potential Hooke’s Law Plane Stress Plane Strain Γ = Γu + Γt ∂W Tij = ∂Eij Tij = λδij Ekk + 2µEij 1 ν ν εxx −E −E E 1 ν ν εyy −E −E E ε 1 ν ν − −E E zz = E 0 γxy 0 0 γyz 0 0 0 γ 0 0 0 xz σzz = 0. εzz = 0 εzz = 0.1-k) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .1-h) σxx σyy σzz τxy τyz τxz 0 0 0 1 G 0 0 0 0 1 G (8.1-g) 0 0 0 0 0 1 G (8.1-j) (8. σzz = 0 (8.1-i) 0 0 0 (8.1-f) (8.

Draft Part II ELASTICITY/SOLID MECHANICS .

Draft .

C.).e. or we know the traction and not the corresponding displacement.e. Either we know the displacement but not the traction. we must note that: 1.Draft Chapter 9 BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS in ELASTICITY 9. Equations relating the applied tractions and body forces to the stresses (3) ∂Tij ∂ 2 ui + ρbi = ρ 2 ∂Xj ∂t 6 Stress-Strain relations: (Hooke’s Law) T = λIE + 2µE (9. 9. Equations of geometry of deformation relating displacement to strain (6) 1 E∗ = (u∇x + ∇x u) 2 21 (9.2) (9. 22 In addition to these equations which describe what is happening inside the body.1 20 Preliminary Considerations All problems in elasticity require three basic components: 3 Equations of Motion (Equilibrium): i.2 23 Boundary Conditions In describing the boundary conditions (B. These extra conditions are called boundary conditions. and 6 strain components Eij . 6 stress components Tij .3) Those 15 equations are written in terms of 15 unknowns: 3 displacement ui. We can never know both a priori.1) 6 Geometric (kinematic) equations: i. we must describe what is happening on the surface or boundary of the body. .

Fig. those are suumarized in Table 9. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics 27 Victor Saouma . while traction boundary conditions are prescribed on the remainder.1: Ω Τ Γu Figure 9.Draft 9–2 BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS in ELASTICITY 2. 9. We note that at some points. ux . uy Traction boundary conditions along Γt with the three traction components ti = nj Tij prescribed at a boundary where the unit normal is n. but also to properly deﬁne the appropriate boundary conditions. ts . Mixed boundary conditions where displacement boundary conditions are prescribed on a part of the bounding surface. The displacement is decomposed into its cartesian (or curvilinear) components. Not all boundary conditions speciﬁcations are acceptable.e tn .1. 24 Properly speciﬁed boundary conditions result in well-posed boundary value problems.1: Boundary Conditions in Elasticity Problems t Displacement boundary conditions along Γu with the three components of ui prescribed on the boundary. For example we can not apply tractions to the entire surface of the body. i.2. Often time we take advantage of symmetry not only to simplify the problem. Displacement and tractions can never be speciﬁed at the same point in the same direction. they may not necessarily satisfy equilibrium. traction may be speciﬁed in one direction. Fig. 26 Various terms have been associated with those boundary conditions in the litterature. The traction is decomposed into its normal and shear(s) components. 25 Thus we have two types of boundary conditions in terms of known quantitites. while improperly speciﬁed boundary conditions will result in ill-posed boundary value problem. 9. i. Only the former can be solved.e. and displacement at another. Unless those tractions are specially prescribed.

1: Boundary Conditions in Elasticity σ D C AB BC CD DE EA x y E A B Γu ux uy ? 0 ? ? ? ? 0 ? ? ? Γt tn ts ? 0 0 0 σ 0 ? 0 0 0 Note: Unknown tractions=Reactions Figure 9.2: Boundary Conditions in Elasticity Problems Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .2 Boundary Conditions 9–3 u. Γu Dirichlet Field Variable Essential Forced Geometric t. Γt Neuman Derivative(s) of Field Variable Non-essential Natural Static Table 9.Draft 9.

This is now a well posed problem. Essential B.3 28 Boundary Value Problem Formulation Hence. ti : Γt Figure 9.3: Fundamental Equations in Solid Mechanics 9. Hence.C.5) (9.3.7) (9. 9. the boundary value formulation is suumarized by ∂ 2 ui ∂Tij + ρbi = ρ 2 in Ω ∂Xj ∂t 1 (u∇x + ∇x u) E∗ = 2 T = λIE + 2µE in Ω u = u in Γu t = t in Γt (9.C. ui : Γu ❄ Body Forces bi Displacements ui ❄ Equilibrium ∂Tij ∂xj ❄ Kinematics E∗ = 1 (u 2 x + ρbi = ρ dvi dt Ö + Ö u) x ❄ Stresses Tij ❄ ✲ Constitutive Rel. T = λIE + 2µE ✛ Strain Eij ✻ Natural B.4 29 Compacted Forms Solving a boundary value problem with 15 unknowns through 15 equations is a formidable task.Draft 9–4 BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS in ELASTICITY 9. there are numerous methods to reformulate the problem in terms of fewer Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .8) and is illustrated by Fig.6) (9.4) (9.

11) 9. 7. homogeneous quadratic function of the strains such that.2 31 Beltrami-Mitchell Equations Whereas Navier-Cauchy equation was expressed in terms of the gradient of the displacement.5 32 Strain Energy and Extenal Work For the isotropic Hooke’s law. ∇2 Tij + 1 ν Tpp.ij = − δij ∇·(ρb) − ρ(bi.Draft unknows.pp + (9. Substituting ti = Tij nj and applying Ω Γ Gauss theorem. and the resulting equation into the equation of motion to obtain three second-order partial diﬀerential equations for the three displacement components known as Navier’s Equation (λ + µ) ∂ 2 uk ∂ 2 ui ∂ 2 ui +µ + ρbi = ρ 2 ∂Xi ∂Xk ∂Xk ∂Xk ∂t or ∂2u (λ + µ)∇(∇·u) + µ∇2 u + ρb = ρ 2 ∂t (9.16) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .9) (9. Eq.5 Strain Energy and Extenal Work 9–5 Navier-Cauchy Equations One such approach is to substitute the displacement-strain relation into Hooke’s law (resulting in stresses in terms of the gradient of the displacement).10) (9.i ) Tij.j )dΩ (9.j + bj. 9. we saw that there always exist a strain energy function W which is positive-deﬁnite.12) 1+ν 1−ν or 1 ν Tpp.4.4.14) Tij = ∂Eij 1 W = Tij Eij 2 (9.13) 1+ν 1−ν 9.15) hence it follows that The external work done by a body in equilibrium under body forces bi and surface traction ti is equal to ρbi ui dΩ + ti ui dΓ.20 ∂W (9.3 Ellipticity of Elasticity Problems 9.p − ρ(bi. we can follow a similar approach and write a single equation in term of the gradient of the tractions.i ) (9. the second term becomes 33 Γ Tij nj uidΓ = Ω (Tij ui ).j ui + Tij ui.1 30 9.ij = − δij ρbp.j dΩ = Ω (Tij.4.j + bj.

ui . Hence. then Tij = Tij − Tij .j = −ρbi .18) that is For an elastic system. and ui = ui − = 0 on But u is positive-deﬁnite and continuous.18 would yield (2) (1) Γ ti ui dΓ = 2 (2) u∗ dΩ but Ω (1) ui the left hand side is zero because ti = ti − ti u∗ dΩ = 0. Γt . and Tij .Draft 9–6 BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS in ELASTICITY but Tij ui. thus Ω 36 = 0 on Γu . and ui = ui − ui (2) (1) with bi = bi − bi = 0 must also be a solution. if the boundary tractions on a part Γ1 of the boundary Γ are replaced by a statically equivalent traction distribution. Eq. 9.j = Tij (Eij + Ωij ) = Tij Eij and from equilibrium Tij. the total strain energy is one half the work done by the external forces acting through their displacements ui . 9. thus the integral can vanish if and only if u = 0 everywhere.14 and 9. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . there can not be two diﬀerent stress and strain ﬁelds corresponding to the same externally imposed body forces and boundary conditions1 and satisfying the linearized elastostatic Eqs 9. 9. given (1) (1) (2) (2) (2) (1) (2) (1) two sets of solution Tij . 35 Hence for this “diﬀerence” solution. the eﬀects on the stress distribution in the body are negligible at points whose distance from Γ1 is large compared to the maximum distance between points of Γ1 . the principles of superposition may be used to obtain additional solutions from those established. thus Ω ρbi ui dΩ + Γ ti uidΓ = Ω ρbi ui dΩ + Ω (Tij Eij − ρbi ui )dΩ (9.7 37 Saint Venant’s Principle This famous principle of Saint Venant was enunciated in 1855 and is of great importance in applied elasticity where it is often invoked to justify certain “simpliﬁed” solutions to complex problem. In elastostatics. 1 This theorem is attributed to Kirchoﬀ (1858).6 34 Uniqueness of the Elastostatic Stress and Strain Field Because the equations of linear elasticity are linear equations. 9.19) hence.1.17) or Ω ρbi uidΩ + Γ ti ui dΓ = 2 External Work Tij Eij dΩ 2 Ω Internal Strain Energy (9. ui .3. and this is only possible if Eij = 0 everywhere so that ∗ ∗ Eij = Eij ⇒ Tij = T ij (1) (2) (1) (2) (9.

8 39 Cylindrical Coordinates So far all equations have been written in either vector.8 Cylindrical Coordinates 9–7 For instance the analysis of the problem in Fig. Fig.. 40 z θ r Figure 9.Draft 38 9. dx t F=tdx Figure 9. indicial. as this would enable us to analytically solve some simple problems of great practical usefulness (torsion.4 can be greatly simpliﬁed if the tractions on Γ1 are replaced by a concentrated statically equivalent force.4: St-Venant’s Principle 9. . pressurized cylinders. 9. We now rewrite some of the fundamental relations in cylindrical coordinate system. The last two were so far restricted to an othonormal cartesian coordinate system.. or engineering notation. This is most often achieved by reducing the dimensionality of the problem from 3 to 2 or even to 1.5.5: Cylindrical Coordinates Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .). 9.

Hence. or in polar coordinates as ur .21-f) ∂ur ∂r (9.20-b) substituting into the strain deﬁnition for εxx (for small displacements) we obtain (9.21-d) (9. and cos θ → 1. εxx → εθθ . uy .Draft 9–8 BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS in ELASTICITY 9.21-b) (9. if θ → π/2.1 41 Strains With reference to Fig. the y uθ θ θ uy P* ur P r θ Figure 9.21-e) (9.20-a) (9. sin θ → 0. sin θ → 1. uθ . εxx → εrr . and cos θ → 0. we obtain εrr = εxx |θ→0 = 42 (9.21-a) (9.6: Polar Strains ux x displacements can be expressed in cartesian coordinates as ux . 9.22) Similarly.8. we consider the displacement of point P to P ∗ . ux = ur cos θ − uθ sin θ uy = ur sin θ + uθ cos θ ∂ux ∂ux ∂θ ∂ux ∂r = + ∂x ∂θ ∂x ∂r ∂x ∂uθ ∂ux ∂ur = cos θ − ur sin θ − sin θ − uθ cos θ ∂θ ∂θ ∂θ ∂ur ∂uθ ∂ux = cos θ − sin θ ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂θ sin θ = − ∂x r ∂r = cos θ ∂x sin θ ∂ur ∂uθ εxx = − cos θ + ur sin θ + sin θ + uθ cos θ ∂θ ∂θ r ∂uθ ∂ur cos θ − sin θ cos θ + ∂r ∂r εxx = Noting that as θ → 0. Hence.21-c) (9. 1 ur εθθ = εxx |θ→π/2 = ∂uθ ∂θ + r r (9.6.23) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

and with the addition of the z components (not explicitely derived).28) (9. we may express εxy as a function of ur .27) (9.7: Stresses in Polar Coordinates θ r r+dr r Tθ + δTθ d r r δr r Tθ + δTθ d θ r δθ Tr + δTr d r r r δr Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 9. its derivation (as mentioned) could have been obtained by equilibrium of forces considerations.24 was obtained from the linear momentum principle (without any reference to the notion of equilibrium of forces).8.2 44 ∂ur ∂r 1 ∂uθ ur + r ∂θ r ∂uz ∂z 1 1 ∂ur ∂uθ ut heta + − 2 r ∂θ ∂r r 1 ∂uθ 1 ∂uz + 2 ∂z r ∂θ 1 ∂uz ∂ur + 2 ∂r ∂z (9.24) εrθ = − + 2 ∂r r r ∂θ 43 In summary.30) Equilibrium Whereas the equilibrium equation as given In Eq. This is the approach which we will follow for the polar coordinate system with respect to Fig.26) (9.25) (9.29) (9. 6.8 Cylindrical Coordinates 9–9 ﬁnally. we obtain εrr = εθθ = εzz = εrθ = εθz = εrz = 9.7. T T + δ θθ d θ θθ δθ Trr dθ fθ Tθ r T θθ fr Figure 9. we obtain 1 ∂uθ uθ 1 ∂ur εxy |θ→0 = (9.Draft 9. uθ and θ and noting that εxy → εrθ as θ → 0.

36-a) (9. and cos2 θ = 1/2(1 + cos 2θ)).37) (9.36-b) (9. This can be done through the following relationships Txx Txy Txy Tyy = cos θ − sin θ sin θ cos θ Trr Trθ Trθ Tθθ cos θ − sin θ sin θ cos θ T (9.31-b) we approximate sin(dθ/2) by dθ/2 and cos(dθ/2) by unity.32) Similarly we can take the summation of forces in the θ direction. Trr Tθθ Trθ Tzz = = = = λe + 2µεrr λe + 2µεθθ 2µεrθ ν(Trr + Tθθ ) (9.40) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . we obtain ∂Trr 1 ∂Tθr 1 + + (Trr − Tθθ ) + fr = 0 (9.3 48 (9.33) ∂r r ∂θ r ∂Trθ 1 ∂Tθθ 1 + + (Trθ − Tθr ) + fθ = 0 (9. ∂Trr dr 1 Trr + 1+ r ∂r r 46 − Tθθ ∂Tθθ dθ 1 ∂Tθr − + + fr = 0 r ∂θ dr r ∂θ (9.39) (9.38) (9. Hence.8.31-a) (9. the physical components of a tensor at a point are merely the Cartesian components in a local coordinate system at the point with its axes tangent to the coordinate curves.34) ∂r r ∂θ r 47 It is often necessary to express cartesian stresses in terms of polar stresses and vice versa.35) yielding Txx = Trr cos2 θ + Tθθ sin2 θ − Trθ sin 2θ Tyy = Trr sin2 θ + Tθθ cos2 θ + Trθ sin 2θ Txy = (Trr − Tθθ ) sin θ cos θ + Trθ (cos2 θ − sin2 θ) (recalling that sin2 θ = 1/2 sin 2θ. 9. divide through by rdrdθ.Draft 9–10 45 BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS in ELASTICITY Summation of forces parallel to the radial direction through the center of the element with unit thickness in the z direction yields: ∂Trr dr (r + dr)dθ − Trr (rdθ) ∂r ∂Tθθ dθ + Tθθ dr sin − Tθθ + ∂θ 2 ∂Tθr dθ + Tθr + dθ − Tθr dr cos + fr rdrdθ = 0 ∂θ 2 Trr + (9.36-c) Stress-Strain Relations In orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. In both cases if we were to drop the dr/r and dθ/r in the limit.

50 Inverting.3.42) (9.8.44) Plane Strain For Plane strain problems.8 Cylindrical Coordinates 9–11 with e = εrr + εθθ .47-b) and τrz = τθz = σzz = γrz = γθz = 0 52 Inverting εrr ε θθ γ rθ σrr 1 −ν 0 1 1 0 σ = −ν θθ E 0 0 2(1 + ν) τrθ (9. alternatively. from Eq.8.41) (9.47-a) (9.45) and εzz = γrz = γθz = τrz = τθz = 0.46) Plane Stress For plane stress problems.43) (9.3.75: σrr σθθ σzz τrθ = E (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) (1 − ν) ν ν (1 − ν) ν ν 0 0 0 0 0 1−2ν 2 εrr εθθ γrθ (9.Draft 9.1 49 1 (1 − ν 2 )Trr − ν(1 + ν)Tθθ E 1 = (1 − ν 2 )Tθθ − ν(1 + ν)Trr E 1+ν Trθ = E = Eθz = Ezz = 0 (9.78-a εrr σrr 1 ν 0 E σθθ ν 1 0 εθθ = 1 − ν 2 0 0 1−ν γ τ rθ rθ 2 1 ν(εrr + εθθ ) εzz = − 1−ν (9. 7.2 51 εrr 1 − ν2 −ν(1 + ν) 0 2 0 −ν(1 + ν) 1−ν ν ν 0 0 0 2(1 + ν σrr σθθ σzz τrθ (9. from Eq. 7. 1 ε = θθ E γ rθ 9. Err = Eθθ Erθ Erz 9.48-a) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

Draft 9–12 BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS in ELASTICITY Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

21 10. and e) Airy stress functions. d) Semi-inverse methods.2) . 10.Draft Chapter 10 SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS 20 Practical solutions of two-dimensional boundary-value problem in simply connected regions can be accomplished by numerous techniques. Those include: a) Finite-diﬀerence approximation of the diﬀerential equation. Example: Torsion of a Circular Cylinder 23 24 10. u2 = −θx3 . u3 = θx2 (10. This method was employed by Saint-Venant in his treatment of the torsion problem. Only the last two methods will be discussed in this chapter. we have succeeded in obtaining the solution to the problem.1 25 Let us consider the elastic deformation of a cylindrical bar with circular cross section of radius a and length L twisted by equal and opposite end moments M1 . hence it is often referred to as the Saint-Venant semi-inverse method. the displacement ﬁeld will be given by: 26 u = (θe1 )×r = (θe1 )×(x1 e1 + x2 e2 + x3 e3 ) = θ(x2 e3 − x3 e2 ) or u1 = 0. it is reasonable to assume that the motion of each cross-sectional plane is a rigid body rotation about the x1 axis. Hence. for a small rotation angle θ. then by the uniqueness theorem. From symmetry.1. c) Variational methods (which will be covered in subsequent chapters).1) (10. Hooke’s Law and boundary conditions.1.1 22 Semi-Inverse Method Often a solution to an elasticity problem may be obtained without seeking simulateneous solutions to the equations of motion. Fig. One may attempt to seek solutions by making certain assumptions or guesses about the components of strain stress or displacement while leaving enough freedom in these assumptions so that the equations of elasticity be satisﬁed. If the assumptions allow us to satisfy the elasticity equations. b) Complex function method of Muskhelisvili (most useful in problems with stress concentration).

5-a) (10.4-b) (10.6) dx1 Physically.1: Torsion of a Circular Bar where θ = θ(x1 ). The ﬁrst one j = 1 is identically satisﬁed.3-b) (10.3-c) 28 We need to check that this state of stress satisﬁes equilibrium ∂Tij /∂xj = 0.3-a) (10. this means that equilibrium is only satisﬁed if the increment in angular rotation (twist per unit length) is a constant. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . dθ ≡ θ = constant (10. whereas the other two yield 29 −µx3 d2 θ = 0 dx2 1 d2 θ µx2 2 = 0 dx1 (10.Draft 10–2 SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS X2 MT n θ a n X1 MT X3 L Figure 10.5-b) thus. 27 The corresponding strains are given by E11 = E22 = E33 = 0 1 ∂θ E12 = − x3 2 ∂x1 1 ∂θ x2 E13 = 2 ∂x1 The non zero stress components are obtained from Hooke’s law T12 = −µx3 T13 ∂θ ∂x1 ∂θ = µx2 ∂x1 (10.4-a) (10.

10-e) (x2 T31 − x3 T21 )dA = µθ M2 = M3 = 0 We note that (x2 + x3 )2 dA is the polar moment of inertia of the cross section and 2 3 is equal to J = πa4 /2.10-d) (10.7) µ (−x2 x3 θ + x2 x3 θ )e1 = 0 (10. in terms of the twisting couple M.2.Draft 30 10.8) a which is in agreement with the fact that the bar is twisted by end moments only.10-c) (10. the lateral surface is traction free.12) 10. On the lateral surface we have 1 a unit normal vector n = a (x2 e2 + x3 e3 ). 33 From the last equation we note that θ = M (10.10-a) (10.2 10. 34 Finally.9) this distribution of surface traction on the end face gives rise to the following resultants R1 = R2 = R3 = M1 = T11 dA = 0 T21 dA = µθ T31 dA = µθ x3 dA = 0 x2 dA = 0 (x2 + x2 )dA = µθ J 2 3 (10. t= 32 Substituting.1 35 Airy Stress Functions Cartesian Coordinates.11) µJ which implies that the shear modulus µ can be determined froma simple torsion experiment. and we also note that x2 dA = x3 dA = 0 because the area is symmetric with respect to the axes. On the face x1 = L. the stress tensor becomes 0 M x2 J [T] = − MJx3 − MJx3 0 0 M x2 J 0 0 (10. therefore the surface traction on the lateral surface is given by x T 0 T12 T13 0 1 1 2 12 0 x2 = 0 {t} = [T]{n} = T21 0 a T a 0 x 0 0 31 3 31 (10. Plane Strain If the deformation of a cylindrical body is such that there is no axial components of the displacement and that the other components do not depend on the axial coordinate.2 Airy Stress Functions 10–3 We next determine the corresponding surface tractions. we have a unit normal n = e1 and a surface traction t = Te1 = T21 e2 + T31 e3 (10.10-b) (10. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .

16-b) (10.18) (10.14-c) (10.19) then the ﬁrst two equations of equilibrium are automatically satisﬁed. then we have u1 = u1 (x1 .17) (10.e. the equilibrium equations reduce to: ∂T11 ∂T12 + = 0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂T12 ∂T22 + = 0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂T33 =0 ∂x1 we note that since T33 = T33 (x1 . it can be easily veriﬁed that for any arbitrary scalar variable Φ.16-a) (10. x2 ).14-a) (10. satisfy compatibility equations). 38 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . u2 = u2 (x1 .e. This function Φ is called Airy stress function. they satisfy equilibrium). the last equation is always satisﬁed. x2 ).13) and the strain components corresponding to those displacements are E11 = E22 E12 E13 ∂u1 ∂x1 ∂u2 = ∂x2 1 ∂u1 ∂u2 = + 2 ∂x2 ∂x1 = E23 = E33 = 0 (10.16-c) 37 Hence. x2 ). If e3 is the direction corresponding to the cylindrical axis.14-d) and the non-zero stress components are T11 .15) Considering a static stress ﬁeld with no body forces. T12 . they are not necessarily kinematically admissible (i. However. T22 .14-b) (10. (10.Draft 10–4 SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS then the body is said to be in a state of plane strain. if stress components determined this way are statically admissible (i. if we compute the stress components from T11 T22 T12 ∂2Φ = ∂x2 2 2 ∂ Φ = ∂x2 1 ∂2Φ = − ∂x1 ∂x2 (10. u3 = 0 (10. T33 where T33 = ν(T11 + T22 ) 36 (10.

15. and the equilibrium equations the following ∂2 ∂2 + 2 (T11 + T22 ) = 0 or ∇2 (T11 + T22 ) = 0 ∂x2 ∂x2 1 (10. 4. the compatibility equation 10. 5.26-b) (10.26-c) Tyy = Txy = − Victor Saouma m=2 n=0 ∞ ∞ m=1 n=1 Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .23). 10. any function which satisﬁes the preceding equation will satisfy both equilibrium and kinematic and is thus an acceptable elasticity solution.26-a) (10.159.Draft 39 10. we obtain the strains components in terms of Φ from Hooke’s law. 10.21. A systematic way of selecting coeﬃcients begins with ∞ ∞ Φ= m=0 n=0 Cmn xm y n (10. that is not automatically satisﬁed is ∂ 2 E11 ∂ 2 E22 ∂ 2 E12 + =2 (10.2 Airy Stress Functions 10–5 To ensure compatibility of the strain components.23) Hence.20-c) E E ∂x1 ∂x2 For plane strain problems.24) 42 Any polynomial of degree three or less in x and y satisﬁes the biharmonic equation (Eq.1 and Eq.25) 43 The stresses will be given by ∞ ∞ Txx = m=0 n=2 ∞ ∞ n(n − 1)Cmn xm y n−2 m(m − 1)Cmn xm−1 y n mnCmn xm−1 y n−1 (10. 41 We can also obtain from the Hooke’s law.22) ∂4Φ ∂4Φ ∂4Φ +2 2 2 + = 0 or ∇4 Φ = 0 ∂x4 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x4 1 1 (10.20-a) E E ∂x2 ∂x1 1 1 ∂2Φ ∂2Φ = (1 − ν 2 )T22 − ν(1 + ν)T11 = (1 − ν 2 ) 2 − ν(1 + ν) 2 (10.20-b) E E ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂2Φ 1 1 (1 + ν)T12 = − (1 + ν) = (10.21) ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x2 2 1 thus we obtain the following equation governing the scalar function Φ 40 ∂4Φ ∂4Φ ∂4Φ (1 − ν) +2 2 2 + ∂x4 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x4 1 1 or =0 (10. the only compatibility equation. E11 E22 E12 2 1 1 ∂2Φ 2 2 ∂ Φ = (1 − ν )T11 − ν(1 + ν)T22 = (1 − ν ) 2 − ν(1 + ν) 2 (10. Eq.

n−2 +2m(m−1)n(n−1)Cmn +(n+2)(n+1)n(n−1)Cm−2. (m+2)(m+1)m(m−1)Cm+2.30) Example: Cantilever Beam We consider the homogeneous fourth-degree polynomial Φ4 = C40 x4 + C31 x3 y + C22 x2 y 2 + C13 xy 3 + C04 y 4 (10.n−2 +2m(m−1)n(n−1)Cmn +(n+2)(n+1)n(n−1)Cm−2. the recursion relation establishes relationships among groups of three alternate coeﬃcients which can be selected from m=2 n=2 0 0 C20 C30 C40 C50 C60 0 C11 C21 C31 C41 C51 C02 C12 C22 C32 C42 ··· C03 C13 C23 C33 ··· C04 C14 C24 ··· C05 C06 · · · C15 · · · ··· (10.2. depth 2a and length L.1. the term in bracket must be equal to zero. 10.Draft 10–6 44 SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS Substituting into Eq.27) but since the equation must be identically satisﬁed for all x and y.33-b) (10. then (4)(3)(2)(1)C40 + (2)(2)(1)(2)(1)C22 + (4)(3)(2)(1)C04 = 0 or 3C40 + C22 + 3C04 = 0 10. 10.32-a) (10.33-c) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .32-c) These can be used for the end-loaded cantilever beam with width b along the z axis. 46 The stresses are obtained from Eq.28) Hence.32-b) (10.31) with 3C40 + C22 + 3C04 = 0.n+2 ]xm−2 y n−2 = (10.1 45 (10.23 and regrouping we obtain ∞ ∞ [(m+2)(m+1)m(m−1)Cm+2.26-a-10.33-a) (10.n+2 = 0 (10. then Txx = 6C13 xy Tyy = 0 Txy = −3C13 y 2 (10.26-c Txx = 2C22 x2 + 6C13 xy + 12C04 y 2 Tyy = 12C40 x2 + 6C31 xy + 2C22 y 2 Txy = −3C31 x2 − 4C22 xy − 3C13 y 2 (10.29) ··· For example if we consider m = n = 2. 47 If all coeﬃcients except C13 are taken to be zero.

9.39-b) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .2 Airy Stress Functions 10–7 This will give a parabolic shear traction on the loaded end (correct). hence this solution agrees with the elementary beam theory solution Φ = C11 xy + C13 xy 3 = Txx Txy Tyy P 3P xy − 3 xy 3 4ab 4a b P y M = − xy = −M = − I I S P 2 = − (a − y 2 ) 2I = 0 (10. These can be removed by superposing uniform shear stress Txy = +3C13 a2 corresponding to Φ2 = −3C13 a2 xy. the strain components in plane strain are.39-a) (10. 49 (10.38-c) (10.46 Err = Eθθ 1 (1 − ν 2 )Trr − ν(1 + ν)Tθθ E 1 = (1 − ν 2 )Tθθ − ν(1 + ν)Trr E (10.38-d) 10.37-d) 50 We observe that the second moment of area for the rectangular cross section is I = b(2a)3 /12 = 2a3 b/3.2.2. and C11 = −3C13 a2 .37-a) (10.Draft 48 10.37-c) (10. Thus Txy = 3C13 (a2 − y 2 ) note that C20 = C02 = 0.1 51 Polar Coordinates Plane Strain Formulation In polar coordinates.35) hence and the solution is Φ = Txx Txy Tyy (10. Eq.37-b) (10.34) The constant C13 is determined by requiring that P =b a −a −Txy dy = −3bC13 C13 = − P 4a3 b a −a (a2 − y 2)dy (10. but also a uniform shear traction Txy = −3C13 a2 on top and bottom.38-b) (10.2.2 10.36) P 3P xy − 3 xy 3 4ab 4a b 3P = − 3 xy 2a b 3P = − 3 (a2 − y 2) 4a b = 0 (10.38-a) (10.

40-b) Again.42) (10.24.45) ∇2 = 2 + ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ Thus.Draft 10–8 SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS Erθ = Erz 1+ν Trθ E = Eθz = Ezz = 0 (10.41) (10. r dr Tθθ = d2 Φ . the function Φ must satisfy the biharmonic equation 1 ∂ 1 ∂2 ∂2 + + 2 2 ∂r 2 r ∂r r ∂θ 1 ∂ 1 ∂2 ∂2 + + 2 2 ∂r 2 r ∂r r ∂θ = 0 or ∇4 = 0 (10. we note that T11 + T22 is the ﬁrst scalar invariant of the stress tensor. using Mathematica: Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .2. we have Trr = 1 dΦ .39-d) and the equations of equilibrium are 1 ∂Trr 1 ∂Tθr Tθθ + − = 0 r ∂r r ∂θ r 1 ∂Trθ 1 ∂Tθθ + = 0 r 2 ∂r r ∂θ 52 (10. dr 2 Trθ = 0 (10.40-a) (10. 10. To derive the equivalent expression in cylindrical coordinates. it can be easily veriﬁed that the equations of equilibrium are identically satisﬁed 1 ∂Φ 1 ∂2Φ + 2 2 r ∂r r ∂θ 2 ∂ Φ = ∂r 2 ∂ 1 ∂Φ = − ∂r r ∂θ if Trr = Tθθ Trθ 53 (10.2.43) In order to satisfy the compatibility conditions. the Laplacian operator takes the following form 1 ∂2 ∂2 1 ∂ + 2 2 (10.44) 54 We also note that in cylindrical coordinates. therefore T11 + T22 = Trr + Tθθ = 1 ∂2Φ ∂2Φ 1 ∂Φ + 2 2 + 2 r ∂r r ∂θ ∂r (10.39-c) (10.2 56 Axially Symmetric Case If Φ is a function of r only.46) 55 10.48) 57 The general solution to this problem. the cartesian stress components must also satisfy Eq.47) and 1 d2 Φ 1 dΦ d4 Φ 2 d3 Φ + − 2 2 + 3 =0 4 3 dr r dr r dr r dr (10.

Draft 58 10. subjected to internal and external pressures pi and po respectively.2. then the boundary conditions for the plane strain problem are Trr = −pi at r = a Trr = −po at r = b (10.1) 1 (1 + ν)A ∂ur = + (1 − 3ν − 4ν 2 )B + 2(1 − ν − 2ν 2 )B ln r + 2(1 − ν − 2ν 2 )C 2 ∂r E r 1 1 ∂uθ ur (1 + ν)A + = = − + (3 − ν − 4ν 2 )B + 2(1 − ν − 2ν 2 )B ln r + 2(1 − ν − 2ν 2 )C r ∂θ r E r2 = 0 Err = Eθθ Erθ 59 (10 (10 (10 Finally.3 60 If we consider a circular cylinder with internal and external radii a and b respectively.phi[r]. the displacement components can be obtained by integrating the above equations 1 (1 + ν)A − − (1 + ν)Br + 2(1 − ν − 2ν 2 )r ln rB + 2(1 − ν − 2ν 2 )rC E r 4rθB (1 − ν 2 ) = E Example: Thick-Walled Cylinder ur = uθ (10. 9.49) and the strain components are (from Sect. Fig.56) (10. 10.59-c) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .59-b) (10.59-a) (10.57) 10.8.58-b) 61 These Boundary conditions can be easily shown to be satisﬁed by the following stress ﬁeld Trr = Tθθ Trθ A + 2C r2 A = − 2 + 2C r = 0 (10.52) (10.50) (10.2.51) (10.2.58-a) (10.2 Airy Stress Functions 10–9 DSolve[phi’’’’[r]+2 phi’’’[r]/r-phi’’[r]/r^2+phi’[r]/r^3==0.r] Φ = A ln r + Br 2 ln r + Cr 2 + D The corresponding stress ﬁeld is Trr = Tθθ Trθ A + B(1 + 2 ln r) + 2C r2 A = − 2 + B(3 + 2 ln r) + 2C r = 0 (10.

62 63 Applying the boundary condition we ﬁnd that Trr = −pi Tθθ Trθ (b2 /r 2 ) − 1 1 − (a2 /r 2 ) − p0 (b2 /a2 ) − 1 1 − (a2 /b2 ) (b2 /r 2 ) + 1 1 + (a2 /r 2 ) − p0 = pi 2 2 (b /a ) − 1 1 − (a2 /b2 ) = 0 (10. then uθ = 4rθB (1 − ν 2 ) and this is not acceptable E because if we were to start at θ = 0 and trace a curve around the origin and return to the same point. then the strains are given by Eq. and Tθθ is always positive.61) (10.63-b) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . We note that if we take B = 0.62) 64 We note that if only the internal pressure pi is acting.63-a) (10.55. 10. 10. 65 If the cylinder is thick. For a very thin cylinder in the axial direction. then Trr is always a compressive stress.Draft 10–10 SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS Saint Venant po a p i b Figure 10.51 and 10.54 and 10. then the strains will be given by Err = Eθθ 1 du = (Trr − νTθθ ) dr E 1 u = (Tθθ − νTrr ) = r E (10. than θ = 2π and the displacement would then be diﬀerent. 10.50.53.60) (10.2: Pressurized Thick Tube These equations are taken from Eq.52 with B = 0 and therefore represent a possible state of stress for the plane strain problem. 10.

that is ur = ur (r). 10. it is clear due to the spherical symmetry of the geometry and the loading that each particle of the elastic sphere will expereince only a radial displacement whose magnitude depends on r only. away from the hole. and the far-ﬁeld boundary conditions.2.Draft 66 10.5 69 Example: Stress Concentration due to a Circular Hole in a Plate Analysing the inﬁnite plate under uniform tension with a circular hole of diameter a. this would would suggest a stress function Φ of the form Φ = σ0 y 2 . ∂2Φ 71 Tyy = Txy = 0 (10.63-d) It should be noted that applying Saint-Venant’s principle the above solution is only valid away from the ends of the cylinder. whereas the ones around the hole should be written in polar coordinate system.4. 70 The peculiarity of this problem is that the far-ﬁeld boundary conditions are better expressed in cartesian coordinates. p i po a i ao Figure 10.2.64) 10.2. the presence of the circular hole would suggest a polar representation of Φ. From St Venant principle.65) Recalling (Eq.2 Airy Stress Functions 10–11 Ezz = Erθ ν dw = (Trr + Tθθ ) dz E (1 + ν) Trθ = E (10. and subjected to internal and external pressures of pi and po . Fig.63-c) (10. Thus. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .3: Pressurized Hollow Sphere 68 With respect to the spherical ccordinates (r.4 67 We consider next a hollow sphere with internal and xternal radii ai and ao respectively. First we select a stress function which satisﬁes the biharmonic Equation (Eq. the boundary conditions are given by: Txx = σ0 . θ. Example: Hollow Sphere 10. Fig. 10. φ). 10. substituting y = r sin θ would result in Φ = σ0 r 2 sin2 θ. 10.2.19) that Txx = ∂y2 .23).3. uθ = uφ = 0 (10. and subjected to a uniform stress σ0 . Alternatively.

9.4: Circular Hole in an Inﬁnite Plate 72 Since sin2 θ = 1 (1 − cos 2θ).70-a) (10. 10.70-b) (10.68) thus the stress function becomes Φ = Ar 2 + Br 4 + C 1 + D cos 2θ r2 (10. the stresses in polar coordinates are obtained from Eq.43.66) Substituting this function into the biharmonic equation (Eq.67-b) 73 The general solution of this ordinary linear fourth order diﬀerential equation is f (r) = Ar 2 + Br 4 + C 1 +D r2 (10.41-10.67-a) (10. we could simplify the stress function into 2 Φ = f (r) cos 2θ (10.35 Trr Trθ Trθ Tθθ = cos θ − sin θ sin θ cos θ σ0 0 0 0 cos θ − sin θ sin θ cos θ T (10.Draft 10–12 b σo a SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS y τr θ σrr σrr b σo x a b a σrr τ rθ θ θ θ I II Figure 10.70-c) 74 Next we seek to solve for the four constants of integration by applying the boundary conditions.71) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Outer boundaries: around an inﬁnitely large circle of radius b inside a plate subjected to uniform stress σ0 . the stresses are given by Trr = Tθθ Trθ 1 ∂2Φ 1 ∂Φ 6C 4D + 2 2 = − 2A + 4 + 2 cos 2θ r ∂r r ∂θ r r ∂2Φ 6C = = 2A + 12Br 2 + 4 cos 2θ ∂r 2 r ∂ 1 ∂Φ 6C 2D = − = 2A + 6Br 2 − 4 − 2 sin 2θ ∂r r ∂θ r r (10.69) Using Eq. 10. We will identify two sets of boundary conditions: 1.46) yields 1 ∂2 ∂2 1 ∂ + 2 2 + ∂r 2 r ∂r r ∂θ d2 1 d − + dr 2 r dr 1 ∂2Φ ∂ 2 Φ 1 ∂Φ + 2 2 + ∂r 2 r ∂r r ∂θ 2 4 4f d f 1 df − 2 + r2 dr 2 r dr r = 0 = 0 (10.

we must superimpose the one of a thick cylinder subjected to a uniform radial traction σ0 /2 on the outer surface. into state I and II: 1 σ0 (10. we obtain: a4 σ0 .73-d.75-c) (10.73-a) 2 (Trθ )I (10. and 10. = 0 (i. 1 (10.73-c. 4 B = 0.75-b) (10.73-c) σ0 cos 2θ r=b 2 1 (Trθ )II = σ0 sin 2θ (10.72-a and 10.74-a.Draft 10.73-b) r=b = 0 1 (Trr )II = (10. (Trr )I r=b = 2. Hence. 10.72-b) σ0 sin 2θ 2 σ0 (Tθθ )r=b = (1 − cos 2θ) (10.75-a) (10. only the last two equations will provide us with boundary conditions. 10.72-c) 2 For reasons which will become apparent later. This problem has already been previously solved. and with b much greater than a.75-d) 76 Solving for the four unknowns.70-a the four boundary conditions (Eq.74-b) become 6C b4 6C 2A + 6Bb2 − 4 b 6C − 2A + 4 a 6C 2A + 6Ba2 − 4 a − 2A + 4D b2 2D − 2 b 4D + 2 a 2D − 2 a + a b 1 σ0 2 1 = σ0 2 = = 0 = 0 (10.e.72-b. 10. and cos2 θ = 1/2(1 + cos 2θ)).2 Airy Stress Functions 10–13 yielding (recalling that sin2 θ = 1/2 sin 2θ.76) C=− 77 To this solution.74-b) 75 Upon substitution in Eq. 10. 4 D= a2 σ0 2 (10.74-a) (10.72-a) (Trr )r=b = σ0 cos2 θ = σ0 (1 + cos 2θ) 2 1 (Trθ )r=b = (10. These Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . Around the hole: the stresses should be equal to zero: (Trr )r=a = 0 (Trθ )r=a = 0 (10. it is more convenient to decompose the state of stress given by Eq. 10. and taking A=− σ0 .73-d) r=b 2 Where state I corresponds to a thick cylinder with external pressure applied on r = b and of magnitude σ0 /2. an inﬁnite plate).

61 yielding for this problem (carefull about the sign) Trr = Tθθ σ0 a2 1− 2 2 r σ0 a2 = 1+ 2 2 r (10.77-b) Thus.Draft 10–14 SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS stresses were derived in Eqs. 79 Alternatively.78-a) (10.79) which for θ = π and 2 θ = π. 10. at the edge of the hole when r = a we obtain Trr = Trθ = 0 and (Tθθ )r=a = σ0 (1 − 2 cos 2θ) (10.72-a and 10. 10. upon substitution into Eq.78-c) 78 We observe that as r → ∞. both Trr and Trθ are equal to the values given in Eq.70-a.78-b) (10.60 and 10. For θ = 0 and Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . we obtain Trr = Tθθ Trθ σ0 a2 a4 4a2 1 1− 2 + 1+3 4 − 2 σ0 cos 2θ 2 r r r 2 σ0 a2 3a4 1 σ0 cos 2θ = 1+ 2 − 1+ 4 2 r r 2 3a4 2a2 1 = − 1− 4 + 2 σ0 sin 2θ r r 2 (10.72-b respectively. Tθθ = −σ0 . 3π 2 gives a stress concentration factor (SCF) of 3. 10.77-a) (10.

?? we showed that around a circular hole in an inﬁnite plate under uniform traction. we do have a stress concentration factor of 3.1 20 Introduction In Eq. and that for a degenerated ellipse. i. x2 σο α = αo x 2b 1 2a σο Figure 11.1: Elliptical Hole in an Inﬁnite Plate . it can be shown that if we have an elliptical hole. we recover the stress concentration factor of 3 of a circular hole. we would have (σββ )β=0.1) 21 We observe that for a = b.Draft Chapter 11 THEORETICAL STRENGTH OF PERFECT CRYSTALS This chapter (taken from the author’s lecture notes in Fracture Mechanics) is of primary interest to students in Material Science. Alternatively. Fig. ??. Following a similar approach (though with curvilinear coordinates).e a crack there is an inﬁnite stress.π = σ0 1 + 2 α=α0 a b (11. 11.

the radius of curvature of the ellipse.Draft 11–2 Strength (P/A) THEORETICAL STRENGTH OF PERFECT CRYSTALS Theoretical Strength Diameter Figure 11. Fig.600. as the diameter was further reduced. furthermore. can it be derived? 2. 25 Clearly. 22 This equation. derived by Inglis. the failure strength asymptotically approached a limit which will be shown later to be the theoretical strength of glass. (σββ )β=0. or a stress singularity.. He observed that the tensile strength (σ t ) of glass decreased with an increase in diam1 eter. So Griﬃth was confronted with two questions: 1.000 psi. yet it was not. we note that the stress concentration factor is inversely proportional to the radius of curvature of an opening. Griﬃth was exploring the theoretical strength of solids by performing a series of experiments on glass rods of various diameters.π = σ0 1 + 2 α=α0 a ρ (11. 11.2. What is this apparent theoretical strength. by extrapolation to “zero” diameter he obtained a theoretical maximum strength of approximately 1. shows that if a = b we recover the factor of 3.000 in. as b = 0 we would have a crack resulting in an inﬁnite stress concentration factor.3) Furthermore. and that for a diameter φ ≈ 10.2: Griﬃth’s Experiments the stress can be expressed in terms of ρ. 23 Around 1920. In the limit. one would have expected the failure strength to be constant. 24 Area A1 < A2 < A3 < A4 Failure Load P1 < P2 < P3 > P4 t t t t Failure Strength (P/A) σ1 > σ2 > σ3 > σ4 (11.000 psi.2) From this equation. Why is there a size eﬀect for the actual strength? Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . and on the other hand for very large diameters the asymptotic values was around 25. 000 psi. and the stress concentration factor increase as the ratio a/b increases. σt = 500.

insect walking on liquid) work is done against this tension. 11. Solution I: Force being the derivative of energy. For solids.2 27 Theoretical Strength We start.4. Fig. 1 From watching raindrops and bubbles it is obvious that liquid water has surface tension. Surface energy γ is expressed in J/m2 and the surface energies of water. then the strain would be equal to ε = a0 . 11. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .4) where γ is the surface energy1 . the chemical bonds are stronger than for liquids. most solids.Draft 11. When insects walk on water it sinks until the surface energy just balances the decrease in its potential energy. hence the surface energy is stronger. Hence.14 respectively. 11. the slope of the force displacement curve is the stiﬀness of the atomic spring and should x be related to E.077. 1.0. and is maximum at the inﬂection point of the U0 − a curve.3. When the surface of a liquid is extended (soap bubble. we have two distinct surfaces. If we let x = a − a0 . and 5. The total energy which must be supplied to separate atom C from C’ is U0 = 2γ (11.3: Uniformly Stressed Layer of Atoms Separated by a0 The answers to those two questions are essential to establish a link between Mechanics and Materials. [?] by exploring the energy of interaction between two adjacent atoms at equilibrium separated by a distance a0 . thus F = 0 at a = a0 . 11. and energy is stored in the new surface. we have F = dU .1 28 Ideal Strength in Terms of Physical Parameters We shall ﬁrst derive an expression for the ideal strength in terms of physical parameters. 26 In the next sections we will show that the theoretical strength is related to the force needed to break a bond linking adjacent atoms.2 Theoretical Strength 11–3 Figure 11. da Fig. and the factor of 2 is due to the fact that upon separation. and in the next section the strength will be expressed in terms of engineering ones. and that the size eﬀect is caused by the size of imperfections inside a solid. and diamonds are approximately .2. The reason why we do not notice it is that solids are too rigid to be distorted by it.

From this diagram.Draft 11–4 Energy THEORETICAL STRENGTH OF PERFECT CRYSTALS a 0 Interatomic Distance Force Repulsion Attraction Interatomic Distance Figure 11. 11.7) λ theor 2πλ σmax [− cos ( ) + cos(0)] = 2π 2λ 2γπ ⇒λ = theor σmax Ex 2πx ≈ λ a0 E λ a0 2π (11. if we deﬁne the stress as σ = a2 . and from Eq.5) λ theor and the maximum stress σmax would occur at x = λ . it would appear that the sine curve would be an adequate approximation to this relationship.10) elliminating x.11) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .6) (11.4: Energy and Force Binding Two Adjacent Atoms F Furthermore. theor σmax ≈ (11. then the σ − ε curve will be as shown 0 in Fig. x theor σ = σmax sin 2π (11. 11.9) Also for very small displacements (small x) sin x ≈ x.5 reduces to theor σ ≈ σmax (11.5.4.8) (11. Hence. 11. we would have 2γ = U0 = x dx λ 0 2πx λ λ theor 2 σmax [− cos ( )] |0 = 2π λ theor σmax sin 2π −1 1 λ 2 (11. thus Eq. The energy required to 4 separate two atoms is thus given by the area under the sine curve.

11.12 we would have: theor σmax ≈ (2 × 1011 )(1) 2 × 10−10 N ≈ 3. U = 2γ ⇒ theor (σmax )2 a0 2E theor = 2γ or σmax = 2 γE a0 Note that here we have assumed that the material obeys Hooke’s Law up to failure.16) (11.12) Solution II: For two layers of atoms a0 apart. For our theoretical strength.13) If γ is the surface energy of the solid per unit area. we get theor σmax ≈ Eγ a0 (11.17) Thus this would be the ideal theoretical strength of steel.5: Stress Strain Relation at the Atomic Level Substituting for λ from Eq. since this is seldom the case.Draft 11.15) (11. let us consider steel which has the following properties: γ = J N 1 m2 .12 Example: As an example. 11. and a0 ≈ 2 × 10−10 m. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .9.14) which is the same as Equation 11. the strain energy per unit area due to σ (for linear elastic systems) is U = 1 σεao 2 σ = Eε U= σ 2 ao 2E (11. Thus from Eq.16 × 1010 2 m E ≈ 6 (11. then the total surface energy of two new fracture surfaces is 2γ.2 Theoretical Strength 11–5 Figure 11. E = 2 × 1011 m2 . we can simplify this approximation to: theor σmax = Eγ a0 (11.

combined with Eq.Draft 11–6 THEORETICAL STRENGTH OF PERFECT CRYSTALS 11. a 1. for an ideal plate under tension with only one Asssuming ρ ≈ a0 and since 2 a0 single elliptical ﬂaw the strength may be obtained from theor act σmax = 2σcr a a0 (11. 11.9 with λ = 2a gives γπ a ≈ theor σmax E a0 a π 2 (11. 11.12 will ﬁnally give E theor σmax ≈ √ 10 (11. since as a ﬁrst order approximation a ≈ a0 then the surface energy will be γ≈ Ea0 10 (11. Griﬃth Theory In his quest for an explanation of the size eﬀect.22) which is an approximate expression for the theoretical maximum strength in terms of E.2 29 Ideal Strength in Terms of Engineering Parameter We note that the force to separate two atoms drops to zero when the distance between them is a0 + a where a0 corresponds to the origin and a to λ . combined with Eq. Griﬃth postulated that the theoretical strength can only be reached at the point of highest stress concentration.18) 30 Alternatively combining Eq. Thus.21) This equation. 11. and from equation 11. Griﬃth came across Inglis’s paper. Hence.24) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .3 32 Size Eﬀect. and his “strike of genius” was to assume that strength is reduced due to the presence of internal ﬂaws.23) act σ is the stress at the tip of the ellipse which is caused by a (lower) far ﬁeld stress σcr . assuming an elliptical imperfection.11 would yield theor σmax ≈ Ea a0 π (11.20) However.19) Combining those two equations will give γ≈ 31 (11. and accordingly the far-ﬁeld applied stress will be much smaller.2 theor act σmax = σcr 1 + 2 33 a ρ (11. 11.2. if we take a = λ or 2 2 λ = 2a.

000a0 act σcr γ = = Eγ 4a Ea0 10 act σcr a a0 = σ act = = 2.28) Therefore at failure act = σcr theor σmax = theor σmax 200 E 10 act σcr ≈ E 2. we obtain theor act σmax = 2σcr a = ao Eγ a0 Micro (11.000 E 2. 11. The right hand side is based on the theoretical strength derived from the sinusoidal stress-strain assumption of the interatomic forces.Draft 11.000 (11.26) As an example. Griﬃth Theory 11–7 hence. we observe that 1.29) which can be attained. Finally.3 Size Eﬀect.000 = E √ 100 10 (11.25) Macro From this very important equation. For instance for steel = = 15 ksi Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 000a0 in γ ≈ Ea0 this is enough to lower the 10 E √ theoretical fracture strength from √10 to a critical value of magnitude 100E 10 . As an example theor act σmax = 2σcr aao a = 10−6 m = 1µ ao = 1˚ = ρ = 10−10 m A theor act σmax = 2σcr 10−6 act = 200σcr −10 10 (11. or a factor of 100.27) Thus if we set a ﬂaw size of 2a = 5. 000 30. equating with Eq. this equation would give (at fracture) act σcr = Eγ 4a (11. 500 cr E 2 ao 40 a E2 100. and ﬁnds its roots in microphysics.000 2. 2.12. The left hand side is based on a linear elastic solution of a macroscopic problem solved by Inglis. let us consider a ﬂaw with a size of 2a = 5.

Draft 11–8 THEORETICAL STRENGTH OF PERFECT CRYSTALS Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

Beam theory is perhaps the most successful theory in all of structural mechanics. we could either resort to numerical methods (such as the ﬁnite diﬀerence. and the 15 equations and 15 variables we introduced.1 20 Introduction In the preceding chapters we have focused on the behavior of a continuum. it is customary to consider as internal variables the resultant of the stresses as was shown in Sect. to widen the scope of application of the fundamental theory developed previously. in general. or a plate respectively. and it forms the basis of structural analysis which is so dear to Civil and Mechanical engineers. ??. or we could further simplify the problem. . or boundary elements). ﬁnite element. have certain peculiar geometric features amenable to a reduction from three to fewer dimensions. 12. or 1D for axially symmetric problems. 1 So 25 26 far we have restricted ourselves to a continuum. few problems can be solved analytically. In the preceding chapter we saw a few of those solutions.Draft Chapter 12 BEAM THEORY This chapter is adapted from the Author’s lecture notes in Structural Analysis. 21 In practice. Hence. If one dimension of the structural element1 under consideration is much greater or smaller than the other three. in this chapter we will consider a structural element. Hence. and even with computer it is quite diﬃcult to view every object as a three dimensional one. were all derived for an inﬁnitesimal element. then we have a shell. That is why we introduced the 2D simpliﬁcation (plane stress/strain). 22 Solid bodies. If the plate is curved. This will however be preceded by an introduction to Statics as the internal forces would also have to be in equilibrium with the external ones. this chapter will focus on a brief introduction to beam theory. than we have a beam. 23 24 For those structural elements.

2.1 27 Any structural element. must satisfy equilibrium. Not all equations are applicable to all structures.1) 30 In a 2D cartesian coordinate system there are a total of 3 independent equations of equilibrium: ΣFx = ΣFy = ΣMz = 0 (12. in a static system must be equal to zero2 . for internal forces (shear and moment) we must use the actual load distribution. Summation of the moments can be taken with respect to any arbitrary point.2) 31 All the externally applied forces on a structure must be in equilibrium. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Frame. and C are not colinear. or part of it.Draft 12–2 BEAM THEORY 12. Frame Beams. For reaction calculations. Beam Grid 3D Truss. ΣMz . Beam Equations ΣFx ΣFy ΣFy ΣMx ΣMx ΣMy ΣMy ΣMz ΣMz ΣMz 35 ΣFz ΣFx ΣFy ΣFz Alternate Set A B ΣMz ΣMz A B ΣFx ΣMz ΣMz A B C ΣMz ΣMz ΣMz Table 12. 36 2 In 3 However a dynamic system ΣF = ma where m is the mass and a is the acceleration. the externally applied load may be reduced to an equivalent force3 . Reactions are accordingly determined. 28 29 In a 3D cartesian coordinate system there are a total of 6 independent equations of equilibrium: ΣFx = ΣFy = ΣFz = 0 ΣMx = ΣMy = ΣMz = 0 (12. ΣMz provided that A. Summation of forces and moments. no axial forces 2D Truss.1: Equations of Equilibrium The three conventional equations of equilibrium in 2D: ΣFx .1 Structure Type Beam. Table 12. B. ΣFy and ΣMz can be A B C replaced by the independent moment equations ΣMz . 32 33 34 Whereas forces are represented by a vector. no axial Force 2 D Truss. moments are also vectorial quantities and are represented by a curved arrow or a double arrow vector.2 Statics Equilibrium 12. Frame.

Reactions 40 12.2 Statics 37 38 12–3 It is always preferable to check calculations by another equation of equilibrium. 1. 43 Figure 12. Depending on the type of structures. it is often easier to start by determining the reactions. 42 Once the reactions are determined. in 3D structures a roller may provide restraint in one or two directions.Draft 12. The external forces give rise to the (non-zero) shear and moment diagram.2 41 In the analysis of structures. 39 Summation of external forces is equal and opposite to the internal ones (more about this below). Fig. Before you write an equation of equilibrium. internal forces (shear and moment) are determined next. 12. internal stresses and/or deformations (deﬂections and rotations) are determined last. Arbitrarily decide which is the +ve direction 2. The right hand side of the equation should be zero If your reaction is negative.1. then it will be in a direction opposite from the one assumed. ﬁnally. Assume a direction for the unknown quantities 3.1: Types of Supports Roller: provides a restraint in only one direction in a 2D structure. there can be diﬀerent types of support conditions. Thus the net force/moment is equal to zero.2. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Hinge: allows rotation but no displacements. A roller will allow rotation.

2. 46 Rx Sy = Ry Sx (12. Fig. 12. Fig.2.3 44 Equations of Conditions If a structure has an internal hinge (which may connect two or more substructures).4 47 Static Determinacy In statically determinate structures.g. area. length.2. then the reaction R would have. reactions depend also on the material properties (e.2: Inclined Roller Support 12.3) Figure 12.3. then this will provide an additional equation (ΣM = 0 at the hinge) which can be exploited to determine the reactions.Draft 12–4 BEAM THEORY Fixed Support: will prevent rotation and displacements in all directions. Young’s and/or shear modulus) and element cross sections (e. 50 Failure of one support in a statically determinate system results in the collapse of the structures. boundary conditions and loads. 45 Those equations are often exploited in trusses (where each connection is a hinge) to determine reactions. For statically indeterminate structures. In an inclined roller support with Sx and Sy horizontal and vertical projection.g. If the reactions can not be determined simply from the equations of static equilibrium (and equations of conditions if present). then the reactions of the structure are said to be statically indeterminate. moment of inertia). 12. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics 51 Victor Saouma . Thus a statically indeterminate structure is safer than a statically determinate one. reactions depend only on the geometry. 12. 48 49 The degree of static indeterminacy is equal to the diﬀerence between the number of reactions and the number of equations of equilibrium (plus the number of equations of conditions if applicable).

All reactions are concurrent.2. Fig. 12.6 Examples Example 12-1: Simply Supported Beam Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Geometric instability will occur if: 1. this can be shown if the determinant of the equations of equilibrium is equal to zero (or the equations are inter-dependent). 53 Figure 12.Draft 12. that is a mechanism is present in the structure.2 Statics 12–5 Figure 12.2.3: Examples of Static Determinate and Indeterminate Structures 12. 54 Mathematically.4: Geometric Instability Caused by Concurrent Reactions 3. 2.5 52 Geometric Instability The stability of a structure is determined not only by the number of reactions but also by their arrangement. The number of reactions is smaller than the number of equations of equilibrium. All reactions are parallel and a non-parallel load is applied to the structure. 12.4.

With reference to Fig. (60)(6) + (48)(12) − (Rdy )(18) = 0 ⇒ Rdy = 52 ✁ ) ΣM d = 0. ⇒ Rax − 36 k = 0 (+ ✻ ΣFy = 0. 4 Note that this sign convention is the opposite of the one commonly used in Europe! Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 12. is the one commonly used for design purposes4 . we have 3 equations of static equilibrium. hence it is statically determinate.Draft 12–6 BEAM THEORY Determine the reactions of the simply supported beam shown below.5 56 Load Positive along the beam’s local y axis (assuming a right hand side convention). 56 − 52 − 60 − 48 = 0 √ 12. Axial: tension positive. (R )(18) − (60)(12) − (48)(6) = 0 ⇒ R = 56 (+ ✛ ✁ ay ay z k ✻ k ✻ Check: ) (+ ✻ ΣFy = 0. that is positive upward. ⇒ Ray + Rdy − 60 k − (4) k/ft(12) ft = 0 ) ) ΣM c = 0.1 55 Shear & Moment Diagrams Design Sign Conventions Before we derive the Shear-Moment relations. . The sign convention adopted here.3 12. let us arbitrarily deﬁne a sign convention.3. ⇒ 12R − 6R − (60)(6) = 0 (+ ✛ ✁ ay dy z or through matrix inversion (on your calculator) 36 Rax 36 k Rax 1 0 0 1 Ray = 108 ⇒ Ray = 56 k 0 1 R 52 k 0 12 −6 Rdy 360 dy Alternatively we could have used another set of equations: a (+ ✛) ΣMz = 0. (+ ✲ ) ΣFx = 0. Solution: The beam has 3 reactions.

a positive moment is one which causes tension along the inner side. 59 Since dx is inﬁnitesimally small. For frame members. Shear A positive shear force is one which is “up” on a negative face. Fig.2 57 Load.Draft 12. a pair of positive shear forces will cause clockwise rotation. Alternatively. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . shear and moment. therefore we assume w(x) to be constant along dx.3. The Figure 12.6. as in all other ones we should assume all quantities to be positive. 5 In this derivation. 58 There are no axial forces. Considering an inﬁnitesimal length dx of a beam subjected to a positive load5 w(x). Moment Relations Let us derive the basic relations between load. we add the diﬀerential quantities dVx and dMx to Vx and Mx on the right face. 60 To denote that a small change in shear and moment occurs over the length dx of the element.6: Free Body Diagram of an Inﬁnitesimal Beam Segment inﬁnitesimal section must also be in equilibrium. Shear. thus we only have two equations of equilibrium to satisfy ΣFy = 0 and ΣMz = 0. 12. and compression in the upper ones. 12. or “down” on a positive one.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams 12–7 Figure 12.5: Shear and Moment Sign Conventions for Design Flexure A positive moment is one which causes tension in the lower ﬁbers. the small variation in load along it can be neglected.

9) ∆M21 = M2 − M1 = The change in moment between 1 and 2.Draft 12–8 61 BEAM THEORY Next considering the ﬁrst equation of equilibrium (+ ✻ ΣFy = 0 ⇒ Vx + wx dx − (Vx + dVx ) = 0 ) or dV = w(x) dx (12. 63 Alternative forms of the preceding equations can be obtained by integration V = w(x)dx x2 x1 (12. is equal to the area under the shear curve between x1 and x2 .5) The slope of the moment curve at any point along the axis of a member is given by the shear at that point. and M = V (x)dx x2 x1 (12. ∆V21 . ∆M21 . is equal to the area under the load between x1 and x2 . 62 Similarly (+ ✛) ΣMo = 0 ⇒ Mx + Vx dx − wx dx ✁ dx − (Mx + dMx ) = 0 2 Neglecting the dx2 term. It can be shown that the equilibrium of forces and of moments equations are nothing ∂T else than the three dimensional linear momentum ∂xij + ρbi = ρ dvi and moment of dt j d (r×t)dS + (r×ρb)dV = (r×ρv)dV equations satisﬁed on the momentum dt V S V average over the cross section.8) V (x)dx (12.4) The slope of the shear curve at any point along the axis of a member is given by the load curve at that point. 65 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 64 Note that we still need to have V1 and M1 in order to obtain V2 and M2 respectively. this simpliﬁes to dM = V (x) dx (12.7) ∆V21 = Vx2 − Vx1 = The change in shear between 1 and 2.6) w(x)dx (12.

3 Shear & Moment Diagrams 12–9 Examples Example 12-2: Simple Shear and Moment Diagram Draw the shear and moment diagram for the beam shown below Solution: The free body diagram is drawn below Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 12.3.3 12.

. thereby creating a longitudinal strain εx .1. −14 k is also the reaction previously determined at F . At B the shear drops (negative load) by 11 k to 2 k. Moment is determined last: 1. Fig. As a check. 3. It stays constant up to D and then it decreases (constant negative slope since the load is uniform and negative) by 2 k per linear foot up to −14 k.4 12. 2. At A the shear is equal to the reaction and is positive. 4. 12.11) To evaluate this strain. 3. 12..4. etc.10) dx ρ (12.12. Curvature Fig. Except for the neutral surface all other longitudinal ﬁbers either lengthen or shorten. 2. The moment at A is zero (hinge support). 1. or ∆MB−A = (13)(4) = 52. ⇒ −RAx + 6 = 0 ⇒ RAx = 6 k ) ΣM = 0.Draft 12–10 BEAM THEORY Reactions are determined from the equilibrium equations ✛ (+ ) ΣFx = 0. its original length is 67 EF = dx = ρdθ and dθ = 68 (12. 5. support conditions. At C it drops again by 8 k to −6 k. Considering a segment EF of length dx at a distance y from the neutral axis. ⇒ (11)(4) + (8)(10) + (4)(2)(14 + 2) − R (18) = 0 ⇒ R = 14 k (+ ✛ ✁ A Fy Fy (+ ✻ ΣFy = 0. The change in moment between A and B is equal to the area under the corresponding shear diagram. It is assumed that plane cross-sections normal to the length of the unbent beam remain plane after the beam is bent.12) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .1 66 Beam Theory Basic Kinematic Assumption. ⇒ RAy − 11 − 8 − (4)(2) + 14 = 0 ⇒ RAy = 13 k ) Shear are determined next.7 shows portion of an originally straight beam which has been bent to the radius ρ by end couples M. we consider the deformed length E F E F = (ρ − y)dθ = ρdθ − ydθ = dx − y dx ρ (12.

14) (12. In some textbook.4 Beam Theory 12–11 O +ve Curvature.7: Deformation of a Beam under Pure Bending The strain is now determined from: dx − y dx − dx E F − EF ρ εx = = EF dx or after simpliﬁcation εx = − y ρ (12.15) εx = −κy 70 (12. -ve Bending ρ M M Neutral Axis E’ F’ Y dA E F X Z dx Figure 12. ρ (Greek letter rho) is the radius of curvature. Later Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) made signiﬁcant contributions to the theory of beam deﬂection. the curvature κ (Greek letter kappa) is also used where 69 κ= thus. who did not make it quite right.Draft 12. 1 ρ (12. +ve bending dθ -ve Curvature.16) It should be noted that Galileo (1564-1642) was the ﬁrst one to have made a contribution to beam theory. Thus strains are proportional to the distance from the neutral axis. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . This crucial assumption was made later on by Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705).13) where y is measured from the axis of rotation (neutral axis). yet he failed to make the right assumption for the planar cross section. and ﬁnally it was Navier (1785-1836) who clariﬁed the issue of the kinematic hypothesis.

21) or the ﬁrst moment of the cross section with respect to the z axis is zero.4. we conclude that ydA = 0 A (12. 75 12.19) where σx was given by Eq.17) 72 where E is Young’s Modulus. Hence we need to relate strain to stress. the internal forces must also satisfy the equilibrium equations.20-a) But since the curvature κ and the modulus of elasticity E are constants. yet later on we will need to consider equilibrium in terms of the stresses. 77 Since there are no external axial forces (unlike a column or a beam-column).3. The internal forces are determined by slicing the beam.4.18) 12. with equation 12.4. Hence we conclude that the neutral axis passes through the centroid of the cross section.18. 73 Combining Eq. For linear elastic material Hooke’s law states σx = Eεx (12. the internal axial forces must be in equilibrium.2 71 Stress-Strain Relations So far we considered the kinematic of the beam. Section Properties Just as external forces acting on a structure must be in equilibrium. 12. substituting we obtain A σx dA = − EκydA = 0 A (12. ΣFx = 0 ⇒ A σx dA = 0 (12. The internal forces on the “cut” section must be in equilibrium with the external forces. Neutral Axis The ﬁrst equation we consider is the summation of axial forces.Draft 12–12 BEAM THEORY 12.1 76 ΣFx = 0. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .3 74 Internal Equilibrium.16 we obtain σx = −Eκy (12.

inserting Eq. the beam formula. We merely substitute Eq.4 81 Beam Formula We now have the ingredients in place to derive one of the most important equations in structures. and a positive moment.3. ✛+ve.22) Int. Moment of Inertia 12–13 The second equation of internal equilibrium which must be satisﬁed is the summation of moments.26) which shows that the curvature of the longitudinal axis of a beam is proportional to the bending moment M and inversely proportional to EI which we call ﬂexural rigidity.4.23. 83 Finally.18 M = − A σx ydA σx = −Eκy 80 M = κE A y 2dA (12.25) 12. M = − ✁ Ext.4 Beam Theory ΣM = 0. 12. M = κE A 82 y 2dA EI M I = a y dA 2 =κ= 1 ρ (12. 79 Substituting Eq.23) We now pause and deﬁne the section moment of inertia with respect to the z axis as I = def A y 2dA (12. where dA is an diﬀerential area a distance y from the neutral axis. the one from the moment diagram at that particular location where the beam was sliced. 12. However contrarily to the summation of axial forces.24 into 12.2 78 12. A σx ydA (12. we will have compressive stresses above the neutral axis. This formula will be extensively used for design of structural components.18 above. we now have an external moment to account for.Draft 12.4. for a positive y (above neutral axis).24) and section modulus as S = def I c (12. we obtain σx = −Eκy M κ = EI σx = − M y I (12. hence ΣMz = 0. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .27) Hence. 12.

25’ Solution: 1.25) in 65.ft Mmax = 8 8 3.4. uniformly loaded.25 in. the maximum ﬁber stresses can be obtained by combining the preceding equation with Equation 12.61 in (12. The maximum moment will be (1) k/ft(20)2 ft2 wL2 = = 50 k. and rigidly connected at the other.14)r 2 (0. and from above Mmax = wL2 .65 = 4.32-b) σmax = (18) ksi = Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .31) 5.67 (12.14)r 3 (0.67 in = ⇒r= 360 360 r3 764 ⇒r= r2 764 = 6.25) in 764 r2 (12. and ∆max ≤ L/360.65 r3 (12. The beam is composed of a steel tube with thickness t = 0.4.000) ksi(3. 000 ksi.25 M (12.5 12. 2.6 Example 12-3: Design Example A 20 ft long.65 = = 0. 185EI and I = πr 3 t.Draft 12–14 84 BEAM THEORY Alternatively. Select the radius such that σmax ≤ 18 ksi.ft(12) in/ft (3. We now set those two values equal to their respective maximum ∆max = (20) ft(12) in/ft L 65.28) σx = − S Limitations of the Beam Theory Example 12.29) ∆ = = = wL4 185Eπr 3 t (1) k/ft(20)4 ft4 (12)3 in3 / ft3 (185)(29. beam is simply supported at one end.51 18 in 3 65. Similarly for the stress σ = M S S = I r I = πr 3 t wL4 185EI 3 (12. 1 k/ft r 20’ 0. 8 ∆max = wL4 .32-a) 0. Steel has E = 29.30) σ = = = M πr 2 t (50) k. We next seek a relation between maximum deﬂection and radius ∆max = I = πr t 4.

Draft 12.4 Beam Theory 12–15 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

Draft 12–16 BEAM THEORY Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

but the methods is obviously applicable to 3D continuum. we often have to use numerical techniques. The ﬁrst principle of thermodynamics (Eq.1-a) (13.1 25 Preliminary Deﬁnitions Work is deﬁned as the product of a force and displacement W dW def = b a F. states 28 .ds (13.1-b) = Fx dx + Fy dy 26 Energy is a quantity representing the ability or capacity to perform work. At the core of the ﬁnite element formulation are the variational formulations (or energy based methods) which will be discussed in this chapter. we shall use beams. Since only the change of energy is involved. in which a diﬀerential equation (or Euler’s equation) is exactly satisﬁed at every point (such as in Finite Diﬀerences). and the weak form where the equation is satisﬁed in an averaged sense (as in ﬁnite elements). any datum can be used as a basis for measure of energy. 22 Since only few problems in continuum mechanics can be solved analytically.Draft Chapter 13 VARIATIONAL METHODS Abridged section from author’s lecture notes in finite elements. 23 24 13. 6. there is a duality between the strong form. Hence energy is neither created nor consumed. 21 As shown in Appendix C. 20 Variational methods provide a powerful method to solve complex problems in continuum mechanics (and other ﬁelds as well). Finite Elements being one of the most powerful and ﬂexible one. 27 The change in energy is proportional to the amount of work performed. For illustrative examples.44).

1.6) U∗ = Victor Saouma def Ω ∗ U0 dΩ (13. sum of the kinetic energy and the internal energy) is equal to the sum of the rate of work done by the external forces and the change of heat content per unit time: d (K dt + U) = We + H (13.Draft 13–2 VARIATIONAL METHODS σ σ U0 A * U0 A U0 A * U0 A Nonlinear ε ε Linear Figure 13. and H the heat input to the system.3) 13.e. U the internal strain energy. W the external work.7) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . the above relation simpliﬁes to: We = U (13.5) 32 The strain energy itself is equal to U def = Ω U0 dΩ (13. Fig.1 U0 = def 0 ε σ:dε (13. 13.1 30 Internal Strain Energy The strain energy density of an arbitrary material is deﬁned as. 29 For an adiabatic system (no heat exchange) and if loads are applied in a quasi static manner (no kinetic energy).2) where K is the kinetic energy..1: *Strain Energy and Complementary Strain Energy The time-rate of change of the total energy (i.4) 31 The complementary strain energy density is deﬁned ∗ U0 = def 0 σ ε:dσ (13.

σ 0 is the initial stress vector. 34 The initial strains and stresses are the result of conditions such as heating or cooling of a system or the presence of pore pressures in a system. in the absence of initial strains and stresses. we ﬁrst deﬁne a stress-strain relationship accounting for both initial strains and stresses σ = D:(ε − ε0 ) + σ 0 (13.10 reduces to U= 1 2 ε Eε dΩ Ω σ (13.1 Preliminary Deﬁnitions 13–3 To obtain a general form of the internal strain energy.Draft 33 13. 13. and σ is the stress vector.8) where D is the constitutive matrix (Hooke’s Law).13) y 2 dA = Iz Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . is the strain vector due to the displacements u.11) 37 When this relation is applied to various one dimensional structural elements it leads to Axial Members: U= εσ dΩ Ω 2 σ=P A P ε = AE dΩ = Adx Flexural Members: U= 1 2 P2 dx 0 AE L (13. Eq. The strain energy U for a linear elastic system is obtained by substituting σ = D:ε with Eq. 0 is the initial strain vector. and for linear elastic systems.9) 35 Ω Ω Ω where Ω is the volume of the system. 36 Considering uniaxial stresses.4 and 13.10) (13.12) U= Ω Mz y σx = Iz y ε = Mzz EI 1 2 ε Eε σ U= 1 2 dΩ = dAdx A M2 dx 0 EIz L (13. 13.8 U= 1 2 εT :D:εdΩ − εT :D:ε0 dΩ + εT :σ 0 dΩ (13.

ˆ is the applied surface traction vector.14) where b is the body force vector. 43 Note that the virtual quantity (displacement or force) is one that we will approximate/guess as long as it meets some admissibility requirements.19) b·δudΩ (13. portion of the boundary where t 39 For point loads and moments. and Γt is that t ˆ is applied. admissible (continuous and satisfying the boundary conditions) change in displacements.1.3 Virtual Work 42 We deﬁne the virtual work done by the load on a body during a small.2 38 External Work External work W performed by the applied loads on an arbitrary system is deﬁned as We = def Ω uT ·bdΩ + Γt uT ·ˆ tdΓ (13.18) 13.16) When this last equation is combined with Pf = K∆f we obtain 1 We = Pf ∆f 2 where K is the stiﬀness of the structure. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . the external work is We = ∆f 0 P d∆ + θf 0 Mdθ (13. 41 (13.17) Similarly for an applied moment we have 1 We = Mf θf 2 (13.Draft 13–4 VARIATIONAL METHODS 13. Internal Virtual Work δWi = − External Virtual Work δWe = def Γt def Ω σ:δεdΩ Ω (13. (P = K∆) we have for point loads P = K∆ We = ∆f 0 P d∆ We = K ∆f 0 1 ∆d∆ = K∆2 f 2 (13.1.15) 40 For linear elastic systems. and u is the displacement.20) ˆ t·δudΓ + where all the terms have been previously deﬁned and b is the body force vector.

the ﬁrst one is independent of the material stress strain relations.1. we derive expressions of the virtual strain energies which are independent of the material constitutive laws.24) δεx = δσx = E dΩ = dAdx or: d2 (δv) y dx2 Eq.Draft 13.25) “σ Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .24 2 A δU = y dA = Iz L 0 EIz d2 v d2 (δv) dx dx2 dx2 “δε (13.1 44 45 13.23) dΩ = Adx “σ Flexural Members: δU = σx = M= σx δεx dΩ My Iz d2 v EIz dx2 σx = d2 v Ey dx2 κ δU = L 0 d2 v d2 (δv) Ey ydAdx dx2 A dx2 (13. It should be noted that the Virtual Force method would yield analogous ones but based on forces rather than displacements. Two sets of solutions will be given. 13. Thus δU will be left in terms of forces and displacements.3.1 Preliminary Deﬁnitions Internal Virtual Work 13–5 Next we shall derive a displacement based expression of δU for each type of one dimensional structural member.21) dΩ = Adx M = y A δφ = δε ⇒ δφy = δε y dΩ = L 0 σx dA δU = L 0 Mδφdx (13.22) dAdx A Linear Elastic Systems Should we have a linear elastic material (σ = Eε) then: Axial Members: δU = σδεdΩ du σx = Eεx = E dx δε = d(δu) dx δU = L 0 E du d(δu) Adx dx dx “δε dΩ (13. and the other assumes a linear elastic stress strain relation. Axial Members: δU = Flexural Members: δU = M= σx δεx dΩ σx ydA ⇒ A L 0 σδεdΩ δU = A L 0 σδεdx (13. Elastic Systems In this set of formulation.

ˆ is the applied surface traction t t vector.Draft 13–6 13.26) where: δ∆i = virtual displacement. Complementary Internal Virtual Work δWi∗ = − def def Γu Ω ε:δσdΩ (13. 13. and P are the applied nodal forces.1. b is the body force vector. 13.3. this explains the negative sign. and deformation systems which satisfy the 52 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .31) 51 Note that in the potential the full load is always acting. Γt is that portion of the boundary where ˆ is applied.1.2 Principle of Virtual Work and Complementary Virtual Work The principles of Virtual Work and Complementary Virtual Work relate force systems which satisfy the requirements of equilibrium.1. and through the displacements of its points of application it does work but loses an equivalent amount of potential.4 47 Complementary Virtual Work We deﬁne the complementary virtual work done by the load on a body during a small.28) Complementary External Virtual Work δWe∗ = 13.2 46 VARIATIONAL METHODS External Virtual Work δW For concentrated forces (and moments): δW = δ∆qdx + i (δ∆i )Pi + i (δθi )Mi (13.5 48 ˆ u·δtdΓ Potential Energy The potential of external work W in an arbitrary system is deﬁned as We = def Ω uT ·bdΩ + Γt uT ·ˆ + u·P tdΓ (13.30) u·bdΩ + Ω Γt U0 dΩ − u·ˆ + u·P tdΓ (13.27) (13.29) where u are the displacements. 49 Note that the potential of the external work (W) is diﬀerent from the external work itself (W ) The potential energy of a system is deﬁned as Π = U − We = Ω def 50 (13. admissible (continuous and satisfying the boundary conditions) change in displacements.

6.36-c) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . and δ (with an overbar) to the hypothetical values. Γ = Γt + Γu t = ˆ on Γt Natural B. 2. Table 13.34) LT σ + b = 0 Note that this equation can be generalized to 3D.26) which is rewritten as ∂σxx ∂τxy + + bx = 0 ∂x ∂y ∂σyy ∂τxy + + by = 0 ∂y ∂x (13. In matrix form.Draft 13.32) (13. 13.C. this can be rewritten as ∂ ∂x 0 ∂ ∂y 0 or ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂x σxx σ yy τ xy + bx by =0 (13.36-a) (13.2 Principle of Virtual Work and Complementary Virtual Work 13–7 requirement of compatibility: 1. 53 Thus we may have 2 possible combinations. or some hypothetical external and internal deformation δu and δε which satisfy the conditions of compatibility.33) 55 where b representing the body force. (13. Victor Saouma (13. This set of external forces will induce internal actual forces dσ or internal hypothetical forces δσ compatible with the externally applied load. Similarly the deformation could consist of either the actual joint deﬂections du and compatible internal deformations dε of the structure.1 54 Principle of Virtual Work Derivation of the principle of virtual work starts with the assumption of that forces are in equilibrium and satisfaction of the static boundary conditions.2.1: Possible Combinations of Real and Hypothetical Formulations actual.35) 56 The surface Γ of the solid can be decomposed into two parts Γt and Γu where tractions and displacements are respectively speciﬁed.C.1: where: d corresponds to the Force External Internal δp δσ dp dσ Deformation External Internal du dε δu δε Formulation δU ∗ δU 1 2 Table 13. t ˆ u = u on Γu Essential B. In any application the force system could either be the actual set of external loads dp or some virtual force system which happens to satisfy the condition of equilibrium δp. The Equation of equilibrium (Eq.36-b) (13.

41) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . we must apply the expression of the virtual internal strain energy as derived for beams in Eq. Virtual Displacement Analyse the problem shown in Fig. The major governing equations are summarized Ω δεT :σdΩ − −δWi Ω δuT ·bdΩ − −δWe Γt δuT ·ˆ tdΓ = in on 0 Ω Γu (13. And the solutions must be expressed in terms of the displacements which in turn must satisfy the essential boundary conditions. Solution: 1. 13. For this ﬂexural problem.2.35 and 13. and that the primary unknowns are the displacements.37) (13. 13. Example 13-1: Tapered Cantiliver Beam. by the virtual displacement method.Draft 13–8 VARIATIONAL METHODS Figure 13.25.39) δε = L:δu δu = 0 58 Note that the principle is independent of material properties.2: Tapered Cantilivered Beam Analysed by the Vitual Displacement Method Equations 13.36-b constitute a statically admissible stress ﬁeld.38) (13. The approximate solutions proposed to this problem are v = v = Victor Saouma πx v2 2l x 2 x 3 −2 L L 1 − cos (13.40) 3 v2 (13. 57 The principle of virtual work (or more speciﬁcally of virtual displacement) can be stated as A deformable system is in equilibrium if the sum of the external virtual work and the internal virtual work is zero for virtual displacements δu which are kinematically admissible.

13. 13. 13.47) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .46) which yields: v2 = Victor Saouma P2 L3 2.45) (13.41 Where actual and virtual values for the two assumed displacement ﬁelds are given below.40 Eqn.41 2 Eqn. (i.41) v δv v δv 1 − cos πx v2 2l 1 − cos πx δv2 2l π2 cos πx v2 4L2 2l π2 πx cos 2l δv2 4L2 2 2 3 3 x L x L −2 −2 x L x L 3 3 v2 δv2 6 − 12x L2 L3 6 12x − L3 L2 v2 δv2 δU = L 0 δv EIz v dx (13.40 3 Eqn.40) Polynomial (Eqn.41 Eqn.2 Principle of Virtual Work and Complementary Virtual Work 13–9 2. Trigonometric (Eqn.44) which yields: v2 = Solution 2: δU = π4 πx x cos2 v2 δv2 EI1 1 − dx 2l 2l 0 16L4 π 4 EI1 3 1 = + 2 v2 δv2 3 32L 4 π = P2 δv2 L P2 L3 2. 13.40 Eqn.43) δW = P2 δv2 Solution 1: δU = 12x x π2 πx 6 cos v2 − 3 δv2 EI1 1 − dx 2 2 2l L L 2L 0 4L 3πEI1 10 16 + 2 v2 δv2 = 1− 3 2L π π = P2 δv2 L (13. 3. These equations do indeed satisfy the essential B.Draft 13. 13.42) (13. 13. but for them to also satisfy equilibrium they must satisfy the principle of virtual work. Using the virtual displacement method we evaluate the displacements v2 from three diﬀerent combination of virtual and actual displacement: Solution Total Virtual 1 Eqn.648EI1 (13.C.e kinematic). 13.57EI1 (13. 13.

48) (13.2. The major governing equations are summarized Ω εij δσij dΩ − −δWi∗ Γu ui δti dΓ ˆ ∗ δWe = in on 0 Ω Γt (13. and that the primary unknowns are the stresses.52) (13.2 59 Principle of Complementary Virtual Work Derivation of the principle of complementary virtual work starts from the assumption of a kinematicaly admissible displacements and satisfaction of the essential boundary conditions.54) δσij.j = 0 δti = 0 64 Note that the principle is independent of material properties.53) (13. we will now use the tensor notation for this derivation.j + uj. The kinematic condition (strain-displacement): εij = 1 (ui. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .49) 13.50) 60 61 62 The essential boundary conditions are expressed as ˆ ui = u on Γu (13.51) The principle of virtual complementary work (or more speciﬁcally of virtual force) which can be stated as 63 A deformable system satisﬁes all kinematical requirements if the sum of the external complementary virtual work and the internal complementary virtual work is zero for all statically admissible virtual stresses δσij .i) 2 (13. Whereas we have previously used the vector notation for the principle of virtual work.Draft 13–10 VARIATIONAL METHODS Solution 3: δU = L 0 12x 6 − 3 L2 L 2 1− x EI1 δv2 v2 dx 2l 9EI = v2 δv2 L3 = P2 δv2 which yields: v2 = P2 L3 9EI (13.

56) σ M Here: δM and δP are the virtual forces. L 0 δM M dx = EIz Internal δP ∆ External (13.2 Principle of Virtual Work and Complementary Virtual Work 13–11 Figure 13.3 If δP = 1. we obtain: ∆ = Victor Saouma 2P2 L 1 (L + x)2 − 2L(L + x) + L2 ln(L + x) |L 0 EI1 2 Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 13.3: Tapered Cantilevered Beam Analysed by the Virtual Force Method 65 Expressions for the complimentary virtual work in beams are given in Table 13. See Fig. 13.25 written in terms of displacements: δU ∗ = L 0 EIz d2 v d2 (δv) dx dx2 dx2 δε (13.58. 13. and EIz and ∆ are the actual displacements.55) Note: This represents the internal virtual strain energy and external virtual work written in terms of forces and should be compared with the similar expression derived in Eq.58) Thus substituting a = L and b = 1 into Eqn. Virtual Force “Exact” solution of previous problem using principle of virtual work with virtual force. then δM = x and M = P2 x or: (1)∆ = P2 x x dx 0 EI1 (. 13.5 + L ) P2 L x2 dx = EI1 0 L+x 2l P2 2L L x2 dx = EI1 0 L + x x L (13.57) From Mathematica we note that: 1 1 x2 = 3 (a + bx)2 − 2a(a + bx) + a2 ln(a + bx) b 2 0 a + bx 0 (13.3 Example 13-2: Tapered Cantilivered Beam.

62-b) dU0 = σij dεij thus. Eq. if U0 is a potential function.4 U0 = εij 0 σij dεij (13.63) (13.62-a) (13.3. δU0 = σij δεij .60) 2ML 2ML ML (ln 2L − ln L) = ln 2 = EI1 EI1 . and the variation of the strain energy itself is δU0 dΩ. Ω Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .61-a) (13. from Eq. ∂U0 = σij ∂εij ∗ ∂U0 = εij ∂σij 68 (13.65) 69 Applying the principle of virtual work.37. 13.61-b) 67 However.5 + x L = 2ML EI1 L 1 2ML ln(L + x) |L = 0 EI1 0 L+x (13. it can be shown that 1 Note δU = that the variation of strain energy density is. we take its diﬀerential ∂U0 dεij ∂εij ∂U0 ∗ dσij dU0 = ∂σij dU0 = (13.Draft 13–12 VARIATIONAL METHODS 2P2 L L2 2L2 − 4L2 + L2 ln 2L − + 2L2 + L2 log L EI1 2 2P2 L 2 1 = L (ln 2 − ) EI1 2 3 P2 L = 2.59) Similarly: θ = = M(1) EI1 .721EI1 13.3 13.64) We now deﬁne the variation of the strain energy density at a point1 δU0 = ∂U δεij = σij δεij ∂εij (13.1 66 Potential Energy Derivation From section ??. 13.5887EI1 = L 0 (13.

70-b) 73 Thus the total potential energy is given by Π = 250u2 − 100u Victor Saouma (13.68) 70 We have thus derived the principle of stationary value of the potential energy: Of all kinematically admissible deformations (displacements satisfying the essential boundary conditions).3 Potential Energy 13–13 k= 500 lbf/in mg= 100 lbf Figure 13. let us consider the single dof system shown in Fig. 1987). + δ∆n ∂∆1 ∂∆2 ∂∆n (13.4: Single DOF Example for Potential Energy δΠ = 0 Π = U − We = Ω def (13. . . the actual deformations (those which correspond to stresses which satisfy equilibrium) are the ones for which the total potential energy assumes a stationary value.70-a) (13.66) (13. 71 For problems involving multiple degrees of freedom. 13.Draft 13.71) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . it results from calculus that δΠ = ∂Π ∂Π ∂Π δ∆1 + δ∆2 + .4.69) 72 It can be shown that the minimum potential energy yields a lower bound prediction of displacements. The strain energy U and potential of the external work W are given by U = We 1 u(Ku) = 250u2 2 = mgu = 100u (13. As an illustrative example (adapted from Willam.67) u·bdΩ + Ω Γt U0 dΩ − u·ˆ + u·P tdΓ (13.

0 −40.00 0.2)2 = 10 lbf-in W = 100(0.2) = 20 lbf-in Π = 10 − 20 = −10 lbf-in Fig.5 illustrates the two components of the potential energy.2 74 (13.5: Graphical Representation of the Potential Energy and will be stationary for ∂Π = dΠ = 0 ⇒ 500u − 100 = 0 ⇒ u = 0.Draft 13–14 Potential Energy of Single DOF Structure 20. this would yield (13. those are the displacements at every point within the structure.0 Total Potential Energy Strain Energy External Work VARIATIONAL METHODS Energy [lbf−in] 0.73) Rayleigh-Ritz Method Continuous systems have inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. 13.0 0. In this method we approximate the displacement ﬁeld by a function u1 ≈ u2 ≈ Victor Saouma n i=1 n i=1 c1 φ 1 + φ 1 i i 0 c2 φ 2 + φ 2 i i 0 (13.20 Displacement [in] 0. However.74-a) (13.10 0. 75 An approximate method of solution is the Rayleigh-Ritz method which is based on the principle of virtual displacements.2 in du U = 250(0.30 Figure 13. or the partial diﬀerential equation of equilibrium.72) Substituting.3.0 −20. Their behavior can be described by the Euler Equation. 13. and the boundary conditions).74-b) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . only the simplest problems have an exact solution which (satisﬁes equilibrium.

We determine the parameters cj by requiring that the principle of virtual work for i arbitrary variations δcj . δc2 . cj can either be a set of coeﬃcients with no physical meanings. i φ should satisfy three conditions 1.o. 2. Furthermore. thus it follows that i i i ∂Π =0 ∂cj i i = 1. Be continuous. or variables associated i with nodal generalized displacements (such as deﬂection or displacement).f by one with a ﬁnite number. 3. 3. Must be independent and complete (which means that the exact displacement and their derivatives that appear in Π can be arbitrary matched if enough terms are used. lowest order terms must also be included). If the coordinate functions φ satisfy the above requirements.e. The equilibrium equations of the problem are satisﬁed only in the energy sense δΠ = 0 and not in the diﬀerential equation sense (i. u3) = i=1 ∂Π 1 ∂Π 2 ∂Π 3 δc + δc + δc = 0 ∂c1 i ∂c2 i ∂c3 i i i i (13. strains and stresses are generally less accurate than the displacements. in the weak form but not in the strong one). 4. u2 . 2. j = 1. i. then better results are achieved). Therefore the displacements obtained from the approximation generally do not satisfy the equations of equilibrium. Hence we have replaced a problem with an inﬁnite number of d. Since the strains are computed from the approximate displacements.e. · · · . n. satisfy the essential boundary conditions (the natural boundary conditions are included already in the variational statement. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .76) Thus we obtain a total of 3n linearly independent simultaneous equations. 3 (13. However. For increasing values of n. In general φ is a polynomial or trigonometric function.74-c) where cj denote undetermined parameters. and δc3 . 5. Must be admissible.3 Potential Energy n i=1 13–15 u3 ≈ c3 φ 3 + φ 3 i i 0 (13. if φ also satisfy them.Draft 76 13. 78 Some general observations 1. we can then determine strains and stresses (or internal forces).75) for arbitrary and independent variations of δc1 . 2. and φ are appropriate functions of positions. or i 77 n δΠ(u1 . 2. the previously computed coeﬃcients remain unchanged. then the solution converges to the exact one if n increases. From these displacements.

(13. ∂Π 2. . Polynomial Approximation For the uniformly loaded beam shown in Fig.6 let us assume a solution given by the following inﬁnite series: v = a1 x(L − x) + a2 x2 (L − x)2 + . Or we can solve for a1 in terms of vmax (@x = L ) and take 2 Π= U −W = M2 dx − o 2EIz L L 0 ∂Π ∂vmax = 0.77) (13. Since the continuous system is approximated by a ﬁnite number of coordinates (or d. Contrarily to the previous example problem the geometric B.). and the displacements obtained from the Ritz method converge to the exact ones from below.o.79) wv(x)dx Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .C.6: Uniformly Loaded Simply Supported Beam Analyzed by the Rayleigh-Ritz Method 6. Example 13-3: Uniformly Loaded Simply Supported Beam.78) 3. 13. We can keep v in terms of a1 and take ∂a1 = 0 (If we had left v in terms of a1 and ∂Π ∂Π a2 we should then take both ∂a1 = 0. are immediately satisﬁed at both x = 0 and x = L. let us retain only the ﬁrst term: v = a1 x(L − x) We observe that: 1. . for this particular solution.Draft 13–16 VARIATIONAL METHODS Figure 13. (13. then the approximate system is stiﬀer than the actual one.f. and ∂a2 = 0 ).

13.Draft 13.2: Comparison of Virtual Work and Complementary Virtual Work 80 A summary of the various methods introduced in this chapter is shown in Fig. we would obtain: 4a1 EIz l − wL3 = 0 6 a1 = wL2 24EIz (13.4 79 Summary Summary of Virtual work methods.2.83) 4 4 = wL4 96EIz 5 wL exact This is to be compared with the exact value of vmax = 384 wLz = 76. dx2 the above simpliﬁes to: L 0 Π = = EIz 2 dv dx2 2 2 − wv(x) dx (13.8EIz which constitutes EI ≈ 17% error. Table 13.4 Summary 13–17 M EIz Recalling that: = d2 v . wL2 Note: If two terms were retained. Virtual Work U Complimentary Virtual Work U ∗ Starts with KAD SAS Ends with SAS KAD In terms of virtual Displacement/strains Forces/Stresses Solve for Displacement Displacement KAD: Kinematically Admissible Dispacements SAS: Statically Admissible Stresses Table 13. (Why?) 24EIz 13. we now determine vmax at v = wL4 24EIz a1 x2 x − 2 L L (13.81) = 0.82) L : 2 Having solved the displacement ﬁeld in terms of a1 .7. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . then we would have obtained: a1 = 24EIz & a2 = w exact and vmax would be equal to vmax .80) EIz (−2a1 )2 − a1 wx(L − x) dx 2 0 L3 L3 EIz 2 4a1 L − a1 w + a1 w = 2 2 3 a1 wL3 = 2a2 EIz L − 1 6 If we now take ∂Π ∂a1 L (13.

Draft 13–18 Natural B. 2.7: Summary of Variational Methods Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Figure 13.j + uj. n. Essential B.C. · · · .i ) = 0 ❄ δσij. Ω Γ εij − 1 2 VARIATIONAL METHODS ❄ ∇σ + ρb = 0 t − t = 0 Γt U0 = def ❄ δε − D:δu = 0 δu = 0 Γu ❄ (ui. 3 ∂Π ∂cj i =0 i = 1.j = 0 δti = 0 Γt u i − u = 0 Γu ∗ U0 = def ε 0 σ:dε Gauss σ 0 ε:σ ✻ ✻ Gauss ❄ ❄ Principle of Complementary Virtual Work εij δσij dΩ − Γu ui δti dΓ = 0 Ω ∗ δWi∗ − δWe = 0 ❄ ❄ Principle of Virtual Work T Ω δε :σdΩ − T T Ω δu ·bdΩ − Γt δu ·tdΓ = 0 δWi − δWe = 0 ❄ Principle of Stationary Potential Energy δΠ = 0 Π= Π = U − We U0 dΩ − ( Ω ui bi dΩ + Ω def Γt ui ti dΓ) ❄ Rayleigh-Ritz n uj ≈ i=1 cj φj + φj 0 i i j = 1.C. 2.

Draft

13.4 Summary

13–19

Kinematically Admissible Displacements Displacements satisfy the kinematic equations and the the kinematic boundary conditions ✻

❄ Principle of Stationary Complementary Energy Principle of Complementary Virtual Work ✻ Principle of Virtual Work

Principle of Stationary Potential Energy

❄ Statically Admissible Stresses Stresses satisfy the equilibrium conditions and the static boundary conditions

Figure 13.8: Duality of Variational Principles

81

The duality between the two variational principles is highlighted by Fig. 13.8, where beginning with kinematically admissible displacements, the principle of virtual work provides statically admissible solutions. Similarly, for statically admissible stresses, the principle of complementary virtual work leads to kinematically admissible solutions. Finally, Table 13.3 summarizes some of the major equations associated with one dimensional rod elements.

82

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

13–20

VARIATIONAL METHODS

U Axial

1 2 L 0 L 0

P2 dx AE M dx EIz

2

**Virtual Displacement δU General Linear L L du d(δu) σδεdx E Adx dx dx 0 0
**

L L σ 2

Flexure

1 2

M δφdx

0 0

d v d (δv) EIz 2 dx dx dx2

σ δε

δε 2

dΩ

**Virtual Force δU ∗ General Linear L L P δσεdx δP dx AE 0 0
**

δσ L L ε

δM φdx

0 0

M δM dx EIz

δσ ε

P M w

0

L

W 1 Σi 2 Pi ∆i 1 Σi 2 M i θi w(x)v(x)dx

**Virtual Displacement δW Σi Pi δ∆i Σi Mi δθi
**

L

**Virtual Force δW ∗ Σi δPi ∆i Σi δMi θi
**

L

w(x)δv(x)dx

0 0

δw(x)v(x)dx

Table 13.3: Summary of Variational Terms Associated with One Dimensional Elements

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

Chapter 14

INELASTICITY (incomplete)

F ∆

t Creep

Figure 14.1: test

t Relaxation

Draft

–2

INELASTICITY (incomplete)

σ

σ

ε

Strain Hardening

ε σ

Relaxation

t ε

Creep

t

Perfectly Elastic

σ

ε σ σ

Relaxation

t

Creep

t

Viscoelastic

ε σ σ

ε ε

Rigid Perfectly Plastic Elastic Perfectly Plastic

ε

Relaxation

t

Creep

t

Elastoplastic Hardeing

Figure 14.2: mod1

σ 0

Ε ε η

Figure 14.3: v-kv

σ

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

σ

0

Figure 14.4: visﬂ

–3

η

E ε

σ

E E1 σ

η

1

Ei En

σ

ηi η

n

Figure 14.5: visﬂ

Linear Elasticity Linear Visosity Nonlinear Viscosity Stress Threshold

σ

0

E

η

σ ε ε

λ .

σ=Ε ε . σ=ηε σ=λ ε

. 1/N

σ

0

σ

σ

0

ε σ σ

.

σ

0

ε σ ε

−σs < σ < sσ −ε s< ε < ε s

Strain Threshold

σ

0

Figure 14.6: comp

σ

0

E

σS

σ

Figure 14.7: epp

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft –4 INELASTICITY (incomplete) E Ei σ 0 ε pi σSi σSj ε Em σ Ej Figure 14.8: ehs Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

∆x Moment 2) Simple Beam. MOMENT and DEFLECTION DIAGRAMS for BEAMS Adapted from [?] 1) Simple Beam. uniform Load L x w L R L / 2 L / 2 R R Vx = V = w L −x 2 wL2 8 wx (L − x) 2 5 wL4 384 EI wx (L3 − 2Lx2 + x3 ) 24EI V at center Mmax = Shear V Mx ∆max = = = M max.Draft Appendix A SHEAR. Unsymmetric Triangular Load .

MOMENT and DEFLECTION DIAGRAMS for BEAMS R1 = V1 = Max R2 = V2 = Vx at x = .577L Mmax Mx at x = . Concentrated Load at Center R1 w = = = = = Mmax wb (2c + b) 2L wb (2a + b) 2L R1 − w(x − a) R1 x w R1 x − (x − a)2 2 R2 (L − x) R1 R1 a + 2w Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Uniform Load Partially Distributed Max when a < c R1 = V1 = Max when a > c R2 = V2 = when a < x < a + b Vx when x < a Mx when a < x < a + b Mx when a + b < x Mx at x = a + 5) Simple Beam.1283W L Wx 2 (L − x2 ) 2 3L W L3 .5193L ∆max ∆x 3) Simple Beam.Draft A–2 SHEAR. Symmetric Triangular Load R=V for x < L 2 = = = = = W 3 2W 3 W x2 W − 2 3 L .01304 EI W x3 (3x4 − 10L2 x2 + 7L4 ) 2 180EIL = = = = = = Vx at center Mmax for x < for x < L 2 L 2 Mx ∆x ∆max W 2 W (L2 − 4x2 ) 2 2L WL 6 1 2 x2 − Wx 2 3 L2 Wx (5L2 − 4x2 )2 480EIL2 W L3 60EI 4) Simple Beam.

Two Equally Concentrated Symmetric Loads R=V Mmax ∆max when x < a when a < x < L − a ∆x ∆x = P = Pa Pa = (3L2 − 4a2 ) 24EI Px = (3La − 3a2 − x2 ) 6EI Pa = (3Lx − 3x2 − a2 ) 6EI 8) Simple Beam. Two Equally Concentrated Unsymmetric Loads Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Concentrated Load at Any Point max when a < b R1 = V1 = max when a > b R2 = V2 = at x = a Mmax when x < a Mx at x = a ∆a when x < a ∆x at x = a(a+2b) 3 = = = = = & a > b ∆max Pb L Pa L P ab L P bx L P a2 b2 3EIL P bx (L2 − b2 − x2 ) 6EIL P ab(a + 2b) 3a(a + 2b) 27EIL 7) Simple Beam.Draft max at x = when x < whenx < at x = L 2 L 2 L 2 L 2 A–3 R1 = V1 = R=V Mmax Mx ∆x ∆max = = = = = wa (2L − a) 2L 2P PL 4 Px 2 Px (3L2 − 4x2 ) 48EI P L3 48EI 6) Simple Beam.

4472L 11) Propped Cantilever. Uniform Load R1 = V1 = R2 = V2 = Vx M1 M2 Mx Mx = = = = = P (L − a + b) L P (L − b + a) L P (b − a) L R1 a R2 b R1 x R1 x − P (x − a) R1 = V1 = R2 = V2 = Vx Mmax at x = 3 L 8 M1 Mx ∆x at x = . MOMENT and DEFLECTION DIAGRAMS for BEAMS max when a < b max when b < a when a < x < L − b max when b < a max when a < b when x < a when a < x < L − b 9) Cantilevered Beam.Draft A–4 SHEAR.009317 EI R1 = V1 = R2 = V2 = at x = L when x < when L 2 L 2 Mmax Mx Mx ∆max = = = = <x at x = . Concentrated Load Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .4215L ∆max = = = = = = 3 wL 8 5 wL 8 R1 − wx wL2 8 9 wL2 128 wx2 R1 x − 2 wx (L3 − 3Lx+ 2x3 ) 48EI wL4 185EI 10) Propped Cantilever. Concentrated Load at Center 5P 16 11P 16 3P L 16 5P x 16 L 11x P − 2 16 P L3 .

Draft R1 = V1 = R2 = V2 = at x = a at x = L at x = a L when a < . Concentrated Load R=V at x = when x < at x = when x < L 2 L 2 L 2 L 2 = = = = = Mmax Mx ∆max ∆x P 2 PL 8 P (4x − L) 8 3 PL 192EI P x2 (3L − 4x) 48EI 14) Cantilever Beam.414L at x = L 3L2+a 2 −a 2 2 A–5 M1 M2 ∆a ∆max ∆max = = = = = when . Uniform Load a 2L+a P b2 (a + 2L) 2L3 Pa (3L2 − a2 ) 2L3 R1 a P ab (a + L) 2L2 2 3 Pa b (3L + a) 12EIL32 P a (L − a2 )3 3EI (3L2 − a2 )2 a P ab2 6EI 2L + a2 R=V Vx at x = 0 and x = L at x = at x = L 2 L 2 = = = = = = Mmax M ∆max ∆x wL 2 L w −x 2 wL2 12 wL2 24 4 wL 384EI wx2 (L − x)2 24EI 13) Beam Fixed at Both Ends. Triangular Unsymmetric Load Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .414L < a at x = L 12) Beam Fixed at Both Ends.

Point Load ∆max = wL = wx wx2 = 2 wL2 = 2 w (x4 − 4L3 x + 3L4 ) = 24EI wL4 = 8EI at x = L when a < x at x = 0 at x = a when x < a when a < x 17) Cantilever Beam.Draft A–6 SHEAR. Uniform Load ∆max = = = = = = 8 W 3 2 x W 2 L WL 3 W x2 3L2 W (x5 − 5L2 x + 4L5 ) 60EIL2 W L3 15EI R=V Vx Mx at x = L Mmax ∆x at x = 0 16) Cantilever Beam. Point Load at Free End R=V Mmax Mx ∆max ∆a ∆x ∆x = P = Pb = P (x − a) P b2 (3L − b) = 6EI 3 Pb = 3EI P b2 (3L − 3x − b) = 6EI P (L − x)2 (3b − L + x) = 6EI Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . MOMENT and DEFLECTION DIAGRAMS for BEAMS R=V Vx at x = L Mmax Mx ∆x at x = 0 15) Cantilever Beam.

Concentrated Force and Moment at Free End R=V Mx at x = 0 and x = L at x = 0 Mmax ∆max ∆x = P L −x = P 2 PL = 2 P L3 = 12EI P (L − x)2 ((L + 2x) = 12EI Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft at x = L at x = 0 R=V Mmax Mx ∆max ∆x A–7 = P = PL = Px P L3 = 3EI P (2L3 − 3L2 x + x3 ) = 6EI 18) Cantilever Beam.

Draft Appendix B SECTION PROPERTIES Section properties for selected sections are shown in Table B. .1.

1: Section Properties Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft B–2 Y x Y x SECTION PROPERTIES h y b Y a X A x y Ix Iy = = = = = bh b 2 h 2 bh3 12 hb3 12 h h’ y b’ b X A x y Ix Iy = bh − b h b = 2 h = 2 3 3 = bh −b h 12 3 3 = hb −h b 12 c Y x h y b X A y Ix = = = h(a+b) 2 h(2a+b) 3(a+b) h3 (a2 +4ab+b2 36(a+b) h A x y X Ix y Iy = = = = = b Y bh 2 b+c 3 h 3 3 bh 36 bh 2 36 (b − bc + c2 ) Y r X A = Ix = Iy = πr2 = πr 4 4 = πd2 4 πd4 64 t r X A = Ix = Iy = 2πrt = πdt 3 πr3 t = πd t 8 Y b X b a a A = Ix = Iy = πab πab3 3 πba3 4 Table B.

1 20 Euler Equation The fundamental problem of the calculus of variation1 is to ﬁnd a function u(x) such that b F (x. b they coincide. . C.Draft Appendix C MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. 22 We deﬁne the domain of a functional as the collection of admissible functions belonging to a class of functions in function space rather than a region in coordinate space (as is the case for a function). C. whereas variational calculus involves a function of a function.2) We deﬁne u(x) to be a function of x in the interval (a. 24 u(x. We seek the function u(x) which extremizes Π. Part IV VARIATIONAL METHODS Abridged section from author’s lecture notes in finite elements.3) calculus involves a function of one or more variable. 23 Letting u to be a family of neighbouring paths of the extremizing function u(x) and ˜ we assume that at the end points x = a. δΠ = 0 where δ indicates the variation 21 (3. b). u. and F to be a known function (such as the energy density). u )dx (3.1. We deﬁne u as the sum of the ˜ extremizing path and some arbitrary variation. ε) = u(x) + εη(x) = u(x) + δu(x) ˜ 1 Diﬀerential (3. Fig. Or. or a functional.1) Π= a is stationary.

5) 28 Since u → u as ε → 0.7) 30 It can be shown (through integration by part and the fundamental lemma of the Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . we obtain ˜ dΦ(ε) dε = ε=0 b a η ∂F ∂F +η ∂u ∂u dx = 0 (3. u + εη. 3. its variation must be zero. we consider Π(u + εη) = Φ(ε) = b a 26 27 F (x. To solve the variational problem of extremizing Π. u + εη )dx (3. We note that u coincides with u if ε = 0 ˜ 25 The variational operator δ and the diﬀerential calculus operator d have clearly diﬀerent meanings. u = u.4-b) and η(x) is twice diﬀerentiable. ε) − u(x) ˜ = εη(x) (3. has undeﬁned amplitude.3 and applying the chain rule with ε = 0. the necessary condition for Π to be an extremum is ˜ dΦ(ε) dε =0 ε=0 (3. du is associated with a neighboring point at a distance dx. and it is arbitrary elsewhere.6) 29 From Eq. For boundaries where u is speciﬁed. and η(a) = η(b) = 0.Draft C–2 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. and δu(x) is the variation of u(x) δu = u(x.4-a) (3. u u(x) C B u(x) du A dx x=a x=c x=b x Figure C.1: Variational and Diﬀerential Operators where ε is a small parameter. Part IV VARIATIONAL METHODS u. The variation δu of u is said to undergo a virtual change. however δu is a small arbitrary change in u for a given x (there is no associated δx).

the second variation δ 2 Π can be used to characterize the extremum as either a minimum or maximum. u = u(x.8) This diﬀerential equation is called the Euler equation associated with Π and is a necessary condition for u(x) to extremize Π.yy = 0 (3.yy = 0 ∂ ∂F ∂ ∂F ∂ 2 ∂F ∂2 ∂ 2 ∂F ∂F − ∂x ∂v. u. v. y) and v = v(x. it can be shown that as with second derivatives in calculus. · · · . y) Π= ∂F F (x.Draft 31 C.x. v. we still have to deﬁne δΠ δF = δΠ = ∂F ∂F δu + ∂u ∂u b a δF dx 37 38 δu δΠ = b a ∂F ∂F δu + δu ∂u ∂u dx (3. whereas the formulation of Finite Diﬀerences are based on the strong form.x − ∂y ∂u. Finite Element formulation are based on the weak form.10 describe the same problem.x − ∂y ∂v. An alternative method consists in bypassing the Euler equations and go directly to the variational statement of the problem to the solution of the Euler equations.xx + ∂x∂y ∂v.yy )dxdy 2 2 2 (3. and 2m times in the strong form).8. or Eq. u.12) 39 We have just shown that ﬁnding the stationary value of Π by setting δΠ = 0 is equal to zero.9 and 3.x . v. u.y + ∂x2 ∂v. v. y.y .xx + ∂x∂y ∂u. 3. 32 Generalizing for a functional Π which depends on two ﬁeld variables. The Euler equations usually correspond to the governing diﬀerential equation and are referred to as the strong form (or classical form). Eq.10) 33 We note that the Functional and the corresponding Euler Equations.xy + ∂y2 ∂v. This classiﬁcation stems from the fact that equilibrium is enforced in an average sense over the body (and the ﬁeld variable is diﬀerentiated m times in the weak form. 36 Euler equations are diﬀerential equations which can not always be solved by exact methods. integration by parts of the second term yields δΠ = b a δu d ∂F ∂F − ∂u dx ∂u dx (3.11) As above. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . 3. Finally.1 and 3.1 Euler Equation C–3 calculus of variation) that this would lead to ∂F d ∂F =0 − ∂u dx ∂u (3.y + ∂x2 ∂u.xy + ∂y2 ∂u.9) There would be as many Euler equations as dependent ﬁeld variables ∂u ∂F ∂v ∂F ∂ ∂F ∂ ∂F ∂ ∂F ∂ ∂ ∂F − ∂x ∂u. equivalent to ﬁnding the extremal value of Π by setting dΦ(ε) dε ε=0 40 Similarly. 34 35 The functional is referred to as the weak form (or generalized solution).y .

dw dx d2 w d3 w dx2 and dx3 or M = EIw. or static) boundary conditions. or geometric) boundary conditions.1: Essential and Natural Boundary Conditions Example C-1: Extension of a Bar The total potential energy Π of an axial member of length L. 43 Table C. Derivation of the Euler equation required η(a) = η(b) = 0. thus this equation is a statement of the essential (or forced) boundary conditions.1.7. this corresponds to Dirichlet boundary-value problems. we obtain b a ∂F ∂F η dx = η ∂u ∂u b − a b a η d ∂F dx dx ∂u (3. one ﬁeld variable. involve derivatives of order m and up. Mathematically. this corresponds to Neuman boundary-value problems. 2.1 illustrates the boundary conditions associated with some problems Problem Diﬀerential Equation m Essential B.C.C. albeit in a less formal way.C. then we have Essential (or Forced. If we left η arbitrary.C. is implied by the satisfaction of the variational statement but not explicitly stated in the functional itself. 2m − 1] Axial Member Distributed load 2 AE d u + q = 0 dx2 1 u or σx = Eu. m − 1] Natural B. cross sectional area A. involve derivatives of order zero (the ﬁeld variable itself) through m-1. modulus of elasticity E. This B. These are the natural boundary conditions. 3.13) We note that 1. in which the highest derivative in the governing diﬀerential equation is of order 2m (or simply m in the corresponding functional). in Table 9. then it would have been necessary to use b. [0. [m.xx and V = EIw.14) Π= 2 dx 0 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . These boundary conditions were already introduced.x du dx Flexural Member Distributed load 4 EI d w − q = 0 dx4 2 w. Nonessential (or Natural. Mathematically. Trial displacement functions are explicitely required to satisfy this B. where u(a) = u(b) = 0.Draft C–4 41 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. ﬁxed at left end and subjected to an axial force P at the right one is given by 2 L EA du dx − P u(L) (3. 42 ∂F ∂u = 0 at x = a and For a problem with.xxx Table C. Part IV VARIATIONAL METHODS Revisiting the integration by parts of the second term in Eq.

Recalling that δ in an arbitrary operator which can be assigned any value.18) (3. u ) To evaluate the Euler Equation from Eq. (3. L) and those for δu at x = L equal to zero separately.17) Natural Boundary Condition: EA Solution II We have EA F (x.15) Integrating by parts we obtain δΠ = 0 L − L 0 d du du EA δudx + EA δu − P δu(L) dx dx dx 0 L (3. u.19) (note that since P is an applied load at the end of the member. substituting. we obtain d ∂F ∂F − ∂u dx ∂u du d EA dx dx = 0 Euler Equation = 0 B. we set the coeﬃcients of δu between (0.1 Euler Equation C–5 Determine the Euler Equation by requiring that Π be a minimum.21-b) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . u ) = 2 du dx du − P = 0 at x = L dx 2 (3. Solution: Solution I The ﬁrst variation of Π is given by δΠ = 0 L EA du du 2 δ dx − P δu(L) 2 dx dx (3.16-a) = − d du du δu EA dx + EA dx dx dx du dx x=0 − P δu(L) x=L = − EA δu(0) (3.Draft C. 3. and obtain Euler Equation: − du d EA dx dx =0 0<x<L (3. we evaluate ∂F ∂F =0 & = EAu ∂u ∂u Thus.21-a) (3. it does not appear as part of F (x. u.C.20-a) (3.16-b) The last term is zero because of the speciﬁed essential boundary condition which implies that δu(0) = 0.8.

23-a) (3. Solution: Extending Eq. and integrating by part twice δΠ = 0 L δF dx = 0 L 0 L ∂F ∂F δw dx δw + ∂w ∂w (3.23-c) = = (EIw δw − pδw)dx L L 0 = (EIw δw )|0 − L [(EIw ) δw − pδw] dx L L 0 = (EIw δw )|0 − [(EIw ) δw]|0 + Or (EIw ) = −p Essential δw = 0 δw = 0 at x = 0 and x = L [(EIw ) + p] δwdx = 0 (3.22) Derive the ﬁrst variational of Π.23-d) for all x which is the governing diﬀerential equation of beams and Natural or EIw = −M = 0 or (EIw ) = −V = 0 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Part IV VARIATIONAL METHODS Example C-2: Flexure of a Beam The total potential energy of a beam is given by Π= 0 L 1 Mκ − pw dx = 2 L 0 1 (EIw )w − pw dx 2 (3.23-b) (3.11. 3.Draft C–6 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.

5. (2 pts) Solve for Eij ai in indicial notation. March 27. Select any problems you want as long as the total number of corresponding points is equal to or larger than 50. i. Saouma Exam I (Closed notes). (4 pts) if the stress tensor at point P is given by 10 −2 0 σ = −2 4 1 0 1 6 determine the traction (or stress vector) t on the plane passing through P and parallel to the plane ABC where A(6. 4. 0. 1. (5 pts) For a plane stress problem charaterized by the following stress tensor σ= 6 2 2 4 use Mohr’s circle to determine the principal stresses. 3) of the plane that is tangent to the cylindrical surface x2 + x2 = 4 at P . (2 pts) Write in matrix form the following 3rd order tensor Dijk in R2 space. 2. 2). (4 pts) The stress tensor throughout a continuum is given with respect to Cartesian axes as 3x1 x2 5x2 0 2 0 2x2 σ = 5x2 2 3 0 2x2 0 3 √ (a) Determine the stress vector (or traction) at the point P (2. j. 1. B(0. 4. 0. 0) and C(0. 1998 3 Hours There are 19 problems worth a total of 63 points.Draft Appendix D MID TERM EXAM Continuum Mechanics LMC/DMX/EPFL Prof. 2 3 . k range from 1 to 2. 0). and show on an appropriate ﬁgure the orientation of those principal stresses. 3.

8. and 2) 15 Unknowns in a thermoelastic formulation. and 2) Lagrangian tensor E. explain. and which other one into a product. ﬁrst and second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensors? (c) In which coordinate system is the Cauchy and Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensors expressed? 11. (4 pts) Linear and ﬁnite strain tensors can be decomposed into the sum or product of two other tensors. (6 pts) Stress tensors: (a) When shall we use the Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensors? (b) What is the diﬀerence between Cauchy. (4 pts) A continuum body undergoes the deformation x1 = X1 +AX2. and x3 = X3 + AX1 where A is a constant. (4 pts) What are the 1) 15 Equations. (b) Why is such a decomposition performed? 9. (2 pts) Why do we have a condition imposed on the strain ﬁeld (compatibility equation)? 10. 2 2 2 6. (2 pts) How is the First principle obtained from the equation of motion? 15. determine the material deformation gradient F and the material displacement gradient J. γij . Determine: 1) Deformation (or Green) tensor C. (2 pts) A displacement ﬁeld is given by u = X1 X3 e1 + X1 X2 e2 + X2 X3 e3 . and verify that J = F − I. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . does the following stress distribution x2 + ν(x2 − x2 ) −2νx1 x2 0 2 1 x x2 + ν(x2 − x2 ) 0 −2νx1 x2 1 2 1 2 2 0 0 ν(x1 + x2 ) where ν is a constant. x2 = X2 +AX3 . (2 pts) From which principle is the symmetry of the stress tensor derived? 14. (a) Which strain tensor can be decomposed into a sum. satisfy equilibrium in the X1 direction? 13. 7. (2 pts) What is the diﬀerence between the tensorial and engineering strain (Eij .Draft D–2 n P MID TERM EXAM x3 x 2 2 1 3 x 1 (b) Are the stresses in equlibrium. i = j) ? 12. (3 pts) In the absence of body forces.

c1123 c2223 c3323 c1223 c2323 c1131 c2231 c3331 c1231 c2331 c3131 E11 E22 E33 2E12 (γ12 ) 2E23 (γ23 ) 2E31 (γ31 ) then. (2 pts) What is the relationship between strain energy and strain? 18. µ = 80 GPa. (2 pts) What is free energy Ψ? 17. T11 T22 T33 T12 T23 T31 c1111 c1112 c2222 = c1133 c1112 c2233 c2212 c3333 c3312 c1212 SYM. (5 pts) If a plane of elastic symmetry exists in an anisotropic material.3. (6 pts) The state of stress at a point of structural steel is given by 6 2 0 T = 2 −3 0 MP a 0 0 0 with E = 207 GPa.Draft D–3 16. 19. what would be the change in volume? Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . (a) Determine the engineering strain components (b) If a ﬁve centimer cube of structural steel is subjected to this stress tensor. and ν = 0. 1 0 0 aj = 0 1 0 i 0 0 −1 show that under these conditions c1131 is equal to zero.

Draft D–4 MID TERM EXAM Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

(c) Show that the transformation tensor of direction cosines transforms the original stress tensor into the diagonal principal axes stress tensor. 1. Type mathematica & and then solve the following problems: 1. The state of stress through a continuum is given with respect to the cartesian axes Ox1 x2 x3 by 3x1 x2 5x2 0 2 0 2x3 MPa Tij = 5x2 2 0 2x3 0 √ Determine the stress vector at point P (1. IIσ and IIIσ of the following stress tensor (b) Determine the principal stresses and the principal stress directions. and then type setenv DISPLAY xxx:0.0 where xxx is the workstation name which should appear on a small label on the workstation itself. Type xhost+ 4. . On the newly opened shell. 6. (d) Recompute the three invariants from the principal stresses. login on an HP workstation 2. type rlogin mxsg1 5. For the following stress tensor 6 −3 0 Tij = −3 6 0 0 0 8 (a) Determine directly the three invariants Iσ . 2 3 2. enter your password ﬁrst. 3) of the plane that is tangent to the cylindrical surface x2 + x2 = 4 at P .Draft Appendix E MATHEMATICA ASSIGNMENT and SOLUTION Connect to Mathematica using the following procedure: 1. Open a shell (window) 3.

(c) Determine the pseudo stress vector associated with the ﬁrst Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor on the e1 plane in the deformed state. A displacement ﬁeld is given by u = X1 X3 e1 + X1 X2 e2 + X2 X3 e3 . (d) Determine the pseudo stress vector associated with the second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor on the e1 plane in the deformed state. A continuum body undergoes the deformation x1 = X1 + AX2 . (f) Show that the ﬁrst invariant of the deviator is zero. x2 = X2 + AX3 . 2 2 2 4. and x3 = e2 X3 where e is a constant. (b) Determine the corresponding second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor. x2 = X2 + AX3 . x2 = X2 . x3 = X3 + AX2 where A is a constant. x3 = X3 (a) Determine the Green’s deformation tensor C (b) Determine the principal values of C and the corresponding principal directions. (c) COmpute the Eulerian strain tensor E∗ and compare with E for very small values of A. SHow that the Jacobian J does not vanish and determine the Eulerian equations describing this motion. 6. A continuum body undergoes the deformation x1 = X1 + 2X2 . A continuum body undergoes the deformation x1 = X1 . The Lagrangian description of a deformation is given by x1 = X1 + X3 (e2 − 1). (d) Determine the right stretch tensor U and U−1 with respect to the ei basis. c1131 c2231 c3331 c1231 c2331 Introduction to Continuum Mechanics c3131 c1123 c2223 c3323 c1223 c2323 . Show that in the case of isotropy. x3 = − 1 X3 2 2 and the Cauchy stress tensor for this body is 100 0 0 Tij = 0 0 0 MPa 0 0 0 (a) Determine the corresponding ﬁrst Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor. A continuum body undergoes the deformation x1 = 4X1 . 8. x3 = X3 + AX2 where A is a constant. 9. Determine independently the material deformation gradient F and the material displacement gradient J and verify that J = F − I. (e) Determine the orthogonal rotation tensor R with respect to the ei basis. (c) Determine the right stretch tensor U and U−1 with respect to the principal directions. 3. x2 = X2 + X3 (e2 − e−2 . (a) Compute the deformation tensor C (b) Use the computed C to determine the Lagrangian ﬁnite strain tensor E. Compute the deformation tensor C and use this to determine the Lagrangian ﬁnite strain tensor E. 7.Draft E–2 MATHEMATICA ASSIGNMENT and SOLUTION (e) Split the stress tensor into its spherical and deviator parts. the anisotropic stress-strain relation c1111 c1112 c2222 cAniso = ijkm Victor Saouma c1133 c1112 c2233 c2212 c3333 c3312 c1212 SYM. x2 = − 1 X2 . 5.

14. Determine the thermally induced stresses in a constrained body for a rise in temerature of 50oF . Solve for Trr Trθ Trθ Tθθ = cos θ sin θ − sin θ cos θ σ0 0 0 0 cos θ sin θ − sin θ cos θ T (5. and SetCoordinates[Cylindrical[r. If a point load p is applied on a semi-inﬁnite medium Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . for plane stress and plane strain. Show that the function Φ = f (r) cos 2θ satisﬁes the biharmonic equation ∇(∇Φ) = 0 Note: You must <<Calculus‘VectorAnalysis‘.2 GPa and µ = 79. 2 2 2 10.θ. and ﬁnally use the Laplacian (or Biharmonic) functions. and ν = 0. Determine the strain tensor at a point where the Cauchy stress tensor is given by 100 42 6 Tij = 42 −2 0 MPa 6 0 15 with E = 207 GPa. α = 5.2 GPa. µ = 79.30 12. deﬁne Φ. Determine the stress tensor at a point by 30 Eij = 50 20 and the material is steel with λ = 119.1) = E (1+ν)(1−2ν) 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 G εxx εyy εzz γxy (2εxy ) γyz (2εyz ) γzx (2εzx ) (5. b = 1 (c2222 − c2233 ).2) and then derive the relations between stresses in terms of strains.z]].3) 16.2 GPa. and strains in terms of stress. b 0 c where the Lagrangian strain tensor is given 50 20 40 0 × 10−6 0 30 c1122 c2222 with a = 1 (c1111 − c1122 ).6 × 10−6 / 0F 13. Show that the inverse of is σxx σyy σzz τxy τyz τzx εxx εyy εzz γxy (2εxy ) γyz (2εyz ) γzx (2εzx ) 1 −ν 1 −ν = E 0 0 0 1−ν ν ν 0 −ν 1 −ν 0 0 0 ν 1−ν ν −ν −ν 1 0 0 0 ν ν 1−ν 0 0 0 1+ν 0 0 0 0 0 0 1+ν 0 0 0 0 0 0 1+ν σxx σyy σzz τxy τyz τzx (5. 11. and c = 1 (c3333 − c1133 ). 15.Draft E–3 reduces to c1111 ciso = ijkm c1133 0 0 0 c2233 0 0 0 c3333 0 0 0 a 0 0 SYM.

2}] would give the ﬁrst and second derivatives of Φ with respect to r and θ respectively.{θ. D[Φ. Note that D[Φ. (contour) plot the magnitude of this stress below p.r].Draft E–4 MATHEMATICA ASSIGNMENT and SOLUTION p 1 r θ p show that for Φ = − π rθ sin θ we have the following stress tensors: − 2p cos θ π r 0 0 0 = θ − 2p sinπrcos − 2p cos πr 3 θ 2 θ θ − 2p sinπrcos θ 2 θ − 2p sinπr cos θ 2 (5.4) Determine the maximum principal stress at an y arbitrary point. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

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