Continuum Mechanics

George Backus
Insitute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics University of California, San Diego

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Samizdat Press

Continuum Mechanics

George Backus

S
Samizdat Press Golden White River Junction

Published by the Samizdat Press Center for Wave Phenomena Department of Geophysics Colorado School of Mines Golden, Colorado 80401

and New England Research 76 Olcott Drive White River Junction, Vermont 05001

c Samizdat Press, 1997

Samizdat Press publications are available via FTP from landau.mines.edu or 138.67.12.78. Or via the WWW from http://landau.mines.edu/~ samizdat Permission is given to freely copy these documents.

Contents
Dictionary Five Prerequisite Proofs I Tensors over Euclidean Vector Spaces
1 Multilinear Mappings
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 De nition of multilinear mappings : : : : : : : Examples of multilinear mappings : : : : : : : Elementary properties of multilinear mappings Permuting a multilinear mapping : : : : : : :

D-1 PP-3 1
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2 De nition of Tensors over Euclidean Vector Spaces

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3 Alternating Tensors, Determinants, Orientation, and n-dimensional Righthandedness 13
3.1 Structure of nV : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3.2 Determinants of linear operators : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3.3 Orientation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13 17 21

4 Tensor Products

4.1 De nition of a tensor product : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4.2 Properties of tensor products : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : i

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4.3 Polyads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

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5 Polyad Bases and Tensor Components
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Polyad bases : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Components of a tensor relative to a basis sequence: Changing bases : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Properties of component arrays : : : : : : : : : : : Symmetries of component arrays : : : : : : : : : : Examples of component arrays : : : : : : : : : : : :

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6 The Lifting Theorem 7 Generalized Dot Products
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Motivation and de nition : : : : : : : : : : Components of P hqiR : : : : : : : : : : : Properties of the generalized dot product : Applications of the generalized dot product

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8 How to Rotate Tensors (and why)

Tensor products of linear mappings : : : : : Applying rotations and re ections to tensors Physical applications : : : : : : : : : : : : : Invariance groups : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Isotropic and skew isotropic tensors : : : : : Limits in Euclidean vector spaces : : : : : : Gradients: De nition and simple properties : Components of gradients : : : : : : : : : : : Gradients of dot products : : : : : : : : : : Curvilinear coordinates : : : : : : : : : : : :

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9 Di erential Calculus of Tensors

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9.6 Multiple gradients and Taylor's formula : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 113 9.7 Di erential identities : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 115

10 Integral Calculus of Tensors

10.1 De nition of the Integral : : : : : : : : 10.1.1 Mass distributions or measures 10.1.2 Integrals : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10.2 Integrals in terms of components : : : :

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11 Integral Identities
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7

Linear mapping of integrals : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Line integral of a gradient : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gauss's theorem : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Stokes's theorem : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vanishing integral theorem : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Time derivative of an integral over a moving volume Change of variables of integration : : : : : : : : : :

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II Elementary Continuum Mechanics
12 Eulerian and Lagrangian Descriptions of a Continuum
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 Discrete systems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Continua : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Physical quantities : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Derivatives of physical quantities : : : : : : Rigid body motion : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Relating continuum models to real materials

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13 Conservation Laws in a Continuum

13.1 Mass conservation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 164 13.1.1 Lagrangian form : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 164

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13.1.2 Eulerian form of mass conservation : : : : : : : Conservation of momentum : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13.2.1 Eulerian form : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13.2.2 Shear stress, pressure and the stress deviator : : Lagrangian form of conservation of momentum : : : : : Conservation of angular momentum : : : : : : : : : : : 13.4.1 Eulerian version : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : $ $ 13.4.2 Consequences of S T =S : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lagrangian Form of Angular Momentum Conservation : Conservation of Energy : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13.6.1 Eulerian form : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13.6.2 Lagrangian form of energy conservation : : : : : Stu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13.7.1 Boundary conditions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13.7.2 Mass conservation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13.7.3 Momentum conservation : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13.7.4 Energy conservation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

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14 Strain and Deformation

14.1 Finite deformation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 235 14.2 In nitesimal displacements : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 240 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Elastic materials : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Small disturbances of an HTES : : : : : : : : Small disturbances in a perfectly elastic earth Viscous uids : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

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15 Constitutive Relations

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III Exercises

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Duplication is not permitted. is the empty set. B where A and B are sentences.g.g. a1 = a2 . etc.g. (a1 : : : an) is also called an ordered n-tuple. R := set of all real numbers. However. \implies and is implied by" (e. and (a1 a2 a3) 6= (a2 a1 a3). . Order is irrelevant. Order is important. A .) . is permitted. := \is de ned as" 8 \for every" 9 \there exists at least one" 91 \there exists exactly one" 3 \such that" Sets (same as \Classes") (a1 : : : a6 ) is an (ordered) sequence of objects.) i \if and only if" | same as . and fa1 a2 a3g = fa2 a1 a3g = fa3 a1 a2g. R + := set of all non-negative real numbers. (a1 : : : 6 a4 : : : a6) := (a1 a2 a3 a5 a6). R+ := set of all positive real numbers. e. the set with no objects in it. duplication. fa1 : : : 6 a4 : : : a6 g := fa1 a2 a3 a5 a6g.DICTIONARY D-1 Logic ) \implies" (e. All a are di erent. fa1 : : : a6 g is a set of objects. A ) B where A and B are sentences.

" Thus.") AnB := the set of all objects in A and not B . az 2 A2 : : : an 2 > > > < An. B means that A and B are sets and every member of A is a \is a proper subset of.") A B := the set of all objects in A or B or both. fx : x = 2y for some integer yg is the set of even integers. For example.D-2 DICTIONARY C := set of all complex numbers." A B means that A B and A 6= B (i." A member of B . It is the same as f2x : x is an integerg. \a 2 A" is read \the object a is a member of the set A. Same as A : : : A (n times). The phrase \a 2 A" can also stand for \the object a which is a member of A" 62 \is not a member of" \is a subset of. > > > > : nA := the set of all ordered n tuples (a1 : : : an) with a1 a2 : : : an all members of A.. (Read \A meet B . fx : p(x)g is the set of all objects x for which the statement p(x) is true. .") Cartesian A B := the set of all ordered pairs of (a b) with a 2 A and b 2 B . A \ B := the set of all objects in both A and B . f1 : : : ng := set of integers from 1 to n inclusive. (Read \A join B . (Read \A minus B . 2 \is a member of. B has at least one member not in A). products 8 > A1 : : : An := the set of all ordered n-tuples (a1 : : : an) with a1 2 A1.e.

f (d) = g(d). This object is called the \value" of f at d. If W \ Df =6 0 then f (W ) =6 0. f jW is the \restriction" of f to W . f (u0 ). Suppose u0 2 U and v0 2 V . 2 j! 4 under f . we can describe f by saying simply x j! x2 under f . De ne two functions g and h as follows: Dg = U and 8u 2 U g(u) = f (u v0) Dh = V and 8v 2 V h(v) = f (u0 v): . \Extension. In particular. g(w) = f (w). then f is an extension of g to Df . It is de ned whenever W is a subset of Df . and f is a rule which assigns to each d 2 Df an object f (d). Df is a set.DICTIONARY D-3 Functions Function is an ordered pair (Df f ). The function (Df f ) is usually abbreviated simply as f . f ( v0). Two equivalent de nitions of Rf are Rf := fx : 9d 2 Df 3 x = f (d)g or Rf := ff (d) : d 2 Df g : f = g for functions means Df = Dg and for each d 2 D. Its domain is W . Suppose U and V are sets and f is a function whose domain is U V . Range of function is a set Rf consisting of all objects which are values of f . It is the function (W g) such that for each w 2 W . called the \domain" of the function. In the expression f (d). f (W ) for a function f and a set W is de ned as ff (w) : w 2 W g. d is the \argument" of f . if Df = R and f (x) = x2 for all x 2 R. For example." If g is a restriction of f . d j! f (d) is a shorthand way of describing a function.

IU . there is exactly one d 2 Df such that r = f (d). has domain U and e ect u j ! u.1. f . 8d d0 2 Df . If f is invertible. The symbol stands for the sum of all the values f (A) for a 2 A." A function f is invertible if f (d) = f (d0) ) d = d0.D-4 DICTIONARY Df d f f -1 r Rf r = f(d ). and h is often written f (u0 ).1 is de ned to be the function whose domain is Rf and such that for each r 2 Rf . the identity function on the set U . for each r 2 Rf . its inverse f . The dot shows where to put the argument of the function. 8u 2 U . if r 2 Rf . The number of terms in the sum is the number of objects in A. In other words.g. real numbers or vectors). \Invertible. P a2A f (a) is de ned when A Df and when f (A) consists of objects which can be added (e. the equation f (d) = r has exactly one solution d 2 Df . so A must be nite unless some kind of convergence is assumed.1(r) is that unique d 2 Df such that . That is. \Inverse. IU (u) = u. That is.." f . d = f (r ) -1 Figure D-1: Then g is often written f ( v0).

f is a function. both the functions x j! x2 and x j! x3 are invertible. We say that \the function f maps U into V . For example. See Fig. if the domain is R. so is f . D-1. and their inverses are x j! x1=2 and xj! x1=3 .1). so is f . and Rf V . and (f .1.1(r) is the unique solution of r = f (d). If Rf = V ." Bijection. Injective. f : U ! V is the usual way of writing the mapping (U V f ) if one wants to note explicitly what U and V are." F (U ! V ) := the set of all functions mapping U into V .1 = Rf ." In this latter usage it is equivalent to \f (U ) V . That is. f : U ! V is a \surjective" mapping or a \surjection. . Note that the order in which the functions are applied or evaluated runs backward. from right to left. f : U ! V is an \injective" mapping or an \injection. if the domain is R+ ." Surjective. it is \bijective." or a \bijection. Rf . The function g f is called the \composition" of g with f . The symbol \f : U ! V " is read \the mapping f of U into V ." The mapping is often abbreviated simply as f if the context makes clear what U and V are.1 : V ! U . If f : U ! V is both injective and surjective.DICTIONARY D-5 f (d) = r. If f is invertible. the function x j! x2 is not invertible. Df = U ." Note: If f : U ! V is a bijection.1 = Df . Note that if f is invertible.1 = f . Then g f : U ! W is the mapping de ned by requiring for each u 2 U that (g f )(u) = g f (u)]." It can also stand for the sentence \f is a function which maps U into V . However. d = f . Note Df . Mappings A Mapping is an ordered triple (U V f ) in which U and V are sets. Composition g f : Suppose f : U ! V and g : V ! W .

1 . 1 or fewer transpositions." Sn := the set of all n-permutations. and f g = IV then f is a bijection and g = f . e = e = and . e. and the above notes on pg. then f is an injection ii) if f g = IV .D-6 DICTIONARY Note: If f : U ! V and g : V ! W and h : W ! X then h (g f ) = (h g) f: (g f ). This permutation is called the \transposition" or \interchange" of i and j . (i j ) transposition or interchange. f . Note: If f : U ! V then f IU = IV f = f .g. is the product of n .1 g. If i 6= j and 1 i j n (i.e. and Note: If f : U ! V is a bijection. The product of two per. It is an \n-permutation" or a \permutation of degree n.1 = f . Note: Suppose f : U ! V and g : V ! U . so is g f : U ! W .1 f = IU and f f .1 = IV .. Permutations A permutation is a bijection : 1 : : : n ! f1 : : : ng. Then i) if g f = IU . Birkho and MacLane. If e = If1 ::: ng then mutations and is de ned to be their composition. iv. It has n! members. the identity permutation. Note that (ij ) (ij ) = e.1: (D-1) Note: If f : U ! V and g : V ! W are bijections.1 = e for all 2 Sn.1 = . make Sn a group under the multiplication de ned by = . and (k) = k if k 62 fi j g. These facts. then f is an surjection iii) if g f = IU . There are many ways to . Theorem 1 (See. It is called the symmetric group of degree n. Its identity is e. A Survey of Modern Algebra.) If 2 Sn. (j ) = i. fi j g f1 : : : ng) then (i j ) stands for the permutation 2 Sn such that (i) = j .

" .1 = e. fi1 :::iq If i1 2 f1 : : : n1 g i2 2 f1 : : : n2g : : : iq 2 f1 : : : xq g.1 because (sgn )(sgn . all involve an even number of transpositions or all involve an odd number of transpositions. It is an n n array with ijn) = 0 if i 6= j .1. (n) (n) is omitted. and it is written simply ij .) even. with nn entries. There are 2q ways to write it. sgn is read \signum of . and each can be either a subscript or a superscript. Arrays An array of order q is a function f whose domain is Df = f1 : : : n1g : : : f1 : : : nq g: The array is said to have dimension n1 n2 : : : nq . or i j . (n) ( is the n-dimensional Kronecker delta.1 ).DICTIONARY D-7 write as a product of transpositions. " ( n) }| z n factors { is the n-dimensional alternating symbol.. or ij = 1 if i = j .e. is even or odd according as it can be written as the product of an even or an odd number of transpositions. We will never ij use symbols like fkl . If 2 Sn. but all have the same parity (i. all 0 or +1 or . The object f (i1 : : : iq ) is called the entry in the array at location (i1 : : : iq ) or address (i1 : : : iq ). or ij . := . It is an n n : : : n array. Note: sgn ( 1 2 ) = (sgn 1 )(sgn 2 ).1 = Note: sgn = sgn . then f (i1 : : : iq ) is often written fi1 i2 :::iq or f i1:::iq or fi1 i2 i3 i4:::iq etc. What counts is their right-left order. The integers i1 : : : iq are the \indices". sgn := +1 if is even.1 if is odd. and sgn e = 1. It is de ned as follows: . Usually the i j . odd. But sgn = 1. and 1 = sgn e = sgn .

"22 = 0: Example (n = 3): (n = 2) "123 = "231 = "312 = 1 "213 = "132 = "321 = .. etc. Thus. The sum is written out as Pn=1 Aiiii.D-8 DICTIONARY ) "(i1n:::in = 0 if any of i1 : : : in are equal i. This is a false statement. This is a true statement. ii) If an index appears twice in any expression but a sum or di erence. in each term of an equation. not for all possible values of i. A(ii) refers to a particular element in the array. not for i i i i i i iii) If an index appears three or more times in an expression other than a sum or di erence."jik . Thus. if Aij is an n n array. or "i1 i2 :::in . if Aijkl is an n n n n array. If ui and vj are rst order arrays of dimension n.1. v stands for i=1 i i i i i i i i i=1 i i P (u + v ) or P (u . Usually the "(n) is written without the n as "i1:::in . the equation is true for all possible values of the index. Thus. but u + v and u . a mistake has been made. \"ijk = "ijk " says that \"ijk = "jik for i j k"f1 2 3 g. i iv) Parentheses \protect" an index from the conventions.e. Thus. Einstein index conventions. a sum over all possible values of that index is understood. uivi i Pn u v . The correct statement is "ijk = .1 all other "ijk = 0. i) If an index appears once. Thus. "112 = 0. And v(i) = w(i) means equality only for the particular value of i under discussion. then there is a unique 2 Sn 3 i1 = (1) : : : in = ) ) (n). the one at location (ii). If fi1 : : : ing = f1 : : : ng. The element Aiiii in an n n n n array is written A(iiii) to . Example: "11 = 0. \ ij = ji" says that \ ij = ji" for all i j 2 f1 : : : ng. and u =v stands for Pn u =v . "111 = 0. stand for the i'th entries in two arrays. v ). In that case. or "i1 :::in . Aiiii is never written alone. without parentheses. if fi1 : : : ing 6= f1 : : : ng. Aii stands for Pn=1 Aii. "(i1n:::in = "(n(1)::: (n) = sgn . "12 = 1. "21 = . etc.

2. im jl kn . ij = ji (n) ii = n ij Ajk1:::kp ij Ak1 jk2 :::kp z n factors { }| 5.1 iq ip+1 : : : iq. and Ai1 : : : ip. ij jk = ik . using these conventions. In particular. the de nition of the Kronecker delta. the . 4. il jk which implies "ij "kj = jk and "ij "ij = 2 n = 3: "ijk "lmn = il jm kn + im jn kl + in jl km . "i1:::in "j1:::jn = P 2Sn (sgn ) i1j (1) : : : i1 j (n) (The Polar Identity). 1. "i1:::in is totally antisymmetric. 3.1ipip+1 : : : iq.1ipiq+1 : : : ir : (The + is for symmetric A.DICTIONARY D-9 make clear that no sum is intended. = Ai1 :::in = "i1:::in : 6. Strictly speaking. and (ii) = 1 for all i.1 iq iq+1 : : : ir = Ai1 : : : ip. If Ai1 :::in is an n n : : : n array which is totally antisymmetric. np = nq . Some properties of ij and "i1:::in are listed below. reads (ij) = 0 if i 6= j . is for antisymmetric A). An array A of order r is symmetric (antisymmetric) in its p'th and q'th indices if they have the same dimension. there is a constant such that = Aik1:::kp for any array A of suitable dimension. The two special cases of interest to us are n = 2: "ij "kl = ik jl . il jn km . etc. The array is totally symmetric (antisymmetric) if it is symmetric (antisymmetric) in every pair of indices. Ak1ik2 :::kp . in jm kl .

AjiSji because Aij = . so we omit them. and w : R3 ! R3 r ^ ~ is a vector eld.D-10 DICTIONARY 7. R3 . Suppose ~ = uixi ^ x ^ u ^ and ~ = vj xj . x1 (^2 x3 ) = 1 ). Then v ^ ~ ~ = ui vi u v ~ ~ = xi"ijk uj vk or u v ^ (~ ~ )i := xi (~ ~ ) = "ijk uj vk : u v ^ u v If ~ = rixi is the position vector in real three-space. im jl and "ijk "ljk = 2 il and "ijk "ijk = 6. while Sijl :::lq is symmetric in 1 1 Aijk1:::kP Sijl1:::lq = 0: The subscripts k and l are irrelevant. Then Proof: Remark 1 Suppose Aijk :::kp is antisymmetric in i and j . which implies "ijk "lmk = il jm . Now replace the summation index . If Aij is a real or complex n n array whose determinant is det A. then Ai1j1 Ai2j2 : : : Ain jn "j1:::jn = (det A) "i1:::in : In real three-space. We have Aij Sij = . Some applications of "i1 :::ln are these. suppose x1 x2 x3 is a right-handed triple of mutually ^ ^ ^ perpendicular unit vectors (that is.Aji and Sij = Sji. with w(~ ) = wi(~ )^i then ~r r x ~ ~ r w = divergence of w = @wi ~ @r i @wk : ~ ~ r w = curl of w = xi "ijk @r ~ ^ j A very important general property of arrays is the following: i and j .

Aij Sij . C .DICTIONARY D-11 j by i and the index i by j . where a and b are rational. multiplied and divided according to the ordinary rules of arithmetic. so Aij Sij = 0. the set p De nition of vector spaces: A vector space is an ordered quadruple (V . and the set of numbers a + b 2. Its members are called vectors. This function is called multiplication by scalars. For any ~ ~ 2 V and c 2 F we de ne uv ~ + ~ : = ad(~ ~ ) u v uv c~ = ~ c := sc(c ~ ) v v v The additional properties which make (V F ad sc) a vector space are properties of ad and sc as follows (letters with ! are vectors. Vector Space Facts Fields: A eld is a set F of objects which can be added. F . subtracted. and usually F = R. ii) F is a eld. Its members are called scalars. V ! V . those without ! are scalars): v) ~ + ~ = ~ + ~ u v v u vi) ~ + (~ + w) = (~ + ~ ) + w u v ~ u v ~ . sc) with these properties: i) V is a non-empty set. ad. Examples are R. iii) ad : V of rational numbers. iv) sc : F V ! V . The remaining properties make more sense if we introduce a new notation. Then AjiSji = Aij Sij : Putting these two results together gives Aij Sij = . We will use only the elds R and C . This function is called vector addition.

V is the set of all ordered n tuples of members of R+ .1)~ u 0 v u v are written . v u v Example 1: F is a eld. The vectors (.D-12 DICTIONARY vii) (a + b)~ = a~ + b~ u u u viii) a(~ + ~ ) = a~ + a~ u v u v ix) a(b~ ) = (ab)~ u u x) 0~ = 0~ for any ~ ~ 2 V u v uv xi) 1~ = ~ u u The vector 0~ is called the zero vector. so a typical vector is ~ = (u1 : : : un) with u1 : : : un 2 R+ : u ~ + ~ := ad(~ ~ ) := (u1v1 : : : unvn) u v uv c c c~ := sc(c ~ ) := (v1 : : : vn): v v The addition and multiplication functions are The zero vector is ~ = (1 1 : : : 1). V is the set of all ordered n-tuples of members of F .1)~ and ~ + (. 0 Example 2: F = R. The space V is usually written F n. De ne a new vector space (VS F adS scS ) as follows: VS = F (S ! V ) the set of all functionsf : S ! V : . so a typical vector is ~ = (u1 : : : un) with u1 : : : un 2 F: u ~ + ~ := ad(~ ~ ) := (u1 + v1 : : : un + vn) u v uv c~ := sc(c ~ ) := (cv1 : : : cvn) v v The addition and multiplication functions are The zero vector is ~ = (0 : : : 0). written ~ .~ and ~ . 0 Example 3: Let (V F ad sc) be any vector space and let S be any non-empty set. ~ respectively.

the zero vector is the function which assigns to each s 2 S the zero vector in V. f + g and cf are functions whose domains are S and whose ranges are subsets of V . This is not a vector space. In VS .1)f 6 2V ." They are de nitions of the vector-valued functions f + g and cf . if f 2 V then (. adS (f g) : S ! V and scS (c f ) : S ! V . There are scalars c 2 F and vectors f 2 V such that cf 6 2V . V = set of all continuous real-valued functions on the closed unit interval 0 x 1. In other words. (This is a vector space. Thus. ad and sc as de ned in Examples 3 and 4. but will use ~ + ~ uv v u v . Example 5: F = R..e. We will almost never use the notations ad(~ ~ ) or sc(c ~ ). Example 4: F = real numbers = R. page D-12. the function sc in this case is not a mapping from F V to V . For example. because if f and g are continuous functions so is f + g and so is cf for any real c.DICTIONARY D-13 To de ne adS and scS we note that if f and g are functions in VS and c 2 F then adS (f g) and scS (c f ) are supposed to be functions in VS . The de nitions we adopt are these: adS (f g)] (s) = f (s) + g(s) scS (c f )] (s) = cf (s): (D-2) (D-3) Following the convention for vector spaces. i. V = set of all continuous positive real valued functions on Notation: Usually the vector space (V F ad sc) will be called simply the vector space V . ad and sc are de ned as in Example 3. we must say what values they assign to each s 2 S . To de ne these functions. The de nitions (1) and (2) read thus: for any s 2 S (f + g)(s) = f (s) + g(s) (cf )(s) = cf (s): (D-4) (D-5) These are not \obvious facts.) 0 x 1. we write adS (f g) as f + g and scS (c f ) as cf .

D-14 DICTIONARY Because of vector space rules v) and vi). If V is the space in Example 2. page D-12. We can use u u the index conventions to write Pn=1 ai~ i as ai~ i. And then L is called an \isomorphism" and V and W are said to be isomorphic. Each member of V corresponds to exactly one member of W . if n = 4.. then the two spaces in examples 1 and 2 on page D-12 are isomorphic. if 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 2 F . u u ~ ~ u u u u When ~ 1 : : : ~ n 2 V and a1 : : : an 2 F . and L 2 F (V ! W ). then a~ = ~ because a~ = a(0~ ) = (a0)~ = 0~ = ~ . For suppose a~ = ~ and a 6= 0. then L. there is no ambiguity about Pn=1 ~ i when i u ~ 1 : : : ~ n 2 V . u u u u u u u u ~ 1 + ~ 2) + u3] + u4 ~ 4 + (~ 2 + ~ 1)] + ~ 3. For example. u u i and c~ and ~ c. or a real or complex vector v v space if F = R or C . v v 0 v 0 v 0 Then a. two isomorphic vector spaces are really the same space. and ~ = 1~ = (a. Finally. If L 2 L(V ! W ) is a bijection. ~ 2 V . etc.1 2 F . ~ 6= ~ . Also. We call L a \linear mapping" if for any ~ .1~ = ~ . if F = R. Facts about ~ . we do not even need the P. V will be called a vector space over F . all of ~ 1 + u2 +(~ 3 + u4)]. and ad and sc can be applied in either V or W with the same result. ~ 2 V and c 2 F it is u v true that L(~ + ~ ) = L(~ ) + L(~ ) u v u v L(c~ ) = cL(~ ): u u L(V ! W ) is the set of all linear mappings from V to W . 0 u u u u u u Linear mappings: Suppose V and W are both vector spaces over the same eld F .1 2 L(W ! V ). and vice versa. ~ + ~ = ~ v v v v 0 0 0 u u because ~ + ~ = 0~ + 1~ = (0 + 1)~ = 1~ = ~ . For example. 1 Note that if L 2 L(V ! W ) and M 2 L(U ! V ). Intuitively speaking.1a)~ = a. If a 2 F . then a~ 6= ~ . . are the same. then L M 2 L(U ! W ). 1 It is a vector space over F if it's ad and sc are de ned as in example 3.1 (a~ ) = a. and a 6= 0 . (~ 2 +~ 4)+(~ 3 +~ 1).

DICTIONARY D-15 then the isomorphism L : Rn ! V is given by L(u1 : : : un) = (eu1 : : : eun ) and L.) f e ii) ad = ad jV e e V sc F V ) is a subspace of (V F ad sc) e a) ad(V Finite dimensional vector spaces. (If V is a subspace of V . then (V F ad V if and only if e e V ) V and also ~ e b) sc(F V ) V .1(v1 : : : vn) = (ln v1 : : : ln vn): ~ ~ ~ Subspaces: A subspace of vector space (V F ad sc) is a vector space (V F ad sc) with these properties: ~ i) V V e V e f iii) sc = sc jF V . planes and hyperplanes in V passing through the e origin. Thus v e v e v 0 the zero vector in V is the zero vector in every subspace of V . u u Span: The set of all linear combinations of nite subsets of U is written sp U . V is a vector space over eld F . u Linear combination: If ~ 1 : : : un 2 V and a1 : : : an 2 F . It is called the span of U . but 0~ = ~ . e ~ ~ If V is any subset of V . Intuitively. and ~ 2 V . U = sp U . It is a subspace of V . If U is a subspace. U is an arbitrary non-empty subset of V . the vector ai~ i is u ~ called a linear combination of f~ 1 : : :~ ng. . subspaces are lines. so it is called the subspace spanned or generated by U . then 0~ 2 V by iii).

and n dim V . Then there are functions c1 : : : cn 2 L(V ! F ) such that for any ~ 2 V v B B ~ = cj (~ )~j : v Bvb . A set U V is \linearly dependent" if there are nitely many vectors ~ 1 : : : ~ n 2 U and scalars a1 : : : an such that u u i) at least one of a1 : : : an is not 0. dim V . Linear independence of U means that whenever f~ 1 : : :~ ng U u u and ai~ i = ~ . Every basis for W is a subset of a basis for Theorem 4 If f~ 1 : : : ~ ng spans V then dim V n. and contain the same number of vectors. Linear dependence. W is nite dimensional and dim W V. say U = f~ 1 : : : ~ ng.D-16 DICTIONARY Finite dimensional. u u Theorem 5 If V is nite dimensional and U is a linearly independent subset of V . A set U V is linearly independent if it is not linearly dependent. u u u Linear independence. then a1 = : : : = an = 0. U spans u u V and so is a basis for V .1g. The following are important theorems about bases. written dim V . A vector space V is \ nite dimensional" if V = sp U for some nite subset U V. u 0 Basis. then there is an m 2 f1 : : : ng such that ~ m 2 spf~ 1 : : : ~ m. then u u f~ 1 : : : ~ ng is linearly independent. Theorem 2 If V is nite dimensional. hence a basis for V . and also ii) ai~ i = ~ . If n = dim V . Any linearly independent subset of vector space V which spans V is called a basis for V . This number is called the dimension of V . If dim V = n. U is nite. u 0 It is an important theorem that if (~ 1 : : : ~ n) is a sequence such that f~ 1 : : : ~ ng u u u u is linearly dependent. it has a basis. b b Theorem 6 Suppose B = f~1 : : :~n g is a basis for V . and all its bases are nite Theorem 3 If V is nite dimensional and W is a subspace of V .

and ~ 6= ~ . written det L. 2 F . If L 2 L(V V ). ~ 2 V . L(~i ) = Li j~j .") Clearly ~i = i j~j . Our b b de nition is the more convenient one for continuum mechanics. (The matrix of L relative to B is b b often de ned as the transpose of our Li j . and B = f~1 : : : ~ng b b is a basis for V . and ~ is an \eigenvector"of L belonging to eigenvalue v . The eigenvalues of L are the solution 2 F of the polynomial equation det(L . ~ ~ b ~ (In other words.) (The L whose existence and uniqueness are asserted by the theorem is easy to nd. and if v v 0 L(~ ) = ~ v v (D-7) then is an \eigenvalue" of L. Then 91L 2 L(V ! W ) 3 L(~i ) = wi. and fw1 : : : wng"W . A linear operator L is invertible i det L 6= 0. Clearly. The linear v v functions c1 : : : cn are called the coordinate functionals for the basis B . then the array Li j = cjB L(~i )] is called the matrix b b of L relative to B . so it is called the determinant of L. If it is invertible it is an isomorphism (a surjection as well as an injection). which are uniquely determined by B v B v ~ and B . L(~ ) = ciB (~ )wi. (A B B function whose values are scalars is called a \functional. are called the coordinates of ~ relative to the basis B . not on B . ~ ~ Linear operators: If L 2 L(V ! V )." If B = b f~1 : : : ~n g is any basis for V . L is completely determined by LjB for one basis B . it follows that cj (~i ) = B b i j (D-6) Theorem 7 Suppose V and W are vector spaces over F .DICTIONARY D-17 The scalars v1 = c1 (~ ) : : : vn = cn (~ ). and LjB can be chosen arbitrarily. L is called a \linear operator on V .) The determinant of the matrix of L relative to B depends only on L. It is that matrix 3 L(~i ) = ~j Lj i . b b Since the coordinates of any vector relative to B are unique. For any ~ 2 V . IV ) = 0: (D-8) .) v v v~ This L is an injection if fw1 : : : wng is linearly independent and a surjection ~ ~ if W = spfw1 : : : wng.

the requirements on dp are these: a) dp : V V ! R. page D-12.D-18 DICTIONARY Linear operators on a nite dimensional complex vector space always have at least one eigenvalue and eigenvector. In this uv u v notation. uu d) for any ~ ~ 2 V . positive-de nite and bilinear. On a real vector space this need not be so. the requirements on the dot product are a)0 ~ ~ 2 R u v (dp is a functional) b)0 ~ ~ = ~ ~ u v v u (dp is symmetric) c)0 ~ ~ > 0 if ~ 6= ~ u u u 0 (dp is positive de nite) d)0 for any ~ ~ 1 : : : ~ n ~ 2 V and a1 : : : an 2 F uu u v (ai~ i) ~ = ai (~ i ~ ) u v u v v u ~ (ai~ i) = ai (~ ~ i) v u this is ordinary three-space. and dp(~ ~ ) is usually written ~ ~ . then L M 2 L(V V ) and det(L M ) = (det L)(det M ). For n = 3 u v . In more detail. (dp is a functional) (dp is symmetric) (dp is positive de nite) (dp is bilinear). If L and M 2 L(V V ). b) dp(~ ~ ) = dp(~ ~ ) uv vu u 0 c) dp(~ ~ ) > 0 if ~ 6= ~ . and ~ ~ = uivi. Euclidean Vector Spaces De nition: A Euclidean vector space is an ordered quintuple (V R ad sc dp) with these properties: i) (V R ad sc) is a nite-dimensional (real) vector space ii) dp is a functional on V V which is symmetric. 9 > = > dp is bilinear Example 1: (V R ad sc) is as in Example 1. u v v u dp is called the dot-product functional. dp( ~ ) and dp(~ ) 2 L(V ! R).

I. ~ 6= ~ ) ~ ~ = 0. Obviously Q?Q?. v b v 0 v x x v 0 Orthonormal sets and bases. u u uv u v u v . then ~ = ~ . 6 (~ ~ ) = 2 : If k~ k = 1.. but true in nite dimensional spaces. if ~ ~ = 0 for all ~ 2 V . then uv ~ ?~ means ~ ~ = 0: u v u v ~ ?Q means ~ ~ = 0 for all ~ 2 Q: u u q q P ?Q means ~ ~ = 0 for all p 2 P and ~ 2 Q: p q ~ q x x x Q? := f~ : ~ 2 V and ~ ?Qg. Slightly less obvious. so it u 0 v 0 u v u v ~ ~ = k~ kk~ k cos 6 (~ ~ ): u v u v uv uv In particular." It is a subspace of V . From the de nitions on page D-18. Thus. In particular. Length and angle. page D-13. we will write u for ~ . Q V . Also.DICTIONARY D-19 Example 2: (V R ad sc) is as in Example 4.1 and 1. is (Q?)? = sp Q: n o n o Theorem 8 Q spans V . The length of a vector ~ in v p v v a Euclidean space is de ned as k~ k := ~ ~ . 2 1 There let f ( 2 ) = 1. Q? = ~ . let f (x) = 0 in 0 x 1 except at x = 1 . j~ ~ j k~ k k~ k u v u v (Schwarz inequality) is the cosine of exactly one angle between 0 and . For example. if ~1 : : : ~n is a basis for 0 b b V and ~ ~i = 0. Note that without continuity. u v u ^ u Orthogonality: If V is a Euclidean vector space. P V . their dot product is f g = 01 dxf (x)g(x). then ~ = ~ . and is written 6 (~ ~ ). u v uv uv j~ + ~ j k~ k + k~ k u v u u (triangle inequality) If ~ 6= ~ and ~ 6= ~ then ~ ~ =k~ kk~ k is a real number between . This set is called \the orthogonal complement of Q. If f and g are two functions in R V . and ~ ~ 2 V .e. This angle is called the angle between ~ and ~ . ~ 2 Q ) k~ k = 1 and ~ ~ 2 Q. ~ ~ = 0 . by the de nition of 6 (~ ~ ). An orthonormal set Q in V is any set of mutually perpendicular unit vectors. All nonzero-vectors have positive v length. Schwarz and triangle inequalities. f = 0 6 need not imply f f > 0. Then f 6= 0 but f f = 0.

) Theorem 10 Let V be a Euclidean vector space. page D-12) Therefore the two funcv tions ai~i and ai ~i are equal. Linearity is easy to prove. v v v ^ x Theorem 9 Every Euclidean vector space has an orthonormal basis. U is itself a Euclidean vector space. If U is a subspace of Euclidean vector space V . the coordinate functionals ciB ^ ^ are given simply by ciB (~ ) = ~ xi 8~ 2 V: v v ^ v (D-9) That is. any orthonormal set is nite.D-20 DICTIONARY An orthonormal set is linearly independent. and can have no more than dim V members. For any ~ 2 v V we can de ne a ~ 2 L(V ! R) by requiring simply v v ~ (~) = ~ v y ~ y 8~ 2 V: y (D-10) in V . for any ~ . y ai~i (~) v y = (ai~i) ~ = ai (~i ~) = ai v y v y = (ai ~i )(~ ): v y ~i (~ )] v y (See de nition of ai ~i in example 3. v v and linear. v v . v v But for any ~ 2 V . a surjection. An orthonormal basis in V is any basis which is an orthonormal set. Linear functionals and dual bases: Let V be a Euclidean vector space. If B = fx1 : : : xng is an orthonormal basis for V . We want to show ai~i = ai ~i . simply as vectors Proof: We must show that the mapping ~ j! ~ is an injection. so in a nite dimensional Euclidean space. ~ = (~ xi )^i . and every orthonormal basis for U is a subset of an orthonormal basis for V . the members of L(V ! R). The mapping ~ j! ~ de ned v v by equation (9) is an isomorphism between V and L(V ! R): (Therefore we can think of the linear functionals on V .

If (~1 : : : ~m ) is a basis. m = dim V . or u v y u y v y u y v y (~ . so ai(~ i ~j ) = 0. ~ = . u v 0 u v To prove that ~ j! ~ is surjective. De nition: Two sequences of vectors in V . ~ ) ~ = 0. All vectors are in a Euclidean vector space V . so ai ij = 0.DICTIONARY D-21 To prove that ~ j! ~ is injective. setting ~ = ~ . Let fx1 : : : xn g be an orthonormal basis for V and v ^ ^ v de ne ~ = (^i)^i : Then for any ~ 2 V . are dual to u u v v each other if ~ i ~j = ij . For any ~ 2 V . Proof: If ai~ i = ~ . ~ ) (~ . An equation almost as convenient as this can be obtained for v v v ^ x an arbitrary basis. so is the other. each is linearly u u v v independent. ~ = (~ xi)^i . suppose ~ = ~ . (Proof. then (ai~ i) ~j = 0. it is sometimes convenient to work with bases which are not orthonormal. ~ ) = 0. we know ~ (~) = ~ (~). so aj = 0. since v v u u (~ 1 : : : ~ m) is linearly independent. (~ 1 : : : ~ m) and (~1 : : : ~m ). We want to prove v v u v ~ = ~ . u v Remark 2 If (~ 1 : : : ~ m) and (~1 : : : ~m) are dual to each other. . let 2 L(V ! R): We want to nd v v a ~ 2 V 3 = ~ . u 0 u v u v De nition: An ordered basis for V is a sequence of vectors (~1 : : : ~n) such that f~1 : : : ~ng b b b b is a basis for V . it is also a basis. u v y y u v u v u v so (~ . The advantage of an orthonormal basis x1 : : : xn is that for any ^ ^ ~ 2 V . ~ ) = ~ . so ~ ~ = ~ ~. ~ (~) = ~ ~ = (^i)(^i ~) = v x x y v y x x y v y (^i )yi = (yixi ) = (~): Thus. We need some de nitions. ~ = ~ . Remark 3 If two sequences of vectors are dual to each other and one is an ordered basis. In particular. x ^ y QED. Then. v Even in a Euclidean space. ~ we see (~ .

b b b b Remark 5 If (~1 : : : ~n ) is an ordered basis for V . Hence. it has at least one dual sequence b b b b From the foregoing. and that this dual sequence is also an b b ordered basis for V . But any ~ 2 V can be written ~ = aj~j . so u u b (~i . so (~i . Thus b y y y b b b (~1 : : : ~n) is dual to (~1 : : : ~n). In particular. ~i ) ~j = 0. It is characterized b b and uniquely determined by ~i ~j = i j : b b (D-11) There is an obvious symmetry: each of B and B D is the dual basis for the other. b b Proof: Let B = f~1 : : :~n g. 8~ 2 V . so according to theorem (10) there is exactly one ~i 2 V such that ~bi = ciB . It is called the dual basis for (~1 : : : ~n). Then ~bi (~) = ciB (~ ). b b They are linear functionals on V . so b y y y ~i ~ = ciB (~ ). ~i) (aj~j ) = 0 b b v b v b b v b for any ai : : : an 2 R. ~i) ~ = 0 for all ~ 2 V . it has at most one dual sequence b b (~1 : : : ~n). ~i = 0. ~i . If ~ 2 V . and B = (~1 : : : ~n) is any ordered basis. ~i ~j = ciB (~j ) = i j see (5)]. and ~i bj = ij . then b b v v b b ~i ~j = ij . we can write v b b ~ = vj~j v b (D-12) . 8~ 2 V . it is clear that each ordered basis B = (~i : : : ~n) for V has exactly one dual sequence B D = (~1 : : : ~n ) .D-22 DICTIONARY Remark 4 If (~1 : : : ~n) is an ordered basis for V . b v u u b v b v (~1 : : : ~n). ~i = ~i. Then (~i . and let ciB be the coordinate functions for this basis. b b Proof: If (~1 : : : ~n) and (~1 : : : ~n) are both dual sequences to (~1 : : : ~n).

we can write b b ~ = vj~j : v b Because duality is symmetrical. it follows immediately that (D-14) vj = ~ ~ j : v b (D-15) An orthonormal basis is its own dual basis it is self-dual. v The covariant metric matrix of B D is gij = ~i ~j : b b (D-17) . We have vj = vj = xj ~ : ^ v In order to keep indices always up or down. and B D = (~1 : : : ~n) is its dual basis. If ~i = xi then ~i = xi .DICTIONARY D-23 where vj = cj (~ ) are the coordinates of ~ relative to B . b b b b and ~ 2 V . it is sometimes convenient to write an orthonormal basis (^1 : : : xn) as (^1 : : : xn). The contravariant components of ~ relative to B are the coordinates of ~ relative to B . (12) are the same as (13) and (14). The covariant components of ~ relative to B are the coordinates v v of ~ relative to B D . b ^ b ^ and (11). and the vi are the v covariant components of ~ relative to B (and also the contravariant components of ~ v v v relative to B D ). Thus v i = ~i ~ : b v (D-13) Since (~1 : : : ~n) = B D is also an ordered basis for V . Then x ^ x ^ ^ ^ vj = vj = xj ~ = xj ~ : ^ v ^ v If (~1 : : : ~n ) = B is an ordered basis for V . with xi = xi. Then ~i ~ = vj~i ~j = v b v b b B v vj ji = vi. we can write v ~ = vi~i = vi~i : v b b (D-16) The vi are called the contravariant components of ~ relative to B .

v Transposes: Suppose V and W are Euclidean vector spaces and L 2 L(V ! W ). but adjoint has a second. It is easy to verify that LT : W ! V is also bijective and (L. If L 2 L(V ! W ) and M 2 L(U ! V ). We have vi = ~i ~ = ~i (~j vj ) = (~i ~j )vj so b v b b b b (D-18) vi = gij vj : Similarly. i.1 : (D-24) . Furthermore. Then there is exactly one LT 2 F (W ! V ) such that ~ v ~ L(~ ) w = ~ LT (w) 8(~ w) 2 V v ~ v W: (D-21) This LT is linear. LT 2 L(W ! V ). quite di erent. then L.1 2 L(W ! V ). then (aiLi)T = ai(LT ) i (D-22) The linear mapping LT is called the \transpose" of L (also sometimes the adjoint of L. so we avoid the term). meaning for matrices.e. or by the symmetry of duality. then L M 2 L(U ! W ) and it is easy to verify that (L M )T = M T LT : (D-23) If L 2 L(V ! W ) is bijective.1 )T = (LT ). and if a1 : : : an 2 R and L1 : : : Ln 2 L(V ! W ). (LT )T = L. (D-19) vi = gij vj : (D-20) The metric matrices can be used to raise or lower the indices on the components of ~.D-24 DICTIONARY The contravariant metric matrix of B D is gij = ~i ~j : b b Clearly gij is the contravariant and gij the covariant metric matrix of B D .

L(B ) is orthonormal.1 . then fL(^1) : : : L(^)g is also an or^ ^ x x thonormal basis. If L 2 L(V ! V ). i) There is at least one orthonormal basis B V relative to which the matrix of L has either orthonormal rows (Li j Lk j = ik ) or orthonormal columns (Li j Li k = ij ). then L is called \orthogonal" or an \isometry" if kL(~ ) . then each of the following conditions is necessary and v su cient for L to be an isometry: a) kL~ k = k~ k v v c) LT L = IV d) L LT = IV e) LT = L. If L and M 2 (V ) or +(V ). L(~ )k = k~ . if B = fx1 : : : xng is any orthonormal basis. If det L = +1. the matrix of L relative to B has orthonormal rows and columns (i. and Li j Lk j = ik )." Otherwise L is \improper. ~ k for all ~ and u v u v u ~ in V ." If V is Euclidean and L 2 L(V ! V ). the same is true of L M and L. the members of L(V ! V ) are called \linear operators on V . (V ) and +(V ) are both groups if multiplication is de ned 8~ 2 V v b) L(~ ) L(~ ) = ~ ~ 8~ ~ 2 V u v u v u v . L is called \proper." (V ) := set of all orthonormal operators on V .DICTIONARY D-25 Orthogonal operators or isometries: If V is a vector space. Therefore. g) There is at least one orthonormal basis B 3 L(B ) is orthonormal. If L is orthogonal. det L = 1. h) For every orthonormal basis B V .e. + (V ) := set of all proper orthonormal operators on V . Also IV 2 (V ) and +(V ).1 f) For every orthonormal basis B V .. Li j Li k = jk . That is.

1 cos i + x2i sin x ^ ^ L(^2i ) = . L is a \rotation. +(V ) is If L 2 +(V ). ^ That is.1 sin i + x2i cos x ^ ^ L(^2n+1 ) = x2n+1 : x ^ i i 9 > > > = > 8i 2 f1 : : : mg > > The vector x2n+1 is omitted in the above de nition if dim V is even. L(^n ) = xk . a) LT = L b) L(~ ) ~ = L(~ ) ~ u v v u 8~ ~ 2 V u v c) The matrix of L relative to every orthonormal basis for V is symmetric d) The matrix of L relative to at least one orthonormal basis for V is symmetric." A re ection is an L for which there is an orthonormal basis x1 : : : xn such that ^ ^ L(^1 ) = . If included. x ^ x ^ Symmetric operators: A symmetric operator on Euclidean space V is an L 2 L(V V ) 3 LT = L. it is the \axis" of the rotation. while the proper orthogonal group.1 ) = x2i. (Antisymmetric means LT = . For any real let L ] denote the set of all ~ 2 V such that L(~ ) = ~ . Each of the following conditions is necessary and su cient for a linear operator L to be symmetric. (V ) is called the orthogonal group on V . there is an orthonormal ordered basis (^1 : : : xn) for V . L is the product of a rotation and a \re ection. v v v n g are uniquely . e) There is an orthonormal basis for V consisting entirely of eigenvectors of L.D-26 DICTIONARY to mean composition.x1 . but the eigenvectors are not.x2i. and included ^ if dim V is odd." This implies that there is an orthonormal basis x1 : : : x2m x2m+1 and angles 1 : : : m between 0 and such that ^ ^ ^ L(^2i. If L 2 (V ) is improper. and a sex quence of real numbers ( 1 : : : n) (not necessarily di erent) such that L(^(i) ) = x ^ (i) x(i) 8i 2 f1 : : : ng: (D-25) Facts: The eigenvalues f 1 : : : determined by L.L). if k 2.

i. p. Every symmetric positive (semi) de nite operator L has a unique positive (semi) de nite symmetric square root.. and S1 and S2 are positive de nite.DICTIONARY D-27 Then L ] is a subspace of V . Positive-de nite (semide nite) symmetric operators.e. L ] is called the eigenspace of L with eigenvalue . In that case. If L 2 L(V ! V ) is symmetric. The existence part of the polar decomposition theorem can be restated as follows: for any L 2 L(V ! V ) there are orthonormal bases (^1 : : : xn) and (^1 : : : yn) in x ^ y ^ V and non-negative numbers 1 : : : n such that . If L. If det L > 0 then O1 is proper. O1 and O2 are uniquely determined by L and are equal. L is said to be positive de nite when L(~ ) ~ > 0 for all nonzero ~ 2 V v v v and positive semide nite when (D-26) L(~ ) ~ 0 for all ~ 2 V: v v v (D-27) A symmetric linear operator is positive de nite (semide nite) i all its eigenvalues are positive (non-negative). Then there exist orthogonal operators O1 and O2 and positive semide nite symmetric operators S1 and S2 such that L = O1 S1 = S2 O2 : (D-29) Both S1 and S2 are uniquely determined by L (in fact S1 = (LT L)1=2 and S2 = (LLT )1=2 ). The eigenspaces are uniquely determined by L. and dim L ] > 0 . If 1 6= 2 . is an eigenvalue of L.1 exists. 169 ). Suppose V is Euclidean and L 2 L(V ! V ). L 1] ? L 2 ] . a symmetric positive (semi) de nite operator L1=2 such that L1=2 L1=2 = L (D-28) Polar Decomposition Theorem: (See Halmos.

D-28 DICTIONARY L(^(i) ) = x If L is invertible. while for i = m + 1 : : : n (with n = dim V ) (29) is replaced by L(^i ) = ~ : x 0 (D-31) . Stated this way. all (i) ^ (i) y(i) i = 1 : : : n: (D-30) > 0. If dim V > dim W . the theorem remains true for any L(V ! W ) if V and W are Euclidean spaces and dim V dim W . then (29) holds for i = 1 : : : m. with m = dim W .

Five Prerequisite Proofs PP-1 .

.

according as is even or odd. there is a 2 Sn such that i1 = (1) : : : in = (n). If they are all di erent. "i1 ::: in := n dimensional alternating symbol := 0 if fi1 : : : ing 6= f1 : : : ng := sgn if i1 = (1) : : : in = (n) 2 Sn: Then the polar identity is X (PP-1) ( sgn ) i1j (1) in j (n) = "i1:::in "j1:::jn : 2Sn Lemma PP-1 Suppose Ai1:::in is an n : : : n dimensional n'th order array which is totally antisymmetric (i. A (1)::: (n) = ( sgn )A1:::n = " (1)::: (n) A1:::n. Thus. Then Ai1 :::in = (A12:::n) "i1:::in : Proof: (PP-2) If any two of fi1 : : : ing are equal. Each interchange produces a sign change. This is a product of transpositions (interchanges). so the nal sign is + or . changes sign where any two indices are interchanged).e. holds both when fi1 : : : ing contains a repeated index and when it does not.The Polar Identity Let Sn := group all permutations on f1 : : : ng. PP-3 . and by carrying out these interchanges in succession on A12:::n one obtains A (1)::: (n). equation PP-2. Therefore. A(i1 :::in ) = 0.

Then Proof: X X . each of the sums in (PP-3) contains exactly the same terms.1(1) : : : 2Sn in j . so they can be added in any order. These terms are vectors in W .1 A : : : B .1 and the mapping j! are bijections of Sn to itself.1 (n): 80 1 0 19 > <B 1 C = n C> @ .1 = sgn .1 X f( ) = f( ) = f ( ): 2Sn 2Sn 2Sn (PP-3) Both the mapping j! .PP-4 PROOFS Lemma PP-2 Suppose W is a vector space and f : Sn ! W and 2 Sn.1 A> @ > : (1) (n) 80 0 19 > (1) 1 > <B C : : : B (n) C= @ A >@ 1 A : n > 0 B @ 1 iC A j is the same as the set because a pair . Proof: X ( sgn ) i1 j (1) : : : 2Sn in j (n) (PP-4) (PP-5) (PP-6) Ai1 :::inj1:::jn = Aj1:::jni1:::in Ai1 :::inj (1):::j (n) = ( sgn )Ai1 :::in j1:::jn To prove (PP-5) note that by lemma 2. Ai1 :::inj1:::jn = The set of n pairs X ( sgn ) i1 j . Lemma PP-3 De ne Ai1 :::inj1:::jn = Then and for any 2 Sn. Therefore. since sgn .

(1) : : : jn = k (n) . To prove equation (PP-6). let 2 Sn and let j1 = k from equation (PP-4). and Ai1 :::in k (1):::k (n) = ( sgn ) = ( sgn ) ( sgn ) 2Sn = ( sgn )Ai1 :::in k1:::kn : X ( sgn ) i1 k 2Sn X i1 k (1) (1) ::: in k (n) (n) ::: in k by Lemma PP-2 This proves equation (PP-6). Then in k Ai1 :::ink (1):::k (n) = X ( sgn ) i1 k 2Sn (1) ::: (n) : Now ( sgn )2 = 1 and so ( sgn ) = ( sgn )2 ( sgn ) = ( sgn ) ( sgn )( sgn )] = ( sgn )( sgn ).1 (n) = i (1) 1 j ::: i (n) jn and Ai1:::in j1:::jn = X ( sgn ) i (1)j1 : : : 2Sn X = ( sgn ) j1i (1) : : : 2Sn = Aj1:::jni1 :::in : i (n) jn jn i (n) This proves equation (PP-5).PROOFS PP-5 is in the rst set of pairs i j = . Then x i1 : : : in. Now we can prove the polar identity.1 (i) and in the second set of pairs i i = (j ). Let Ai1:::in j1:::jn be as in (PP-4). interchanging the i's and j 's gives Ai1 :::in j1:::jn = A12:::n j1:::jn "i1 :::in : (PP-7) . Ai1:::in j1:::jn = Ai1 :::in12:::n"j1:::jn : By equation (PP-5). By lemma 1 and equation (PP-6). Therefore i1 j .1 (1) : : : in j .

. and a term vanishes unless (1) = 1. and this term is 1. with ir = r.PP-6 PROOFS Set i1 = 1 : : : in = n. But sgn e = 1. The result is A12:::n j1:::jn "12:::n = A12:::n12:::n"j1:::jn so A12:::n j1:::jn = A12:::n 12:::n"j1:::jn : (PP-8) Substituting (PP-8) in (PP-7) gives Ai1 :::in j1:::jn = A12:::n 12:::n"i1:::in "j1:::jn : Then from the de nition (PP-4). A12:::n12:::n = 1. (2) = 2 : : : (n) = n that is. so only one of the n! terms in the sum is nonzero. and equation (PP-9) becomes the polar identity (PP-1). js = s (PP-9) A12:::n12:::n = X ( sgn ) 1 (1) : : : 2Sn n (n) : There are n! terms in this sum. unless is the identity permutation e. and equate these two. Therefore.

u v Lemma PP-5 Suppose S : V ! V is a symmetric linear operator on Euclidean space V . S (w) 2 U ?. that is i ~ S (~ ) = S (~ ) ~ for u v u v all ~ . Thus. But ~ S (w) = S (~ ) w. By hypothesis. That is. ~ 2 U ?. v v v6 0 Proof: PP-7 . for some ~ = ~ . u v Theorem PP-11 Let S be a symmetric linear operator on Euclidean space V . De nition PP-1 S : V ! V is symmetric i S = S T . S jU ? is symmetric. it certainly u v holds for all ~ . and S (U ) S (U ?) U ? and S jU ? is symmetric as a linear operator on U ?. Proof: U . ~ 2 V . Hence. Lemma PP-4 Suppose S is symmetric. we ~ ~ u want to show ~ S (w) = 0. ~ 2 V . so S (~ ) w = 0. Then V has an orthonormal basis consisting of eigenvectors of S .Spectral Decomposition of a Symmetric Linear Operator S on a Euclidean Space V . ~ u ~ ~ And if the de nition (PP-1) above is satis ed for all ~ . Therefore S (U ?) U ?. Then S has at least one eigenvalue such that S (~ ) = ~ . We want to show S (w) 2 U ?. S (~ ) 2 U u ~ u ~ u ~ u and w 2 U ?. U is a subspace of V . Then Suppose w 2 U ?. for any ~ 2 U .

) The matrix of S . I )(~ ) = ~ . Let be any (real) eigenvalue of S . A real number is x x ^ an eigenvalue of S i det(S . we may assume theorem PP-4 true on fvg?. ^ . . so there is a nonzero ~ 3 (S . I ) = 0. Then S (spfvg) spf~ g so by lemma ^ v PP-4. I v v 0 v v 0 v v relative to the basis (^1 : : : xn) is Sij . so the left hand sides of (PP-10) and (PP-11) are the same. I is singular. Let v be ^ a unit eigenvector with this eigenvalue. Now we can prove theorem PP-1. has at least one real zero. ij ). Also. ri ri = riri 6= 0. ~ = ~ . We proceed by induction on ^ ^ ^ dim V .PP-8 PROOFS Let x1 : : : xn be an orthonormal basis for V . Then Sij = S (^i ) xj = xi x ^ x ^ ^ S (^j ) = S (^j ) xi = Sji so Sij is a symmetric matrix. Hence. ij . then S . S (fvg?) fvg? and S jfvg? is symmetric. Since dimfvg? < dim V . Thus is real. so there is a complex n-tuple (r1 : : : rn) such that (Sij . where I is the identity operator on V . and we have proved lemma (PP-5). ij )rj = 0 or Sij rj = ri : Let denote complex conjugation. = . ^ ^ Adjoining v to the orthonormal basis for fvg? which consists of eigenvectors ^ ^ of S jfvg? gives an orthonormal basis for V consisting of eigenvectors of S . so we want to prove that the n'th x ^ degree polynomial in . It certainly has a complex zero. det(Sij . and let Sij be the matrix of ^ ^ S relative to this basis. so S (^i ) = Sij xj . or S (~ ) . Then ri Sij rj = (riri ): Taking the complex conjugate of this equation gives (Sij is real) (PP-10) riSij rj = (ri ri): Changing the summation indices on the left gives rj Sjiri = (ri ri): (PP-11) But Sij = Sji. or S (~ ) = ~ . (If the determinant is 0.

Corollary PP-2 S has at most one spectral decomposition. (This means a) Ui ?Uj if i 6= j . But ~ 0 = ~ 1 + + ~ m where ~ i 2 Ui . ( 0 . so 0 . (j) )~ (j) ~ (j) = 0. Hence S (~ 0) = S (~ 1) + + S (~ m) = 1~ 1 + + m~ m. u u v u u u u Hence. if ~ i 2 Ui and ~ j 2 Uj then ui ~ j = 0 u u ~ u b) every ~ 2 V can be written in exactly one way as ~ = ~ 1 + v v u ~ i 2 Ui : ) u least one spectral decomposition. S has at Proof: Order the di erent eigenvalues of S which theorem PP-1 produces as 1 < < m . dotting this ~ j into (PP-12) v 0 u 0 u gives ( 0 . U1 : : : Um. or 0 = j . Let Ui be the span of all the orthonormal basis vectors turned up by that theorem which have eigenvalue i.PROOFS PP-9 De nition PP-2 Let S be a linear operator on Euclidean space V . 1 )~ 1 + + ( 0 . Then. Then v S (~ 0) = 0~ 0. j = 0. Let 0 0 0 be one of 1 : : : u. and let ~ 0 be a corresponding nonzero eigenvector. That is. such that i) S jU(i) = (i) 1 < ::: < m and a collection of subspaces I jU(i) for i = 1 : : : m ii) V = U1 : : : Um . A \spectral decomposition of S " is a collection of real numbers of V . Proof: 0 0 0 Let 1 < < u and U10 : : : Uu be a second spectral decomposition. Thus every i0 is u u . + ~ m with u Corollary PP-1 If S is a symmetric linear operator on Euclidean space V . m )~ m = ~ : u u 0 (PP-12) Since ~ 0 6= ~ . and S (~ ) 0 = 0~ 0 = v v v u u u v v 0~ 1 + : : : + 0~ m. there is at least one ~ j 6= ~ .

Now suppose ~ 0 2 Ui0 . ~ = Pm ~ with ~ . u v u v i=1 m X i=1 m X i=1 u i (~ i ~i ) v ! 0X 1 X m m u v u v i~ i @ ~ j A = i (~ i ~j ) j =1 i j =1 u i (~ i ~i ): v Corollary PP-4 Two linear operators with the same spectral decomposition are equal. j )~ (j) ~ (j) = 0.PP-10 PROOFS 0 0 included in f 1 : : : mg. Therefore the two sets of eigenvalues are equal. i0 = i for i = 1 : : : m. uv Pm ~ . ~ (j) ~ (j) = 0. Thus. Thus Ui0 Ui. Since i 6= j . u u u u u u 0 Dot in ~ j and we get ( i . and u = m. QED. Then ~ i0 = ~ 1 + + ~ m and S (~ i0) = (i)~ (0i) = i(~ 1 + + ~ m) = u u u u u u u u S (~ 1)+ + S (~ m) = (1)~ 1 + + m~ m so( i . u 0 u u u Thus Ui = Ui0 . Proof: . Since the eigenvalues are ordered by size. Thus ~ 0i = ~ i. every i is included in f 1 : : : ug. By symmetry. By symmetry. ~ 2 U . and u u u u u ~ j = ~ . Let ~ ~ 2 V . 1 )~ 1 + +( i . ~ i0 2 Ui . Then We can write ~ = i=1 ui v u ui vi i i=1 vi S (~ ) = u S (~ ) = v ~ S (~ ) = u v = m X i=1 m X S (~ i) = u m X i=1 m X i=1 m X S (~i) = v v i~i i=1 ! 0X 1 X m m ~ i @ j ~j A = u v u v j (~ i ~j ) j =1 i j =1 i=1 m X u i~ i S (~ ) ~ = u v = Hence ~ S (~ ) = S (~ ) ~ . m )~ m = ~ . it is symmetric. Corollary PP-3 If a linear operator on a Euclidean space has a spectral decomposition. Proof: Suppose S has spectral decomposition ( 1 U1) ( m Um ). Ui Ui0 .

S (~ ) = v m m X X S (~ i) = u ~ i = S 0(~ i) u u i i=1 i=1 i=1 m ! 0 X ~ i = S 0(~ ): = S u v i=1 m X Since this is true for all ~ 2 V .PROOFS PP-11 1 Suppose S and S 0 have the same spectral decomposition ( Let ~ 2 V . v . S = S 0. Then v v u i=1 u U1 ) : : : ( m Um). Then ~ = Pm ~ i with ~ i 2 Ui .

PP-12 PROOFS .

Then there is exactly one symmetric positive (semi) de nite linear . Let ~ be a nonzero vector with v S (~ ) = ~ . Let ( 1 U1) : : : ( m Um) be the spectral decomposition of S . Let (~ 2 V . so v i=1 u i=1 u 0m 1 m m X ! @X A X ~ S (~ ) = v v ~i u u u j uj = j~ i ~ j = i=1 m X i=1 j =1 i j =1 u i (~ i ~ i) > 0: u Note: The proofs require an obvious modi cation if S is positive semi-de nite rather than positive de nite. Then ~ S (~ ) = (~ ~ ) 0.) v6 0 v v v eigenvalues are (non-negative) positive. Suppose S has an eigenvalue 0. Then ~ = i=1 ui v6 0 v ui i ui 0 S (~ ) = Pm S (~ i) = Pm i~ i. Then ~ = ~ . positive (semi) de nite linear operator in PP-13 Euclidean space V . Theorem PP-12 Suppose S is a symmetric.Positive De nite Operators and Their Square Roots De nition PP-3 A symmetric linear operator S is positive de nite if ~ S (~ ) > 0 for v v all ~ = ~ . Pm ~ with ~ 2 U and at least one ~ 6= ~ . Proof: Corollary PP-5 A symmetric linear operator S is positive (semi) de nite i all its ). v v v v v v v (. (S is positive semi-de nite if ~ S (~ ) 0 for all ~ 2 V . so S is not positive de nite.

let i1=2 be the positive square root of i . and positive de nite by corollary PP-6. U = Ui. Uniqueness. (Q is called the positive square root of S . Therefore Q 1 1 has the spectral decomposition ( 1=2 U1 ) : : : ( m=2 Um ). . Therefore (q1 U1 ) : : : (qu Uu) is a spectral decomposition ~ for S . Then ~ = Pm ~ i with ~ 2 Ui . Since qi > 0. Q2 = S . Let Q be the linear op1 1 erator on V whose spectral decomposition is ( 1=2 U1) : : : ( m=2 Um). Therefore u = m. qi2 = i . Then v v u i=1 u m m X X 1=2 Q(~ ) = v Q(~ i) = u u i ~i i=1 i=1 m m X 1=2 X 1=2 1=2 Q2 (~ ) = v Q(~ i) = u u i i i ~i i=1 i=1 m m X X = u S (~ i) = S (~ ): u v i~ i = m i=1 i=1 Existence. and Q2 = S . Let ~ 2 V . Then Q is symmetric by corollary PP-5. Since i > 0. Let ( 1 U1 ) : : : ( Hence.) Proof: Um ) be the spectral decomposition of S . Suppose Q is symmetric. Thus qi2 is an u u u u u 2 ~ 2 ~ eigenvalue of S .PP-14 PROOFS operator Q : V ! V such that Q2 = S . Then if ~ i 2 Ui u ~ we have S (~ i) = Q2~ i = QQ(~ i) = Q(q(i)~ (i)) = q(2i)~ (i). Let ~ ~ (q1 U1 ) : : : (qu Uu) be the spectral decomposition of Q. and is the operator found in the existence part of the proof. qi = i1=2 . and is written S 1=2. positive de nite.

LT L and LLT are symmetric and positive de nite. T Further. Before giving the proof we need some lemmas. S1 . L : V ! V is a linear operator. det S > 0. R. Thus. R2 . and det L > 0. so LT L is positive v v v v v v de nite. Lemma PP-6 If det 6= 0. ~ (LT L)(~ )] > 0. First.1 exists. Lemma PP-7 If S is positive de nite and symmetric. Proof: It su ces to consider LT L. (LT L)T = LT (LT )T = LT L. But then L(~ ) L(~ ) > 0. so LT L is symmetric. And L(~ ) L(~ ) = v 0 v v v v ~ LT L(~ )] = ~ (LT L)(~ )]. if ~ 6= ~ .e. v 0 L(~ ) 6= ~ because L.1 = RT and det R = +1) iv) S1 and S2 are positive de nite and symmetric. Proof: PP-15 . R1 = R2 . so S1 = R2 S2R2 .The Polar Decomposition Theorem Theorem PP-13 Suppose V is a Euclidean vector space. S2 with these properties: i) L = R1 S1 ii) L = S2 R2 iii) R1 and R2 are proper orthogonal (i. Then there are unique linear mappings R1 . because LLT = (LT )T (LT ) and det LT = det L. Second.

1 exists. QED. Lemma PP-8 If A and B are linear operators on V and AB = I then B . Proof of Theorem PP-3: First we deal with R1 and S1. Hence.1 = B . By lemma PP-8. B . (Some of these may be the same.1 = I .1 . all its eigenvalues are positive. To prove these unique.1 = IB . 2 LT L = S1R1 1 R1S1 = S1IS1 = S1 . Proof: Take transposes in the equation LL.1. S1 = (LT L)1=2 : (PP-13) . Proof: If AB = I then (det A)(det B ) = det AB = det I = 1. Then L = R1 S1 implies LT = (R1 S1)T = S1 R1 = S1R1 1 so . The result is (L. BA = I and A. S1 must be the unique symmetric positive de nite square root of LT L. But since S is positive de nite. By its de nition.1 exists so does (LT ).e. i.1)T . ^ ^ Therefore det S = s1s2 : : : sn.) Relative to basis x1 : : : xn.1 )T .1 exists and equals (L.1 exists and B . Lemma PP-9 If L is a linear operator on Euclidean space and L.PP-16 PROOFS Let x1 : : : xn be an orthonormal basis for V consisting of eigenvectors for ^ ^ S . so det B 6= 0.1 we have (AB )B .1 . B . namely s1 : : : sn.1 exists and A. and (LT ). and so is S1. Therefore det S > 0.1) = B . the matrix of S is diagonal. And if we multiply AB = I on the right by B . or A(BB . Therefore. we assume they exist and have .1 B = BB . and its diagonal entries are s1 : : : sn.1 = A.1 = I . or A = B .1 = (L. or AI = B . Now LT L is a symmetric positive de nite operator.1. (LT ). Hence. T T the asserted properties.1 )T LT = I .1.

v v We shall not need the PDT when det L < 0 or L. . positive de niteness let ~ 2 V . ~ 6= ~ . T Finally. Symmetry is easy. then T L = R2(R2 S2 R2) is of the form L = R1S1 . and uniqueness of R1 and S1 requires R1 = R2 .PROOFS PP-17 . R1 = LS1 1: (PP-14) Thus S1 and R1 are given explicitly and uniquely in terms of L. or v v v T v T T ~ (R2 S2R2 )(~ )] > 0. Next we deal with R2 and S2 . S2 = S1. .1 = (LT S2 1). Since det S1 > 0. T T (LS1 1)T = (S1 1)T LT = (S1 ). To prove the existence of an R1 and S1 with the required properties. ~ ~ ~ ~ so there is only one way to write LT = R1 S1 with R1 proper orthogonal and S1 symmetric. If we can prove that. i. we suppose they exist. Then R2(~ ) 6= 0 because R2 1 exists. Then L = R1 S1 implies . T det L= det S1 > 0 since det L > 0 and det S1 > 0. we observe that LT = R1 S1 with R1 proper orthogonal and S1 ~ ~ ~ ~T ~ . For these cases. ~ ~. For . To prove them unique.1. .1 fails to exist. But det R1 = det L det(S1 1) = . that det R1 = +1 and R1 = R1 1. R2 = R1 1. But R1 = . If R2 is proper orthogonal. p. to prove R1 = R2 . . . ~ Then R2 and S2 are uniquely determined by L. T proper orthogonal. 2 . T T L = S2R2 so LT = (S2R2 )T = R2 S2 = R2 1S2 . . so is R2 1 . . Therefore we can take ~ ~. and we must have R2 1 = R1 so R2 = R1 1. see Halmos. Then . ~ and R2 = (R1 ). Then ~ R2 S2 R2 (~ )] > 0. Then (LT )T = L = (R1 S1)T = S1 T R1 = S1 R1 1.1 = S2(LT ). S2 = S1 = (LT )T LT = LLT . we T T automatically have det R1 = 1. symmetric. we de ne them by (PP-8) and (PP-9). But if det L > 0 then det LT = det L > 0. To prove existence of R2 and S2 with ~ ~ ~ ~ the required properties. . In fact. We have (R2 S2 R2 )T = R2 S2 (R2 )T = R2 S2R2 . if we can show R1 = R1 1.1LT = S1 1LT so R1 R1 = S1 1LT LS1 1 = S1 1S1 S1 1 = I . and we need show only that R1 is . S1 1 exists. Therefore. Thus R2 S2R2 is positive de nite. By lemma PP-8 it su ces to prove R1 R1 = I . T We claim that R2 S2R2 is symmetric and positive de nite. T T T T T T S1 = R2 S2R2 . Then v v 0 v R2 (~ ) S2 R2(~ )] > 0 because S2 is positive de nite. . 170. . Then S1 is symmetric positive de nite as required.e. note that if L = S2R2 then L = R2R2 1 S2R2 = R2 (R2 S2R2 ). .

PP-18 PROOFS .

Representation Theorem for Orthogonal Operators De nition PP-4 A linear operator R on Euclidean vector space V is \orthogonal" i it preserves length that is. we note that for any ~ and ~ 2 V .e. That is u u u v v u v v k~ + ~ k2 = k~ k2 + 2~ ~ + k~ k2 : u v u u v v (PP-15) Applying this result to R(~ ) and R(~ ). u v u v u v gives kR(~ + ~ )k2 = kR(~ )k2 + 2R(~ ) R(~ ) + kR(~ )k2 : u v u u v v PP-19 (PP-16) . v v v There are several other properties each of which completely characterizes orthogonal operators (i. To see this. R is orthogonal i it is linear and has one of these properties). Lemma PP-10 R is orthogonal i R is linear and preserves all inner products that is. kR(~ )k = k~ k for every ~ 2 V . and using R(~ + ~ ) = R(~ ) + R(~ ). The interesting half is that if R preserves lengths then it preserves all inner products. u v u v uv Proof: Obviously if R preserves all inner products it preserves lengths. R(~ ) R(~ ) = ~ ~ for all ~ ~ 2 V . We list them in lemmas.. k~ + ~ k2 = (~ + ~ ) (~ + ~ ) = u v u v u v u v ~ ~ + ~ ~ + ~ ~ + ~ ~ .

u v uv v u v u v u v u Then for any ~ ~ 2 V . Hence RT is orthogonal. Since this is true u 0 v v for every ~ 2 V . Hence R is orthogonal. The matrix Lij of x ^ an arbitrary linear operator L is de ned in the same way.1.1 exists. Corollary PP-7 If R is orthogonal.) Proof: If RT = R. RT = R. so ~ uv u (RT R)(~ ) . The easiest way to discover whether a linear R : V ! V is orthogonal is to study its matrix Rij relative to some orthonormal basis for V . so RT satis es the second equation in corollary PP-6. so is R. Conversely. kR(~ )k = u v u v u u v k~ k. Then for any ~ ~ 2 V . Recall that we de ne this matrix by R(^)i = Rij xj x ^ (PP-17) where (^1 : : : xn ) is the orthonormal basis for V which we are using. so ~ RT R(~ ) = ~ ~ . Hence it is ~ .1. R(~ ) R(~ ) = ~ ~ . R. suppose R orthogonal. so subtracting (PP-15) from (PP-16) gives R(~ ) R(~ ) = ~ ~ : v u v u v Lemma PP-11 R is orthogonal i RT = R.1 then RT R = I . so RT R(~ ) = ~ . then kR(~ +~ )k = k~ +~ k. either equation implies RT = R.1. (Therefore if R is orthogonal R.1 exists and is RT .PP-20 PROOFS If R preserves all lengths. kR(~ )k = k~ k. ~ ] = 0. Then we see that RT R(~ ) . Proof: By lemma PP-11. R is orthogonal.1. hence to itself. v Corollary PP-6 If either RT R = I or RRT = I . RT R = I . L(^)i = Lij xj : x ^ (PP-18) . Fix ~ . ~ RT R(~ ) = ~ ~ so uv u v u v R(~ ) R(~ ) = ~ ~ . ~ is orthogonal to v v v v v every ~ 2 V . Proof: By lemma PP-8. Then by lemma PP-8. But RT (RT )T = RT R = I .

it su ces to prove (PP-21). jk = 0. This is (PP-21). x ^ ^ x Now we have Remark 6 If R is orthogonal. Since x1 : : : xn are linearly independent. The result is ^ ^ x jk (\orthonormal columns") jk (PP-21) (PP-22) RjiRki = (\orthonormal rows") Remark 7 If R 2 L(V ! V ) and there is one orthonormal basis for V relative to which Rij R(^i ) = xj : x ^ . so RRT (^j ) = jk xk . or x ^ (Rij Rik . Therefore. the matrix of R satis es either (PP-21) or (PP-22). We have RT (^j ) = (RT )jixi = Rij xi. then R is orthogonal. Multiply by xk and add over k. Fix j . Then RRT (^j ) = Rij R(^i ) = Rij Rik xk . so (PP-20) Lij = L(^i ) xj : x ^ Therefore (LT )ij = LT (^i ) xj = xi L(^j ) = Lji. the matrix of R satis es ^ ^ (PP-21). then its matrix relative to every orthonormal basis satis es Rij Rik = and Proof: If R is orthogonal so is RT . Proof: Suppose that relative to the particular basis x1 : : : xn. But if x ^ ^ x x ^ ^ ^ R is orthogonal. we note that xk L(^i ) = Lij xk xj = Lij ^ x ^ ^ kj (PP-19) = Lik . using Rik xk = R(^i). Thus Rij Rik xk = jk xk . we x ^ ^ must have Rij Rik . That is x ^ LT (^i ) = Lij xj or (LT )ij = Lji: x ^ To see this. RRT = I .PROOFS PP-21 The matrix of LT relative to (^1 : : : xn) is the transposed matrix Lji. jk )^k = 0.

1 ). so the matrix of R satis es (PP-21). De nition PP-5 The set of all orthogonal operators on Euclidean space V is written (V ). . Hence R is ^ v v v orthogonal. so R1R2 2 (V ). + (V ) Lemma PP-12 (V ) and composition. Now we discuss some properties of orthogonal operators which will eventually tell us what those operators look like.1 2 (V ) by remark PP-2. If R1 and R2 2 (V ). R = R is orthogonal. What we have seen is that if R is orthogonal. Then (RT )ij (RT )ik = T T . so is its matrix relative to every orthonormal basis. we know R.1 = R. Hence so is (RT )T = (R. Hence.1 = 1 if det R = 1 so if R 2 +(V ) then T T R. The set of all proper orthogonal operators (those with determinant + 1) is written + (V ). But if R 2 (V ). Hence RRT = I . we introduce the notation in h i PROOFS Corollary PP-8 If the rows of a square matrix are orthonormal. And if the matrix of R relative to one orthonormal basis is orthogonal. And det(R. First. or (RRT )(^j ) = ^ ^ x ^ x xj . R2 2 +(V ) then det(R1R2 ) = (det R1)(det R2) = 1. so its matrix relative to every orthonormal basis is orthogonal. then (R1 R2)T (R1 R2 ) = R2 R1 R1 R2 = T T R2 IR2 = R2 R2 = I . Proof: are groups if multiplication is de ned as operator All we need to prove is that both sets are closed under the operations of taking inverses and of multiplying. Hence RRT (~ ) = ~ for all ~ 2 V .1 2 +(V ). so are the columns.1) = (det R).PP-22 By linearity of R. But then for any scalars v1 : : : ~n we have (RRT )(vj xj ) = vj RRT (^j ) = ^ v ^ x vj xj . Next suppose R satis es (PP-22) rather than (PP-21). this means R(Rij xi ) = xj or R RT (^j ) = xj . R is orthogonal. so R1R2 2 +(V ). A matrix with this property is called orthogonal. And if R1 .1 jk .

RT (U ) U . Thus ~ = R(u 0). det R = +1 or .PROOFS PP-23 Lemma PP-13 If R 2 (V ). RjU satis es de nition v v PP-4 Lemma PP-15 Under the hypothesis of lemma PP-14. Hence. RT (~ ) w = 0. We want to show R(w) 2 U ?. Since kR(~ )k = k~ k for all v v ~ 2 V . Proof: U . But det RT = det R and det I = 1. Proof: . Then RT (~ ) = u 0. Then By hypothesis. Thus (det R)2 = 1. Proof: RT R = I so (det RT )(det R) = det I . and R. That is.1(~ ) = u 0. Then there is a unique u 0 2 U such that ~ = (RjU )(u 0) (beu ~ u ~ cause (RjU ). this is certainly true for all ~ 2 U . Thus ~ u ~ u ~ u ~ RT (~ ) 2 U if ~ 2 U . Hence. R(U ?) U ?. Proof: Suppose ~ 2 U . ~ u ~ Lemma PP-17 If R 2 (V ) and is an eigenvalue of R. u u QED Lemma PP-16 Under the hypotheses of lemma PP-14. RT (~ ) 2 U . Lemma PP-14 Suppose R 2 (V ) and U is a subspace of V and R(U ) RjU 2 (U ). ~ R(w) = 0 for all ~ ~ u ~ ~ 2 U . so (RjU )(u 0 ) = ~ ~ R(u 0). as required. RjU is a linear operator on U . By lemma PP-5.1. By hypothesis u u ~ u ~ u w?U . But u 0 2 U . = 1. But ~ R(w) = RT (~ ) w. Proof: Suppose w 2 U ?.1 exists as a linear operator on U ).

Lemma PP-20 Suppose R. Then k~ k = kR(~ )k = k ~ k =j j k~ k so v v v 0 v v v v 1 =j j. 1)ri ri = 0. ij )rj = 0 and (r1 : : : rn) 6= (0 : : : 0). or ( 2 . so riri = 0. two mutually orthogonal unit vectors ~ and ~ such that for some in 0 < < . Suppose is not real and (r1 : : : rn) 6= (0 : : : 0) is a sequence of n complex numbers such that Rij rj = ri. ij ) = 0. Then V contains . or Rik rk = ri . 2 . Let Rij ^ ^ Rij Rik rj rk = But Rij Rik = jk . Proof: Rik rk = ri so (Rij rj )(Rik rk ) = 2riri . Suppose is a complex zero of the n'th degree polynomial det(Rij . Then j j2= 1. det(Rij . Since riri > 0.PP-24 PROOFS Suppose R(~ ) = ~ and ~ 6= ~ . Let x1 : : : xn be an orthonormal basis for V . we have j j2= 1. is also a zero of det(Rij . Multiplying and summing over i gives Lemma PP-18 Let R 2 (V ). QED. Since is not real. Rij as in lemma PP-18. Taking complex conjugates gives Rij rj = ri . be the matrix of R relative to this basis. or jk rj rk = 2 ri ri . or Rij Rik rj rk = 2riri. riri : so rj rj =j j2 riri . ij ) = 0. Proof: Since (Rij . Lemma PP-19 In lemma PP-18. or rj rj = 2 ri ri . Proof: There is a complex n-tuple (r1 : : : rn) 6= (0 : : : 0) such that Rij rj = ri. ij ). Then ri ri = 0. x y Remark 8 Suppose R 2 (V ) and V contains no eigenvectors of R. 1 6= 0.

yj yj = 0 xj yj = 0 .i rk : We may normalize (r1 : : : rn) so that (PP-24) rj rj = 2 and by lemma PP-20 (PP-25) (PP-26) rj rj = 0: Now write rj = xj + iyj where xj and yj are real. . we can nd a root e. ij ) has a real root. we can write any root as ei where 0 < < or < < 2 . Then separating the real and imaginary parts of (PP-24) gives Rjk xj = xk cos + yk sin Rjk yj = . so R has an eigenvector.xk sin + yk cos : Separating the real and imaginary parts of (PP-26) gives xj xj . it is an eigenvalue of R. Then there is an n-tuple of complex numbers (r1 : : : rn) 6= (0 : : : 0) such that Rjk rj = e. If 0 = det(Rij . By lemma PP-19.PROOFS 8 > R(^) = x cos + y sin > x ^ ^ > < > > > R(^) = x sin + y cos : : y ^ ^ PP-25 (PP-23) Proof: Choose an orthonormal basis z1 : : : zn for V . and let Rij be the matrix of ^ ^ R relative to that basis. Hence no root of det(Rij . By lemma PP-18. ij ) is real.i with 0 < < .

(The argument is by induction on dim V . and we have the x y. whose existence is asserted in ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ the theorem. Thus Rjfx1 y1g? satis es the hypotheses of remark PP-3.x(j) sin (j) + y(j) cos (j) : y ^ ^ (PP-27) Proof: By remark PP-4 we can nd mutually orthogonal unit vectors x1 y1 and 1 ^ ^ in 0 < 1 < such that (PP-27) holds for j = 1. Since R has no eigenvectors in V . nding 2 in 0 < 2 < an mutually orthogonal unit vectors x2 y2 in fx1 y1g? such that (PP-4) holds for j = 2. .) When the dimension of the remaining space is 0. Hence. by ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ lemma PP-14.PP-26 PROOFS and (PP-25) gives xj xj + yj yj = 2: From these equations. Remark 9 Suppose R 2 (V ) and V contains no eigenvectors of R. ^ ^ ^ ^ We can proceed in this way as long as the dimension of the remaining space is > 0. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ it has none in fx1 y1g?. clearly xj xj = yj yj = 1 and xj yj = 0: Now take x = xj zj and y = yj zj . by lemma PP-16. Hence. Then V has an orthonormal basis x1 y1 : : : xm ym such that for each j 2 f1 : : : mg there is an j in ^ ^ ^ ^ 0< j < with 8 > R(^j ) = x(j) cos (j) + y(j) sin (j) > x ^ ^ > < : > > > R(^j ) = . R(fx1 y1g?) fx1 y1g?. Then R(spfx1 y1g) ^ ^ spfx1 y1g. and we can repeat the argument. we have an orthonormal basis for V with the required properties. Rjfx1 y1g? 2 (fx1 y1g?). Corollary PP-9 dim V 2.

Let z1 : : : zn be an orthonormal basis for Z and w1 : : : wp an orthonormal basis ^ ^ ^ ^ for W . Moreover. whence the result. the matrix of R looks thus: Each 2 2 diagonal block contributes a factor cos2 j + sin2 determinant. Corollary PP-10 dim V is even. QED. it has at least one real zero).PROOFS PP-27 eigenvector. so R (Z + W )?] (Z + W )?. Thus remark PP-4 applied to (Z + W )?. I ). If dim V is odd.wj ^ ^ ii) R(^j ) = zj z ^ iii) for j 2 f1 : : : mg.1. j in 0 < j < such that equation (PP-4) holds. so is the degree of the real polynomial det(R . R has an Theorem PP-14 Suppose V is Euclidean vector space and R 2 (V ).1)p: Proof: Relative to the basis in theorem PP-15. Corollary PP-11 det R = (. j = 1 to the . and these are already in Z or W . there is a Proof: Let Z and W be the eigenspaces of V with eigenvalues +1 and . Hence. (Z + W )? contains no eigenvectors of R. since all their eigenvalues are +1 or .1. (This is obvious from another point of view. Then V has an orthonormal basis x1 y1 : : : xm ym z1 : : : zn w1 : : : wp with these properties: ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ i) R(wj ) = . Then R(Z + W ) Z + W . if R 2 (V ) and dim V is odd. That is.

-1 . . cos θm sin θm -sin θm cos θm 1 .. .. { . 1 -1 .PP-28 PROOFS cos θ1 sin θ1 -sin θ1 cos θ1 cos θ2 sin θ2 -sin θ2 cos θ2 n terms { p terms Figure PP-1: Matrix of R. ..

x1 . For dim V = 3. In that case.x(j) sin (j) + y(j) cos (j) : y ^ ^ j such that : (PP-28) Proof: Since det R = +1. in theorem PP-15. we have (for example) ^ ^ R(w1) = . ^ . and take the x ^ corresponding angles as = .w1 = w1 cos + w2 sin ^ ^ ^ ^ R(w2) = . Therefore. R = I . This terminology breaks down and the angle _1 in 0 < 1 only when m = 0 and n = 3 in (PP-27). For obvious reasons. For any such pair. corollary PP-12 is called Euler's theorem. we may divide w1 : : : wp into pairs. ^ is the angle of the rotation. a linear operator on V which looks like (PP-27) in some orthonormal basis is called a \rotation. we have the result of the corollary.w1 sin + w2 cos : ^ ^ ^ ^ If we adjoin these pairs to the pairs (^j yj ) given by theorem PP-15. R(^j ) = xj for ^ ^ x ^ x ^ j 2 then R is said to be a re ection along x1 ." Corollary PP-12 says that every proper orthogonal operator is a rotation. then V Corollary PP-12 If R 2 such that has an orthonormal basis x1 y1 : : : xm ym z1 : : : zn ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 8 > i) R(^j ) = zj for j 2 f1 : : : ng: z ^ > > > > > > > ii) For j 2 f1 : : : mg there is a j in 0 < > > < > > > R(^j ) = x(j) cos (j) + y(j) sin (j) x ^ ^ > > > > > > : R(^j ) = . but its axis of rotation obviously cannot be de ned. Obviously det R = . If R 2 L(V ! V ) and an orthonormal basis x1 : : : xn for V can be found such that R(^1 ) = .1 for a re ection. the eigenvector z1 is called the axis of the rotation. The angle of rotation of I is 0.w2 = . p is even. If dim V = 3.PROOFS PP-29 + (V ).

so R2 = R1 R.PP-30 PROOFS so a re ection is an \improper orthogonal" operator. Also. But 2 then R1 R = R1 R2 = R2. That is. then R = R1R2 is orthogonal and det R = (det)R1)(det R2) = (. or R2 = I . every improper orthogonal operator is the product of a rotation and a re ection.1 = R. If R1 is a re ection and R2 is any other improper orthogonal operator.1)2 = 1. . so R is proper orthogonal. clearly a re ection has the property R.

Part I Tensors over Euclidean Vector Spaces 1 .

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) De nition 1. Also v v v v v v v v v v ii) M (~1 : : : ~p.1. M (~1 : : : ~q ) depends linearly on each of the separate vectors ~1 : : : vq if the v v others are held xed. De nition 1. p 2 f1 : : : qg.1 ~ p + ~p ~p+1 : : : ~q ) = M (~1 : : : ~p. M is called a multilinear mapping from V1 : : : Vq to W .Chapter 1 Multilinear Mappings 1. If M satis es any of the following three equivalent conditions. ~ p and ~p 2 Vp.1 ~p+1 : : : ~q ) 2 L(Vp ! W ): v v v v v ~ (That is. and M 2 F (V1 : : : Vq ! W ). v v y v v 3 .1 De nition of multilinear mappings M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ): V1 : : : Vq W are vector spaces over a single eld F . v v M (~1 : : : ~p.1 ~ p ~p+1 : : : ~q ) v v x y v v v v x v v + M (~1 : : : ~p.1 ~p ~P +1 : : : ~q ) . and (~1 : : : ~q ) 2 V1 : : : Vq x y v v then i) M (~1 : : : ~p.1.1 ~p ~p+n : : : ~q ).7 If a 2 F .1 a~p ~p+1 : : : ~q ) = aM (~1 : : : ~p.6 For any (~1 : : : ~q ) 2 V1 : : : Vq and any p 2 f1 : : : qg.

2. Let wi :::iq be any ~ ~ ~ q'th order.8 For each p 2 f1 : : : qg. Then the sequence of ordered b bp D bases (B1 : : : Bq ) is called a \basis sequence" for V1 : : : Vq .9 M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ) denotes the set of all multilinear mappings 1. V1 : : : Vq are Euclidean vector spaces.2.2 Let (B1 : : : Bq ) be a basis sequence for V1 : : : Vq . and the eld F is R. De nition 1. let ~ p be a xed vector in Vp. n1 : : : nq array of vectors from W .1. For any (V1 : : : Vq ) 2 V1 : : : Vq 1 de ne M ~(1) : : : ~(q) = ~ i(1) ~ (1) : : : ~(iqq) ~(q) wi1 :::iq : v v b1 v b v ~ M 2 M (V1 : : : Vq ! W ) M ~j(1) : : :~j(1) = wj1:::jq : b1 bq ~ (1.2.1 For each p between 1 and q. Then M ai(1)~i(1) : : : ai(qq)~i(qq) = ai(1) : : : ai(qq) M ~i(1) : : : ~iqq) . MULTILINEAR MAPPINGS De nition 1." Example 1.3) (1.4) Then and also . The vector space W need not be Euclidean (i. Let w0 2 W . Example 1. Then (B1 : : : BqD ) is \the basis sequence dual to (B1 : : : Bq ). suppose a1p) : : : anpp) 2 F and ~1(p) : : : ~n(pp) 2 v v ( ( 1 1 Vp. some terminology is useful.2 Examples of multilinear mappings In these examples.2. Let Bp = (~(1p) : : : ~(np ) b b p) D be the ordered basis for Vp which is dual to Bp.e.1.2. v1 v v1 v( from V1 : : : Vq to W .2.1) To give the next example. its eld is R). de ne v v M (~1 : : : ~q ) = (~ 1 ~1 ) v v u v (~ q ~q )w0: u v ~ (1.4 CHAPTER 1. Suppose that for each p 2 f1 : : : qg Bp = ~1(p) : : : ~n(p) is an ordered basis for Vp. u ~ For any (~1 : : : ~q ) 2 V1 : : : Vq .2) (1.e. need not have a dot product) but it must be real (i.

2. and wi1:::iq is an n1 n2 : : : nq array of vectors from W .2). Suppose (B1 : : : Bq ) is a basis sequence for V1 : : : Vq .8) v v b 1 q 1 = bi(1) : : : v(iq) M (~i(1) : : : ~i(qq) ) (by hypothesis) b1 b Remark 1. For any ~(p) 2 Vp. It follows that every M 2 M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ) has the form (1.2. . we have b bp v p ~(p) = v(ip)~i(pp) where ~(ipp) = v(p) ~i(pp) .2. There are no other examples.4) we let ~p = ~(jp) in the de nition (1.2. Let (~1p) : : : ~(np) ) = Bp be the ordered b( bp basis for Vp which is dual to Bp = (~1(p) : : : ~n(p)).2 shows at least one such M .1 ~p+1 : : :~q are xed. Then v b v b i1 b q M (~(1) : : : ~ (q) ) = M (v(1)~i(1) : : : v(iq)~i(qq) ) (by de nition 1. To establish uniqueness suppose D M does satisfy (1.2.2.1.2.2. M is the function de ned by (1. We have space. b i1 b 1 b b ~ ~ ~ Every member of M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ) is like example (1.2.1). Each of these terms is linear in each vp if ~1 : : : ~p.2.1. b1 b ~ Proof: Example 1. Suppose dim V1 = n1 : : : dim Vq = nq .3) and (1.4).2).2.10 Suppose V1 : : : Vq are Euclidean vector spaces and W is a real vector i1 q = v(1) : : : v(iq) wi1:::iq ~ = ~i(1) ~(1) : : : ~(iqq) ~(q) wi1 :::iq : b1 v b v ~ In other words.2.2). Then 91 ~ M 2 M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ) 3 M (~i(1) : : : ~i(qq)) = wi1:::iq . EXAMPLES OF MULTILINEAR MAPPINGS 5 The multilinearity of M is almost obvious (1.2) is a sum of n1 n2 : : : nq terms like (1. obtaining M (~(1) : : : ~(jq) ) = v bp bj1 bq (~(1) ~j(1) ) : : : (~(iqq) ~j(qq))wi1:::iq = i1 j1 : : : iq jq wi1 :::iq = wj1:::jq . ~ v v v v To prove (1.2).

1. v v 0 Proof: 0v v 0v v We suppose ~1 = ~ . Obviously.1. we can use de nition 1.8 and write everything out.3. page D-12. M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ).1). Alternatively. This is immediate from de nition 1. 0 Remark 1.12 M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ) is a vector space over F if we use the ad and Refer to \subspaces" on page D-15. or in equations (14.7).6 because we know it for linear functions.3 Elementary properties of multilinear mappings M (~1 : : : ~q ) = ~ . (14. MULTILINEAR MAPPINGS 1. the zero in W . That is. We know from example 3.11 If one of ~1 : : : ~q is ~ and if M 2 M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ) then v v 0 sc de ned in example 3.6 CHAPTER 1.2). if M and N are multilinear.3. then aM and M + N 2 M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ). that F (V1 : : : Vq ! W ) is a vector space over F . Therefore. Proof: Remark 1. where we have used de nition (1.1. it su ces to prove that if a 2 F and M . is a subset of F (V1 : : : V q) ! W ). We have i1 v 1 = M ai(1) ~ (1) : : : ai(qq) ~ (iqq) + N a(1)~i(1) : : : a(iqq)~i(qq) vi1 v v 1 i1 v v (M + N ) a(1)~i(1) : : : ai(qq)~i(qq) 1 ( by de nition of M + N ) i1 1 = a(1) : : : a(iqq) M ~i(1) : : : ~i(qq) + ai(1) : : : ai(qq) N ~i(1) : : : ~i(qq) v1 v v1 v (because M and N are multilinear) q i1 = a(1) : : : a(ia) M ~i(1) : : : ~i(qq) + N ~i(1) v1 v v1 because W is a vector space over F h ~i(qq) v i . page D-12. N 2 M(V1 : : : V q ! W ). Then M (~ ~2 : : : ~q ) = M (0~ ~2 : : : ~q ) = 0M (~ ~2 : : : ~q ) = v 0 0v v ~ . We will do this for M + N . so are aM and M + N .

The qtuple (~1 : : : ~r. It is v v v v v v v v v v simply (~1 : : : ~q ) with ~r and ~s interchanged.1 ~s ~r+1 : : : ~s.4.1). Note that if Vr = Vs.10 Suppose (~1 : : : ~q ) 2 V1 : : : Vq and 1 v v De nition 1.1 ~r ~s+1 : : :~q ) will be abbreviated (~1 : : :~q )(rs). PERMUTING A MULTILINEAR MAPPING 1 = ai(1) : : : ai(qq) (M + N ) ~i(1) : : : ~i(qq) v1 v h i 7 by de nition of M + N: Comparing the two ends of this chain of equalities.4 Permuting a multilinear mapping r < s q.1 ~r ~s+1 : : : ~q ) : (1. . 1.4. Then we write (rs)M for the member of F (V1 : : : Vq ! W ) de ned by requiring for any (~1 : : : ~q ) 2 V1 : : : Vq that v v (rs)M ] (~1 : : : ~q ) = M (~1 : : : ~q )(rs) : v v v v That is (rs)M ] (~1 : : : ~r.14 (rs) is a linear operator on M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ) if Vr = Vs.4.6).4.2) Remark 1. and if M + N is de ned by (14.4. we have a proof that M + N is multilinear if M and N are.1 ~s ~s+1 : : : ~q ) v v v v v v s v (1.1.2) and de nition (1.1 ~r ~r+1 : : : ~s.1.1 ~s ~r+1 : : : ~s. Proof: Obvious from (1.13 (rs)M 2 M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ) if Vr = Vs.4.4. Suppose Vr = Vs. Remark 1. then (~1 : : : ~q )(rs) 2 v v v v v v V1 : : : Vq .1) v v v v v v s v = M (~1 : : : ~r.11 Suppose M 2 M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ) and 1 r < s q. De nition 1.4.

and (rs)(M + N ) = (rs)M +(rs)N = .4.4. Then v v (rs)(aj Mj )] (~1 : : : ~q ) = (aj Mj )(~1 : : : ~q )(rs) = aj Mj (~1 : : : ~q )(rs) v v v v v v h i v v = aj (rs)Mj (~1 : : : ~q ) = aj (rs)Mj (~1 : : : ~q ): v v Since this is true for any (~1 : : : ~q ) 2 V1 : : : Vq . it is a subspace of M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ).12 Suppose M . Suppose a1 : : : aN are scalars and M1 : : : MN 2 M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ). r. Of course. We want to prove that (rs)(aj Mj ) = aj (rs)Mj ]. M is \symmetric" under (rs).8 CHAPTER 1. h i h i De nition 1.4.(M + N ). If (rs)M = M . N = . N are symmetric (or antisymmetric) under (rs).) . by hypothesis. (Note that the set of members of M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ) which are symmetric (anti-symmetric) under (rs) is simply the eigenspace of (rs) with eigenvalue 1(. M is \antisymmetric" under (rs). Proof: It su ces to show that if a is any scalar and M . Let (~1 : : : ~q 2 V1 : : : Vq ).15 If Vr = Vs.M (rs)N = .M ) = .aM .M . the members of M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ) which are symmetric under (rs) constitute a subspace of M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ). It remains to prove that (rs) is linear. MULTILINEAR MAPPINGS Proof: By remark (1.13). In that case. Remark 1. we have the required v v result. (rs) : M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ) ! M(V1 : : : Vq ! W ). If (rs)M = . (rs)M = . s as in de nition (1. so (rs) aM ] = a (rs)M ] = a(.N: But (rs) is linear. so are aM and M +N . The same holds for the members antisymmetric under (rs).4.M .1).2). We give the proof for antisymmetry.

14). Then v v ~ v ~ v ( M ) (~1 : : : ~q ) = ( M ) ~ v v v (1) : : : ~ (q ) v (1) = ( M ) (w1 : : : wq ) = M w ~ ~ ~ = M ~ v = M ~( v (1)] ::: w ~ (q) ::: ~ v : : : ~( v (q)] )(1) )(q) = ( )M ] (~1 : : : ~q ) v v Since this is true for all ~1 : : : ~q 2 V .3). v v = Vq = V and M 2 M 2 ( q V ! W ). To prove equation (1. 2 Sq and M 2 M( q V ! W ) then ( M ) = ( )M: (1. and in fact is a linear operator on M( q V ! W ).3). PERMUTING A MULTILINEAR MAPPING 9 De nition 1.4.4.14 Suppose V1 = . Suppose M 2 M( q V ! W ) and 2 Sq . Then M is de ned as that member of F ( q V ! W ) such that for any ~1 : : :~q 2 V v v ( M )(~1 : : : ~q ) = M ~ v v v (1) ::: ~ v (q) : Remark 1. De nition 1.4.4.3) Proof: Except for (1.4. Moreover if .3).4. let ~1 : : : ~q 2 V and let w1 = ~ (1) : : : wq = ~ (q) .4.13 Suppose V1 = = Vq = V . we have (1. M is totally symmetric (antisymmetric) if M = M ( M = ( sgn )M ) for every 2 Sq .4.4.1. the proof is like that of remark (1.16 If V1 = = Vq = V then M 2 M( q V ! W ).

then M is M multiplied by sgn (= 1 for even/odd ). For (=.10 CHAPTER 1. By remark 1. If all multiply M by .M ) for =) is obvious. so (aiMi) = ai( Mi ) = ai ( sgn )Mi ] = ( sgn )(ai Mi). Proof: We give the proof for the totally symmetric case. recall that any 2 Sq is a product of transpositions. .18 The totally symmetric (antisymmetric) members of M( q V ! W ) constitute a subspace of M( q V ! W ). Suppose M1 : : : MN are totally antisymmetric members of M( q V ! W ) and a1 : : : aM are scalars. so does .1. MULTILINEAR MAPPINGS every transposition (rs). But for any 2 Sq . is linear operator on M( q V ! W ). If all leave M unchanged. We want to show that aiMi is totally antisymmetric.4.4. aiMi is totally antisymmetric.17 M is totally symmetric (antisymmetric) i (rs)M = M (= . Proof: Remark 1.16 the e ects of these transpositions on M can be calculated one after the other. That is. Remark 1.4.

By convention. Its members are called the tensors of order q over V .3) . then M(V1 : : : Vq ) ! R is called the \tensor product of V1 : : : Vq ".1) The multilinear functionals which are the members of V1 : : : Vq are called the tensors of order q over V1 : : : Vq . and this is abbreviated q V . This would not be a problem. When q = 1.Chapter 2 De nition of Tensors over Euclidean Vector Spaces If V1 : : : Vq are Euclidean vector spaces. }| z q times { If V1 = : : : = Vq = V . Thus V1 : : : Vq := M(V1 : : : Vq ) ! R: (2. the notation requires some comment.0.0. That is M(V ! R) = L(V ! R). tensors of order zero are scalars that is V = R: (2. multilinearity is simply linearity.1) reduces to V1 := M(V1 ! R).2) For tensors of order 1.0. (2. Thus the tensors of order 1 over a vector space V are simply the linear functional on V .0. then V1 : : : Vq = V : : : V . It is written V1 : : : Vq . except that for q = 1. which says V = L(V ! R): 11 (2.

(2. MacMillan 1967.0. then ~ 2 V can v be safely confused with the linear functional ~ 2 L(V ! R) de ned by (21. . But each of these isomorphisms b depends on the basis B chosen to produce it. Marcus's book.1). We will not need this generality.0. If it is.) Tensors over vector spaces which are not Euclidean are constructed in a more complicated fashion than (2. Tensors v of order 1 over V are simply the vectors in V . Algebra. There is no \natural". namely ~ij! ciB . When V is not a Euclidean vector space. basis-independent isomorphism which can be used to identify vectors with linear functionals. DEFINITION OF TENSORS OVER EUCLIDEAN VECTOR SPACES It is at this point that we require V to be a Euclidean vector space. If V is not Euclidean but is nite dimensional. every basis B for V generates an isomorphism between V and L(V ! R).3) is false.2). (The situation is very subtle. See MacLane and Birkho . for a treatment of tensors over arbitrary vector spaces. 237 for a more detailed discussion. and tensors over Euclidean spaces have some very useful properties for continuum mechanics. See M. It is for this reason that we consider only tensors over Euclidean spaces.12 CHAPTER 2. on reserve. p.

18.1 Structure of nV We want to understand what the alternating tensors over V are like. It will turn out that there are not very many of them. Determinants. Let V be an n-dimensional Euclidean vector space. The set of totally antisymmetric tensors of order q over V is written q V . It is a subspace of q V . In fact dim nV = 1. The members of nV are called \alternating tensors over V . If this latter fact is true.0. (See remark 1. and n-dimensional Right-handedness In this section we discuss an application of tensors which some of you may have seen in your linear algebra courses.A for every transposition (rs) 2 Sn. A second property of an A 2 n V which is equivalent to membership in nV is that 13 .1 tells us A 2 nV .Chapter 3 Alternating Tensors. Orientation. then clearly remark 2.4. We need to prove only that A 2 n V and that (rs)A = ." 3. We want to prove this and to nd a basis \vector" in the vector space nV .) We want to study nV . First we note a technique for verifying that A 2 nV .

then A(~1 : : : ~n) = 0.1.1.1. then A(~1 : : : ~n) = 0 by remark 1. (3. If ~1 6= 0 then at least v 0 v v v one of c2 : : : cn is nonzero. If i1 : : : in are all di erent. both sides of (3.1.1.1.2) vanish.21 can be extended to 0.21 If A 2 nV and two of ~1 : : :~n are equal.1. v v v v Proof: If ~r = ~s.1) and lemma 3.14CHAPTER 3.1. such that ci~i = ~ .1. v 0 If ~1 = ~ .1) This is obvious from the de nition of A and attempt to understand alternating tensors: It implies the rst step in our Lemma 3. v v Hence A(~1 : : : ~n) = 0. Let cp be the last scalar which is nonzero.2) reduces to equation (3. ALTERNATING TENSORS. v v Equation (3.3.21 are equivalent to the single equation A (~i1 : : : ~in ) = "i1 :::in A (v1 : : : ~n) : v v v (3. then A(~1 : : : ~n) = v v v v Proof: By hypothesis. DETERMINANTS. ORIENTATION. Remark 3. AND N -DIMENSIONAL RIGHT-HANDEDNESS for any (~1 : : : ~n) 2 v v nV and any 2 Sn. But sgn (rs) = v v v v .2) For if two of i1 : : : in are equal.1.1). not all zero.11. there are scalars c1 : : : cn.1. Then (3. there is a permutation 2 Sn such that i1 = (1) : : : in = (n). Lemma 3.1. Then c1~1 + : : : + cp~p = ~ and we can divide by cp to write v v 0 p.19 If A 2 nV and ~1 : : : ~n are linearly dependent.1) says interchanging them changes the sign of A(~1 : : : ~n). so (3. (1) A ~ v ::: ~ v (n) = ( sgn )A (~1 : : :~n) : v v nV .1 X ~p = ai~i v v i=1 . interchanging them will not change A(~1 : : : ~n).

because the values of AB are scalars.19 would be rather dull if A 2 nV implied A = 0. That is. Thus AB 6= 0.1 X A (~1 : : : ~n) = A @~1 : : : ~p.1 X i=1 aiA (~1 : : :~p.1. To show this. We claim also that AB 2 nV .1 ai~i ~p+1 : : : ~nA v v v v v v v i=1 = p. STRUCTURE OF NV 15 where Then c ai = .AB for any transposition (rs). From de nition (1.1.1. c i : p 0 1 p.1.4) when AB is de ned by (3. b b b b b b AB ~1 : : : ~n = 1 b b (3. and relabel i2 as i1 . AB ~1 : : : ~n = b b ~1 ~i1 : : : ~n ~in "i1 :::in = 1 i1 : : : n in "i1 :::in = "12:::n = 1. if B = ~1 : : : ~n . The argument is the same for all (rs).3) for any (~1 : : :~n) 2 nV .3). Furthermore.21: = 0 Remark 3. so we consider (12). Let B D = (~1 : : : ~n) be its dual basis. this is (12)AB ] (~1 : : : ~n) = ~2 ~i2 ~1 ~i1 ~3 ~i3 : : : ~n ~in "i2 i1 i3 :::in v v v b v b v b v b . De ne AB 2 F ( nV ! R) by requiring b b AB (~1 : : : ~n) = ~1 ~i1 : : : ~n ~in "i1 :::in v v v b v b (3. We have (12)AB ] (~1 : : : ~n) = AB (~2 ~1 ~3 : : : ~n) v v v v v v = ~2 ~i1 ~1 ~i2 ~3 ~i3 : : : ~n ~in "i1 :::in : v b v b v b v b If we relabel the summation index i1 as i2.1.3.1 ~i ~p+1 : : : ~n) v v v v v by lemma 3. is su ces to show that (rs)AB = . v v so AB 2 n V .6) it is clear that AB is multilinear.1. Let B = (~1 : : : ~n) be any basis b b for V .1. Therefore at this point we pause to construct a nonzero member of nV .

AND N -DIMENSIONAL RIGHT-HANDEDNESS = ~1 ~i1 : : : ~n ~in "i2 i1 i3 :::in v b v b = . For any (~1 : : : ~n) 2 nV we can write ~p = vp i~i where vp i = v v v b ~ b ~p ~i. In fact it is not. ALTERNATING TENSORS.AB (~1 : : : ~n) : v v Since these equations hold for any (~1 : : : ~n) 2 nV . Thus.1. Then v b A (~1 : : : ~n) = A v1 i1~i1 : : : vn in~in v v b b = v1 i1 : : : vn in A ~i1 : : : ~in b b = v1 i1 : : : vn in "i1 :::in A ~1 : : : ~n b b by (3:1:2) = A ~1 : : : ~n ~1 ~i1 : : : ~n ~in "i1 :::in b b v b v b = A ~1 : : : ~n AB (~1 : : : ~n) : b b v v Since this is true for all ~1 : : : ~n 2 V . It looks as if nV must be rather large. DETERMINANTS. fAB g is a basis for nV . Let A 2 nV . ~1 ~i1 : : : ~n ~in "i1 i2 i3 :::in v b v b = . ORIENTATION. B D = (b1 : : : ~n) being the basis dual to B . namely AB . The argument goes thus. We can now easily prove dim nV = 1 if n dim V: (3. We will prove that if b b A 2 nV then A is a scalar multiple of AB . let B = (~1 : : : ~n) be a xed ordered basis for V .AB . QED v v Now for every ordered basis B in V we have managed to construct a nonzero member of nV . we have (12)AB = . we have for ordered basis B = (~1 : : : ~n) in V v v b b .16CHAPTER 3.5) To see this.

It is obvious that A L] is totally antisymmetric if A is. Suppose ~1 : : : ~n 2 V .2. A is a basis for nV . De ne A L] 2 F ( nV ! R) by A L] (~1 : : : ~n) = A L(~1 ) : : : L(~n)] v v v v 8 (~1 : : : ~n) 2 nV: v v (3. if a 2 R.2.1. Thus kaA L(aA) = (aA) L] = aA L] = akA LA = kA L(aA): . contrary to our hypothesis.2) From the de nition (3.2) to aA instead of A.1.2). But. (aA) L] = aA L].1. so (3.2.20 Suppose A 2 nV and A 6= 0.2.1) Since L is linear and A is multilinear.6) Of course.6) shows that A L] is multilinear. DETERMINANTS OF LINEAR OPERATORS 17 and for any A 2 nV A = A ~1 : : : ~n AB : b b (3. Then (3. and there is a scalar kA L such that A L] = kA LA: (3. v v Remark 3. Since A 6= 0. Thus by (3. they are a basis B for v v V . and since A 6= 0. If they are not.2.3. Thus A L] 2 nV .1.1.1. and dim V = n. Choose any nonzero A 2 nV . v v v v Proof: =) is remark 3. Then ~1 : : : ~n are linearly dependent if and only if A(~1 : : : ~n) = 0. To prove (=.6 permits us to prove the following test for linear independence of a sequence of n vectors in an n-dimensional space.6) shows A 2 spfAB g.6) says A = A(~1 : : : ~n)AB .5).1. b b Equation 3. This proves (3.2. A ~1 : : : ~n 2 R.1. we must have v v A(~1 : : : ~n) 6= 0.2 Determinants of linear operators The fact that dim nV = 1 makes possible a simple and elegant de nition of the determinant det L of a linear operator L 2 L(V ! V ). (aA) L] = kA LaA.1).2. v v 3. de nition (1. we have (aA) L] = kaA L(aA). applying the general result (3. we want to prove that if A(~1 : : : ~n) = 0 v v then ~1 : : : ~n are linearly dependent.

A L] = kLA: (3. by the de nition of det L. det L. ORIENTATION. is de ned to be kL.2.1) v v = det Li j A (~1 : : : ~n) where det Li j is the determinant of the n n matrix Li j .2. A L] = (det L) A for any A 2 nV . and Li j is the matrix of L relative v v to this basis. It is independent of A.4) Returning to the de nition (3.6) . and depends only on L. DETERMINANTS. (3. Thus for any L 2 L(V ! V ) there is a real number kL such that for any nonzero A 2 nV .3) This equation is obviously true also for A = 0. Therefore kA L has the same value for all nonzero A 2 nV .1) of A L]. we see that det L = det Li j : (3. AND N -DIMENSIONAL RIGHT-HANDEDNESS Since A 6= 0.5) for any A 2 nV and any (~1 : : : ~n) 2 nV . The determinant of L.2.2. Comparing this with (3. we have A L (~1 ) : : : L (~n)] = (det L) A (~1 : : : ~n) v v v v (3.5). Thus. But every member of nV can be written aA for some a 2 R.18CHAPTER 3. ALTERNATING TENSORS.2. v v Now suppose (~1 : : : ~n) is any ordered basis for V . and hence for all A in nV . Then L(~i) = Li j~j so v v h i A L (~1 ) : : : L (~n)] = A L1 j1~j1 : : : Ln jn ~jn v v v v = L1 j1 : : : Ln jn A (~1 : : : ~n) because A is multilinear v v = L1 j1 : : : Ln jn "j1 : : : jnA (~j1 : : : ~jn ) because v v A is totally antisymmetric (3. kaA L = kA L.1.2.

From remark 3.5). v v since A(~1 ~n) 6= 0.2. For example. i its determinant is nonzero.2.2. If we choose A 6= 0 v v and (~1 : : : ~n) an ordered basis. L is an isomorphism () fL(~1 ) : : : L(~n )g is linearly v v independent.20 this is true () A L(~1 ) : : : L(~n )] 6= 0: From (3. and we can cancel it. obtaining v v v v (3.2.5) we have used the fact that A(~1 : : : ~n) 6= 0. A L(~1 ) v v v L(~r )] 6= 0 . (3.1. .7) A (K L) (~1) : : : (K L) (vn)] = det (K L) A (~1 : : : ~n) v v v = A K (L(~1 )) : : : K (L(~n ))] v v = (det K ) A L (~1 ) : : : L (~n)] v v = (det K ) (det L) A (~1 : : : ~n) : v v These equations are true for any A 2 nV and any f~1 : : : ~ng V . then A(~1 : : : ~n) 6= 0. Then.8) As another application of (3.5). DETERMINANTS OF LINEAR OPERATORS 19 The determinant of a linear operator is the determinant of its matrix relative to any basis.2. This choice of A and (~1 : : : ~n) also shows that if we set L = IV in (3.2.3. if K and L are both linear operators on V . det L 6= 0.2.2.6) from (3.2. From (3.5). In deducing (3.5) (IV := v v identity mapping of V onto V ) then det IV = 1: (3.2.1. det (K L) = (det K ) (det L) : The proof is simple. and hence an isomorphism. Some properties of det L are easy to deduce from (3. v v as remarked in theorem (18.6).7). let A 6= 0 and f~1 : : : ~ng be a basis for V .2. This fact v v follows from remark (3.5).2). Thus a linear operator is v invertible.

1 ) = det(L L.2. and L L.1 ) = det IV = 1.20CHAPTER 3.1 (n) o : n L (1) 1 ::: L (n) n o n . Thus det L. Relative to this basis B . ORIENTATION.1 (1) n () i = (j ) () j = . AND N -DIMENSIONAL RIGHT-HANDEDNESS If det L 6= 0. X L (1) 1 : : : L (n) n ( sgn ) : 2Sn 1 n Li j 2 L (1) ::: L (n) n o .1 : (3. : : : Ln . DETERMINANTS.1 = (det L).1 (1) o = L1 : : : Ln .10) Recall that LT is the unique member of L(V ! V ) 3 L (~ ) w = LT (w) ~ 8~ w 2 V: u ~ ~ u u~ Let (^1 : : : xn) be an ordered orthonormal basis for V . the x ^ matrix of LT is LT i j x = cj LT ~i = xj LT (^i ) = xi L (^j ) b ^ x ^ B = ciB L (xj )] = Lj i and 1 j1 : : : h i h i det LT = det LT i j = LT LT n jn " j1:::jn = Lj1 1 : : : Ljn n"j1:::jn = Now for any 2 Sn.2.1 exists.1 (i) () Li j 2 L1 Hence.1 = IV . so (det L)(det L. ALTERNATING TENSORS.9) Finally we claim det LT = det L: (3. then L.1(n) .

there must be for each t in 0 t 1 an ordered orthonormal basis (^1 (t) : : : xn(t)) with these properties: x ^ i) xi(0) = xi ^ ^ ii) xi(1) = x0i ^ ^ iii) xi(t) depends continuously on t. But from (3.2.12). ORIENTATION 21 so. L (1) 1 : : : L (n) n = L1 . That is. The mapping ! .1 is a bijection of Sn to itself.1 : (3.3. Then (det L)(det LT ) = det IV = 1. (^1 : : : xn) and (^01 : : : x0n ). Thus det L = 1 if V 2 (V ): 3.1(1) det LT = L1 : : : Ln . so (det L)2 = 1.3 Orientation Two ordered orthonormal bases for V .1 (n) sgn .3. are said to have x ^ x ^ the same orientation i one basis can be obtained from the other by a continuous rigid motion. Hence X . X (1) det LT = L1 : : : Ln (n) sgn 2Sn = L1 i1 : : : Ln in "i1:::in = det L: If L 2 (V ) (see page D-25) then L.1 (n) : Moreover. We claim X X f .11) 2S n Now suppose f : Sn ! W where W is any vector space.1 = LT so L LT = IV .12) 2Sn 2Sn The reason is that as runs over Sn so does .1 = f ( ): (3.2. ^ . sgn = sgn .2.2.1.11) and (3.1.1(1) : : : Ln .

1.1 = (.3. operators L which maps one basis onto the other has det L = 1. Given any ordered orthonormal basis B = (^1 : : : xn).e. there is an Lt 2 (V ) 3 xi(t) = Lt (^i ). But Lt 2 (V ) for all t. We will not prove that comment here.1)(. its components relative to any basis depend continously on t. Thus. if two other ordered x ^ orthonormal bases are oriented oppositely to B . Let L0 and L00 be the orthogonal operators which map B onto B 0 and B 00. they have the same orientation. i)0 L0 = IV iii)0 Lt depends continuously on t (i. DETERMINANTS.. we can divide the ordered orthonormal bases for V into two oppositely oriented classes. The orthogonal operator L which maps one basis onto the other has det L = .21 is also true. the orthogonal The converse of remark 3. we say they have opposite orientations. If two ordered orthonormal bases do not have the same orientation. It turns out that orientations are easily described in terms of alternating tensors. Thus.) ^ x ^ ^ Then det L0 = 1 and det Lt depends continuously on t. and for dim V = 3 it is Euler's theorem. . as is clear from the comment on page D-26 and from Theorem PP-14. Remark 3. We call these two classes the \orientation classes" for V . For example. and det L00 (L0).21 If two ordered o:n: bases for V have the same orientation. ALTERNATING TENSORS. Proof: Let the bases be B 0 and B 00 . all bases have the same orientation. Within each class. Hence det Lt = 1 and det L1 = 1. ORIENTATION. and these are continuous in t. It is obvious when dim V = 2.1) = (det L00)(det L0). Choosing an orientation for V amounts to choosing one of the two orientation classes for V . AND N -DIMENSIONAL RIGHT-HANDEDNESS Since (^1 (t) : : : xn(t) is orthonormal. its components relative to (^1 : : : xn) are Li j = x ^ xj Lt (^i) = xj xi (t). From x ^ ^ x i) and iii) above.3.1) = +1. Then L00 (L0 ). so det Lt = 1 for all t.22CHAPTER 3.1 ] = (det L00 ) det ((L0 ).1 is the orthogonal operator which maps B 0 onto B 00.

QED.3. Let AB be de ned by (3.3).1) to both A and A0 for one particular (^1 : : : xn) shows a = 1. Remark 3.3.3. An ordered orthonormal basis (^1 : : : xn) is \positively" or \negatively" oriented according as A(^1 : : : xn) is +1 x ^ x ^ or .1) for every ordered orthonormal basis (^1 : : : xn) of V . neither is 0.3.3.3. x ^ Thus if A and A0 are unimodular. AB and . Then AB (B 0) (an abbreviation for AB (^01 : : : x0n)) is +1 or . x ^ If A and A0 are both unimodular.A is positive on the other orintation class. so there is a real nonzero a such that A0 = aA. Does it contain any? To see that the answer is yes.1.1 according as B and B 0 have this same or opposite orientax ^ tions.22 nV Proof: There is an L 2 (V ) such that x0i = L(^i). Applying (3. Hence A0 = A (3. and .1). we prove ^ Remark 3.15 We call A 2 nV \unimodular" if jA (^1 : : : xn)j = 1 x ^ (3. ORIENTATION 23 De nition 3.1. But det L = 1.AB are unimodular. Choosing an orientation class for V amounts simply to choosing one of the two unimodular members of nV .23 Let B = (^1 : : : xn ) and B 0 = (^01 : : : x0n) be any two ordered orthonorx ^ x mal bases for V . De nition 3. A is called \the" alternating tensor of the oriented space.3. Therefore we accept V is Euclidean vector space and A is one of the two unimodular alternating tensors over V .A are the two unimodular members of nV . Then AB (^01 : : : x0n) = AB L(^1 ) : : : L(^n )] ^ x x ^ x x = (det L)AB (^1 : : : xn).2) contains at most two unimodular members. we see from remark 3. and AB (B ) = +1 by (3. x ^ If A and . Therefore.23 that A is positive on one of the two orientation classes of V .3.1.16 An oriented Euclidean vector space is an ordered pair (V A) in which .3.3.

ORIENTATION.24CHAPTER 3. DETERMINANTS. ALTERNATING TENSORS. AND N -DIMENSIONAL RIGHT-HANDEDNESS .

17 Suppose U1 : : : Up V1 : : : Vq are Euclidean vector spaces and P 2 U1 : : : Up and Q 2 V1 : : : Vq .2 Properties of tensor products 25 . 4.1. De ne PQ as the member of F (U1 : : : Up V1 : : : Vq ! R) which assigns to any (p + q)-tuple ~ 1 : : : ~ p ~1 : : :~q ) 2 u u v v PQ (~ 1 : : : ~ p ~1 : : : ~q ) = P (~ 1 : : : ~ p) Q (~1 : : : ~q ) : u u v v u u v v By de nition (1.1) U1 : : : Up V1 : : : Vq the real number PQ 2 U1 : : : Up V1 : : : Vq : (4. Note that if P were in M(U1 : : : Up ! W ) and Q were in M(V1 : : : Vq ! W 0) with W 6= R.1.6) it is clear that PQ is multilinear. then PQ could not be de ned. so (4.2) PQ is called the \tensor product" of P and Q. The tensor product PQ is sometimes written P Q. Tensors can be multiplied by one another.1.1. W 0 6= R. because the product on the right of (4.1 De nition of a tensor product De nition 4.Chapter 4 Tensor Products 4.1. but in general multilinear mappings cannot.1) would not be de ned.

For any ~ and ~ 2 V we have P (~ ) = ~ ~ .1) holds for all ~ 2 V .2. Therefore y x (4.1) If we x ~ to be any particular vector in V . these two ~ ~ (~ ~) .24 Commutativity can fail.2. then (PQ)(~ ~) = (QP )(~ ~) for all ~ ~ 2 V . then (4. suppose p = q = 1 and U1 = V1 = V . gives P (~ 1 v u ~ p) = 0.2. And if ~ = ~ . ~ (~ ~) = ~ : uv y v u y 0 (4. suppose PQ = 0 and Q 6= 0. Even if their domains are the same. The u v converse is obvious. then of course ~ and ~ are 0 u v u 0 u v also linearly dependent. V1 Remark 4.26 CHAPTER 4.25 There are no divisors of zero. PQ need not equal QP . so xy xy xy (~ ~ ) (~ ~) = (~ ~ ) (~ ~) : u x v y v x u y Then ~ ~ (~ ~)] = ~ ~ (~ ~)] so x uv y x v u y Remark 4. Q = ~ .2. . namely U1 : : : Up V1 : : : Vq and V1 : : : Vq U1 : : : Up.3) v v To prove this. so it holds for ~ = ~ . TENSOR PRODUCTS functions usually have di erent domains. Since ~ 1 u u ~ p were u arbitrary. PQ = 0 implies P (~ 1 u ~ p)Q(~1 u v ~q ) = 0: v Cancelling Q(~1 v ~q ). P = 0.2. For example. That is if P 2 U1 Vp then PQ = 0 =) P = 0 or Q = 0: Up and Q 2 (4. Q(~) = ~ ~ u v x y x u x y v y so (PQ) (~ ~) = P (~ ) Q (~) = (~ ~ ) (~ ~).2) This holds for every ~ 2 V . In fact.2. We will show P = 0. which is 6= 0. say P = ~ .(~ ~ )~ = y y u u 0 uu uvu uuv ~ shows that ~ and ~ are linearly dependent. Choose (~1 ~q ) 2 V1 Vq so that Q(~1 v ~q ) 6= 0 (by hypothesis Q 6= 0 so this is possible). ~ (~ ~)] = 0: x uv y v u y ~ (~ ~) . Thus PQ = QP implies ~ and ~ are linearly dependent. If ~ 6= ~ then ~ ~ 6= 0 so ~ (~ ~ ). Then v for any (~ 1 u ~ p ) 2 U1 u Up. it is unusual to have PQ = QP . Similarly xy x y u x v y (QP ) (~ ~) = Q (~ ) P (~) = (~ ~ ) (~ ~) : xy x y v x u y If PQ = QP . Then P and Q are vectors in V .

Then (ai Pi)Q = ai (PiQ) and Q(ai Pi) = ai(QPi ): Proof: For any u = (~ 1 ~ u we have am 2 R.4. and Q 2 V1 Vq . (PQ)R] (~ v w) := (PQ)(~ v)] R(w) u~ ~ u~ ~ := P (~) (Qv)R(w)] (rule of arithmetic in R) u ~ ~ := P (~) (QR)(~ w)] u v ~ := P (QR)] (~ v w): u~ ~ Remark 4. PROPERTIES OF TENSOR PRODUCTS 27 Corollary 4. we have ~ q ) 2 V1 v Vq .13 P1 Ps = 0 =) one of P1 Remark 4.2.5) ~ p) 2 U1 u Up and any v = (~1 ~ v ~ q ) 2 V1 v Vq (aiPi)Q] (~ v) = (aiPi)(~)] Q(~) u~ u v = fai Pi(~)]g Q(~) u v = ai Pi(~)Q(~)] (real arithmetic) u v = ai (PiQ)(~ v)] = ai (PiQ)] (~ v): u~ u~ The second of equations (4. Up. Proof: For any u = (~ 1 ~ u and any w = (w1 ~ ~ Ps = 0. any v = (~1 ~ v Wr . (Induction on s gives proof). we can write PQR without ambiguity. and (4. Q 2 V1 Vq . If P 2 U1 R 2 W1 Wr then Hence.26 Associative law.2.2. .5) is proved in the same way. P1 Pm 2 (4. Suppose a1 U1 Up.2.2.2.4) (PQ) R = P (QR) : ~ p ) 2 U1 u wr ) 2 W1 ~ Up .27 Right and left distributive laws.2.

Q = Pr . then the tensor product ~1~2 ~q is called a polyad of order q. P = 1 if r = s. TENSOR PRODUCTS Then P1P2 Proof: Remark 4. Then P (aiQi)R = (by 4. We will v usually avoid these extra 's.2.18 If (~1 v By remark (4.5) = ai P (QiR)] = (by remark 4.! V1 Vq ) : (4. We take Q1 Qm 2 U1(r) Up(rr) and a1 am 2 R. (If r = 1.2) P (aiQi)R] (by 4. That is Vq ~ q ) 2 V1 v Vq we have 2 M (V1 Vq ) .1. R = Pr+1 Ps.) Then we want to show that PQR depends linearly on Q.3. To prove linearity in Pr .2. . a \pentad" if q = 5. 4. where V1 Vq are Euclidean spaces.2.3.3. ~1~2 ~q depends linearly on each of ~1 vv v v xed.28). We de ne a mapping ~q when the others are v a) b) c) : V1 Vq ! V1 by requiring that for any (~1 v (~1 v ~ q ) = ~ 1~ 2 ~ q : v vv v Then is multilinear. suppose Pi 2 U1(i) Ps is separately linear in each of P1 P2 Ps . R = 1. a \tetrad" if q = 4. It is a \dyad" if q = 2.28 Multilinearity. and ~1~2 ~q is written ~1 ~2 vv v ~q .1.17 of a tensor product.2.5) = P ai(QiR)] = (by 4. It is a member of vv v V1 Vq . for any (~ 1 x ~ q ) 2 V1 x Vq we have (~1 ~q ) (~ 1 v v x ~ q ) = (~1 ~ 1 ) (~q ~ q ) : x v x v x (4. This notation makes (4.2b) look thus: (~1 v v ~q ) = ~1 v v ~q .2.3. a \triad" if q = 3.1) De nition 4. For i 2 f1 sg. write P = P1 Pr.28 CHAPTER 4.2.2) v v The tensor product PQ is sometimes written P Q. Up(ii) . By the de nition 4.2) = ai(PQiR).3 Polyads ~ q ) 2 V1 v Vq .

31 Suppose that for each p 2 f1 qg. Then for any ~ p 2 Vp x v x (4. we have ~ p ~p 2 Vp. for any (~ 1 u v 0 x V1 Vq we have (~ 1 ~ 1 ) u x ~ q) 2 x (4. Then ~ 1 ~ q = ~1 ~q .2).3. POLYADS 29 Remark 4.3.2. By hypothesis.4. and u v aq = 1.1) )(~ (p+1) ~ (p+1)) (~ (q) ~v(q))) : ~1 ~1) (~(p. ~1~2 vv ~ 1~ 2 ~ q = ~ 1 ~ 2 ~ q . u (= follows from remark 1.3.1) ~(p+1) v(p+1) ) (v(q) v(q) v or ~(p) ~ (p) = a(p)~ (p) ~ (p) v x u x (4.29.3.3.1) v(p.3. u u v v ~q = (a1~ 1)(a2~ 2) v u u (a(q)~ (q)) = a1 a2 u ~p = a(p)~ (p).3.3.30 Suppose for each p 2 f1 Since is multilinear. ~ q is 0. Suppose also a1 v u Proof: Remark 4.11 and the multilinearity of in (4.1)~ ~ (p))(~ (p) )(~ (~+1) ~(p+1)~ (~~ (q)) ~(q) ) v x v1 v1) (v(p.3.3) implies v )(u x u p v ) u v u v) u ~(p) ~ (p) = (~ 1 ~(1~ ~(~ (p.1) ~(p. no ~ p or ~p is ~ . Suppose also u v that ~ 1 ~ q = ~1 ~q = 0.29 ~ 1~ 2 ~ q = 0 i at least one of ~ 1 ~ 2 uu u u u Proof: follows by induction on q from remark (4.3) ~ (q) ~ (q) = (~1 ~ 1) u x v x ~(q) ~ (q) : v x Choose any p 2 f1 qg.3. uu u u u u h a(q) i Remark 4.25). Then 9a1 u u v v 6 aq 2 R such that a1 a2 aq = 1 and for each p 2 f1 qg we have ~p = a(p)~ (p). =) qg that ~ p ~p 2 Vp and ap 2 R.5) .4) where ~ )(~ v u ~ ) (~ ~ v u u v u a(p) = ((~ 1 ~1 ) (~ (p.1)~ ~(p.1) v(p+1) v(p+1) v v v v(q) v(q) (4. and take ~ r = ~r if r 6= p. v u Proof: By remark 4.3.1) v(p.

1)(~ 1 ~ q ) = 0. v v u u v v u u so (a1 aq . or u u u u a1 aq = 1 (see facts about ~ . it follows that x ~p = a(p)~ (p): v u Then ~1 ~q = (a1 aq )(~ 1 ~ q ). But ~1 ~q = ~ 1 ~ q by hypothesis. a1 aq . Since ~ 1 ~ q 6= 0.4) is true for all ~ p 2 Vp. 1 = 0. TENSOR PRODUCTS Since (4.30 CHAPTER 4. 0 .3. p=s).

1) S i1 iq~(1) bi1 ~(iqq) = 0: b We want to prove S i1 iq = 0. Then the n1 n2 nq polyads ~(1)~(2) ~(iqq) are a basis for bi1 bi2 b V1 Vq .1. Suppose that S i1 n2 nq dimensional array of scalars such that iq is an n1 (5.2) ~npp)) be the dual basis for Bp.Chapter 5 Polyad Bases and Tensor Components 5. However.1. every tensor is a sum of polyads.1) is equivalent to the assertion that for any (~ 1 x ~ q ) 2 V1 x Vq .1. suppose Vp is a Euclidean space and Bp = (~(1p) ~(npp)) b b is an ordered basis for Vp. Equation (5.15 For p 2 f1 : : : qg.1.1.1 Polyad bases It is true (see exercise 4) that some tensors of order 2 are not polyads. The result is x b( q bi1 b(1) S i1 iq ~(1) ~j1 = ~i(qq) ~jq) = 0: b b( q 31 . Proof: First these polyads are linearly independent.2). We have Theorem 5. S i1 D b( Let Bp = (~1p) of integers (j1 iq ~(1) ~ 1 b i1 x ~(iqq) ~ q = 0: b x (5. Choose a particular q-tuple b( jq ) and set ~ 1 = ~j1 x b(1) ~ q = ~jq) in (5.

1 ip+1 iq = T i1 iq~i(pp) 2 Vp: b . We will show that b b D T = .1. as we hoped.3) T i1 and iq := T ~i(1) b1 ~(iqq) : b (5.14 If T 2 V1 polyads.32 CHAPTER 5. Corollary 5. by remark 1.1.10 it su ces to show that ~j1 b(1) But := T i1 iq~(1) bi1 ~jq) = T ~j1 b(q b(1) ~jq) : b( q ~ j1 b(1) ~jq) = T i1 b(q = T i1 = T j1 h ~(1) ~(q) bi1 biq iq ~ (1) ~j1 bi1 b(1) iq = T ~ j1 b(1) iq i ~((1)) ~(iqq) b j1 b ~(iqq) ~jq) = T i1 b b( q ~jq) : b(q iq i1 j1 iq jq QED. Since (B1 BqD ) is a basis sequence for V1 Vq .4) Clearly is a linear combination of the polyads ~(i1i) ~(iqq) . Second. iq so i1 j1 S i1 Hence. For let T 2 (5. S j1 iq = i jq = 0: = 0. POLYAD BASES AND TENSOR COMPONENTS But for dual bases.1.1 ip+1 iq~i(pp+1 b1 b .2. where n1 = dim V1 Proof: Vq and p 2 f1 nq = dim Vq . the n1n2 nq polyads ~(1) bi1 V1 Vq .11)~ i1 ip.4) we can write T = ~i(1) ~i(pp. (~i ~j ) = b b i j. De ne ~(iqq) span V1 b ~i(qq) b Vq . qg then T is a sum of n1 nq =np From T = and (5.1. v b +1) where ~i(qq) b ~(ip1) v ip.

Suppose (~1p) b( b b( b( T 2 V1 Vq .1) is the array of \contravariant components of T relative to (B1 Bq ).1 iq = T ~i(1) ~iq.1 q.1 ~i(qq) >T b b b iq = T ~ (1) i1 > > > > >.. Corollary 5. Suppose L : V1 Vq ! W and M : V1 Vq ! W are linear. Each array has dimension n1 as follows: 8 > T i1 iq = T ~i(1) ~i(qq) b1 b > > > > > > i1 iq.1. > > > > > > Ti1 iq. Then L(T ) = j=1 j j j =1 are linear. not necessarily Euclidean.2. < (5.1 ~(q) iq b1 b b > > > > > > : Ti1 iq = T ~i(1) ~i(qq) b1 b An array is said to be \covariant" in its subscripts and \contravariant" in its superscripts.1 ~(q. Proof: For an arbitrary T 2 V1 Vq .5.15 Suppose V1 5.2. write T = PN=1 Tj where the Tj are j PN L(T ) = PN M (T ) = M (T ) because L and M polyads.2. Then L = M . The rst array in (5." The last array is the array of \covariant components relative De nition 5. suppose Vp is a Euclidean space and Bp = D ~(npp)) is an ordered basis for Vp.1) > .2 Components of a tensor relative to a basis sequence: De nition qg. and L(T ) = M (T ) for every polyad T . The arrays are (B1 Bq ) for V1 Vq .1) iq.19 For each p 2 f1 . COMPONENTS OF A TENSOR RELATIVE TO A BASIS SEQUENCE: DEFINITION 33 Vq are Euclidean spaces and W is a real vector space. with dual basis Bp = (~1p) ~npp) ).2. Then T has 2q arrays of components relative to the basis sequence nq .

each array is the covariant array relative to some basis sequence.2) the 2q equations 8 > T = T i1 iq~i(1) ~i(qq) b1 b > > Vq and there is one basis sequence for V1 Vq relative to which one of the 2q component arrays of S is the same as the corresponding component array of T (e.11~(iqq) bi1 bi .2.2) > > > > > > T = T i1 iq.1 BqD ).2.1) is the array of contravariant components of T relative to a suitable basis sequence.1.1 BqD ) (B1 BqD ) we obtain from (5." The other 2q ." Note that each array in the list (5. For example.2 If S and T 2 V1 .3).1) b q > 1 q .1 iq is the contravariant array relative to the basis sequence (B1 Bq.2. From (5. Similarly. By using others of the 2q basis sequences one can reach the same conclusion for any of the 2q equations (5. b > > > > >. Note 5. 2 arrays are arrays of \mixed components relative to (B1 Bq ).1 Suppose T = T i1 iq~(1) ~(iqq) for some array T i1 iq . < (5.2.1 > > > > > > T = T ~ i1 ~ iq : i1 iq b(1) b(q) ~ bi1 b ~ Note 5.2. if T 2 V1 Vq . (B1 Bq ).3) > . therefore T i1 iq = T i1 iq . then the coe cients required to express T as a linear combination of the basis polyads from the basis sequence (B1 Bq ) are precisely the contravariant components of T relative to that basis sequence.g. > > > > > T = Ti i iq = ~i1 ~ iq. Since the polyads ~i(1) ~i(qq) are a basis for V1 ~ b1 b Vq .4) and the fact that T = in those equations.2.3) and (5. we conclude T = T i1 iq~ (1)~ (2) b i1 b i2 ~(iqq) : b (5. and Ti1 iq is the D D contravariant array relative to (B1 B2 BqD ). POLYAD BASES AND TENSOR COMPONENTS to (B1 Bq ). By considering all 2q basis D sequences.2. (B1 Bq..1 iq~(1) ~qq.1.34 CHAPTER 5. That is. T i1 iq.1 ~i(q) b(1) b(q. Ti1 i2 i3 iq = Si i2 i3 iq ) then S = T .

3. The procedure is this.5. we know T . and all 2q component arrays (5. Therefore.1) .2. CHANGING BASES 35 double index is summed only when it is a superscript at one appearance and a subscript at the other. One uses the non-restricted index convention.4 If each of the bases B1 D Bq is orthonormal.3 Changing bases Suppose T 2 V1 Vq .3 The notation has been chosen to permit the restricted index conventions.3) are the same.2.3) are identical. Note 5. If we know the array of contravariant components of T relative to one basis sequence (B1 Bq ). The equation ai = bi holds for all possible values of i. then Bp = Bp .3. A Note 5.2. and all 2q equations (5. 5.2. we ought to be able to calculate ~ ~ the contravariant components of T relative to any other basis sequence (B1 Bq ). but ai = bi should not occur unless we introduce orthonormal bases. Let Bp = ~1(p) b D Bp ~np) b (p ~np) b (p ~ (p) ~ Bp = ~ 1 b 1 ~D ~ Bp = ~ (p) b ~( ~np) bp ! = ~1(p) b ! ~p ~np) : b( ~ Bq ) is ~ ~(jqq) b ~ The array of contravariant components of T relative to (B1 ~ T j1 jq ~ j1 = T ~(1) b = = ~ ~(jqq) b ! T i1 iq~i(1) b1 T i1 iq iq " ~i(qq) b ~ j1 ~(1) b ~ ~i(qq) b ! !# ~i(1) b1 ~ j1 ~i(qq) ~(1) b b = T i1 Thus ~ T j1 jq ~i(1) ~(1) b 1 b j1 j1 ~i(1) ~(1) b1 ~ b ~ ~j(qq) b ! ~ jq : ~(q) b = T i1 iq ! ! ~ ~i(qq) ~(jqq) : b b (5.

3. ~ Tj 1 j2 jq = T i1 iq. . For example.3.4) (there are 4q such) are said to raise or lower the indices of the component array of T . ~ .11) b .3. if (B1 b D (B1 BqD ).2. T 2 V1 Vq .1) with some of the j 's as subscripts and some of the i's as subscripts on the components and superscript on the ~'s.1) becomes Tj1 jq = T i1 iq gi(1)1 1j gi(qqj)q : Formulas like (5. 5.32 If S . (5.3) and (5.4 Properties of component arrays for V1 Remark 5.3. we can immediately obtain (5. if B1 = B1 ~ and Bp = Bp for p 2.3. then relative to any basis sequence iq (aS + bT )i1 Proof: = aS i1 iq + bT i1 iq : Immediate from de nition of components.4.3. Vq and a b 2 R.4) (1) b ~ where gij = ~i(1) ~j(1) is the covariant metric matrix of B1.19.3.1) becomes Tj1 j2 jq = T i1 j2 jq gi(1)1 1j (5.3.2) ~ ~ As an interesting special case of (5.1 ~(jqq.1 iq ~(1) bi1 ~ ~(1) bj1 ! ~i(qq. (5. b For example. 5. Similarly.1).1) b ! ~i(2) b2 ~ j2 ~(2) b ! ~(iqq) b ~ ~(jqq) b ! (5. POLYAD BASES AND TENSOR COMPONENTS ~ ~ If we replace some of the bases in (B1 Bq ) and (B1 Bq ) by their duals.3.3) ~ Bq ) = (5.36 CHAPTER 5. we can take for (B1 Bq ) the basis sequence D D ~ obtained from (B1 Bq ) by replacing some of the Bp by Bp .

Taking compon- ~ (q) = T i1 iq vi(1) v 1 ~ (p) = vi(pp)~i(pp) so T (~ (1) v b v ~ (q) ) = T vi(1)~(1) v b i1 vi(qq)~(iqq) b 1 iq (1) v (q) T ~i1 (1) v (q) T i1 iq .2. and if T 2 q V . but it does help if one wants to study the symmetries of T 2 V1 Vq = q V by looking at its arrays of components. then one speaks of the arrays of components of T relative to the basis B .33 Suppose P 2 U1 Up V 1 Up and Q 2 V1 Vq = P i1 ip Qj1 jq : Vq . ~n). 5. it is usual to consider only basis sequences (B1 B1 = = Bq = B . If B1 = = Bq = B .4. then for any If we do have B1 = = Bq = B = (~1 b b permutation 2 Sq we have ( T )i1 iq b = ( T ) ~ i1 = T i (1) i (q ) ~ iq = T b i (1) b : ~ i (q) b (5.4. SYMMETRIES OF COMPONENT ARRAYS 37 basis sequence for U1 Remark 5.5. ~(q) = vi1 = vi1 b (1) b iq iq 5.1) .19.5.5. This is not necessary.5 Symmetries of component arrays Bq ) in which If V1 = = Vq = V . Then relative to any (PQ)i1 Proof: ip j1 jq Immediate from de nition of components. Remark 5.34 Suppose T 2 V1 T ~ (1) v Proof: ents relative to any basis sequence gives Vq and ~ (p) 2 Vp p = 1 v vi(qq): q.

For example.1 ~ir ~is+1 = T ~ i1 b b b b b b b = T i1 ir. if T i j = . with dual basis B D = (~1 ~n ). 5. Let Let B = (~1 b b b b gij = ~i ~j and gij = ~i ~j be the covariant and contravariant metric matrices relative to b b b b . then T is antisymmetric.Tj i Tij = .Tji: (5.10.5. POLYAD BASES AND TENSOR COMPONENTS ~n) is the basis dual to B .6 Examples of component arrays Example 5. T ij = . By de nition.5. For mixed arrays of components. T (~i ~j ) = .1 is is+1 iq ~ is.1 ir is+1 iq : is ~iq b Whether T 2 q V is symmetric or antisymmetric under (rs) can be tested by looking at one array of components of T relative to one basis. If one index is covariant and the other is contravariant.1 ir+1 is.T ji Proof: T i j = . b b b b b b b b b b b b Moreover. as long as the r and s indices in that array are both covariant or both contravariant. two di erent component arrays must be compared to test for symmetry. For example. then relative to any basis for V .1 ~is ~ is+1 ~ iq b = (rs)T ] ~ i1 b b b b ~ ir. For example.2) T (~i ~j ) = .2) is true relative to one basis B for V . things Here B D = (~1 b b are not quite so simple. T = .(12)T .6. if T 2 V V antisymmetric. Therefore.2.38 CHAPTER 5. if (rs) is a transposition with r < s then (rs)T ]i1 ir is. if any one of the three equations (5. T (~j ~i) = .(12)T take the same values on the basis sequence (B D B ) for V V .3 Let I be the identity tensor on Euclidean vector space V . I is that member of V V such that for any ~ ~ 2 V we have uv I (~ ~ ) = ~ ~ : uv u v ~n) be any ordered basis for V .1 ~is ~ ir+1 ~ is.T (~j ~i ) . by remark 1.T (~j ~i) .Tj i then T and .T (~j ~i) .

6.) Relative to an orthonormal basis. B D be as in example 5.5.4 Let V . ^ (5.1) (5.4) ^ Ai1 Ai1 in in = "i1 in in if (^1 x if (^1 x xn) is positively oriented: ^ xn ) is negatively oriented: ^ = . Then I ij Ii j Ii j Iij = I ~i ~j = ~i ~j = gij b b b b = I ~ i ~ j = ~ i ~j = i j b b b b = I ~ i ~ j = ~ i ~j = i j b b b b = I ~i ~j gij : b b (The reason for calling I the \identity tensor" will appear later.6.e. Example 5. EXAMPLES OF COMPONENT ARRAYS 39 B .6. From (5.6.6.2.6.3) (5. if (^1 x I = gij~i~j = ~i~i = ~i~i = gij~i~j : bb bb bb bb xn) is an orthonormal basis for V . If B = (^1 x xn) is an orthonormal basis for V then from (5. B ."i1 . In particular. any component array of I is ij .2) Ai1 It is not true that in = A ~ i1 b in ~ in = "i1 in A ~ 1 b b ~in = "i1 in A ~1 b b ~n : b ~n : b ~n : b (5.1.6. Let A be any alternating tensor Then from (3.2) I = xixi ^^ over V (i.3) it follows that I = gij~i~j = i j~i~j = i j~i~j = gij~i~j : bb bb bb bb Thus. then A is unimodular.4) Ai1 = A ~ i1 b in Ai1 i2 b b = "i1 i2 in A ~1 ~2 If (V A) is an oriented Euclidean vector space.3.6. any member of n V ).

POLYAD BASES AND TENSOR COMPONENTS .40 CHAPTER 5.

3) (6. First.0.0. The procedure works quite well once we have overcome a di culty which is best understood by considering an example. we write T= m X i=1 Pi Pi a polyad m X i=1 trrsT = trrsPi: There are two serious objections to this apparently reasonable procedure: 41 . so we express T 2 V1 Vq as a sum of polyads and perform the operations on the individual polyads. adding the results.1~ r+1 u u Vq . we want to de ne the \trace on indices r and s".0. that is P = ~1 u Then we de ne ~r u ~s u ~ q: u (6.Chapter 6 The Lifting Theorem We must learn to perform a number of simple but useful operations on tensors of order q.2) (6.4) ~ r. Most of these operations will be easy to perform on polyads.1) trrsP := (~ r ~ s) ~ 1 u u u := (~ r ~ s) ~ 1 u u u If T 2 V1 and we de ne 6 ~r u 6 ~s ~ q u u ~ s. written trrsT . Suppose 1 r < s q and V1 Vq are Euclidean vector spaces and Vr = Vs.1~ s+1 u u ~ q: u (6. For any T 2 V1 Vq . suppose P is a polyad in V1 Vq .0.

28 for tensor products. 2 in u V1 6 Vr 6 Vs Vq . THE LIFTING THEOREM (i) Suppose P = ~ 1 ~ r ~ s ~ q = ~1 ~r u u u u v v ~ s)~ 1 6 ~r 6 ~s ~ q = (~r ~s)~1 6 ~r u u u u u v v v v uniquely de ned by (6.0. The polyad assigned to (~ 1 u ~ q ) is u M (~ 1 u ~ q ) = (~ r ~ s) ~ 1 u u u u 6 ~r u 6 ~s ~ q : u u (6. tr T is not uniquely de ned by (6.0.0.6) This M is all we really have.2).2) is to show how to take an ordered q-tuple (~ 1 u ~ q ) and assign to it a polyad of order q ." This theorem holds for all tensors. property d0 on page D-18 for dot products.2). and remark 4. trrsP is not v v (ii) Suppose T = Pm Pi = Pn=1 Qj where Pi and Qj are polyads. we return to the very rst sloppiness.5) is a very general one. in (6. Is it true that i=1 j Pm tr P = Pn tr Q ? If not. from de nition (1. Is it true that (~ r v v u 6 ~s ~q ? If not. and to recognize that until we have provided some theory all we have really done in (6.0.2. Multilinear Algebra) taken as the de nition of V1 Vq . not just those over Euclidean spaces. rs i=1 rs i j =1 rs j To attack this problem.0.6). ~s ~q . The process of constructing a linear mapping trrs : V1 Vq ! V1 6 Vr 6 Vs Vq from the M of (6.0. Let M 2 M(V1 Vq be Euclidean vector spaces and let Vq ! W ). Then there is exactly one . and it is sometimes (as in Marcus. so that trrs maps the set of polyads in V1 Vq into the set of polyads in V1 6 Vr 6 Vs Vq .3).0. We hope that trrsP will be a unique polyad in V1 6 Vr 6 Vs Vq . A formal statement of the lifting theorem for Euclidean vector spaces is as follows: Theorem 6.0. But di culty i) above leads us to look carefully at (6.1) and (6.0. Hence.1. In fact. That such a construction is possible and unique is the intent of the \lifting theorem.5) This equation does clearly and unambiguously de ne a function M 2 F (V1 Vq ! V1 6 Vr 6 Vs Vq ).16 (Lifting theorem).2).0. M 2 M(V1 V q ! V1 6 Vr 6 Vs Vq ): (6.42 CHAPTER 6. Let V1 W be any real vector space. it is clear that M is multilinear.

These equations mean that if ~ ~ we start at any (~1 v ~q ) in (V1 v Vq ).2 they mean f : U ! W . . we discuss it and try to clarify its meaning. v Before proving the theorem.1: M 2 L(V1 where Vq ! W ) such that M =M (6.7) or (6. and go to W either via M or via and M . To make (6.8) M (~1 v ~q ) = M (~1 v v In other words. we will reach the same vector in W . Proof of the lifting theorem: The proof is actually rather simple. g : U ! V .0. .43 V x . with Bp = (~(1p) b b b( . Both mappings are multilinear. Choose a basis sequence (B1 Bq ) for V1 D ~npp) ) be the basis for Vp dual to Bp. Let Bp = (~1p) b( Vq .7) less abstract we note that it is true () M (~1 v This is equivalent to ~q ) = M v (~1 v ~q )] v 8 (~1 v ~q ) 2 V1 v ~q ) : v Vq : (6. Usually. . the lifting theorem asserts the existence of exactly one linear mapping M : V1 Vq ! W such that when M is applied to any polyad the result is the same as applying M to any q-tuple of vectors whose tensor product is that polyad. x Vq 1 x V x .0. A diagram of the three functions may clarify matters: M maps V1 and maps V1 Vq into V1 Vq . and f = h g.7) 2 M(V1 Vq ! V1 Vq ) is de ned by (~1 v ~q ) = ~1 v v ~q . Vq into W .0.0. h : V ! W . First ~(npp) ).0. x Vq 1 M M x W Figure 6. . The lifting theorem \lifts" M from V1 Vq to V1 Vq by producing a unique linear mapping M : V1 Vq ! W which satis es (6. when people draw the diagram as in Figure 6.8).

It still remains to prove that there is an M 2 L(V1 Vq ! W ) which satis es (6. i. For a formal proof. namely the M : V1 Vq ! W de ned by (6.e. let T1 Tn 2 V1 Vq and a1 an 2 R.0.7) and (6. i.] . M (T ) depends linearly on T . then for any T 2 V1 Vq we must have M (T ) = T ~i(1) b1 ~i(qq) M ~(1) b bi1 ~(iqq) : b (6. THE LIFTING THEOREM Figure 6.2).0. Our uniqueness proof has given us an obvious candidate.0. Let T 2 V1 Vq .9). By the de nitions of ad and sc in V1 Vq .44 h V g f U W CHAPTER 6.0. Then we want to show M (aj Tj ) = aj M (Tj ).0. there can be no more than one M 2 L(V1 Vq ! W ) which satis es (6.8). given on page D-11. M 2 L(V1 Vq ! W ).7) or (6.0.9).0. and the de nition of aj Tj . This M is certainly a well de ned function mapping V1 Vq into W . From (6. By (5. T = T i1 iq~(1) ~(iqq) so M (T ) = T i1 iq M (~(1) ~(iqq) ) because M is linear. Thus v b( if such an M exists. we compute M aj Tj = = = = aj Tj ~(1) b i1 n j h ~ i1 a Tj b(1) h i1 aj Tj ~(1) b aj M (Tj ): ~(iqq) M ~i(1) ~i(qq) b b1 b io ~ (1) ~ (q) ~(iqq) M bi1 biq b ~(iqq) M ~i(1) ~i(qq) i b b1 b QED. Suppose M is such a mapping.0.2: we will prove that M is unique.8) with ~ = ~ (1) ~ iq Then M (T ) = T i1 iq M (~i1 b b v1 bi1 ~q = ~iqq) .9) In other words. bi1 b bi1 b (1) (q) ) from (6.8). and the rules of vector arithmetic in W . M is determined because M (T ) is known for all T 2 V1 Vq .e.2.

By hypothesis.11) trrs (~1 v Thus the lifting theorem answers both the objections on page 41. so M (~1 ~q ) = v11 v(iq) M (~(1) v v bi1 b ib QED. M 2 L(V1 Vq ! V1 6 Vr 6 Vs Vq ) is given to us by the lifting theorem. We have T = Ti1 i2i3 iq~i(1)~(2)~(3) b 1 bi2 bi3 ~(iqq) : b We must suppose V1 = V2 if tr12 T is to be de ned. M is multilinear.0. Then we take B1 = B2.0.0.14) .10) If a T is a polyad. We agree to de ne trsr T := trrsT: (6.0.0." let us nd the component arrays of tr12 T relative to the basis sequence (B3 Bq ) for V3 Vq . and we de ne for any T 2 V1 Vq trrsT := M (T ): (6. Let (~1 v ~q ) 2 V1 v Vq . let us return to trrsT .8). T = ~1 v ~q . The M de ned in (6.12). h i1 tr12 T = Ti1 i2 iq tr12 ~(1)~i(2)~i(3) b b2 b3 ~i(qq) i : b (6. Thus. b b Since tr12 is a linear mapping. Then.0. But this is just (6. b 1 As an application of the lifting theorem.0.45 It remains only to prove that M satis es (6. M (~1 ~q ) = M (v11~i(1) v v vqiq~i(qq) ). h 1 tr12 ~i(1)~(2)~(3) b bi2 bi3 (6.5) will be the M of the lifting theorem.12) As an application of this \machinery. ~(iqq) = (~1 ~(1) ) (~q ~(iqq) ) = v1i1 v(iqq) .0. b 1 bi2 h 1 i b b i 2 b i3 b tr12 ~i(1)~(2)~(3) ~(iqq) = i1 i2~(3) ~(iqq) : bi3 b By (6.13) ~(iqq) i = ~i(1) ~(2) ~(3) ~(iqq) : b b 1 bi2 bi3 b We have agreed to take B1 = B2 . The vector space W in that theorem will be W = V1 6 Vr 6 Vs Vq . so ~i(1) ~(2) = i1 i2 . so ~i(1) = ~i(2) .8).0. so Then if T = ~1 ~q we have T ~(1) v v b i1 b v b i1 v b q i ~(iqq) ). then v ~q ) = M (~1 ~q ) = M (~1 v v v v ~q ) v = (~r ~s) ~1 6 ~r 6 ~s ~q : v v v v v v (6.

15) (6. tr12 T = Tj ji3 iq~(3) bi3 so Similarly is proved from (tr12 T )i3 (tr12 T )i3 iq ~(iqq) b (6.0.0. Thus.0.0.16) = Tj ji3 iq : = T j j i3 iq iq T = T i1 i2 i3 iq~i(1)~(2)~(3) b 1 b i2 bi3 ~i(qq) : b Recall that for orthonormal bases we need not distinguish between superscripts and subscripts. substituting this in (6. (tr12 T )i3 iq = Tjji3 iq : (6.17) . THE LIFTING THEOREM Then.13).46 CHAPTER 6. if all bases are orthonormal and B1 = B2.

W1 Wr are Euclidean spaces. ~ 2 V . and W are Euclidean vector spaces. ~ 2 V .1).Chapter 7 Generalized Dot Products 7. u x y ~ Then ~ ~ 2 U V and ~w 2 V W . What could be more natural than to de ne (following ux y~ Willard Gibbs) (~ ~ ) (~w) := ~ (~ ~) w ux y ~ u x y ~ (7.1. is it true x y u~ i=1 i=1 j j 0 0 that Pm Pn=1 Pi Rj = Pm0 Pn=1 Pi0 Rj ? i=1 j i=1 j The lifting theorem will show that all of this works. V1 Vq . V . and ~ 2 U . x y u~ Does all this work? If ~ ~ = ~ 0~ 0 and ~w = ~ 0 w 0.2) where Pi and Rj are dyads then we de ne P R := Pi Rj (7.1 Motivation and de nition Suppose U . as is P R. and ~ i 2 Ui . w 2 W .1.1. and that it can even be generalized as follows: Suppose U1 Up.1) which is the same as (~ ~ ) (~w) := (~ ~) ~ w? Then the de nition can be extended so ux y ~ x y u~ that if P 2 U V and R 2 V W we de ne P R by writing P= m X i=1 Pi R= m n XX i=1 j =1 n X j =1 Rj (7. is it true that (~ ~) ~ w = ux u x y~ y ~ 0 (~ 0 ~ 0 ) ~ 0w 0? And if P = Pm Pi = Pm 0 Pi0 and R = Pn=1 Rj = Pn=1 Rj0 .1. It is in U W . u 47 .3) where Pi Rj is de ned by (7.

:= (~ 2 ~2) x y ~ 1 ~ p (~ 1 ~1 ) w1 wr u u x y ~ ~ = (~ q ~q ) (~ 1 ~1) ~ 1 ~ pw1 x y x y u u~ wr : ~ De gustabus non disputandum est. note the mnemonic device that (~ 1 u ~ p~ 1 ~0) hqi (~1 u x xq 1 y := ~ 1 ~ p B ~ 1 C u u Bx C B C B C B C @ A ~q x ~ q ) hqi (~q x y ~1 y ~0w1 yq ~ B ~1 By B B B @ ~q y ~ 1wr ) C C C C C A w1 ~ : wr ~ (7.6) Some authors de ne (~ 1 u ~ p~ 1 ux w1 wr ) ~ ~ (~ q ~q ) x y .. GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCTS ~ j and ~j 2 Vj . We would like to de ne a generalized dot product of order q as x y ~ (~ 1 u ~ p~ 1 ux ~ q ) hqi (~1 ~q w1 wr ) x y y~ ~ := (~ 1 ~ p) (~ 1 ~1) (~ q ~q ) (w1 wr ) u u x y x y ~ ~ = (~ 1 ~1) (~ q ~q ) (~ 1 ~ pw1 wr ) : x y x y u u~ ~ (7.2) and m n XX P hqiR := PihqiRj : (7.] To prove that these de nitions are unambiguous.5) i=1 j =1 Incidentally... wr 2 Wr ..1.48 CHAPTER 7. but I think the rst de nition has more convenient properties.1.4) Then for any P 2 U1 Up V1 we would like to de ne P hqiR 2 U1 Vq and any R 2 V1 Vq W1 Wr Up W1 Wr by writing (7. we de ne M 2 M(U1 U1 Up V1 Up W1 Vq V1 Wr ) Vq W1 Wr ! .1.1. .

MOTIVATION AND DEFINITION 49 by requiring M (~ 1 u ~p ~1 u x ~ q ~1 ~q w1 x y y ~ wr ) := ~ = (~ 1 ~1) (~ q ~q ) ~ 1 ~ pw1 wr : x y x y u u~ ~ Since M is multilinear.1.7) M satisfying 2 L(U1 U1 Up V1 U p W1 Vq V1 Wr ) Vq W1 W! M (~ 1 u = M (~ 1 u = (~ 1 ~1) x y for all (~ 1 u ~p ~1 u x ~ q ~1 x y ~p ~1 u x ~ q ~1 x y ~q w1 y ~ (~ q ~q ) ~ 1 ~ pw1 wr x y u u~ ~ ~q w1 y ~ wr ) ~ wr ) ~ (7.9) Then if P and R are polyads. We can calculate P hqiR for any tensors and P and R by writing them as sums of polyads and doing the arithmetic justi ed by V1 Remark 7.1.1.35 Suppose P1 Vq W1 Pm 2 U1 U p V1 Vq and R1 Wr and a1 am b1 bn 2 R. (7.7.1.8) says we do have (7.1.1. (7.1. Then (aiPi) hqi (bj Rj ) = aibj (Pi Rj ) Rn 2 (7.4).8) ~p ~1 u x 2 U1 For any P 2 U1 we de ne ~ q ~1 x y Up V1 Up V1 ~q w1 y ~ wr ) ~ Vq V1 Vq V1 Vq and any R 2 V1 P hqiR := M (PR): Vq W1 Vq W1 Wr : Wr .10) Proof: .1. the lifting theorem provides a unique (7.

2. (7.1). and ( ~1j) ~njj)) is an ordered basis for Vj .4) give a convenient way to calculate P hqiR for any tensors P and R. and (~(1) b1 bi (~ (1R) ~ (PR) ) is an ordered basis for Wk . GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCTS (ai Pi) hqi (bj Rj ) = M (aiPi) (bj Rj )] by de nition of hqi = M aibj (PiRj )] by multilinearity of the tensor product = aibj M (PiRj ) because M is linear = aibj (PihqiRj ) by de nition of hqi: Equation (7. We have P = P i1 R = Rk1 ip j1 jq~ (1) bi1 l l k1 kq 1 r ~(1) ~i(pp) ~j(1) ~j(qq) b 1 ~ kqq)~ l(1) ~ l(rr) 6 ( 61 (7.2 Components of P hqiR Suppose P 2 U1 Up V1 Vq and R 2 V1 Vq W1 Wr . Then P hqiR = P i1 = P i1 But Rk1 ip j1 jq R k1 kq k1 kq l1 lr ip j1 jq R l1 lr k1 j1 k1 ~j(1) ~(1) 1 kq (1) jq i1 ~j(qq) ~ kqq) ~i(1) ~i(pp)~ l(1) b 61 ( b1 ~i(pp~6(1) ~ l(rr) b ) l1 6 ~i(pp)~ l(1) b 61 ~ l(rr) : 6 6(lrr) kq l1 lr j1 k1 j q kq = Rj1 jq l1 lr so l1 lr P hqiR = P i1 Therefore. We would like to compute the components of 6 6k P hqiR relative to the basis sequence for U1 Up W1 Wr .2. 7. ip j1 jq R j1 jq ~i(1) b1 (P hqiR)i1 ip l1 lr = P i1 ip j1 jq R j1 jq l1 lr : (7.1) .50 CHAPTER 7.1.1.4) gives ( ~(kpp) are the dual basis vectors to ~k(pp) ). Suppose ( ( ~(m)i ) is an ordered basis for Ui.10) and (7.1. by note (5.1.10) is true for any Pi and Rj . but when Pi and Rj are polyads.

7.3. PROPERTIES OF THE GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCT

51

It is important to remember that for (7.2.1) to hold, the same bases for V1 Vq (and their dual bases) must be used to calculate the components of P and R. Covariant or contravariant metric matrices can be used to raise or lower any index i or l or pair j in (7.2.1). The same collection of 2p+q+r formulas can be obtained immediately from (7.2.1) by choosing to regard certain of the original bases for the Ui, Vj or Wk as dual bases, the duals becoming the original bases. For example, (P hqiR)i1 i2 ipl1 lr;1 lr = = Pi1 i2 ipj1 j2 jg Rj1 j2 jq l1
lr;1 lr

All the 2p+q+r variants of (7.2.1) collapse into a single formula when all the bases are orthonormal.

7.3 Properties of the generalized dot product
Property 7.3.1 Bilinearity. For i 2 f1 U1 Up V1 Vq and Rj 2 V1 Then (aiPi)hqi(bj Rj ) = ai bj (PihqiRj ). Property 7.3.2 Suppose P 2 U1
mg and j 2 f1 Vq W1 ng, suppose Pi 2 Wr and ai bj 2 R.

This has already been proved as remark (7.1.35).

W1

Up V1 Wq : Then if P = 0 or R = 0, P hqiR = 0.

Vq and R 2 V1

Vq

Proof: Suppose P = 0. Then 0P = P so P hqiR = (0P )hqiR = 0(P R) = 0: Note that the converse is false. We can have P hqiR = 0 even though P 6= 0 and R 6= 0. For example ~ h1i~ = ~ ~ and this can vanish even though ~ 6= ~ and ~ 6= ~ . u v u v u 0 v 0

De nition 7.3.20 Since ~ h1i~ = ~ ~ for vectors, it is usual to write P h1iR as P R, u v u v P h2iR as P : R, P h3iR as P R and P h4iR as P : : R. The notation P : : R for P h5iR
seems not to be used.

52

CHAPTER 7. GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCTS

Property 7.3.3 P h0iR = PR.
Proof: If P and R are polyads, this is obvious from (7.1.4) with q = 0. Both P h0iR and PR depend linearly on R, so if R = P Rj where the Rj are polyads, and if P is a polyad, we have P h0iR = P h0i(Pj Rj ) = Pj (P h0iRj ) = Pj (PRj ) = P (Pj Rj ) = PR. Therefore P h0iR = PR if P is a polyad and R is any tensor. If P = Pi Pi where the Pi are polyads, then for any tensor R, P 0R = (Pi Pi)h0iR = Pi (Pih0iR) = Pi(PiR) = (Pi Pi)R = PR. Thus P h0iR = PR for any tensors P and R. obvious from property 7.3.3 and the corresponding result for tensor products. An example with q = 1 is this. Let ~ ~ w ~ 2 V . Let P = ~~ , R = w~ . Then P R = (~ w)~ ~ and uv ~ x uv ~x v ~ ux R P = (~ ~ )w~ . If these two dyads are equal and not 0, remark (4.3.30) shows that ~ x u ~v u must be a multiple of w and ~ must be a multiple of ~ . ~ x v

Property 7.3.4 P hqiR and RhqiP need not be the same even if both are de ned. This is

Property 7.3.5 (Associativity). Suppose
P 2 U1 R2 T2
Then Proof: First we prove (7.3.1) when P R, T are polyads. In that case (7.3.1) follows from (7.1.4) by simple computation, which we leave to the reader. That (7.3.1) holds for polyads can also be seen immediately from the mnemonic diagram (7.1.6). The generalized dot products hqi and hsi are formed by

Up V1 V1

Vq Vq W1

Wr X1 X1

Xs Xs Y1

Yt:
(7.3.1)

P hqi (RhsiT ) = (P hqiR) hsiT:

7.3. PROPERTIES OF THE GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCT
P

53

R

{ {
p q T

{
r

s

Figure 7.1: dotting vertical pairs of vectors in the regions of overlap of P , R, T . It is clearly irrelevant to the outcome, whether we dot rst the q vectors in P with those below them in R or the s vectors in R with those below them in T .

Next, suppose P , R and T1 Tn are polyads and T = Pi Ti. Then P hqi(RhsiT ) = P hqi Rhsi(Pi Ti )] = P hqi Pi(RhsiTi)] = Pi P hqi(RhsiTi)] = Pi P hqi(RhsiTi)] = (P hqiR) hsi (P Ti ) = (P hqiR) hsiT: This proves (7.3.1) when P and R are polyads and T is any tensor.

Next suppose P , R1 Rn are polyads and T is any tensor and R = Pi Ri. Then P hqi(RhsiT ) = P hqi (Pi Ri)hsiT ] = P hqi Pi(RihsiT )] = Pi P hqi(RihsiT )] = P (P hqiR )hsiT ] = P (P hqiR )] hsiT = P hqi(E R )] hsiT = (P hqiR)hsiT . i i i i i i Thus (7.3.1) holds when P is a polyad and R and T are any tensors. Finally, suppose P1 Pn are polyads and R and T are any tensors, and P P , Then P hqi(RhsiT ) = (P P )hqi(RhsiT ) = P P hqi(RhsiT )] = P= i i i i i i

{
t

{

54
P

CHAPTER 7. GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCTS

R

T

Figure 7.2:

P (P hqiR)hsiT ] = P (P hqiR)] hsiT = (P P )hqiR] hsiT = (P hqiR)hsiT . i i i i i i This proves (7.3.1) for any tensors P , R, T . Figure (7.1) also shows how associativity can fail. If P and T overlap as in gure (7.2), there is trouble. The tensors P hqi(RhsiT ) and (P hqiR) hsiT
may be di erent even if both are de ned (they may not be). As an example, suppose all tensors are over a single space V . Let ~ ~ w ~ ~ 2 V . Let uv ~xy P = ~~ , R = w, T = ~ ~. Then we have the diagram uv ~ xy

P = 22 R = 2 T = 22
which exhibits the fatal P ; T overlap shown in Figure (7.2). We have P (R T ) = ~~ (w ~ )~] = (w ~ ) (~~ ) ~] = (w ~ )(~ ~)~ and (P R) T = uv ~ x y ~ x uv y ~ x v yu ~ (~ w)] (~ ~) = (~ w) ~ (~ ~)] = (~ w)(~ ~ )~. If we choose ~ and ~ to u v ~ xy v ~ u xy v ~ u xy x y be mutually perpendicular unit vectors, and take ~ = ~, ~ = w = ~ , we have v y u ~ x P (R T ) = ~ = ~ and (P R) T = ~ . u x 0

Property 7.3.6 Suppose P , R 2 V1

Vq . Then
(7.3.2)

P hqiR = RhqiP:

7.3. PROPERTIES OF THE GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCT
v=y

55

u =w=x

Figure 7.3: Proof: If P = ~ 1~ 2 ~ q and R = ~1~2 ~q then P hqiR = (~ 1 ~1) (~ q ~q ) = xx x yy y x y x y (~1 ~ 1) (~q ~ q ) = RhqiP , so (7.3.2) is true of P and R are polyads. But y x y x both RhqiP and P hqiR are bilinear in P and R, so the proof of (7.3.2) for general tensors P and R in V1 Vq is like the proof of (7.3.1).

Property 7.3.7 Suppose P 2 V1

Vq and P 6= 0. Then P hqiP > 0:
(7.3.3)

Proof: For i 2 f1 (7.2.1),

qg, let (^(1i) x

x(nii) ) be an orthonormal basis for Vi. By ^
(7.3.4)
iq

P hqiP = Pi1 iq Pi1 iq :

This is a sum of squares of real numbers. It is > 0 unless every term is 0, i.e. Pi1 In that case P = 0.

= 0.

vector space. Proof:

Theorem 7.3.17 On the vector space V1 Vq , de ne the dot product dp(P R) = Vq . With this dot product, V1 Vq is a Euclidean P hqiR for all P , R 2 V1

56

CHAPTER 7. GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCTS

Properties (7.2.1), (7.3.2), (7.3.3) show that dp satis es a) b), c), d) on page D18. the n1 n2 Proof: By theorem 5.1.15 they are a basis. To prove them orthonormal, we note (^(1) xi1

Corollary 7.3.16 Let (^(1i) x

nq polyads x(1) x(2) ^i1 ^i2

x(nii) ) be an orthonormal basis for Vi, i = 1 ^ q. Then (1) are an orthonormal basis for V xiq ^ Vq . 1

x(iqq) )hqi(^(1) ^ xj1

x(jq) ) = (^(1) x(1) ) ^q xi1 ^j1

(^(iqq) x(jq) ) = x ^q

i1 j1 i2 j2

iq jq :

Vq , de ne the \length" of P , kP k, in the way one usually does for vectors in a Euclidean space. That is, kP k is the non-negative square root of P hqiP . W1

De nition 7.3.21 If P 2 V1

Remark 7.3.36 Suppose P 2 U1
Wr . Then

Up V1

Vq and R 2 V1

Vq
(7.3.5)

kP hqiRk kP kkRk:

Proof: Introduce an orthonormal basis for each space Ui , Vj and Wk . Take components relative to these bases. Abbreviate the p-tuple of integers (i1 ip) as I , the q-tuple (j1 jq ) as J , the r-tuple (l1 lr ) as L. Then (7.2.1) can be abbreviated X (P hqiR)IL = PIJ RJL : By the ordinary Schwarz inequality for real numbers,
J

X
J

PIJ RJL

!2

X
J

2 PIJ

! X
K

2 RKL

!

where K stands for the q-tuple (k1 kq ). (We have simply changed the summation index from J to K .) Summing over I and L gives

X X
IL J

!2 0X 1 0X 1 2 2 @ PIJ A @ RKLA PIJ RJL
IJ KL

7.4. APPLICATIONS OF THE GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCT
u1 . . . u p

57

T

v1 . . . v q

Figure 7.4: or

X
IL

(P hqiR)2 IL

0 10 1 X 2 A @X 2 A @ PIJ RKL :
IJ KL

By equation (7.3.4), this last inequality is

kP hqiRk2 kP k2kRk2:
Taking square roots gives (7.3.5).

7.4 Applications of the generalized dot product
Up V1

Application 1: The value of a tensor. Up V1 Suppose T 2 U1
Vq . Then T (~ 1 u ~ p ~1 u v

Vq and (~ 1 u

~ p ~1 u v

~q ) 2 U1 v ~q ) : v
(7.4.1)

~q ) = (~ 1~ 2 v uu

~ p) hpiT hqi (~1~2 u vv

Note that (7.3.1) applies, so no parentheses are needed to say whether hpi or hqi is calculated rst. There is none of the overlap shown in gure 7.2. The diagram for (7.4.1) is shown in Figure 7.4. Therefore, at least (7.4.1) is unambiguous. To prove it true, suppose rst that T is a polyad, T = ~ 1 ~ p~1 ~q . Then x xy y (~ 1 u

~ p) hpi T hqi (~1 u v

~q ) = (~ 1 v u

~ p) hpiT ] hqi (~1 u v

~q ) v

therefore P = 0. so v v P hqi(~1 ~q )]T = 0. Then P = 0.18 Suppose P . Figure (7. R0 2 V1 Vq W1 Wr and for every P 2 U1 Up V1 Vq we have P hqiR = P hqiR0.1) is true for polyads T . in parentheses. For any ~ . it is true when T is a sum of polyads.1).58 CHAPTER 7.4.4.2. That is. Corollary 7.4.1) when T is a polyad. we de ne their A-cross product as u v ~ ~ = Ah2i (~~ ) : u v uv (7. A Suppose (V A) is an oriented three dimensional Euclidean space whose alternating tensor is A. if R is a xed tensor in V1 for every P 2 U1 Up Proof: Corollary 7. Then P = P 0. ~ 2 V . P (~ 1 u ~ p ~1 u v ~q ) = 0. is proved similarly. so if (7. Since (~ 1 v an arbitrary member of U1 Up V1 Vq . P hqi(~1 ~q ) = 0. But both sides of (7. (7.1) is true for any tensor T 2 U1 Up V1 Vq .1) depend linearly on T . if R. then R = R0.25).4.4.) Application 2: Vector cross product. we know by hypothesis that P hqi (~1 ~q )T ] = 0. For any (~1 v ~ q ) 2 V1 v Vq . P 0 2 U1 Up V1 Vq and for every R 2 V1 Vq W1 Wr we have P hqiR = P 0hqiR. with the Wr . GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCTS ~q ] hqi (~1 ~q ) y v v = (~ 1 ~ 1) (~ p ~ p) (~1 ~q ) hqi (~1 ~q )] u x u x y y v v = (~ 1 ~ 1) (~ p ~ p) (~1 ~1 ) (~q ~q ) x u x u y v y v = T (~ u ~ p ~1 u v ~q ) : v = (~ 1 ~ 1) u x (~ p ~ p) ~1 u x y This proves (7.3) works.4.4. By u u v v u ~ p ~1 u v ~q ) is v equation (7. (The other half of the corollary.2) . Vq W1 Wr with the property that P hqiR = 0 V1 Vq then R = 0 ). (Also. (Also. Choose a xed nonzero T 2 W1 Wr .4. Then for any v v v v (~ 1 u ~ p) 2 U1 u Up we have (~ 1 ~ p)hpi P hqi(~1 ~q )] = 0.17 Suppose P is a xed tensor in U1 property that P hqiR = 0 for every R 2 V1 Vq W1 Up V1 Vq . By remark (4.

using (7. (~ w) ~ = .4. Setting w = ~ in (~ ~ ) w = (w ~ ) ~ gives (~ ~ ) ~ = u u 0 ~ u u v ~ ~ u v u v u (~ ~ ) ~ = 0.4.3) For (ai~ i) (bj~j ) = Ah2i (ai~ i)(bj~j )] = Ah2i (aibj ~ i~j )] = aibj Ah2i(~ i~j )] = aibj (~ i u v u v uv uv u ~j ).4. w (~ ~ ) = w Ah2i(~~ )] = A(w ~ ~ ) = A(~ ~ w) so v ~ u v ~ uv ~uv uv ~ (~ ~ ) w = A (~ ~ w) : u v ~ uv ~ Therefore.4. if ai. u ~j 2 V for i = 1 v m and j = 1 n (ai~ i) (bj~j ) = ai bj (~ i ~j ) : u v u v (7. (V A) and (V .(~ ~ ) w for all w. ~ ~ = ~ .4) 8 > (~ ~ ) w = (~ w) ~ = (w ~ ) ~ < u v ~ v ~ u ~ u v > = .8) If the ordered basis is negatively oriented and orthonormal. bj 2 R and ~ i.6) Therefore.7.7) .A).6). but it should always be remembered that u v there are two oriented 3-spaces.1 so b b b (7. and so two ways to de ne ~ ~ .5) In particular. (7.~ ~ : v u u v (7."ijk uj vk : u v (7. Thus. A(~1 ~2 ~3 ) = . so u v ~ v u ~ ~ (7. (~ ~ ) w = . First.4. A(~1 ~2 ~3 ) = 1. Second.4. APPLICATIONS OF THE GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCT 59 Usually we omit the A and write simply ~ ~ . (w ~ ) ~ : : v u ~ u ~ v ~ v u ~ ~ = . since A is totally antisymmetric.4. u u v (~ ~ ) ~ = (~ ~ ) ~ = 0: u v u u v v Relative to any ordered basis (~1 ~2 ~3 ) for V we have b b b (~ ~ )i = Aijk uj vk = A ~1 ~2 ~3 "ijk uj vk : u v b b b If the ordered basis is positively oriented and orthonormal.4. (~ ~ ) w = . so b b b (~ ~ )i = "ijk uj vk : u v (~ ~ )i = . u v We will now show that our cross product is the usual one.4.9) (7.

4. we note that A(~ ~ ~ ~ ) = A(~ ~ ~ ~ ) = (~ ~ ) Ah2i(~~ )] = uvu v u vuv u v uv (~ ~ ) (~ ~ ). (~ ~ ) wi = (~ w) ~ .8) as follows: relative to any positively oriented orthonormal basis ~ (~ w)]i = u v ~ = = = = = "ijkuj (~ w)k v ~ "ijkuj "klmvl wm "ijk"klmuj vl wm ( il jm . From (7.4. (7.4. Inequality (7. uj vj wi (~ w) vi .60 CHAPTER 7.12) u v k~ ~ k = k~ kk~ k sin : u v Equations (7. (~ ~ ) w u v ~ u ~ v u v ~ (7. With this de nition of .4.5) and (7.4.13) To prove (7.3) is usually paraphrased by saying that \~ ~ ~ ~ is u v u v uvu v a positively oriented ordered triple.12) determine that ~ ~ is ?~ and ~ and has length u v u v k~ kk~ k sin .11) implies u v such that ~ ~ = u v (7. (~ ~ )2 . The correct one is determu v u v ined by the fact that A (~ ~ ~ ~ ) > 0 if ~ ~ 6= 0: uvu v u v (7.4. im jl ) uj vl wm see page D-9 uj wj vi . (~ ~ ) w]i : u ~ u v u ~ v u v ~ Since the vector on the left of (7.7) and (7.4.4. so u v u v k~ ~ k2 = k~ k2k~ k2 . (~ ~ )2: u v u v u v (7.3).10) can be derived from (7.5) has the same components as the vector on the right.4.4. (~ ~ )~ ] = u v u v u v u v u v u v uv k~ k2 k~ k2 .4. GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCTS The notorious formula ~ (~ w) = (~ w) ~ .4. This leaves two possibilities for a nonzero ~ ~ .10) we have (~ ~ ) (~ ~ ) = ~ ~ (~ ~ )] = ~ k~ k2~ . those two vectors are equal.4." If we orient the space we live in by choosing A so .11) We have de ned the angle between ~ and ~ as the in 0 u v k~ kk~ k cos .

7.14) is de ned.4. APPLICATIONS OF THE GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCT 61 Figure 7.5: that our right thumb. Application 3: Let U1 Up. let T 2 U1 Up V1 Vq and de ne e T : (U1 Up ) (V1 Vq ) ! R by requiring for any P 2 U1 Up and any Q 2 V1 Vq that e T (P Q) = P hpiT hqiQ: (7. we will obtain the usual de nition of ~ ~ u v in terms of the right hand screw rule.14) What is meant is that there is a natural isomorphism between the spaces on the two sides of (7.14).4. Before proving this.4. Their dot products are hpi and hqi. V1 Vq be Euclidean spaces. because U1 Up and V1 Vq are Euclidean spaces. we note that the tensor product of U1 Up and V1 Vq on the right in (7.14).4.15) . index nger and middle nger are positively oriented ordered triple of vectors when extended as in Figure (7.4. Then U1 Proof: Up V 1 Vq = (U1 Up) (V1 Vq ) : (7.4. To construct the isomorphism whose existence is asserted by (7.5).

. Application 4: Linear mappings as second order tensors. Hence. we have $ ~ L= L(~ ): u u (7. (T1 .17) (7. = T . From (7.4. (7. and the mapping T ! T is a surjection of 7 e U1 Up V1 Vq onto (U1 Up) (V1 Vq ).22 Suppose U and V are Euclidean vector spaces and L 2 L(U ! V ).62 CHAPTER 7. T2 )hqiQ] = 0. suppose T1 .4.4. we can recover L from (7. T2 )hqiQ = 0 for all Q 2 V1 Vq . De ne T 2 U1 Up V 1 Vq by requiring T (~ 1 u ~ p ~1 ~q ) = u v v (~ 1 ~ p ~1 ~q ): Then P hpiT hqiQ = (P Q) if P and Q are polyads.4.4.19) $ $ Let : L(U ! V ) ! U V be de ned by (L) =L.16) That is. De nition 7.19). u u v v Hence P hpiT hqiQ = (P Q) for all P 2 U1 Up and Q 2 V1 Vq . To see e e that it is injective. e e (agj ) = aj Tj . That is. so is an injection. GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCTS e e Then T is bilinear. Hence. We claim this mapping is bijective. Then for every P 2 U1 Up and Q 2 V1 Vq we have P hpiT1hqiQ = P hpiT2hqiQ. so T 2 (U1 Up) (V1 Vq ). T2 2 U1 Up V1 Vq and T1 = T2 . Thus T 7! . If we know L= (L). T1 . so P hpi(T1hqiQ . so L2 M(U V ! R): v u $ L2 U V: Thus.4. Hence.4. (7.4.4.18) is true for all ~ 2 V .15). We claim is also a surjection.18) u ~ u For a xed ~ 2 U .4. e By (7. To see e that T 7! T is a surjection. T2 = 0. $ De ne L2 F (U V ! R) by $ uv u v L (~ ~ ) = L(~ ) ~ : $ $ $ Then L ( ~ ) and L (~ ) are linear. so T 7! T is a linear mapping of U1 Up V1 Vq jT into (U1 Up ) (V1 Vq ). suppose 2 (U1 Up) (V1 Vq ). since ~ L and L(~ ) are both in u v V .15).16) can be written in the equivalent form $ ~ L ~ = L(~ ) ~ : u v u v (7. T2hqiQ = 0 so P hpi (T1 . (7.

u ! ~ (L K ) = (L K )(~ ) = L K (~ )] u u u $ $ = K (~ ) L= (~ K ) L u u ~ $ = ~ (K L) u ~ by (7. u u uv u v u v u v uv We claim that : L(U ! V ) ! U V is also linear.21).4.4.4.20). If IU : U ! U is the identity operator on U (that is. corollary (7.18) gives (7. so T =L= (L). u v ! ~ (aiLi ) ~ = (aiLi)(~ )] ~ = fai Li(~ )]g ~ u v u v u v $ = ai Li(~ ) ~ ] = ai (~ Li ~ ) u v u v $ = ~ ai Li ~ : u v ! $ Thus (aiLi )(~ ~ ) = (ai L)(~ ~ ) for all ~ 2 U . so confusing tensors with linear mappings does no harm to linear combinations. APPLICATIONS OF THE GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCT 63 every T 2 U V is (L) for at least one L 2 L(U ! V ).4. We have ! $ $ L K =K L : (7.4. Hence (7.21) The proof is simple. If L1 Ln 2 L(U ! V ) and a1 an 2 R.20) The proof is this: for any ~ 2 U and ~ 2 V . Linear mappings can also be \multiplied" by composition. The process of taking linear combinations can be done either to the tensors or to the linear mappings. Our identi cation of tensors with linear mappings almost preserves this multiplication. If K 2 L(U ! V ) and L 2 L(V ! W ) then L K 2 L(U ! W ).4. we claim ! $ (aiLi )= ai Li : (7.22) I U (~ 1 ~ 2) = IU (~ 1) ~ 2 = ~ 1 ~ 2: . IU (~ ) = ~ for all ~ 2 U ) then for u u u any ~ 1 ~ 2 2 U .4.7.1): u Since this is true for all ~ 2 U . Suppose T is given and de ne L $ $ $ by L(~ ) = ~ T . For any ~ 2 U . ~ 2 V . We can use to regard any linear mapping L : U ! V as a tensor $ L2 U V and vice-versa.3. uv uv u v We have now shown that is a linear bijection between the two vector spaces L (U ! V ) and U V . Then L (~ ~ ) = ~ L ~ = L(~ ) ~ = ~ T ~ = T (~ ~ ). u u $ u u u u u u (7.

4.24) (7. GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCTS $ That is.1 L= I V $ $1 $ L L. it su ces to prove (7.26) The proof follows the usual lines.6. De nition 7. $ Thus. W1 . a more general result is true.24 If $2 V V then det $:= det L.4.26) follows immediately from associativity and (7.4.20).4. (7. Other examples are below.24). any concept de ned for one can be de ned immediately for the other.4. Thus. De nition 7.4.25) .4. Since all three expressions in (7.27) Since the tensors in U V and the linear mappings in L(U ! V ) can be thought of as essentially the same objects.1 2 L(V ! U ).4. I U acts like a multiplicative identity. And (7.4. If U .1 . L L .26) are linear in T . then we de ne $ $ .4. so we have for any ~ 2 U u u u $ $ ~ I U =I U ~ = ~: u u u If L : U ! V then L IU = IV L = L.1 L to be L. Then some second order tensors can have inverses.22) can also be written $ ~ 1 I U ~ 2 = ~ 1 ~ 2: u u u u (7.4.4. The origin of that name is now clear. V .23 If L 2 L(U ! V ) has an inverse L.4.3. using (7.4. I U is what we have already called the identity tensor on U see example 5.23 is an example of this process. T 2 U W1 Wq V then $ $ I U T = T I V = T: (7. we conclude $ $ $ L. De nition 7.26) for polyads T .4. = I U : (7.20) that $ $ $ $ $ I U L=L I V =L : Actually. It follows then from (7. Wq are Euclidean spaces and (7.23) This is true for all ~ 1 and ~ 2 2 U . But for T a polyad.64 CHAPTER 7.

This is true for that for any ~ 2 V so for all ~ 2 U v u u v u $ $ Similarly.29) Suppose U1 Up V1 Vq are Euclidean vector spaces and L 2 L(U1 Up ! V1 Vq ).23 and 7.31) Here hpi and hqi are to be interpreted as the dot products on U1 $ and L is a second order tensor in the space (U1 Up) (V1 tensor product of two Euclidean spaces.28) $ $ $ $ It is also true that for any (~ ~ ) 2 U V . ~ L = 0. ~ LT . Vq ).4.4.4.7. T $ $ De nition 7. with $ dot products hpi and hqi. Both U1 Up and V1 Vq are Euclidean vectors spaces.4. L. Therefore. Up and V1 Vq .16). L L $ V . ~ LT ~ =LT (~ ~ ) =L (~ ~ ) = ~ L ~ .4.4.4. From the de nition $ $ T $ of LT we have L (~ ~ ) =LT (~ ~ ) = LT (~ ) ~ = ~ L(~ ) = L(~ ) ~ =L (~ ~ ): Thus vu vu v u v u u v uv $ $ LT = (12) L : (7.4.24 it is apparent that for any L2 V $ det L6= 0. Thus LT 2 V U . APPLICATIONS OF THE GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCT 65 $ From de nition 7. as de ned on page D-24.25 If $2 U V then $ :=LT . exactly as in (7.1 exists i Here LT is the transpose of L : U ! V . uv v u v u uv u v $ $ Thus ~ LT ~ .4. L ~ ~ = 0 for all ~ 2 U so if ~ 2 V v v u u v $T $ ~ L =L ~ : v v (7.30) $ $ LT ~ = ~ L : u u (7. That is if P 2 U1 Up and Q 2 V1 Vq then $ L (P Q) = L(P )hqiQ or Application 5: Linear mappings as higher order tensors. which is the . L corresponds to a second order tensor L in (U1 Up) (V1 Vq ). $ P hqi L hqiQ = L(P )hqiQ: (7.

4. but now hpi and hqi are interpreted as generalized dot products. we nd L from (7.66 CHAPTER 7. .19).4. L Therefore. as we saw on page 61.32) The generalization from application 4 to application 5 is particularly useful in continuum mechanics. then we know it in (U1 Up) (V1 Vq ) so we nd L by appealing to (7. If we know L. $ L(P ) = P hpi L : (7.4. and $2 U1 Up V1 Vq . GENERALIZED DOT PRODUCTS $ However. the linear mappings L 2 L(U1 Up ! V1 Vq ) can be viewed as $ $ tensors L2 U1 U p V1 Vq . If we know L2 U1 Up V1 Vq . Equation (7.31) continues to hold. L can also be interpreted as a tensor of order p + q in U1 Up V1 Vq . That is.4.31) by taking $ P and Q to be arbitrary polyads. for any P 2 U1 Up .

1) by requiring that for any polyad ~1 v Vq we have Lq . We would like to de ne a linear mapping L1 (L1 Lq : V1 ~ q 2 V1 v Lq ) (~1 v Vq ! W1 ~q ) = L1 (~1) v v Wq Lq (~q ) : v (8. L1 Lq is linear and satis es (8. we The lifting theorem will show that there is exactly one such L1 invoke that theorem.1. The picture is shown in 8.1. To nd it.1 Tensor products of linear mappings For j 2 f1 qg. 67 . With this choice. We de ne M : V1 by requiring for any (~1 v Vq ! W1 Vq that ~q ) = L1 (~1) v v Wq Lq (~q ): v ~ q ) 2 V1 v M (~1 v Since L1 Lq are linear.Chapter 8 How to Rotate Tensors (and why) 8. suppose Vj and Wj are Euclidean vector spaces and Lj 2 L(Vj ! Wj ).1.1). Then we de ne L1 Lq above and W = W1 to be the M provided by the lifting theorem. M is multilinear. so we can use the lifting theorem with M as Wq .

x V q 1 CHAPTER 8.. HOW TO ROTATE TENSORS (AND WHY) M x W x . x Wq 1 M Figure 8. so (L1 Now use (8. Then (K1 Proof: We want to show for every P 2 U1 (K1 Kq ) (L1 Lq ) = (K1 L1 ) Uq that (Kq Lq ) : (8. . Lq )(Q) = Qi1 Lq ) ~(1) bi1 ~(iqq) i : b Remark 8.2) L1 Lq is linear. Vj ..1: Remark 8.1.1).1.3) Kq ) (L1 Lq )] (P ) = (K1 L1 ) (Kq Lq )] (P ): By linearity it su ces to prove this when P is any polyad ~ 1 u (K1 Kq ) (L1 Lq )] (~ 1 ~ q ) u u = (K1 = (K1 ~ q .1. x V q 1 x V x .38 Suppose for j 2 f1 qg that Uj . ..1. But u Kq ) (L1 Lq )(~ 1 ~ q )] u u Kq ) L1(~ 1) Lq (~ q )] u u u u = K1 L1 (u1)] K2 L2 (u2)] Kq Lq (uq )] (K1 L1 )(~ )] (K2 L2 )(~ 2)] (Kq Lq )(~ q )] u = (K1 L1 ) (Kq Lq )] (~ 1 ~ q ): u u . Wj are Euclidean and Kj 2 L(Vj ! Wj ) and Lj 2 L(Uj ! Vj ).68 V x . Then (L1 Proof: ~(njj) is an ordered basis for Vj and Q = Qi1 iq~(1) b bi1 iq ~(iqq) b Lq ) (Q) = Qi1 h ~(1) L1 bi1 iq i Lq ~(iqq) : b h (L1 (8.37 Suppose ~(1j) b 2 V1 Vq .1..

4) Lq )(P )] (w1 ~ wq ) = ~ = = = L1(~1 ) Lq (~q )] (w1 v v ~ wq ) ~ L1(~1 ) w1] Lq (~q ) wq ] v ~ v ~ h i h i ~1 LT (w1) v 1 ~ ~q LT (wq ) v q ~ h i P LT (w1) LT (wq ) : 1 ~ q ~ Finally.1 (q) ~ .1 (1) .1. P = ~1 ~q .1.10).1(q) ~ QED.1 (q) = (~1 v ~q ) (w1 v ~ wq ) ~ = (~1 w1) v ~ . (~1 v ~q )] w v ~ = ~ v = ~ v .1 (1) w ~ w ~ . TENSOR PRODUCTS OF LINEAR MAPPINGS 69 Another way to try to understand L1 Lq is to exhibit explicitly for any P 2 V1 Vq the tensor (L1 Lq )(P ) 2 W1 Wq by evaluating it at any (w1 ~ wq ) 2 W1 ~ Wq . ~j 2 Vj for j 2 f1 v (~1 v qg. Then Proof: Vq are Euclidean spaces.1 (1) (~q wq ) v ~ . We have Remark 8. Suppose P 2 V1 Vq and (w1 ~ wq ) 2 W1 ~ Wq . it will be useful to understand how permutations a ect tensor products of mappings. Then (L1 Proof: Both sides of this equation are linear in P . v v (L1 Lq )(P )] (w1 ~ h wq ) = P LT (w1) ~ 1 ~ i LT (wq ) : q ~ (8.1 (q) w . so it su ces to prove the equation when P is a polyad.1. .39 Suppose that for j 2 f1 qg we have Lj 2 L(Vj ! Wj ) for Euclidean spaces Vj and Wj . In that case.22 Suppose V1 2 Sq .4.1. To do this we need Lemma 8.q1) : v From the de nition (1.1 (1) ~ v .1.1(q) v ~ w . ~ (.8. and (8. for any (w1 ~ wq ) 2 V1 ~ Vq .1(1) ~ w .5) ~q ) = ~ (1)1 v v.

1 (1) Lq ) (~1 v ~ v .1 (q) .1.1 (1) L .1 (q) = L = L . suppose Lj 2 L(Vj ! Wj ).1 (1) L . Both sides of the last equation are linear in P .7) ! qW ) ~q ) 2 xq V that v L(~q ): v and qL is de ned by requiring for all (~1 v q L(~ v 1 ~q ) = L(~1 ) v v (8.40 For j 2 f1 (L1 qg. i. Lq ) = L .1 (q) )( P ). We want to prove that if P 2 V1 Vq then (L1 Lq )](P ) = (L .1. Then qL 2 L ( qV = Wq = W and L1 = = Lq = L. (L1 Lq )](P ) = (L . . and suppose 2 Sq .1 (q) )](P ).8) If P 2 q V .5 ~ v .8) leads to the gure of speech that ( q L)(P ) is obtained by applying L to P . say P = ~1 ~q . (8.1 (q ) v ~q )] by 8.e. Special Case: Suppose V1 = = Vq = V and W1 = we write L1 Lq as q L. so it su ces to prove that equation when P is a polyad.1. In this case v v (L1 = L .1.1 (1) ~q )] = L1 (~1 ) v v L L L .1 (q) ~ v .1(1) L . (Really q L is applied to P ).70 CHAPTER 8. Then (8.1 (1) (~1 v ~ .1 (q) Lq (~q )] v by 8.1.1.1 (1) .5 v QED.1 (q) : (8.6) Proof: The domain of L1 Lq is V1 Vq .. HOW TO ROTATE TENSORS (AND WHY) Now we can prove Then Remark 8.1 (1) .1.

Remark 8.8.2.2. More precisely suppose p q r are any non-negative integers.1) then L is the product of a rotation and a re ection.2.1.41 and its corollary.9) and (w1 ~ ( q L)(P )] (w1 ~ wq ) 2 xq W then from (8.10) If L 2 L(V ! W ) and 2 Sq then from (8. APPLYING ROTATIONS AND REFLECTIONS TO TENSORS 71 If K 2 L(V ! W ) and L 2 L(U ! V ) then from (8. applying L to tensors over V preserves their generalized dot products.2 Applying rotations and re ections to tensors Recall that L 2 L(V ! V ) is \orthogonal" if LT = L.1) .1. These facts are remark 8. and \proper orthogonal" if also det L = +1 rather than . if L is improper orthogonal (det L = .11) 8. Then ( Proof: p+r L)(P hq iR) = h ( p+q L)(P ) i hq i ( h q+r L)(R) i : (8.1. every proper orthogonal operator is a rotation. and L 2 (V ). If L is an orthogonal operator on V and Q 2 q V . Suppose P 2 p+q V .6) ( q L) = ( q L) : (8.1.1. R 2 q+r V .2. As remarked on page PP-30.41 If L 2 (V ).4) ~ h i wq ) = P LT (w1) ~ ~ LT (wq ) : ~ (8. Recall the de nitions on page D-25: (V ) = set of all orthogonal operators on V + (V ) = set of all proper orthogonal operators on V: Recall that according to corollary PP-12. then two more facts about ( q L)(Q) make it even more reasonable to think of that tensor as the result of applying L to Q.3) ( q K ) ( q L) = If L 2 L(V ! W ) and P 2 qV q (K L) : (8.1.1.1 .

HOW TO ROTATE TENSORS (AND WHY) Both sides of this equation are linear in P and R. Then ( p+r L)(P hqiR) = ( p+r L) (~ 1 ~1) (~ q ~q )~ 1 ~ p~1 y yv v x y x y u uv = (~ 1 ~1) (~ q ~q )( p+r L)(~ 1 ~ p~1 ~r ) x y x y u uv v u v ~ = (~ 1 ~1) (~ q ~ q ) L(~ 1) L(~ p)L(~1 ) L(vr )].19 The value of a rotated q-tensor at a rotated q-tuple of vectors is the L (~q )] = Q (~1 v v ~q ) : v ( q L) (Q)] L (~1 ) v L (~q )] v L (~q )] v = ( q L) (Q)] hqi ( q L) (~1~2 ~q )] vv v = Qhqi (~1 ~q ) by remark 8. say P = ~ 1 ~ p~ 1 ~ q and R = u ux x ~1 ~q~1 ~r . so it su ces to prove the equation when P and R are polyads.2. x y x y Therefore the above polyad is ( p+r L)(P hqiR) = = L(~ 1 ) L(~1)] x y ~r ] v L(~ q ) L(~q )] L(~ 1) L(~ p)L(~1 ) L(~r )] x y u u v v = L(~ 1) L(~ p)L(~ 1 ) L(~ q )] hqi L(~1) L(~q )L(~1 ) L(~r )] u u x x y y v v h p+q i h q +r i = ( L)(~ 1 ~ p~ 1 ~ q ) hqi ( L)(~1 ~q~1 ~r ) u ux x y yv v h p+q i h q+r i = ( L)(P ) hqi ( L)(R) : QED value of the original tensor at the original q-tuple of vectors. Now we use it to set ~ ~ = L(~ ) L(~). x y x x u So far we have not used L 2 (V ).41 v v = Q (~1 v ~q ) : v = ( q L) (Q)] hqi L (~1) L (~2 ) v v . The same is true for re ections.72 CHAPTER 8. if L 2 (V ) and Q 2 q V and (~1 ~q ) 2 xq V then v v ( q L) (Q)] L (~1) v Proof: Corollary 8.2. in general.

This is Onsager's theorem for dissipative thermodynamics. Ohm's law in a ~ ~ crystal says that if an electric eld E is applied. the stress tensor. If det L < 0.2) S is a linear function of $ . (We will discuss all this in detail later.8. the elasticity tensor E . Thermodynamics assures that (12)E = (34)E = (13)(24)E = E .3.1. If there is a mass mv at position ~v for v = 1 r N .) $ A third example is the second moment tensor M of a collection of mass points. the resulting current density J depends $ ~ ~ ~ $ linearly on E .3 Physical applications Some physical properties of physical systems are tensors. but E has no other symmetries in general so the dimenson of the space of all possible elasticity tensors is 21. but in a crystal all that can be said in general is that if there is $ $T $ no magnetic eld. This means that there is a second-order tensor K such that J = E K .3. L subjects the body to a rigid rotation. k $ k << 10. The latter stretches the body by di erent amounts in di erent directions. J = EK where K is a $ $ scalar. In a liquid. a v=1 . Its local state $ of stress is described by another symmetric second order tensor S . so K = K I . L subjects the body to a rigid rotation and also a re ection in some plane. so there is a tensor of fourth $ order over ordinary 3-space. then \subjecting a physical system to the mapping L" means that we move all the mass points (atoms) which make up the system. PHYSICAL APPLICATIONS 73 8.e. For example. then N $ X rr (8. the strain tensor. its local state of deformation is described by a symmetric second order tensor $. If L 2 +(V ). $ ~ ~ This K is the \conductivity tensor" of the crystal. For $ small $ (i. As we will see later. A second example is an elastic crystal.1) M := mv~v~v : This is the underlying tensor from which the inertia tensor and gravitational second degree harmonic tensor of a solid body are calculated. If V is real 3-space and L 2 L(V ! V ). $ r r r so that a mass point which was originally at ~v is moved to the new location L(~v ) = ~v L. K is symmetric (K =K ). If L 2 (V ) but det L = . If L 2 (V ) but det L > 0 then L is the product of a rigid rotation and a symmetric linear operator. such that S =$ h2iE .

If we subject a system of mass points mv at positions ~v to the mapping L 2 L(V ! r $ V ). then the second moment tensor M of that system (see (8. It can come in two forms. For example. iceland spar (calcite) crystals come in right-handed or left-handed version. the molecule is a tetrahedron with H. Br at the four vertices and C at the center. C H F Cl Br. To re ect a pot of left-handed C H F Cl Br means to replace it by a pot of right-handed C H F Cl Br.3. It is actually possible to imagine subjecting a real body to a re ection if we allow ourselves to disassemble and reassemble the body atom-by-atom. At one atmosphere of pressure. left handed or right handed. or the right. To see this. it is liquid between . F.115 C and 36 C. note that the second moment tensor of the deformed .and left-handed versions are present in equal amounts.2: re ection also occurs. where V is real 3-space. re ection has no e ect because the distribution of molecules in the liquid has no preferred directions and the molecules either have no right.74 H CHAPTER 8. Liquids can also be re ected. For most.or left-handedness. Cl. HOW TO ROTATE TENSORS (AND WHY) H F Cl F Br Br Left Handed Cl Right Handed Figure 8. A liquid which is a ected by re ection is bromochloro uoromethane.1)) $ changes to 2 L(M ).

These examples show that it is not always obvious how to calculate the e ect of subjecting a physical system to a linear mapping L. a small preference for one orientation or handedness exists in the weak nuclear force governing -decay Yang. b v=1 . Lee and Wu won Nobel prizes for this discovery it has no measurable e ects at the macroscopic level of continuum mechanics in an old universe. the stress tensor S in $ that crystal will not change to 2 L(S ). and we use this mapped apparatus to measure the contravariant components of QL relative to the basis L(~1 ). Suppose we apply L to the apparatus we used to measure Qi1 iq . ~2 .3. if they are. L(~2 ). that they are also mapped by L. Then Q = Qi1 iq~i1~i2 ~iq : b b b (8. The universe seems to be isotropic and without handedness.3. and others do not. The new physical system will have instead of Q the tensor QL to describe that particular physical property.2) \Measuring" Q means measuring the real numbers Qi1 iq .8. As far as we know.) Therefore. the numbers we read on our dials (or digital voltmeters) will be the same in the original and mapped systems. We assume b b b either that no gravity or electromagnetic eld is present or. suppose ~1 . Rather it will be determined by the elasticity tensor E of the crystal. the contravariant components of QL relative to L(~1 ). L(~3 ). Then the experiment on QL is identical to that on Q. That is. Suppose we apply to the physical system a mapping L 2 (V ). ~3 is any basis b b b for real 3-space V . Some tensor properties of that system simply have L applied to them. Suppose Q 2 q V is a measurable tensor property of a particular physical system. the univese does not care the laws of nature are invariant under re ection and rigid rotation. (As a matter of fact. To see this. except that it has been rotated and possibly re ected relative to the universe. The situation is much simpler if L 2 (V ). PHYSICAL APPLICATIONS 75 system is N N X X $ = mv L (~v ) L (~v ) = mv 2 L (~v~v ) r r rr ML v=1 v=1 ! N $ 2L X m ~ ~ = 2L M : = v rv r v $ If we subject a homogeneously stressed crystal to the mapping L.

the new tensor property QL is obtained by applying L to the original Q QL = ( q L)(Q): (8. L(~3 ) will be the same as the contravariant components of Q relative to ~1 . While I am at lunch. if L 2 (V ) and the physical system is mapped by L.3. For any L 2 (V ). subjecting a physical system to certain rotations or re ections will not a ect any of its measurable physical properties. I can detect that now I have a pot of right-handed CH F Cl Br. Let S be any physical system in real 3-space V . The same is true if you manange to work so fast as to disassemble and reassemble the crystal so as to subject it to a re ection along one of its crystal axes while I am at lunch. That is. HOW TO ROTATE TENSORS (AND WHY) L(~2 ). However.3) A tensor property of a physical system rotates with that system. For example. L 2 (V ) is a member of G (S ) if no measurement can distinguish between S and LS . if you re ect it. you can subject it to any rotation whatever. 8.76 CHAPTER 8. I will be unable to detect that anything has happened to the crystal. When I return from lunch. b b b b b Thus QL = Qi1 iq L(~i1 ) L(~i2 ) L(~iq ) b b b = Qi1 iq ( q L)(~i1~i2 ~iq ) b b b h i = ( q L) Qi1 iq~i1~i2 ~iq : b b b Therefore. If I was working not on Na Cl but on a pot of left-handed CH F CL Br before lunch. . For example. change none of the measurable properties of S . ~2. you rotate it in such a way as simply to permute its three crystal axes. suppose I work all morning on a cubic crystal of Na Cl. it will rotate the plane of polarized light oppositely before and after lunch. when applied to S . I will not be able to detect the rotation when I return. let LS be the physical system obtained by subjecting S to L. Let G (S ) be the set of all members of (V ) which. ~3 .4 Invariance groups Sometimes. and is re ected if the system if re ected.

(8.5 If S is water. so S and L. Examples of invariance groups are these: Example 8.4. And if L1.3) show that G (S ).4. It is called the invariance group of the physical system S .4. Obviously I 2 G (S ) (8. Properties (8. Example 8. and if we make only measurements involving lengths > > microcrystal diameter (e.7 If S is polycrystalline calcite. If x1 x2 x3 are 0 ^ ^ ^ unit vectors parallel to the edges of the cube.4. study only seismic waves very long compared to the size of the microcrystals).8 If in example 8. It is the group of orthogonal operators which send into itself a cube centered on ~ . (8.2).4. we claim if L 2 G (S ) then L.g.1). Example 8.1 (LS ) is S .1 independently.6 If S is liquid. L2 2 G (S ).1(LS ) and L. G (S ) = + (V ).3) For LS and S are indistinguishable. G (S ) = (V ).4. Example 8.4.1S are indistinguishable. Example 8. x ^ . G (S ) = +(V ). where 2 S3 and 1 2 3 can be +1 or . 30% of the microcrystals are left handed and 70% are right handed. G (S ) consists of those L 2 (V ) such that L(^i ) = (i) x (i) for i = 1 2 3.4.4.4.9 If S is an Na Cl crystal.8. G (S ) = (V ). left-handed C H F Cl Br .7.4. with the microcrystals randomly oriented.4. But L. so L1 (L2 S ) is indistinguishable from S .1 2 G (S ): (8. INVARIANCE GROUPS 77 These de nitions have some simple but useful implications.2) (8. Hence so are L. G (S ) is the \cubic group".1) where I is the identity operator on V . Therefore if L1 L2 2 G (S ) then L1 L2 2 G (S ): Finally.1 S . is a subgroup of (V ). then L2 S is indistinguishable from S .4. and with equal numbers of right and left-handed microcrystals.

Q is unchanged by any L 2 G2 . They are called \skew isotropic tensors. The following are simple consequences of de nition 8. but may be changed by re ections. Corollary 8. They are called \isotropic tensors".4. The tensors in I q ( +(V )) are unchanged by any rotation.4. If Q1 QN 2 I q (G ) and a1 aN 2 R and L 2 G . then ( q L)(Qi ) = Qi. the harder it is to be unchanged by all its members. so ( q L)(ai Qi ) = ai( q L)(Qi ) = ai Qi because q L is linear.) .26. so all we need prove is that any linear combination of Clearly I q (G ) members of I q (G ) is a member. HOW TO ROTATE TENSORS (AND WHY) If Q 2 q V describes some measurable property of physical system S .4." If G is the cubic group. This fact limits the possible forms which Q can take.4.26 Let V be a Euclidean vector space.20 I q (G ) is a subspace of q V . The tensors in I q ( (V )) are unchanged by any orthogonal operator. and then certainly by any L 2 G1 . then clearly ( q L)(Q) = Q for all L 2 G (S ).4. It leads us to introduce De nition 8. Let G be a subgroup of (V ). Proof: If Q 2 I q (G2).4) The set I q (G ) is called the space of q'th order tensors invariant under G . (The bigger the group G . Then I q (G ) is the set of all Q 2 q V such that ( q L) (Q) = Q for all L 2 G : (8.21 If G1 G2 then I q (G2 ) I q (G1 ).78 CHAPTER 8. Hence Q 2 I q (G1). and is therefore of physical interest. Corollary 8. Proof: q V . the tensors in I q (G ) are unchanged by any rotation or re ection which is physically undetectable in an Na Cl crystal.

then Q has the same component ^ ^ x array relative to (^1 x xn) and (^01 ^ x x0n).4. Let x0i = L(^i ). and (8. If Q 2 I q (G ) then for any L 2 G . Corollary 8. Proof: For any Q 2 qV . ^ Proof: Suppose L 2 G .23 If P 2 I p+q (G ) and R 2 I q+r (G ) then P hqiR 2 I p+r (G ).4. ( q L)(Q) = Q. Hence Q 2 I q (G ). so ( P hqiR .4. L 2 (V ).5) ( q L) (Q) = Qi1 iq L (^i1 ) L xiq : x ^ (8.4. INVARIANCE GROUPS 79 Corollary 8.4.4.8.4. equation 8.5) with (8. p+r L)(P hq iR) = ( p+q L)(P )] hq i ( q+r L)(Q)] = any two ordered orthonormal bases (^1 x some L 2 G . By hypothesis Q0i1 iq = Qi1 iq .11 gives ( q L) = ( q L). so ( q L)( Q) = Q.6) If Q 2 I q (G ) and x0i = L(^i ) for some L 2 G . and 2 Sq then Q 2 I q (G ).25 Suppose Q 2 qV .6) gives ( q L)(Q) = Q. Corollary 8. Proof: For any L 2 G .22 If Q 2 I q (G ).6) gives Qi1 iq = Q0i1 iq .1. Corollary 8.4.4.4.24 If Q 2 I q (G ) then the component array of Q is the same relative to xn ) and (^01 ^ x x0n) such that x0i L(^i ) for ^ ^ x Q = Qi1 iq xi1 ^ For any L 2 L(V ! V ). Since this is true for every L 2 G . xiq = Q0i1 iq x0i1 ^ ^ x0iq : ^ (8. Suppose V has one ordered orthonormal basis (^1 x xn) such that whenever L 2 G and x0i = L(^i ). Q 2 I q (G ).4. Proof: For any L 2 L(V ! V ). . Comparing ^ x (8.5). Then Q 2 I q (G ). Then ( q L)( Q) = ( q L)(Q)]. then ( q L)(Q) = Q and ^ x comparing (8.

or of polycrystalline calcite with randomly oriented microcrystals and equal numbers of left.25 it has the same array of components relative to every positively oriented orthonormal basis. it is skew isotropic if it has the same array of components relative to every negatively oriented orthonormal basis for V . a tensor is isotropic i it has the same array of components relative to every orthonormal basis for V . and the same array relative to every negatively oriented orthonormal basis. by corollary 8.11 If A is a unimodular alternating tensor.5 Isotropic and skew isotropic tensors De nition 8.24 and 8.1) That is. Suppose (V A) is an oriented Euclidean space. but its component array changes sign for negatively oriented bases.27 Let V be a Euclidean vector space.10 The identity tensor $ is isotropic. . Iij = I (^i xj ) = xi xj = ij . Any tensor describing a measurable property of water.5. or of polycrystalline calcite with randomly oriented microcrystals and more of one handedness than the other.5.4. Since +(V ) (V ). is isotropic.5.25. A has the same component array relative to every positively oriented orthonormal basis. Any tensor describing a property of left-handed liquid C H F Cl Br . relative to any orthonormal I basis (^1 x $ xn) for V . By corollary 8. a tensor is skew isotropic if it has the same array of components relative to every positively oriented orthonormal basis for V .4. if they are. A is skew isotropic but not isotropic.25.and right-handed microcrystals. By corollaries 8. Also.4.4. every isotropic tensor is skew isotropic. For. HOW TO ROTATE TENSORS (AND WHY) 8. The tensors in I q ( (V )) are called \isotropic". ^ x ^ ^ ^ Example 8. For as we saw on page 39.4. The tensors in I q ( +(V )) are called \skew isotropic".21) implies I q ( (V )) I q ( +(V )): (8. is skew isotropic. Example 8.80 CHAPTER 8. If a tensor is skew isotropic. the tensor is isotropic). corollary (8. The two arrays need not be the same (indeed.5.

4.5.8.4. 0 Proof: Tensors of order 1 are vectors. A formal proof of this intuitively obvious fact is as follows.20. so by corollary 8. so are isotropic and therefore also skew isotropic. By corollary 8.12 are skew isotropic. I I A. On p. so are I A. We cannot consider Weyl's general proof. We gain nothing new by using more than one factor A. Therefore the only 0 isotropic tensor of order 1 is ~ . but we will discuss in detail the tensors of orders q = 0 1 2 3 4. Each is the rst v ^ ^ vector of a positively oriented ordered orthonormal basis (pooob).23.5.12 By corollary 8.2) shows that $$ $ if n = dim V then AA is a linear combination of n! permutations of I I I (with n $ factors I ).4. every linear combination of such permuted tensors is isotropic.5.20. 64 of his book \The Classical Groups" (Princeton.13. Hermann Weyl shows that there are no isotropic tensors except those listed in example 8.24. and no skew isotropic tensors except those listed in example 8.22.22 .5.5. By corollary $ $$ $$$ 8.5. They are una ected by any orthogonal transformation. q = 0 Tensors of order 0 are scalars. q = 1 If dim V 2. $$ is isotropic. every permutation of these tensors is isotropic. The polar identity (10. We assume dim V 2.4. I I I A. Note the corollary that all nonzero isotropic tensors are of even order. Example 8.23. By corollary 8. ~ (^) = ~ (^). By II III IIII Example 8. $$$$. That is ~ x = ~ y for any two unit vectors vx vy v ^ v ^ . etc.4. so are all permutations of these tensors.4. We are claiming that if dim V 2 then the only vector which is una ected by all rotations is the zero vector. the only skew isotropic tensor of order 1 is ~ . By corollary 8. Suppose ~ 2 I 1 ( +(V )). ISOTROPIC AND SKEW ISOTROPIC TENSORS 81 corollary 8. etc.13 All the tensors in example 8.4. So is $$$.12. Let x and y be any two unit vectors. which are of particular interest in continuum mechanics. so is every linear combination of such permuted tensors. 1946).

Therefore T (^ x) = T (^ y) because T has x^ y^ the same component array relative to all oobs with the same orientation. let .x) = .T (^ x). Re^^ x^ placing (^ y) by (^ . and by changing the sign of one later basis vector.5.3. If x and y are any unit vectors.4) is proved. so T = a I +bA. v ^ ^ v 0 q=2 I 2 ( (V )) = spf$g I I 2 ( +(V )) = spf$g if dim V 3 I $ I 2 ( +(V )) = spf I Ag if dim V = 2 and A is any nonzero member of 2V: Proof: (8.12 and 8.T (^ x) if fx yg is orthonormal : x^ y^ ^^ (8.5. x^ T (^ y) = . If dim V 2.5.5. T (^ y) = T (^ . To treat (8.3). HOW TO ROTATE TENSORS (AND WHY) x and y. b = T (^1 x2 ) x ^ x ^ $ =A(^1 x2). we can assume that these oob's have the same orientation. Tij = a ij + bA(^1 x2 )"ij = (a I x ^ x ^ $ +bA)ij . we can always nd a y such that ~ y = 0.4).5. Hence. each is the ^ ^ rst vector of an ordered orthonormal basis (oob).5.5.6) When dim V = 2.2) (8.5.5) If fx yg is orthonormal.5. so we need prove only in (8.4) The containments have all been established in examples 8. and (8.13. so ~ = ~ . In all these cases. choose an oob (^1 x2 ) and let a = aT .3) (8. Then ^ ^ ^ v ^ ~ x = 0 for all x. 8.5. (^ y) is the rst pair of vectors in an oob.2. if necessary.5. suppose T 2 I 2 ( +(V )).x) in that oob gives a second oob with the same x^ y ^ y ^ y^ orientation.5. 8.5. Thus there is a scalar aT such that T (^ x) = aT for every unit vector x: x^ ^ (8. 8.82 CHAPTER 8.2. Then relative to this oob.

5.8).5. By (8.xk ) = .x1 ^ ^ . so ^^^ ^ ^ ^ ^^^ x^^ x^ ^ T (^ y z ) = T (. If T 2 ^ I ( + (V )).5.5. x ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ x ^ ^ If dim V is odd and dim V 5. let (^ y z ) be any ordered orthonorx^^ mal sequence. both (^ y) and (^ x) are rst pairs in oobs with the same x^ y^ orientation.x y z . Then if T 2 I 3 ( +(V )).6) and (8.xn) ^ is another oob with the same orientation.xj . It is the rst triple of an oob (^ y z x4 x^^^ xn) and ^ (.5) and (8. In either case we have (8.T (^i xj xk ) = 0 so Tijk = 0 .5. Thus if x1 x2 x3 x^ ^ x^ ^ x^ ^ ^ ^ ^ are orthonormal. so if T 2 I 2 ( (V )). so T = aT I . This comment applies to any three vectors from an arbitrary oob for V . ISOTROPIC AND SKEW ISOTROPIC TENSORS 83 (^ y) be orthonormal.11) If dim V is even.x3 x4 ^ y^ ^ ^ xn). so Tijk = 0 .x4 x5 xn) is an oob with the same orientation.5. Both (^ y) and (^ x) are the rst pair of vectors x^ x^ y^ in an oob. T (^i xj xk ) = T (.T (^ y y) = 0 and T (^ x x) == .7) If dim V 3. Similarly. Then (.8) Now let (^1 x xn ) be an oob.9) (8. namely (^ y x3 x^^ xn) and (^ x .xi .10) (8.5.T (^ x x) = 0.7.8.x y z) = .T (^ y z ) = 0.5. we again have 8. relative to this ^ $ oob we have Tij = aT ij . QED q=3 I 3 ( (V )) = f0g I 3 ( + (V )) = f0g if dim V 6= 3 I 3 ( +(V )) = spfAg if dim V = 3 and A 6= 0 A 2 3V: Proof: (8. let (^1 x xn) be an oob for V .5.5.7) so T (^ y) = 0 if fx yg is orthonormal: x^ ^^ (8. T (^ y y) = x^^ ^ ^ ^ .5. T (xi xj xk ) = 0 for fi j kg f1 2 3 g. T (^ y) = T (^ x) if fx yg is orthonormal: x^ y^ ^^ (8.

Let c = ^^^ x ^ ^ T (^1 x2 x3)=A(^1 x2 x3 ). (^ x y) .T (^ y y) = 0. then the following are oobs with the same x^^ orientation: (^ z x) .5. even though an Na Cl crystal is not isotropic. Note that in all the foregoing arguments. and T = 0. y^^ x^^ ^ ^ ^ x^^ Thus if T 2 I 3 ( +(V )) T (^ x x) = 0 for every unit vector x x^^ ^ (8. (^ .14) imply Tijk = x ^ ^ x ^ ^ cA(^1 x2 x3 )"ijk = cAijk so T = cA. if (^ y z) is an oob.5.T (^ y x) x^^ y^^ z^^ y^^ x^^ z^^ (8. only mutually ? vectors were used. and the oob (. it follows that the conductivity tensor K $ ~ ~ $ of Na Cl must have the form K I .z y x) . (.5.T (^ z y) = .5. HOW TO ROTATE TENSORS (AND WHY) for fi j kg f1 ng relative to any oob. x ^ ^ QED. Therefore the conclusions apply to tensors of orders 1 2 3 known only to be invariant under $ the cubic group of Na Cl.14) if fx y z g is orthonormal.T (^ x z) = . For example. Thus x^^ ^^ ^ T (^ y y) = T (.12 .T (^ x x) = 0.5.5.5. Similarly T (^ x y) = 0 and x^^ ^^^ x^^ y^^ T (^ y x) = 0. 8.z ) . Then (8. (^ x .x y y) = .13 .12) T (^ y y) = T (^ x y) = T (^ y x) if fx yg is orthonormal: (8.x y .x .x) = . Ohm's law J = E K reduces to the ~ ~ isotropic form J = EK .z y) . q=4 I 4 ( (V )) = sp $$ (23) $$ (24) $$ II II II (8. If fx yg is orthonormal. Also T (^ x x) = T (. Then y^^ z^^ y^ ^ x ^^ ^^^ if T 2 I 3 ( +(V )) T (^ y z ) = T (^ z x) = T (^ x y) = . Let (^1 x2 x3) be an oob for V . Finally. (^ y) is the rst pair of an ^^ x^ oob (^ y z ). In Na Cl. 8.z ) has the same orientation. suppose dim V = 3.13) x^^ y^^ y^^ ^^ Finally.x .15) . These arguments remain valid if G is the cubic group and T 2 I q (G ) with q = 1 2 3 and we work only with unit vectors and oobs in the crystal axis directions.84 CHAPTER 8.

18) to the reader with Sitz eisch. Therefore we assume T 2 I 4 ( +(V )).z ) = . ISOTROPIC AND SKEW ISOTROPIC TENSORS 85 I 4 ( +(V )) = 00if dim V 62 f2 4g I 4 ( +(V )) = sp $$ (23) $$ (24) $$ A II II II if dim V = 4 (8.18) Here A is any nonzero alternating tensor.8.5. say ^^^^ (w x y z x5 ^^^^^ xn).T (w x y z ).5.15. Similarly. A 2 Proof: with n = dim V .16) (8. The vectors (.5.17. We consider only (8.w x y z ) are the rst four vectors of ^ ^^^^ an oob with the same orientation. Thus for dim V 5. so ^^ ^ T (^ y z z ) = T (.w x y z ) = . 8.20) . so T (w x y z) = T (.13.x y .5.5.5. 8.5.17) I 4 ( +(V )) = spf$$ (23) $$ (24) $$ II II II $ $ $ I A (23) I A (24) I A $ $ $ AI (23)AI (24)AI g if dim V = 2: nV (8. suppose dim V 3 and fx y z g is orthonormal. then any four orthonormal vectors (w x y z ) are the rst four vectors of and oob for V . ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ T (w x y z) = 0 if fw x y z )g is orthonormal: ^^^^ ^^^^ (8.19) This result is also vacuously true for dim V = 3. namely (.z .w x y z . Next. and leave (8.z ) are both the rst triple in oobs with the same orientation.5. T has the same component array relative to both oob's. and if dim V 2 f2 4g we assume T 2 I 4 ( (V )).5.17). so we need prove only .x y .5.T (^ y z z ) = 0.x5 x6 ^^^^ ^ ^ xn). Then fx y z g and ^^^ ^^^ (. The containments have all been established in examples 8. because then we cannot nd four orthonormal vectors in V . Since ^ T 2 I 4 ( +(V )). If dim V 5.5.5.12 and 8. if fx y z g is x^^^ ^^ ^ ^ x^^^ ^^^ orthonormal T (^ y z z) = T (^ z y z ) = T (^ z z y) x^^^ x^^^ x^^^ = T (^ x y z ) = T (^ x z y) = T (^ z x y) = 0: z^^^ z^^^ z^^^ (8.

T (^ y y y) = 0. so if T 2 I 4 ( (V )) then T (^ x y y) = ^ ^ x^^^ x^ x ^ T (^0 x0 y0 y0).x y y y) = .5.5. HOW TO ROTATE TENSORS (AND WHY) Equations (8. there are scalars uT and vT such that T (^ y x y) = uT if fx yg is orthonormal x^^^ ^^ T (^ y y x) = vT if fx yg is orthonormal: x^^^ ^^ (8.x y) are the rst pairs ^^ x^ ^^ in oobs. say (^ y x3 xn) and (. there is a scalar T depending only on T such that T (^ x x x) = x^^^ T for every unit vector x: ^ (8. If dim V 3.86 CHAPTER 8. each is the rst member of an oob.22) Similarly.19)-(8. T (^ x y y) = T (^0 x0 y0 y0).25) $$ Then tensor I I satis es (8. u = 0.5. there is a scalar x^^^ x ^ ^ ^ T depending only on T such that T (^ x y y) = x^^^ T if fx yg is orthonormal: ^^ (8. and ^ ^ the two oobs can have the same orientation.x3 x4 xn). x^^^ y^^^ Therefore.5.19)-(8. v = 0.20) are vacuously true if dim V = 2 because then we cannot nd three orthonormal vectors in V . = 0 . Then T (^ y y y) = x^^ ^ T (.25) with = 1. if x and y are unit vectors. say (^ y x3 xn) and (^0 y0 x3 x4 x^^ ^ x ^ ^ ^ xn): Then in ^ that case also. and if dim V 3 we may assume these oobs to have the same orient^^ ^ ^ ^ x^^^ ation.x y . then (^ y) and (^0 y0) are rst pairs in oobs with x ^ ^ ^ the same orientation.5.5.21) y^^^ y^^^ ^^ Next. suppose that fx yg and fx0 y0g are both orthonormal. .5.5. Then (^ y) and (. u = 1. so T (^ x x x) = T (^ y y y). Next.24) Finally. Similarly ^^^^ x^^^ T (^ y y y) = T (^ x y y) x^^^ y^^^ = T (^ y x y) = T (^ y y x) = 0 if fx yg orthonormal:(8. suppose fx yg is orthonormal. = 1. In either case.23) (8. $$ The tensor (23) I I satis es (8.5.5. Each pair (^ y) ^^ ^ ^ x^ and fx0 y0g is the rst pair in an oob.25) with = 1 .

sin2 A(^ x x3 xn) + sin cos A(^ y x3 y^^ ^ y^^ = cos2 + sin2 A(^ y x3 x^^ xn) = A(^ y x3 ^ x^^ But if (^ y x3 x^^ xn ) and (^0 y0 x3 ^ x ^ ^ xn) have the same orientation and ^ S 2 I 4 ( +(V )). vT and S = uS = vS = 0.5. Thus S = (cos4 + sin4 ) S . Therefore x ^ ^ ^ S (^ x x x) = S (^0 x0 x0 x0 ) x^^^ = S (^ cos + y sin x ^ x cos + y sin x cos + y sin x cos + y sin ) ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ = cos4 S (^ x x x) + sin4 S (^ y y y) x^^^ y^^^ (8. v = 1. T . (8. ISOTROPIC AND SKEW ISOTROPIC TENSORS 87 $$ v = 0.27) since all other 14 terms in the multilinear expansion of S vanish. cos sin A(^ x x3 x^^ xn) + cos2 A(^ y x3 ^ x^^ . Therefore S = 0.25) with u = 0.x sin + y cos : ^ ^ ^ A 6= 0.5.26) is a linear x^^^ x ^ ^ ^ combination of members of I 4 ( +(V )).5. The S of (8.26) satis es (8.8. uT . =0.19)-(8. so it is in I 4 ( +(V )).x sin + y cos x3 ^ x ^ ^ ^ ^ xn ) ^ = .5.5. Now let (^ y) be orthonormal in V and let (^ y x3 x^ x^^ xn) be an oob for V .28) . T I I .5.5. Then xn ) ^ xn) ^ xn ): ^ A(^0 y0 x3 x ^ ^ xn) = A(^ cos + y sin . the tensor $$ $$ $$ S = T .5. In addition.19)-(8. y0 = .25) with S = uS = vS = 0.5.25) with S = T .5. It is possible to choose so that cos4 + sin4 6= 1.vT (24) I I =1. ^ Then (^0 y0 x3 x ^ ^ xn) is an oob with the same orientation if we take ^ x0 = x cos + y sin ^ ^ ^ To see this. the S (^ x x x) = S (^0 x0 x0 x0 ). Therefore $$ $$ $$ T = T I I +uT (23) I I +vT (24) I I : (8. Therefore S = 0.uT (23) I I .19)-(8. Therefore.5. S satis es (8. The tensor (24) I I satis es (8. let A 2 nV .

vT .5.17).5.5. T . But if x y z are crystal axes. .5. uT . Therefore.5. HOW TO ROTATE TENSORS (AND WHY) This completes the proofs of (8. Only (8.15) and (8. we have ^^^ x ^ ^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^^ proved that if T is invariant under the cubic group we can write T = + where S x ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ S (^xxx + yyy y + z z z z ) T $$ $$ $$ I I +uT (23) I I +vT (24) I I (8. then S = S (^xxx + yyyy + z z z z).27) fails.88 CHAPTER 8.29) = T .26) works equally well if all the unit vectors are parallel to the crystal axes of an Na Cl crystal. Notice that the proof of (8.

@B (~ t) and B (~ t) are called. That is.1. Let ~ 2 U . u u u u u B (~ t) . ~ De nition 9. ~ k tg . t > 0. as ~ ! ~ u v u u ~u if for every " > 0 there is a (") > 0 such that whenever ~ 2 D and 0 < k~ . if ~ 2 D then 9" > 0 3 B (~ ") D.1. We say that lim~ !~ f (~ ) = ~ . See gure 9. ~ k < tg u u u u u ii) @B (~ t) := f~ 0 : ~ 0 2 U and k~ 0 . equivalently f (~ ) ! ~ . and the u u u closed ball centered at ~ with radius t.2. respectively. ~0 k < ": u v 89 .29 A subset D of Euclidean space U is \open" if every point in D is the center of a ball lying entirely in D. the open ball.1 Limits in Euclidean vector spaces De nition 9.30 Suppose U and V are Euclidean vector spaces.Chapter 9 Di erential Calculus of Tensors 9.28 Let U be a Euclidean vector space. See u u gure 9. f : D ! V . or.1. ~ k = tg u u u u u iii) B (~ t) := f~ 0 : ~ 0 2 U and k~ 0 . ~u v u u v ~ 2 D and ~ 2 V . the sphere. D U .1 u De nition 9. Let t 2 R. We u de ne three sets: i) B (~ t) := f~ 0 : ~ 0 2 U and k~ 0 . ~ k < (") u u u then kf (~ ) .

t) Figure 9.90 CHAPTER 9. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS u B(u.1: t . t) ∂ B(u.

Figure 9. LIMITS IN EUCLIDEAN VECTOR SPACES 91 .1.9.2: . D . .

~ 0k < ("=2) u u ~ u v kf 0(~ ) . ~0 k < "=2 if k~ . ~0 + u u u u v ~0k kf (~ ) .1. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS ~u v ~ De nition 9. ~0k + kf 0(~ ) . ~ 0k < u u ~ ~ u v v (9. ~00 k QED.1. ~ ~u v ~ u v u u f 0 : D ! V . f : D ! V . ~00 k "=2 + "=2 = ". ~00 k = ~u v ~ u v kf (~ ) . u De nition 9. ~ 0 k < (1). Proof: For any given " > 0 we must nd a 00(") > 0 such that ~ 2 D and k~ .1) ^ 0 = .1) and ~u v ~ u v kf (~ ) . ~ 0 k < u u u 00(") implies k(f + f 0)(~ ) .1.1.1.1) (9. Corollary 9.92 CHAPTER 9. By hypothesis. u v v ~ ~ u v v u u Then (f . (9.1. If k~ .1.1) _ 0 = 0. ~00 as ~ ! ~ 0.1. then kf (~ ) . D U .1. ~0 k < 1 so kf (~ )k = kf (~ ) .2) 00("). ~0 + f 0 (~ ) . ~0k + k~0 k < 1 + k~0k. ~00 k < "=2 if k~ .1. Then if ~ 2 D and k~ . D U and f : D ! V . there are ("=2) > 0 u v v and 0("=2) > 0 such that if ~ 2 D then u ~u v kf (~ ) . 1 _ 6 = 6.27 Suppose U and V are Euclidean vector spaces. (. ~ 0 2 D. ~0 . ~ 0k < (1). v u v v v ~ Corollary 9.2) are true.31 If f (~ ) = ~ in de nition 9. so k(f + f 0)(~ ) . ~ 0k < 0 ("=2): u u Let 00(") = ("=2) ^ 0("=2).32 If x and y are real numbers. (. ~0 . Thus 1 ^ 6 = 1. ~0 2 V and f (~ ) ! ~0 as ~ ! ~ 0. ~0 and ~00 2 V . ~u v u u Suppose ~ 0 2 D. ~00 k < ". .30 then f is \continuous at ~ ". Suppose that f (~ ) ! ~0 and f 0(~ ) ! ~00 as ~ ! ~ 0. u v u u u we have Proof: kf (~ )k < 1 + k~0 k: u v ~u ~u v If ~ 2 D and k~ .26 Suppose U and V are Euclidean vector spaces. then both (9. denote the algebraically smaller of them by x ^ y (read \x meet y") and the algebraically larger by x _ y (read \x join y"). f 0)(~ ) ! ~0 .

1. Suppose ~ 0 2 D and as ~ ! ~ 0 we have u u u u u u u R(~ ) ! R0 and T (~ ) ! T0. LIMITS IN EUCLIDEAN VECTOR SPACES 93 Corollary 9. R0] T0: u u u Thus k(R T )(~ ) . R0) T0 k u Thus if ~ 2 D u u kR(~ )kkT (~ ) . T0 ] k + k R(~ ) . u u u Proof: Choose " > 0. gives kR(~ ) T (~ ) . R0 kkT0k: (9. R0 T0 = R(~ ) T (~ ) .36.26) u > u u > > < " " u u u > if k~ . R0 T0 u u u u = R(~ ) T (~ ) . De ne R T : D ! V X by requiring (R T )(~ ) = R(~ ) T (~ ) for each ~ 2 D. V . R0 T0k kR(~ ) T (~ ) . R0 T0 u u u = R(~ ) T (~ ) . R0 T0k kR(~ )kkT (~ ) . R0 T0k < ".1.3.1.3) u u u u Now if ~ 2 D and u 8 > if k~ . R0 k < 2(1+kT0 k) : (9. We must nd (") > 0 such that if ~ 2 D and k~ .4) . R0 ] T0 k: u u u u The generalized Schwarz inequality. R(~ ) T0 + R(~ ) T0 . T0 k u kR(~ ) . T0] k u u k(R(~ ) .9. ~ k < " " : u u0 u R 2(1+kT0 k) then kR(~ ) . T0 k < 2(1+kR0 k) > > > if k~ . Then (R T )(~ ) ! R0 T0 . T0k + kR(~ ) . remark 7. T0] + R(~ ) .28 Suppose U . R0 kkT0k u k(R T )(~ ) . We note u (R T )(~ ) . ~ 0k < T 2(1+kR0 k) then kT (~ ) . ~ 0k < R (1) then kR(~ )k < 1 + kR0 k (see corollary 9.1. W . ~ 0k < (") u u u then k(R T )(~ ) .1. X are Euclidean vector spaces and D U and R : D ! V W and T : D ! W X .

29 Suppose U and V are Euclidean vector spaces. The corollaries all apply verbatim. and D U . The dot products are. the generalized dot products used to make tensor spaces Euclidean. V1 V W1 Ws. Corollary 9. ~ 0k < ("). And ii) follows u from corollaries 9. R0 T0k < (1 + kR0 k) 2(1 +"kR k) + 2(1k+0kT k) < ": u 0 0 QED. Corollary 9. u u k we have all three of (9. 9. then ~i f (~ ) ! ~i ~0 as ~ ! ~ 0. and D ~ ~ 0 2 D and ~0 2 V .28. with dual basis (~1 b b ii) If there is one basis for V . X1 Xt are Euclidean vector spaces. V . and D U and R : D ! V1 .29 . Then if k~ . such that ~i f (~ ) ! ~i ~0 as ~ ! ~ 0.1. Suppose f : D ! V is de ned by f (~ ) = ~0 for all ~ 2 D.1. (~1 b ~u v u u f (~ ) ! ~0 as ~ ! ~ 0.94 CHAPTER 9.27.1. then b b ~u b v u u Regard ~i as a function whose domain is D and whose value is ~i for each b b ~ 2 D. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS " Take (") = R (1) ^ T 2(1+kR0 k) ^ R 2(1+" T0 k) . The only corollary which perhaps deserves comment is 9.1.30 Suppose U and V are Euclidean vector spaces. of course. and 9. Notice that the ranges of our functions can lie in tensor spaces since these are Euclidean vector spaces.1. Proof: U . Then u v u ~u v u u f (~ ) ! ~0 as ~ ! ~ 0. Suppose f : D ! V . u v ~u v u u i) If f (~ ) ! ~0 as ~ ! ~ 0.4).1.1.1.1. It now reads thus: Suppose U . T k" k(R T )(~ ) . Then i) follows from corollaries 9.28 and 9.1. Proof: Obvious from de nition 9.3).28.29. and ~ ~u v ~ 0 2 D and ~0 2 V .30. and ~n) of b ~n). so by (9. for any basis (~1 b ~u b v u u b ~n).1.

u Proof: ~ u u h If L1 and L2 are both gradient mappings for f at ~ then whenever ~ + ~ 2 D we have ~u h f (~ + ~ ) = = Therefore if ~ + ~ 2 D. u h ~u f (~ ) + L1 (~ ) + k~ kR1(~ ) h h ~ h ~u f (~ ) + L2 (~ ) + k~ kR2(~ ): h h ~ h (9. f1g and f.^ when 1 1 thinking of R as a Euclidean space. which we write as ^ and .1) ~ Remark 9. and it has two orthonormal bases.42 f has at most one gradient mapping at ~ .2. D is an open subset ~ ~ of U .2. u 9. When we think of a real number as a vector. A linear mapping L : U ! V is a \gradient mapping for f u ~ ~ at ~ " if there is a function R : U ! V (which may depend on f and ~ and L ) such that u u a) b) ~h 0 lim R(~ ) = ~ and ~u h ~u f (~ + ~ ) = f (~ ) + L(~ ) + k~ kR(~ ) for any h h ~h ~ 2 U such that ~ + ~ 2 D: h u h ~ !~ h 0 (9. we write it with an arrow. Suppose ~ 0 2 D and as ~ ! ~ 0 we have R(~ ) ! R0 and T (~ ) ! T0.2) L1 (~ ) + k~ kR1 (~ ) = L2 (~ ) + k~ kR2 (~ ): h h ~ h h h ~ h .34 Suppose U and V are Euclidean vector spaces.1g. 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 De nition 9. R is a one-dimensional Euclidean vector space.2. Thus ~ = 2^.2. like ~ . GRADIENTS: DEFINITION AND SIMPLE PROPERTIES 95 Vr W1 Ws and T : D ! W1 Ws X1 Xt.2. Then u u u u u u (RhsiT )(~ ) ! R0 hsiT0.33 We de ne the \dot product" of two real numbers to be their ordinary arithmetic product. and 2 = ~ ^ = ^ ~ . f : D ! V .2.9.2 Gradients: De nition and simple properties De nition 9. With this de nition. De ne RhsiT : D ! V1 Vr X1 Xt by requiring (RhsiT )(~ ) = R(~ )hsiT (~ ) for each u u u ~ 2 D. and ~ 2 D.

2.34 if f : D ! V has a gradient mapping L at ~ .2. so there is an " > 0 such that if k~ k < " then ~ + ~ 2 D. u ~ ~ u ~ then f is \di erentiable at ~ ".43 Suppose U and V are Euclidean vector spaces. its gradient tensor at ~ is L. and let t be any nonnegative real number. Then k kt~ k < " as long as 0 t < "=k~ k. and f : D ! V . DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS Now D is open.3) ~ k 0 This is true for all t in 0 < t < "=k~ k. Suppose there is a tensor L2 U V and a function R : D ! V u a) ~ !~ h 0 ~h 0 lim R(~ ) = ~ and ~u h ~u h b) f (~ + ~ ) = f (~ ) + ~ L + k~ kR(~ ) if ~ + ~ 2 D: h ~h u h (9.2. Therefore. we can rewrite 9. Since this is true for all k 2 U . QED ~ De nition 9. ~ 2 D. u ~ Proof: . Therefore L1 (~ ) = L2 (~ ).2.2.2. Since L(~ ) = ~ L.35 In de nition 9.33 as h h a) b) ~ !~ h 0 ~h 0 lim R(~ ) = ~ and ~ u h ~ u h h~ ~ u i h ~ h u h f (~ + ~ ) = f (~ ) + ~ rf (~ ) + k~ kR(~ ) if ~ + ~ 2 D: (9. so if t > 0 k k k L1 (~ ) + k~ kR1 (t~ ) = L2 (~ ) + k~ kR2(t~ ): k k ~ k k k ~ k (9. and its remainder function at u u ~ is R. and both R1(t~ ) ! ~ and k ~ k R2 (t~ ) ! ~ . and R is the \remainder function for f at ~ ". 9:2:2 is k k true for ~ = t~ . h u h Let ~ be any vector in U .5) $ ~ Then f is di erentiable at ~ . we 0 k k have L1 = L2 . It is $ ~~u written rf (~ ). D is an open subset of $ ~ ~ U . if t is in this range.2. That is h k L1 (t~ ) + kt~ kR1 (t~ ) = L2 (t~ ) + ktkkR2 (t~ ): k k ~ k k k But Li (t~ ) = tLi (k) and kt~ k = tk~ k. The tensor u $ ~ u u L2 U V is called the \gradient tensor of f at ~ " or the \gradient of f at ~ ".96 CHAPTER 9.4) with these properties: Remark 9. Let t ! 0.

f (~ ) = ~ for ~ ~~u $ u all ~ 2 D. so (9. u Proof: $ $ $ The hypotheses of remark 9.1b) and (9.43 are sat$ ~ ~ h ~~ u ~h is ed for aifi with L= ai rfi(~ )] and R(~ ) = ai Ri(~ ).2. ~ ~ ~ ~ u Suppose all the fi are di erentiable at ~ 2 D.2.9. Then f is di erentiable everywhere in D. so L is the ~ gradient tensor. h 0 ~ Example 9. Then the R's in (9. .2. u ~u $ the identity tensor on U . (9. h 0 Example 9. i. GRADIENTS: DEFINITION AND SIMPLE PROPERTIES 97 ~ 7! ~ $ is a linear mapping L.2.2. (This result is often abbreviated r~ = I U . R(~ ) = ~ . rf (~ ) = I U . Proof: ~ Each fi satis es equation (9.5) .) Proof: $ $ ~ The hypotheses of remark 9.2.4).17 Suppose that for i 2 f1 ng we have ai 2 R and fi : D ! V . Then f is di erentiable at every ~~u $ ~ 2 D and rf (~ ) = 0 . D is an open subset of U and $ ~ ~u u $ T is a xed tensor in U V .42.) Proof: $ $ ~ The hypotheses of remark 9.15 Suppose f : D ! U is the identity mapping on D.14 Suppose f : D ! V is constant.2. R(~ ) = ~ . and r(aifi)(~ ) = u ~~ u ai(rfi )(~ ). and for each ~ 2 D.43 are satis ed with L= 0 .2.2.2. L is the gradient mapping for f at ~ . Therefore f is di er~ h h L ~ u $ entiable.e.1).43 are satis ed with L=T .2. (Often abbreviated u u ~ u $ $ r(~ T ) =T . By Remark 9.43 are satis ed with L= I U .2.2.16 Suppose U and V are Euclidean spaces.2. so the hypotheses of remark 9. ~ ~ Example 9. Then so is ai fi : D ! V . f is di erentiable and rf (~ ) =T . Then at every ~ 2 D.2. R (~ ) = ~ : h 0 ~ ~u u Example 9.5b) must be the same. Suppose f : D ! V is de ned by f (~ ) = ~ T for every ~ ~~u $ ~ 2 D.

and then ~~u ~ u1 ~ u ~~u 1 rf (~ ) = rf (~ )^ rf (~ ) = rf (~ ) ^: Proof: To obtain (9.4). for reasons made clear later). limh!0 for h 6= 0 then ~ ~ f (u+h). u1 (9.2. f (u) . Then f is di erentiable at ~ and u ~~ rf (u) = ^@uf (u): 1 ~ (9.2.2. f is de ned to be di erentiable at ~ 2 D if there is a vector u ~ L 2 U and a function R : U ! R such that a) b) ~ !~ h 0 lim R(~ ) = 0 and h f (~ + ~ ) = f (~ ) + ~ L + k~ kR(~ ) if ~ + ~ 2 D: u h u h ~ h h u h (9.2.2.6) ~ ~ u The vector L is called the gradient of f at ~ .6) from (9. multiply all terms in (9. Here 1 $ ~^ ~ clearly L= L1 = rf (~ )^. written rf (~ ).2.4) dot ^ on the right in all terms in (9.2.19 Suppose D is an open subset of R.7) ~ ~ ~ this derivative as @u f (u) rather than df =du. The scalar valued function f is di erentiable in the sense ~ 1 of equations (9:2:6) i f = f ^ is di erentiable in the sense of equation (9.8) Proof: By hypothesis. 1 To obtain (9. then we can think of f as a vector-valued function f = f ^ (the vector is one dimensional).2.2.f (u) h Example 9. If we think of R as a oneu ~ 1 dimensional Euclidean space.4).2.4) from (9.18 Suppose that D is an open subset of Euclidean space U and f : D ! R.6).2. regarded as a one-dimensional ~ Euclidean space.6) on the right by ^. @ f (u)= : ~ R(h) = jhj : u~ h . Suppose f : D ! V has an ordinary derivative at u 2 D (we will write ~ ~ = @u f (u).98 CHAPTER 9. De ne R(h) = 0 if h = 0 and 8 9 ~ ~ h < f (u + h) . In elementary calculus classes. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS Example 9.2.

20 Suppose f : D ! R and ~ : D ! V are di erentiable at ~ 2 D. Therefore (9.2. because by Schwarz's inequality its length is k~ kkrf (~ )kkr~ (~ )k. h ~ u ~g u QED.9) ~u h 1 ~ But h = ~ 1 so h@uf (~ ) = ~ ^@u f (u).2. and 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ f (u + h) = f (u) + h@uf (u) + jhjR(h): (9. if ~ + ~ 2 D then u h (9.10) f (~ + ~ ) = f (~ ) + ~ rf (~ ) + k~ kRf (~ u h u h ~ u h h ~ (~ + ~ ) = ~ (~ ) + ~ r~ (~ ) + k~ kRg (~ ): gu h g u h ~g u h h Multiplying these two equations gives h ~ i f (~ + ~ )~ (~ + ~ ) = f (~ )~ (~ ) + ~ f (r~ ) + (rf )~ + k~ kRfg (~ ) (9.2.2. h i ~ h Rfg (~ ) = Rf (~ ) ~ (~ ) + ~ r~ (~ ) h g u h ~g u h i ~ h u h ~ u +Rg (~ ) f (~ ) + ~ rf (~ ) + k~ kRf (~ )Rg (~ ) h h~ h h ~ ih ~ i + ~ rf (~ ) ~ r~ (~ ) =k~ k: h u h gu h ~ ~ As ~ ! ~ .5) with L= 1@uf (u). Then g u so is the product function f~ : D ! V .2.43 can be applied to (9. by de nition. obviously ! h 0 0. which involve Rf or Rg . the three terms in Rfg .9) is h ^ h $ ^ ~ (9.9. GRADIENTS: DEFINITION AND SIMPLE PROPERTIES 99 ~ Then limh!0 R(h) = ~ . Example 9.11).2.2.11) u hgu h ugu h g ~ g h ~ h where. Also jhj = k~ k. and g h~ i h i ~ g u r(f~ )(~ ) = rf (~ ) ~ (~ ) + f (~ ) r~ (~ ) : u gu u ~g u Proof: By hypothesis. Therefore remark 9.2.2. So does the last term. .

Suppose U .16). Let Rf and Rg be the remainder functions u gv ~ u ~ h 0 h 0 ~ k 0 k 0 for f at ~ and ~ at ~ .2. Then Rf (~ ) ! ~ as ~ ! ~ .2.2. and f : Df ! Dg and g : Dg ! W .2. g ~ u h g ~ u h h ~ h u h This equation is the same as h i h i $ $ h ~ h ~ f (~ ) + ~ ) = ~ f (~ ) + (~ Lf ) Lg +k~ kRg f (~ ): g ~u h g ~u h ~ = f (~ + ~ ) .2.17) in (9. so (9.100 CHAPTER 9.2.14) holds for the ~ of (9.2. ~ f : Df ! W . Then their composition.13) ~ = ~ $f +k~ kRf (~ ): k h L h ~ h Substituting (9. k v k ~u h k Moreover.14) ~ ~ h We hope to nd Rg f : U ! W such that Rg f (~ ) ! ~ as ~ ! ~ and 0 h 0 $ $ (~ f )(~ + ~ ) = (~ f )(~ ) + ~ Lf Lg + k~ kRg f (~ ) whenever ~ + ~ 2 Df .15) To obtain (9.13) $ ~ (~ + ~ ) = ~ (~ ) + ~ Lg +k~ kRg (~ ) if ~ + ~ 2 Dg : gv k gv k k ~ k v k (9. V . ~ Suppose ~ 2 Df and ~ = f (~ ).2. choose any ~ 2 U such that ~ + ~ 2 Df and de ne h u h (9. f (~ ) = f (~ + ~ ) . Dg is an open subset of V . is di erentiable at ~ and v g ~ u ~ g ~ u ~ ~ u ~g v r(~ f )(~ ) = rf (~ ) r~ (~ ): Proof: (9. g v and ~u h ~u h $ h ~ h u h f (~ + ~ ) = f (~ ) + ~ Lf +k~ kRf (~ ) if ~ + ~ 2 Df (9. ~ : k ~u h ~u ~u h v (9.2.17) i h i h $ $ h h ~ h ~ f (~ + ~ ) = ~ f (~ ) + ~ Lf +k~ kRf (~ ) Lg +k~ kRg (~ ): g ~u h g ~u k ~ k . from (9.2.2.14) gives (9.2.2.21 The Chain Rule.16) Then ~ 2 V and ~ + ~ = f (~ + ~ ) 2 Dg .15). DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS Example 9. and Rg (~ ) ! ~ as ~ ! ~ . Suppose f is di erentiable at ~ and ~ is di erentiable at u v ~u u g ~ . W are Euclidean vector spaces Df is an open subset of U .12) $ ~~ $ ~ ~ ~ Let Lf = rf (~ ) and Lg = r~ (~ ).

2.2.17) the triangle and Schwarz inequalities gives ~ h k~ k k~ k k $f k + kRf (~ )k : k h L (9. so ~ f is di erentiable u g v 1 g ~ ~ g ~ ~ ~~ ~ 1 1 at ~ and satis es 9. Dg is an open subset of V . QED. GRADIENTS: DEFINITION AND SIMPLE PROPERTIES 101 ~ 0 This is exactly (9.15) if we de ne Rg f (~ ) = 0 and.2.2. at v = f (~ ). and suppose g (9.12. Suppose f is di erentiable at ~ 2 Df u and that g has a derivative.9.12 is r(g f )^ = (rf^) ^^)@v g = (@v g)rf ^. Hence h 0 k 0 k h ~ h 0 Rf g (~ ) ! ~ as h ! 0. and u ~ g 1 g 11 ~ ~ 1 r~ = ^@v~ = ^^@v g.2.2.2.2. 1 ~ 11 Dot ^ on the right to obtain 9. If we regard R ~ 1 as a one-dimensional Euclidean space and consider f = f ^ and ~ = g^. for ~ 6= ~ . Thus 9. then g 1 ~ f is di erentiable at ~ . example (9.20.19) Therefore.2. Then ~ f has a derivative at u and g v ~ g ~ ~ ~g v v ~ @u(~ f )(u) = @uf (u) r~ (~ ) ~ = f (u): g ~ Proof: Example 9. @uf (u).22 Suppose Df is an open subset of Euclidean space U . we have ~ ! ~ . ~ is di erentiable at ~ = v^. Then g f : Df ! R is di erentiable at u ~ ! and u ~ ~ u r(g f )(~ ) = @v g(v)] rf (~ ) v = f (~ ): u u (9.21) .2. Example 9. 1 ~ is di erentiable at ~ = f (u). as ~ ! ~ .18) khk Applying to (9.2.23 Suppose Df is an open subset of R. and k~ k=k~ k remains bounded. But rf = rf )^.2. and ~ ~ ~ f : Df ! Dg .20) Proof: This fact is presumably well known to the reader.21). It is mentioned here only to show that it follows from the chain rule. and Dg is an open subset of R. and f : Df ! Dg and g : Dg ! R. at u 2 Df . de ne h 0 k ~ h ~ h $ ~ ~ k Rg f (~ ) = Rf (~ ) Lg + k~ k Rg (~ ): (9. Suppose f has a derivative. @v g(v). ~ : Dg ! W .2. and r(~ f ) = r(g f )^.

f ~ = IDg g ~ ~ u ~g v ~ u $ and ~ f = IDf . by the chain u 1 ~ g ~ 1 g ~ rule. QED. U and V are Euclidean vector spaces. u g v ~u Proof: ~ Let Df be the domain of f . ~ f is di erentiable.2) .3 Components of gradients ~m) is a xed Throughout this chapter. rf (~ ) r~ (~ ) = rIDf (~ ) = I U and g ~ ~g v ~ ~ u ~ v I r~ (~ ) rf (~ ) = rIDg (~ ) =$V . (~1 b b ~m). basis ( ~ 1 ~ De nition 9.24 Suppose f and ~ are inverse to one another. 9.1) h~ i ~ fi (~ ) = f (~ ) i = f (~ ) ~i : u u u ~ ~n is the i'th covariant The ith contravariant component function of f relative to ~1 ~ component function of f relative to ~ 1 ~ n. and ( ~1 ~n) is a xed basis for V . u ~n is (9. for every ~ 2 Df .2.2. for any ~ 2 Df . Therefore @u (~ f ) exists and r(~ f ) = ^@u (~ f ).12) and dot 1 on the left to obtain (9. an open subset of Euclidean space U . By hypothesis. u h ~ ii ~ f i(~ ) = f (~ ) = f (~ ) ~ i: u u u Evidently ~ f = f i ~i = fi ~ i: (9. g ~ g ~ ^ Substitute these expressions in (9. with dual basis for U with dual basis (~1 b b ~ ~ n). Therefore.102 CHAPTER 9. By the chain rule. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS ~ ~~u 1 ~ f is di erentiable at ~ = u^. Let Dg be the ~ g domain of ~ . Df is an open subset of U . That is.3.3.2. ~ ~ Example 9. Then rf (~ ) and r~ (~ ) are inverse to one another. with rf (~ ) = ^@uf (u). it is f i : Df ! R where.36 The i'th covariant component function of f relative to ~1 fi : Df ! R where.3.21). and f is di erentiable at g ~~u ~g v ~ and ~ is di erentiable at ~ = f (~ ). an open subset of Euclidean space V . and f : Df ! V .

4) ~ ) Suppose f is di erentiable at ~ . If they are. Then it satis es (9.2. Let ~1 ~ b ~u @ f (uj~j )=@ui exists at ~ = uj~j .5) (9.18 Let ~1 ~n be any basis for V . By remark 9. and its gradient u is (9. Let Df be an open subset of U b b ~ ~ b and suppose f : Df ! V . Then by example 9. we abbreviate it as u b ~u ~u ~m be the basis dual to ~1 ~m .4) follows from (D-14) and (9.2.17 so is the sum fi ~ i = f . then u h~ ~ i ~~u ~~ u rf (~ ) = rf (~ ) i ~ i = rfi(~ ) ~ i: u Proof: h~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ u rfi (~ ) = rf (~ ) i = rf (~ ) ~i u u (9. In summary u b u ~ jb ~(~ ) := @ui f (~ ) := @ f (u i~j ) ~u @i f u @u ~(u ~j ~u ~u @ i f (~ ) := @ui f (~ ) := @ f @uj b ) : i (9.3.3. ( Suppose all the fi are di erentiable at ~ . Dotting ~i on the u right in each term of (9.3. By example 9.3.3).2. abbreviate it as @ui f (~ ) or @ i f (~ ) .3.2.37 Let ~1 ~m be any basis for U .43. fi is di erentiable at ~ .3.4).2. so it is di erentiable at ~ . If the partial derivative b b b b @ui f (~ ) or @i f (~ ) .9.6) . QED. ~ Then f : Df ! V is di erentiable at ~ 2 Df i all n covariant component functions u fi : Df ! R are di erentiable at ~ . Let Df be an open subset of U .3.3).4) produces h i fi(~ + ~ ) = fi(~ ) + ~ rf (~ ) ~i + k~ kRi(~ ) u h u h ~~u h h ~ where Ri = R ~i. We can regard ~ i as a constant u function on Df . u h lim R (~ ) = 0 ~ !~ i h 0 De nition 9.3.3) (9.3. Then (9. If the partial derivative @ f (uj~j )=@ui exists at ~ = uj~j . Then f (uj~j ) is a V -valued function of the real variables ~ b u1 un.20 the product u ~ f(i) ~ (i) is di erentiable at ~ .3. COMPONENTS OF GRADIENTS 103 Theorem 9.

See example 9.104 CHAPTER 9. Suppose Df is an open subset of ively. 0 Note: If dim U = 1. with dual bases (~1 b b ~ U and f : Df ! V and ~ 2 Df .2.3. @t f (tx + ty) = 0 x y 0 ^ ^ @t (tx + ty)] rf (~ ) = 0 at t = 0. To get (9.3. @ f (~ ) = 0. and ~u @if (~ ) = ~i rf (~ ) b ~~u ~u @ i f (~ ) = ~i rf (~ ) b ~~u ~~u rf (~ ) = ~i @i f (~ ) = ~i @ i f (~ ): b ~u b ~u Proof: (9. But obviously.2.3.8 is obtained similarly. Then @ f (~ ) = 0. so @t f (tx + ty) = 1 at t = 0.23.3. But f (tx + ty) = t. if f is di erentiable at ~ = uj~j then the partial derivative u b ~ b of f (uj~j ) with respect to ui exists (hold all uj xed except for ui) and is h i equal to @i(uj~j ) rf (~ ). Then rf (~ ) = I U rf (~ ) = ~i~i rf (~ ) = ~i @i f (~ ) and bb bb ~ ~u L ~ ~u bb ~ ~u b ~u rf (~ ) =$U rf (~ ) = ~i~i rf (~ ) = ~i @ i f (~ ).9) use the fact $ ~ ~u $ ~ ~u bb ~ ~u b ~u that I U = ~i~i = ~i~i. y be an orthonormal basis for U and de ne f : U ! R by f (~ ) = 0. Then by example 9. Let dim U = 2.7) (9. However. and Df is an open subset of U .19 is true. Let x. This ^ ^ ~ 0 ^ ^ ^ ^ contradiction shows that f is not di erentiable at ~ .19 Suppose ~1 ~m is any basis for U . V = R.3. by the de nition of @i. Suppose f is di erentiable at ~ .3. that converse is false.8) (9.19.7).9) ~ By example 9.3. the converse of theorem 9. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS Theorem 9. Then the partial u u .3.20 Suppose (~1 b ~m ) and ( ~1 ~n) are bases for U and V respectb ~m) and ( ~ 1 ~ n). 9. @iuj = i j b ~~u so @i (uj~j ) = ~i : b b Thus we have (9. If f is di erentiable at ~ 2 Df then the partial derivatives @if (~ ) and u ~u @ i f (~ ) all exist.23. if dim U 2. ^ ^ 0 px2 + y2 if x2 + y2 6= 0. b b ~ ~ ~u and f : Df ! V . Theorem 9. A famous example is this.3. so if f is f (xx + yy) = xy= ^ ^ x 0 y 0 ~ 0 di erentiable at ~ then rf (~ ) = 0^ + 0^ = ~ .2.

We suppose that f and g $ $ are di erentiable at ~ 2 D.15) ~~u b rf (~ ) = ~i @i fj (~ ) ~ j : u This is equivalent to (9.4.12).3. @if (~ ) and @ifj (~ ) exist because f and fj are di erentiable at ~ . X are Euclidean spaces. W .3.18.13) rf (~ ) = rfj (~ ) ~ j : u ~u By (9.13) gives (9.3. Equation (9.3. and so do the gradients rfj (~ ). u . V .9) applied to fj gives (9.14) ~ u b rfj (~ ) = ~i @ifj (~ ): u This is equivalent to (9. and we want to calculate r( f g )(~ ).12) Proof: By theorem 9.7).3. We want to show that f g : D ! V X is di erentiable at u ~ $ $ u ~ .4.3. Substituting it in (9. GRADIENTS OF DOT PRODUCTS 105 ~u ~ u derivatives @if (~ ) and @ifj (~ ) exist.3.3. that D is an open $ $ $ $ subset of U .3. (9. and that f : D ! V W and g : D ! W X .3.9.19. ~i rf (~ ) = @i f (~ ) and ~i rfj (~ ) = @ifj (~ ) .10) (9.4 Gradients of dot products In this chapter we suppose that U .3. Therefore dotting b ~~u b ~ u u ~i on the left throughout (9.3.3.11) (9. fj is di erentiable at ~ so rfj (~ ) exists.13) gives b ~u @if (~ ) = @ifj (~ ) ~ j : u This is equivalent to (9.3.3. By theorem u ~ u ~u ~ 9.3. i h~ ~~u (9. Moreover u h ~ i @i f (~ ) j = @ifj (~ ) u u h~ i rfj (~ ) = @ifj (~ ) u u h~ ~ i i rf (~ ) ij = @ifj (~ ): u u (9.10). By u u 9.16) 9.11).3.

u h ~ u h $ $ ~ u But what is r( f g )(~ )? We need Lemma 9. so (9.4.4. Then v~ u~ x .1) the h h 0 expression ~ r $ (~ ) $ (~ )+ $ (~ ) h~ r $ (~ )i h ~ f u g u f u h ~ g u (9.23 If P 2 V W . $ $ $ $ f (~ + ~ ) = f (~ ) + ~ r f (~ ) + k~ k Rf (~ ) u h u h ~ u h h $ g (~ + ~ ) = $ (~ ) + ~ r $ (~ ) + k~ k Rg (~ ): g u h ~ g u h $ h u h Dotting the rst equation into the second gives $ $ $ $ $ $ ( f g )(~ + ~ ) = ( f g )(~ ) + ~ r f (~ ) g (~ ) u h u h ~ u u h $ $ $ i + f (~ ) ~ r g (~ ) + k~ k Rf g (~ ) u h ~ u h h where (9. and Q 2 U W X then h h i h i P ~ Q = ~ (12) P (12)Q : h h Proof: Since both sides of this equation are linear in P and Q.106 CHAPTER 9. say P = ~ w.4. Q = ~ w0~ .2) for all ~ 2 U .1) h $ $ $ $ $ i h u h h ~ u h ~ u h Rf g (~ ) = f (~ ) Rg (~ ) + ~ r f (~ ) ~ r g (~ ) =k~ k $ $ $ $ + ~ r f (~ ) Rg (~ )+ Rf (~ ) g (~ ) h ~ u h h u h $ $ $ $ i h h h + Rf (~ ) ~ r g (~ ) + k~ k Rf (~ ) Rg (~ ): h h ~ u $ $ An application of Schwarz's inequality proves that Rf g (~ ) ! 0 as ~ ! ~ . In (9. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS Method 1: No Bases.4. By hypothesis. it su ces to prove the equation when P and Q are polyads.4.1) shows that f g is di erentiable at ~ and that r( f g h u $ $ )(~ ) is that tensor in U V X such that ~ r( f g )(~ ) is equal to (9.4. ~ 2 U .2) $ $ ~ $ $ depends linearly on ~ .

u By example (9.4. and h u ~ ~ vx ~ f(12) P (12)Q]g = h = = = ~ f(12) P w0~ ~ ]g h ~ ux ~ f(12) ~ (w w0)~ ~ ]g h v ~ ~ ux (w w0)~ (12) ~~ ~ ] ~ ~ h vux (w w0)~ ~~~ ] = (w w0)(~ ~ )~~ : ~ ~ h uvx ~ ~ h u vx 107 From lemma (9.2.4.17 ~ ~ ~ r(fjk gk l ) = (rfjk )gk l + fjk (rgk l ): Then (9.4. $ $ Since f and g are di erentiable at ~ .2. W . so are the products of fj(k)g(k) l .4. GRADIENTS OF DOT PRODUCTS h i ~ h P ~ Q = (~ ~ )(w w0)~~ .5) and (9.3) Method 2: Introduce bases in U .2. and the results are generally easier to use than (9.4. X and take components. and from examples 9.4) and (9.10) imply h $ik $ $ $ @i ( f g ) = @i f gk l + fjk @i g l jl jk @i (fjk gk l ) = (@ifjk )gk l + fjk (@i gk l ): therefore $ $ $ $ $ $ @i ( f g ) = @i f g + f @i g jl jl jl .4.3.4.20 and 9.4) (9.4. By example (9.3).9.20). so are their component functions fjk and gk l .4.17) so are the sums fjk gk l . V .2) as ~ r $ (~ ) $ (~ ) + (12) $ (~ ) 12r $ (~ ) : ~ g u h ~ f u g u f u Therefore h ~ i $ ~ $ g u ~ $ u g u g u r( f $)(~ ) = r f (~ ) $ (~ ) + (12) f (~ ) (12)r $ (~ ) : u (9.3.2.11) imply (9. This is the procedure likely to be used in practical calculations.23) it follows that we can write (9.5) $ $ Now fjk gk l = ( f g )jl and so (9.

and ~ is uniquely determined by the values of its n coordinates u1 v v un. Rn becomes a Euclidean vector space if we de ne ~ ~ = uivi. The real number i = ci(~ ) = ei C (~ ) is the \value of the i'th coordinate v ^ ~v at the point ~ .4. An orthonormal basis for Rn is e1 = (1 0 uv ^ 0).4.38 Suppopse DV is an open subset of Euclidean space V .4.3) is very useful.4. De nition 9. e2 = (0 1 0 ^ 0) en = ^ (0 0 1). we obtain ~n is the dual to the basis we have b (9.6) reduces to $ $ $ $ $ $ @u ( f g )(u) = @u f (u) g (u)+ f (u) @u g (u): $ If f is one dimensional.3) and (9. for ~ 2 Rn and u (v 1 vn) 2 R we de ne ~ + ~ = (u1 + v1 u v a 2 R we de ne a~ = (au1 u aun).7) nor (9.4. ~ $ $ ~ $ $ $ ~ $ The hoped for formula.108 CHAPTER 9. r( f g ) = r( f ) g +( f ) (r g ).10) is ~ g ~ u g ~ g u r(f $)(u) = rf (~ ) $ (u) + f (u)r $ (~ ): (9. A \coordinate system" on DV is an open subset DU of Rn. together with an everywhere di erentiable ~ ~ bijection V : DU ! DV whose inverse mapping C : DV ! DU is also everywhere di erentiable.2.9) 9.5 Curvilinear coordinates The set Rn of real n-tuples ~ = (u1 u un) is a vector space if. for ~ and ~ = u v un + vn) and. is generally false. It is ~ $ true if one of r or f .2. One usually works with (9. (9.23. where ~1 b b introduced in U .8) (9.7) can be shown to be equal by lemma 9.7) ~ $ g ~ $ g b $ g r( f $) = (r f ) $ +~i f (@i $) : The last terms in (9.4. In fact.4.6) on the right by ~i.10).6) or (9.4.5.4. is one-dimensional. . If U is one dimensional.4. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS and h $ i $ $ $ $ $ @i( f g )(~ ) = @i f (~ ) g (~ )+ f (~ ) @i g (~ ) : u u u u u (9. neither (9.6) If we multiply (9.4. (9.4.

Thus n ~~ 1 ~v @if (~ ) = @ f V (u@ui u )] (9. Then the two n-tuples of vectors in V . then so is f V : DU ! W (by the chain rule). Note that by theorem 9.5. We will ~ ~ abbreviate @i(f V ) as @if . For any ~ 2 DV .5. are dual bases for V .21 Suppose V : DU ! DV is a curvilinear coordinate system on open ~ ~ By the de nition of a coordinate system.2. I ~~ u ~~v I rV (~ ) rC (~ ) =$U : (9. ~ ~ ~ ~ u ~~ u ~~v r(C V )(~ ) = rV (~ ) rC (~ ). v u The key to understanding vector and tensor elds in curvilinear coordinates is subset DV of Euclidean vector space V . CURVILINEAR COORDINATES 109 We have ~ (u1 v ~ ^ ~u un) = V (uiei ) = V (~ ) ui = ci (~ ) = ei C (~ ): v ^ ~v Then we will write @i~ for the partial derivative with respect to ui.5.5. the coordinate functions ci : DV ! R are di erentiable ~ at every ~ 2 DV . Proof: De nition 9.18.9.15.4) . V C = IV jDV . let ~ = C (~ ).2) if ~ = V (u1 v ~ un). Suppose n = dim U is the number of coordinates.3.5.39 Suppose W is a Euclidean space and ~ : DU ! W is di erentiable.19 the partial derivatives @i V exist at every ~ 2 DU . Hence.3. Then dim V = n.5. By the chain rule. And by theorem 9. v u v ~ u ~u ~ v ~ v (@1 V )(~ ) @nV (~ ) and (rc1 (~ ) rcn(~ )). g ~ Theorem 9. C V = IU jDU .3) ~ ~ Similarly.1) ~ ~ ~ If f : DV ! W is di erentiable. By example 9. That is g @~ (uj ej ) : @i~ (~ ) = g @ui^ gu (9. r(IU jDU ) =$U . so ~~v ~~ u I rC (~ ) rV (~ ) =$V : (9.5.

5. they span V .5. M L= I V so L M = IV : (9. u $ ~u ~~v ^ ~ v Now by (9. Hence they are linearly independent. There are a1 v u an 2 R such that ~ = ai~ i.5) $ $ $ According to (9.3) and $ $ $ (7. Since L is a bijecu 0 tion. L M = I U so M L = IU : (9.5.4. and rC (~ ) 2 ~~v $ V U .4) and (7. Since ~ 1 u 0 u ~ n are linearly independent.20). (9.5.3) .5. so rC (~ ) =M for some M 2 L(V ! U ).24 If U and V are nite dimensional vector spaces and L : U ! V is a ~ n is a basis for U .1 .4.3.5. u Proof of lemma: Suppose ai L(~ i) = ~ for a1 u 0 an 2 R. Therefore U and V are isomorphic. rC (~ ) ej = rcj (~ ).1 ~ A more intuitive way to put the proof of (9.5. the two n-tuples of vectors (@1 V (~ ) @nV (~ )) and (rc1(~ ) rcn(~ )) are dual to one-another. uj = cj (V (u1 ~ ~ ~ @i cj (V (u1 un ))] = @i V rcj .8).6) According to (D-1). Hence they are bases for V . and each is the basis dual to the other. ai~ i = ~ .5.5. ai = = an = 0. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS ~~ u ~~ u $ ~~v Now rV (~ ) 2 U V so rV (~ ) =L for some L 2 L(U ! V ). let ~ 2 V . And ei I U ^ ~~ u ^ ej = ei ej = i j .20). Next.7) ~u ~u ~ v ~ v Thus. By (9. 1 un )) so i j = @i uj = . ei rV (~ ) = @i V (~ ).3) we obtain ~u ~ v @i V (~ ) rcj (~ ) = i j : (9. Hence they have the same dimension. then L(~ 1) u u L(~ n) is a basis for V .5. Then ~ = L(~ ) = L(ai~ i) = u u v u u aiL(~ i). linear bijection.3. Hence L(~ 1) u u L(~ n) span V . and ~ 1 u Lemma 9.110 CHAPTER 9. Since dim V = n.5) and (9. According to (9. Therefore if we dot ei on the left and ej on the right on each side of ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ (9.6) together imply that L and M are bijections and M = L. There is a ~ 2 U such that u v u ~ = L(~ ). Then L(ai~ i) = ~ . Hence u L(~ 1) u L(~ n) are linearly independent.7) is as follows.

It is often convenient ~ to express f in terms of a basis for W which varies from point to point in DV . ~1 (~ ) v v v ~ N (~ ).5.i j k (~ ) ~ )j (~ ): v v v (9. CURVILINEAR COORDINATES 111 ~ Corollary 9. by (9.10) Now @i ~ j (~ ) is a vector in W . f is called a tensor eld.9) (9.5. is called the covariant derivative of the vector eld ~ f : DV ! W .i j k f k is often abbreviated Dif j v and. If W is a tensor ~ product of other vector spaces.i j k (~ ) 2 R such that v v Then h i ~ ~~v rf (~ ) = @i f j + .5. b ~ v ~ A function f : DV ! W is often called a vector eld on DV .5. Suppose also that at each ~ 2 DV .8) Suppose that for i 2 f1 N g.5. The scalars .9) is called the \connection formula" for the basis ~ 1(~ ) v v ~ in the coordinate system V : DU ! V . h i ~ ~~v rf (~ ) = (rci)@i f j ~j ~ ~ = (rci)(@i f j ) ~j + f j (rci)(@i ~j ): @i ~k (~ ) = . At each ~ 2 DV we can write v ~v f (~ ) = f j (~ ) ~j (~ ) = fj (~ ) ~ j (~ ): v v v v Then. .8). so there are coe cients .i j k f k (rci) ~j (~ ): v ~ N (~ ) Equation (9. i : DV ! W is di erentiable everywhere ~N (~ ) is a basis for W . Then ~ i : DV ! W is also di erentiable in with dual basis ~ 1(~ ) v v DV .5.8) is (9.5. in the older literature.31 If f : DV ! W is di erentiable (W being a Euclidean space) then ~~v ~ v ~v rf (~ ) = rci(~ )@if (~ ): Proof: (9.5.9. The expression @i f j + .9) with ~i = rci(~ ).3. in DV .i j k (~ ) are the \Chrisv to el symbols" at ~ . (9.

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS ~ N ) is often taken to be a q'th order polyad If W = q V . ~ ~ ~ ~ Then @i (rcj ) @k V + rcj @i (@k V ) = 0.i k l f jl: . ~ Therefore we need the analogue of (9.112 CHAPTER 9.5.12).5.5. if ~ W = V V and f : DV ! V V .14) (9. rcj @k V = j k . From (9.5.13). then ( ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ basis constructed from (rc1 rcn) and (@1 V @nV ). For example.11) ~ The Christo el symbols .12) implies In general this will not be true for .5.9).5. we might write $ ij ~ ~ f = f @i V @j V : (9.9) for (@k V )(@l V ).i j k for @i V ~ @nV are de ned by (9.5.5.i j k (@j V )(@l V ) + .12) ~ ~ @i (@k V ) = .5.15) (9.11).i j k (@j V ): ~ ~ If we use (@k V )(@l V ) as the basis ~1 h ~ ~i ~ ~ ~ ~ @i (@k V )(@l V ) = .5.5.17) ~ ~ Then we need the connection formula for (rck )(rcl ) analogous to (9.12) (9. From (9. we might prefer to write $ ~ ~ f = fij (rci)(rcj ): (9. It leads to ~ $ ~ ~ ~ r f = (Dif jk )(rci)(@j V )(@k V ) where (9. Instead of (9.5.i j l f lk + .i j l (@k V )(@j V ): ~N for V V .7). . The Christo el symbols ~ ~ introduced by that analogue will not be new.5.i j k in (9.5.i j k = .16) Dif jk := @i f jk + . we have from (9.5.k j i : Note that (9.5.12) for rck .13) ~ ~ This is the connection formula (9.

i j k (rck ): (9.. we say f is p times di erentiable in D. u u b Let @i = @=@ i ... ~ Now suppose f : D ! V is P times di erentiable in D. in which case we have another function. .9. For any ~ 2 D write ~ = ui~i .i j k .i l j flk .i l k fjl : $ (9.19) (9. If rpf : D ! ( pU ) V exists. Thus ..5. Take all components with respect to these bases.6. Then ~~ rf = ~i @i f b ~ h i h i ~~~ ~ b ~ b b ~ rrf = r ~i @if = ~j @j ~i @if = ~j~i @j @i f bb ~ . Then rf (~ ) 2 U V for each u ~ 2 U .. ~ ~ @i (rcj ) = .18) Therefore. so we can de ne a function u ~~ rf : D ! U V: (9. MULTIPLE GRADIENTS AND TAYLOR'S FORMULA 113 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ @i (rcj ) @k V = .i j k rck = ~ ~ ~ ~ $ ~ @i (rcj ) (@k V )(rck ) = @i (rcj ) I V = @i (rcj ).20) 9..i l k rcj @l V = .6.6 Multiple gradients and Taylor's formula ~m) and ( ~1 ~n) respectLet U and V be Euclidean spaces with xed bases.6..5.2) ~ ~ ~ The process can continue.1) This function may itself be di erentiable everywhere in V . ~~~ rrf : D ! U U V: (9. (~1 b b ively. Hence.i l k j l = . where ~ u ~ ~ ~ r f (~ ) = (Difjk )(rci)(rcj )(rck ) Difjk = @ifjk . Let D be an open subset of U ~ ~~u and suppose f : D ! V is di erentiable at each ~ 2 D. . ~ ~ rpf = ~i1 ~ip @i1 b b ~ @ip f : .5.

6.3) ~ phpirpf = hi1 h ~ ~ Fix ~ 2 U so that ~ + ~ 2 D. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS Thus. if we write h (p factors ) we have ~ p = ~~ h hh ~ h hip @i1 ~ @ip f : (9.114 CHAPTER 9. ^ ~ ~u tp@tp~ (0) = (th)phpirpf (~ ): g ~ (t) = g P X 1 ^ p ~ p~ p~ u p! (th) hpir f (~ ) + jtj Rp(t): p=0 . Let h u h ~u ^ ~ (t) = f (~ + th) g where ^ h h h = ~ =k~ k: P X tp p P~ p! @g (0) + jtj RP (T ) p=0 By the ordinary Taylor formula in one independent variable ~ (t) = g ~ where RP (t) ! 0 as t ! 0. for any ~ 2 U . But ^ ^~u ^ ^ ~u ^ @t~ (t) = h rf (~ + th) = hi@i f (~ + th) g h i ^ ~ ^ ~u ^ @t2~ (t) = (h r) hi@i f (~ + th) g h i ^ h ~u ^ = hj @j ^ i@i f (~ + th) ^^ ~u ^ = hj hi@j @i f (~ + th) ^ ~ ~u ^ = (h)2h2ir2f (~ + th): ^ ~ ~u ^ Similarly @tp~ (t) = (h)phpirpf (~ + th) so g ^ ~ ~u g @tp~ (0) = (h)phpirpf (~ ) and Thus.

~ $ u For U V use the basis ~j ~k .3) $ ~ In theorem 9.7.4) .44 Suppose ~1 b ~n is a xed basis (9.7 Di erential identities $ the divergence of T at ~ to be u De nition 9. Then b ~ $ u r T (~ ) = @i T ik ~k or.7. equivalently. DIFFERENTIAL IDENTITIES 115 Setting t = k~ k in this formula gives h P X 1 ~ p ~ p~ ~u h u ~ p~ f (~ + ~ ) = p! (h) hpi(r) f (~ ) + khk Rp(t) p=0 P X 1 i1 ip ~u h ~ h = h h @i1 @ip f (~ ) + k~ kpRp(~ ) p! p=0 (9.4) ~ h with Rp(~ ) ! 0 as ~ ! ~ .7. Then b bb h jk~i~ ~ i $ $ $ $ $ ~i~ ~ ~ ~ u r T (~ ) = I U h2ir T (~ ) = I U h2i @iT b bj n = @i T jk I U h2ib bj k = u @i T jk(~i ~j ) ~k = @iT jk i j ~k = @i T ik ~k .7.6. We de ne u ~ $ u I ~ $ u r T (~ ) =$U h2ir T (~ ): (9.7.1) ~m is a xed basis for U and ~1 b @ $ u b for V .7.3.40 Suppose U and V are Euclidean spaces. replace V by U V and f : D ! V by T : D ! U V . $ ~ $ u and T : D ! U V is di erentiable at ~ 2 D.16) r T (~ )@iT jk~i~j ~k . Then g ~ ~g ~ ~ g ~ ~g r (f ~ ) = (r f )~ + f (r~ ): (9.3. D is an open subset of U . h 0 9.32 Suppose f : D ! U and ~ : D ! V . Then r T (~ ) 2 U U V .20.7. T = T ik~i ~k . k ~ $ u r T (~ ) = @iT ik : Proof: Remark 9.2) (9. Write ~ = ui~i .9. @i = @ui .7. Then by (9. b b Corollary 9.

3: Proof: Use components. one for each of the two unimodular ~ $ u ~ $ u r T (~ ) = Ah2ir T (~ ): (9. or simply u u ~ $ u r T (~ ).7.3 is positively oriented.7.41 Suppose (U A) is an oriented three-dimensional Euclidean space and $ V is another Euclidean space.7) h i ~ $ r T = Aijk @j Tkl ~i ~ l b ~ $ r T i l or equivalently.7.5) alternating tensors over U .7. Then b ~m) is a basis for U and ( ~1 b ~n) is a basis for V (9.45 Suppose (~1 b $ and T = Tkl~k ~ l . Then. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS ^ y ^ x Figure 9. written rA T (~ ).7.7. Remark 9. is de ned to be $ Note 9.116 ^ z CHAPTER 9. Then the A-curl of T at ~ .6) (9.7. = Aijk @j Tkl: . In this form it is obvious. (9.4) is equivalent to @i (f igk ) = (@if i)gk + f i(@i gk ). because the two A's di er only in sign.7. The other curl is the negative of the one we use.5 There are two curls for T : D ! U V . because of (9. Suppose D is an open subset of U and T : D ! U V $ ~ $ u is di erentiable at ~ 2 D.2). We will always choose the right handed A de ned on page 61 so Figure 9. De nition 9.

e.35 If T : D ! U V is twice continuously di erentiable then r (r T ) $ ~ ~ $ ~ ~ $ ~ ~ $ = r(r T ) .33 If f : D ! V is twice continuously di erentiable on D (i. rrf : D ! U U V exists and is continuous at every ~ 2 D) then u ~ ~~ 0 r rf =$ : Proof: (9. Because of the continuity assumption.7. r (r T ) is often written r2 T :) .7.7.7. r (r T ).7. (N. @j @k = @k @j so Aijk @j @k fl = Aijk @k @j fl = Aikj @j @k fl = .Aikj . $ ~ ~ $ Corollary 9.8) ~ ~~ ~~ (r rf )i l = Aijk @j (rf )kl = Aijk @j @k fl . DIFFERENTIAL IDENTITIES 117 Proof: ~ $ ~ $ ~ $ (r T )jkl = @j Tkl and (Ah2ir T )i l = Aijk (r T )jkl.9) ~ ~ $ ~ $ r r T l = @i(r T )i l = @i Aijk @j Tkl = Aijk @i @j Tkl. Again this = 0 because @i@j = @j @i and Aijk = .Aijk @j @k fl = 0: $ Corollary 9. ~ ~~~ Corollary 9.34 If T : D ! U V is twice continuously di erentiable on D then ~ ~ $ r (r T ) = 0: Proof: (9.9.7.B.

r (r T ) = r(r T ) . r (r T ) : ~ ~ $ ~ ~ $ ~ ~ $ Thus.7) reads b b b ~ $ (r T )il = "ijk @j Tkl. @j (@j Til ) ~ $ ~ $ = @i (r T )l . @j @j Til = @i(@j Tjl ) . @j (r T )jil ~ ~ $ ~ ~ $ = r(r T ) .7. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS Proof: Let (~1 ~2 ~3 ) be orthonormal and positively oriented. r (r T ) : il il il il QED. so (9. Then ~ ~ $ ~ $ r (r T ) il = "ijk @j (r T )kl = "ijk @j "kmn@m Tnl ] = "ijk "kmn@j @m Tnl = ( im jn .118 CHAPTER 9. . in jm ) @j @m Tnl = @j @i Tjl .

An example of a \mass distribution" is (dim U ). All bounded open sets D do have volumes. any mass distribution can be extended 119 . \Measure Theory.1. then S1 \ S2 . S1= S2 and S1 S2 are measurable-m and m(S1 S2 ) = P m(S ) if no Si and Sj have common points (i. iii) If S1 S2 is any nite or in nite sequence of sets which are measurable-m .dimensional volume. or measure. and S is called \measurable-m") i) If S is measurable-m. then m(S ) 0. that mass is written m(S ). A function m which assigns real numbers to certain subsets of D is called a mass distribution. 1950.1 De nition of the Integral 10. on D if it has these properties: (if S is a subset of D to which m does assign a mass.Chapter 10 Integral Calculus of Tensors 10. ii) D and the empty set are measurable-m. As with volume..e." Van Nostrand.1 Mass distributions or measures Let D be any subset of Euclidean space U .) The general theory of mass distributions is discussed in Halmos. if S1 S2 are mutually disjoint. Some subsets of D are so irregular that a volume cannot be de ned for them.

while dl(~ ) is the in nitesimal element of such length at ~ . and the mass in any measurable set S is m(S ) = S dA(~ ) (~ ).1.120 CHAPTER 10.1. The reader will be presumed to be familiar with the following mass distributions (but not perhaps with the general theory). (~ ) is the density of mass per unit of u Example 10.27 D is a curve in U .28 D is a nite set of points. measurable subset S of D is m(S ) = S u u Example 10. INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS to permit in nite masses.2 Integrals Let F : D ! R be a real-valued function on D. and the mass in any measurable set S is m(S ) = u R dV (~ ) (~ ) where dV (~ ) is the in nitesimal element of (dim U )-dimensional volume in u u u S U. We will denote R this integral by D dm(~ )f (~ ). dA(~ ) is the in nitesimal element u u of such area at ~ . 1 dimensional \area" at ~ .1. The reader is presumed to know how to calculate the integral of f on D with respect to a mass distribution m. ~ 1 u ~ N . Example 10. (dim U )-dimensional volume at ~ . Then the mass in any u u u R dl(~ ) (~ ). 1 dimensional \surface" in U .1.25 D is an open subset of U .1.1.1.26 Z D dm(~ )f (~ ) = u u Z D dV (~ ) (~ )f (~ ): u u u Z D dm(~ )f (~ ) = dA(~ ) (~ )f (~ ): u u u u u S Z . The mass of any subset S of D is the sum of the masses M for which 10. and these points have masses u mN . and (~ ) is the density of mass per unit of length u m1 ~ 2 S. this integral is as follows: u u Example 10. u u u R at ~ . u Example 10. In the foregoing examples.26 D is a (dim U ) . (~ ) is the density of u mass per unit of (dim U ) .25 Example 10.

47 Suppose m is a mass distribution on D and for each v 2 f1 N g.26.28 Z D dm(~ )f (~ ) = u u Z C dl(~ ) (~ )f (~ ): u u u N X v=1 Z D dm(~ )f (~ ) = u u mv f (~ v ): u It is possible to invent functions f : D ! R so discontinuous that D dm(~ )f (~ ) u u R dm(~ )f (~ ) is always cannot be de ned in examples 10. 10. Suppose f : D ! R is de ned by f (~ ) = c if ~ 2 S . 10.1. We will not need the general theory of mass distributions.1.1. and c 2 R.4) .27.1. All we need are the following properties of integrals: R Remark 10. Suppose v f : D ! R and for each v.1. or integrable-dm. f (~ ) = 0 if u u u ~ 62 S . f jDv is integrable-dmv .1.1.1.46 Suppose D1 DN are subsets of U . (Clearly D u u de ned in example 10.1) dm(~ )f (~ ) = u u dmv (~ )(f jDv )(~ ): D v=1 Dv Remark 10.2) Remark 10. f is said to be integrable with respect to the mass distribution m. DEFINITION OF THE INTEGRAL 121 Example 10. Then cv fv : D ! R is integrable-dm and Z D dm(~ )(cv fv )(~ ) = cv u u Z D dm(~ )fv (~ ): u u (10.48 Suppose m is a mass distribution on D. de ne a mass distribution m by m(S ) = PN=1 mv (S \Dv ). On D = D1 DN .3) Remark 10. cv 2 R and fv : D ! R is measurable-m. Then f is integrable-dm and u Z D dm(~ )f (~ ) = cm(S ): u u (10.1.27 Example 10.1.1.28. Then f is integrable-dm and Z N XZ u u (10.1.1. with mass distributions m1 mN .) If the integral can be de ned.1.25 . and S is an mmeasurable subset of D.49 Suppose m is a mass distribution on D and f : D ! R and g : D ! R are both integrable-dm and f (~ ) g(~ ) for every ~ 2 U . Then u u u Z D dm(~ )f (~ )) u u Z D dm(~ )g(~ ): u u (10.1.10.

51 Suppose f : D ! R is measurable-m. Proof: Suppose ~1 v ~N 2 V and c1 v cN 2 R. Moreover.5) D D Amended version of remark 10.) We de ne Im f~ : V ! R by v ~ v ~ u v ~u u requiring for each ~ 2 V v Z ~ Corollary 10.1.47) v ~ v ~ Z h i Im f~(cv~v ) = dm(~ ) (cv~v ) f (~ ) v u v ~ u Im f~(~ ) = v D dm(~ )(~ f )(~ ): u v ~ u (10.1.1. then Im f~ 2 L(V ! R). so (cv~v ) f is v v ~ integrable-dm.42 Let U and V be Euclidean vector spaces. and (by 10. INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS Remark 10. Since V1 Vq is a Euclidean vector space when V1 Vq are.6) h i dm(~ ) cv (~v f ) (~ ) u v ~ u DZ = cv dm(~ )(~v f )(~ ) = cv Im f~(~v ): u v ~ u v = D ZD . Let f : D ! V .4) Z Z dm(~ )f (~ ) u u dm(~ ) jf (~ )j : u u (10. it su ces to consider vector-valued functions.50 Suppose m is a mass distribution on D and f : D ! R is integrabledm. so by remark (10.1. Then so is jf j.1. ~ ~ and let m be a mass distribution on D.1.1. and jf j g. Then f is integrable-dm. Then cv~v 2 V . De nition 10.122 CHAPTER 10. and f is integrable-dm i jf j is integrable-dm. (cv~v ) f = cv (~v f ). Let D be a subset of U . Our goal is simply to extend the idea of integrating a function f with respect to a mass distribution so that we can integrate vector-valued and tensor-valued function.52 Suppose f : D ! R and g : D ! R are measurable-m. (Obviously we v v ~ de ne ~ f by requiring (~ f )(~ ) = ~ f (~ ) for all ~ 2 D. Then so is jf j : D ! R. and g is integrable-dm.1.1. If f is integrable-dm then Z Z dm(~ )f (~ ) u u dm(~ ) jf (~ )j : u u D D Remark 10.50: Remark 10.36 If f : D ! V is integrable-dm. We say that f is integrable-dm if for every xed ~ 2 V the function (~ f ) : D ! R is integrable-dm.1.

If Q = ~1~2 ~q then (QhqiT )(~ ) = T (~ )]hqiQ = u u vv v u u T (~ )](~1 u v ~q ) so (10. and m is a mass ~ ~n) is a basis distribution on D. there is a unique vector V (m f ) 2 V such that for all ~ 2 V .1.10.9) for any (~1 v 10.2 Integrals in terms of components Remark 10.1. Suppose ( ~1 .37 If f : D ! V is integrable-dm.1. then D dm(~ )T (~ ) is the unique u u tensor in V1 Vq such that for every Q 2 V1 Vq Z D dm(~ )T (~ ) hqiQ = u u Z D dm(~ )(QhqiT )(~ ): u u (10. then the dot product on V is the generalized dot product hqi. Suppose f : D ! V is integrable-dm.1.8) Here (QhqiT )(~ ) := Qhqi T (~ )]. v v v ~ ~ Proof: Immediate from theorem 10 and corollary 10. From this de nition and ~ u ~u D (10. we denote the vector V (m f ) by Note 10. Im f~(~ ) = ~ V (m f ). Then T : D ! V1 Vq is integrable-dm if for every Q 2 V1 Vq . Z D dm(~ )f T (~ )] (~1 u u v ~q )g v (10.1.7) D D R and that the vector dm(~ )f (~ ) is uniquely determined by the demand that (10.6 If V = V1 Vq .1.1.1.8) implies the special case v Z D dm(~ )T (~ ) (~1 u u v ~ q ) 2 V1 v ~q ) = v Vq . INTEGRALS IN TERMS OF COMPONENTS 123 ~ ~ ~ Corollary 10.53 Suppose U and V are Euclidean spaces. it follows that for every ~ 2 V v Z Z dm(~ )f (~ ) ~ = dm(~ )(~ f )(~ ) u ~u v u v ~ u (10.6). D U .7) u ~u hold for all ~ 2 V .2.1. R dm(~ )f (~ ) and call it the integral of f with respect to m. If it is.43 If f : D ! V is integrable-dm.36.2.1. v D ~ ~ ~ De nition 10. R the function QhqiT : D ! R is integrable-dm.

for p 2 f1 qg.2. . Then T i1 iq : D ! R is integrable-dm and Corollary 10.2. Suppose T i1 iq = Z D dm(~ )T i1 iq (~ ) = u u Z D dm(~ )T (~ ) u u i1 iq : (10. Proof: ~i(1) 1 j1 ~i(qq) hqi ~(1) ~(jqq) = i1 j1 iq jq . Then the polyad bases f ~i(1) ~i(qq)g and is a basis for Vp. with dual basis ( ~(1p) suppose ( ~1p) q i1 ( ~(1) ~(iq) )hqiT . Suppose that for each i 2 f1 ng.43) with ~ = ~ i in (10. f i : D ! R is integrable-dm. Suppose ( ~1 ~ ~ f i = ~ i f .2.53 .2.22 Suppose U and V are Euclidean vector spaces. m is a mass qg.42.1. De ne f i := ~ i f . with dual basis ( ~(1p) 1 iq i1 f ~(1) ~(q) g are dual to one another.1. ( ~1p) ~(npp)). V1 Vq are Euclidean vector spaces. distribution on D.2. For p 2 f1 ~(npp)).53 by setting. 10.2.2.2) Proof: Immediate from lemma 10.1. D. in remark q i1 ~ng = f ~i(1) ~i(1) g and f ~ 1 ~ ng = f ~(1) ~(iq) g. 10. INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS ~ n). and T : D ! V1 Vq is integrable-dm. v Lemma 10.38 Suppose U .1) D D Proof: This is a special case of de nitions (10. f ~1 q 1 Theorem 10.25 Suppose V1 ( ( ~npp)) Vq are Euclidean spaces and.25 and remark 10. with dual basis ( ~ 1 and Z i Z i dm(~ )f (~ ) = dm(~ )f (~ ): u ~u u~ u (10.43). Then f i : D ! R is integrable-dm ~ for V . ( ( ~npp)) is a basis for Vp. and f : D ! V .124 CHAPTER 10.2. D is a subset of U m ~ ~n) is a basis for V and is a mass distribution on D. Then f is integrable-dm.

1.22 and lemma 10. ~ 2 V .49 has no analogue ~ g for vector-valued functions.1. Proof: Immediate from theorem 10. INTEGRALS IN TERMS OF COMPONENTS 125 Proof: Let ~ 2 V . However. Also. using (10.25.39 Suppose U .47. Suppose f : D ! V . and T : D ! V1 Vq are Euclidean spaces. Therefore. so vif i v v v ~ is integrable-dm by remark 10. V1 distribution on D.2. de nition 10. Then T is integrable-dm. ~ f is integrable-dm.2.42 is satis ed. Suppose T i1 iq := ( (1) ~(iq) )hqiT and that each Vp with dual basis ( (1p) T i1 iq : D ! R is integrable-dm.2. 10.1. We simply apply those remarks to c ~ the component functions of f relative to a basis for V .10.47.48.3) For any xed ~ 2 V . because f < ~ is not de ned for vectors.1. and vi = ~i ~ . v dm(~ )(~ f )(~ ) u v ~ u DZ = k~ k dm(~ )kf (~ )k: v u ~u D Z Z D dm(~ )k~ kkf (~ )k u v ~u . D U .1.3). 10. ~ f is integrable-dm and so is k~ k kf k. Each f i is integrable-dm.1. and if in remark 10.48 are true if f : D ! V instead of f : D ! R. we obtain v u ~u Z k~ k2 k~ k D dm(~ ) f (~ ) : v v u ~u Cancelling one factor k~ k gives (10.1. Then ~ f = vif i. Remark 10.46.1.2. m is a mass ( q ~np ) is a basis for Vq . and f is integrable-dm. Then k D dm(~ )f (~ )k u ~u Proof: Z Z D dm(~ )kf (~ )k: u ~u (10. j~ f j v v ~ v ~ v ~ k~ k kf k.2.5) ~ ~ ~ does have a vector analogue. Suppose ( ~1p) i1 q ~(npp) ). ~ Now it becomes obvious that remarks 10. v ~ ~ v Z D dm(~ )f (~ ) = u ~u R If we set ~ = D dm(~ )f (~ ) in this inequality. (10. v Corollary 10. and suppose f and also kf k : D ! R are integrable-dm. Thus.2. Since this is v ~ ~ true for any ~ 2 V .4).1.

126 CHAPTER 10. T is integrable-dm. Then (P T )(~ ) = P T (~ )] u u so (P T )ik (~ ) = (P T )(~ )]ik = P T (~ )]ik = P i j T jk (~ ): u u u u By hypothesis. Moreover Z dm(~ )(P T )(~ ) = P dm(~ )T (~ ) u u u u D D Z Z dm(~ )(T Q)(~ ) = dm(~ )T (~ ) Q: u u u u D D Z (10.54. D U . and m is a mass distribution on D. Q 2 X Y .5) Proof: We consider P T . Suppose P 2 V V W .7) dm(~ )(P hpiT )(~ ) = P hpi dm(~ )T (~ ) u u u u D Z Z dm(~ )(T hqiQ)(~ ) = dm(~ )T (~ ) hqiQ: u u u u D D D Z Z . X .6) (10.22. and T : D ! W X is integrable-dm. W . Y are Euclidean spaces. Hence so is P T .2.2.2.53. W .2. Y and take components with respect to these bases. V . Then so are P T : D ! V X and T Q : D ! W Y . Hence so is (P T )ik .2. Hence so is T jk. (10. INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF TENSORS We also have from remark 10. Choose bases for V .2. X . Hence so is P i j T jk . Remark 10. And ik Z dm(~ )(P T )(~ ) = dm(~ )(P T ik )(~ ) u u u u DZ DZ = dm(~ )PjiT jk (~ ) = P i j dm(~ )T jk (~ ) u u u u D D Z Z ik jk = P i j dm(~ )T (~ ) = P u u dm(~ )T (~ ) : u u D D Z Corollary 10.2.4) (10.54 Suppose U .2. take W = W1 Then Wp and X = X1 Xq . The proof for T Q is similar. and theorem 10.2.40 In remark 10.

2.55 Suppose U .1. and f : D ! V is integrable-dm.1) D D R In other words. m is a mass distri~ ~ bution on D. L 2 L(V ! W ).1 Linear mapping of integrals Remark 11.54 says this is integrable and that Z Proof: Z D ~ u dm(~ )(L f )(~ ) = u $ dm(~ )(f L)(~ ) u ~ u D Z $ = dm(~ )f (~ ) L u ~u D Z = L dm(~ )f (~ ) : u ~u D Z QED.Chapter 11 Integral Identities 11. 127 . and remark 10. D U . u ~u $ ~ u ~u Let L2 V W be the tensor corresponding to L.1. W are Euclidean spaces. L can be applied to D dm(~ )f (~ ) by applying it to the integrand. Then L f : D ! W is integrable-dm and Z ~)(~ ) = L dm(~ )f (~ ) : dm(~ )(L f u u u ~u (11. V . Then (L f )(~ ) = L f (~ )] = ~u $ ~ $ u ~ ~$ f (~ ) L= (f L)(~ ) so L f = f L.

55.128 CHAPTER 11.41 Suppose U . v u2 . with V .1. D. ~ and f : D ! V is continuously di erentiable at each ~ 2 D.2 Line integral of a gradient Theorem 11. u τ( u ) Figure 11. INTEGRAL IDENTITIES . D is an open subset of U . Suppose dl(~ ) is the in nitesimal element u u u .55. W . qV . Suppose T : D ! q V is integrable-dm. W .1: Corollary 11. V .2. u1 D C .1.1.23 Suppose U and V are Euclidean spaces. L and m as in remark 11. Suppose C is a smooth u curve in D whose two endpoints are ~ 1 and ~ 2. L replaced by q L.2) Proof: A special case of remark 11. qW and 11. Then ( q L) T : D ! q W is integral-dm and Z D dm(~ ) ( q L) T ] (~ ) = ( q L) u u Z D dm(~ )T (~ ) : u u (11.1.

11.2. LINE INTEGRAL OF A GRADIENT

129

of arc length on C , and ^(~ ) is the unit vector tangent to C at ~ and pointing along C in u u the direction from ~ 1 to ~ 2. Then u u

Z

C

dl(~ )(^ rf )(~ ) = f (~ 2) ; f (~ 1): u ~~ u ~u ~u

(11.2.1)

Proof:

~ We assume that the reader knows this theorem when V = R, and f is a real~n) be a basis for V , with dual basis ( ~ 1 ~ n), valued function. Let ( ~1 ~ ~ ~ u and de ne f i := ~ i f . Since f is di erentiable at each ~ , so is f i. Thus rf i(~ ) u $ ~ ~ u ~ ~ exists. Moreover, r ~i = 0 , so by equation (9.4.9), rf i(~ ) = r(f ~i)(~ ) = u ~~u ~~ ~~ rf (~ ) ~i . Both rf and ~i are continuous, and then so is rf ~i. Thus f i : D ! R is continously di erentiable. By the known scalar version of (11.2.1), Z dl(~ )^ rf i(~ ) = f i(~ 2) ; f i(~ 1): u ~ u u u
If we multiply this equation by ~i and sum over i we obtain
C

~u ~u f (~ 2) ; f (~ 1) =

dl(~ )^ rf i(~ ) ~i u ~ u Z h ~ i u u = dl(~ ) (^ rf i) ~i (~ ) by 10.2.7 with q = 0 ZC = dl(~ )(^ rf )(~ ) because u ~~ u Ch i ~ ~ ~ ~~ (^ rf i) ~i = ^ (rf i ) ~i = ^ r(f i ~i) = ^ rf :
C

Z

QED.

Corollary 11.2.42 Suppose D is open and arcwise connected (any two points in D can ~ be joined by a smooth curve lying wholly in D). Suppose f : D ! V is continuously ~ ~~u $ di erentiable and rf (~ ) = 0 for all ~ 2 D. Then f is a constant function. u
Proof:

~u ~u For any ~ 1 ~ 2 2 D, f (~ 1) = f (~ 2) by theorem 11.2.23. u u

130

CHAPTER 11. INTEGRAL IDENTITIES

11.3 Gauss's theorem
Theorem 11.3.24 Suppose U and V are Euclidean spaces, D is an open subset of U , @D is the boundary of D, and n(~ ) is the unit outward normal at ~ 2 @D. Let D = D @D = ^u u $ $ closure of D. Suppose f : D ! U V is continuous and f jD is continuously di erentiable u u at each ~ 2 D. Let dV (~ ) and dA(~ ) be the in nitesimal volume element in D and the u

in nitesimal surface area element on @D respectively ( dV (~ ) has dimension dim U , and u dA(~ ) has dimension one less). Then u Z Z $ $ dA(~ )(^ f )(~ ) = dV (~ )(@ f )(~ ): u n u u ~ u (11.3.1)
@D D

Proof: We assume that the reader knows the corresponding theorem for vector-valued ~ ~n) be a basis for V , with dual basis functions, f : D ! U . Let ( ~1 ~ n). De ne f i : D ! U by f i := $ ~ i, so f i(~ ) = $ (~ ) ~ i. Note that ~ ~ f ~ u f u (~1 ~i u ~i f (~ ) is not a component but a vector in U . By corollary 9.1.28, f : D ! U ~i is continuous, and by section 9.4, f is di erentiable. By corollary 9.1.28, ~~ i ~i ~i @ f is continuous. Thus, f : D ! U is continuous and f jD is continuously ~i di erentiable. Therefore, f obeys Gauss's theorem:

Z

@D

i dA(~ )(^ f )(~ ) = u n ~ u

Z

D

i dV (~ )(r f )(~ ): u ~ ~ u

If we multiply on the right by ~i and sum over i, (10.2.7) with q = 0 gives

Z i i dA(~ ) (^ f ) ~i (~ ) = dV (~ ) (r f ) ~i (~ ): u n ~ u u ~ ~ u (11.3.2) @D D $ $ $ $ i i ~i $ But f ~i = f ( ~ i ~i) = f ( ~ i ~i ) = ( f I V ) = f so (^ f ) ~i = n (f ~i) = n f , n~ ^ ~ ^~ and by section 9.4 $ $ ~ ~i ~ ~i ~ ~i (r f ) ~i = I U h2irf ~i = I U h2i (rf ~i ) h~ ~ i $ ~ $ ~ $ $ = I U h2i r(f i ~i) = I U h2ir f = r f :

Z

Substituting these expressions in (11.3.2) gives 11.3.1.

11.4. STOKES'S THEOREM

131

Figure 11.2:

11.4 Stokes's theorem
de ne cross products and curls. Suppose D is an open subset of U , and S is a smooth two-sided surface in D, with boundary curve @S . Suppose n : S ! U is one of the two ^ continuous functions such that n(~ ) is a unit vector in U perpendicular to S at ~ 2 S . If ^u u ~ 2 @S , let ^(~ ) be the unit vector tangent to @S at ~ and pointing so that n(~ ) ^(~ ) u u u ^u u $ points into S . Suppose that f : D ! U V is continuously di erentiable everywhere in D. Suppose that dA(~ ) is the element of area on S and dl(~ ) is the element of arc length u u on @S . Then Z Z $ $ dl(~ )(^ f )(~ ) = dA(~ ) n (r f ) (~ ): u u u ^ ~ u (11.4.1)
@S S

Theorem 11.4.25 Suppose (U A) is an oriented Euclidean 3-space, and A is used to

Proof: Again, we assume the reader knows this theorem when V = R, i.e. for ~ ~n) be a basis for V , with dual basis vector elds f : D ! U . Let ( ~1 ~ n), and de ne f i = f ~ i. Then we can use Stoke's theorem for f i, ~ ~ ~ (~1 $ ~i i.e., replace f by f in (11.4.1). If we multiply both sides of the result on the

132

CHAPTER 11. INTEGRAL IDENTITIES

Z i ~i dl(~ ) (^ f ) ~i (~ ) = dA(~ ) n (r f ) ~i (~ ): u u u ^ ~ ~ u @S S $ ~i $ ~i ~i As in the proof of Gauss's theorem, f ~i = f , so (^ f ) ~i = ^ (f ~i) = ^ f . i And n (r f i)] ~i = n (r f ) ~i]. Finally ^ ~ ~ ^ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~ r f i ~i = Ah2irf i ~i ~ ~i = Ah2i (rf ) ~i ~ $ ~ ~i = Ah2i r(f ~i ) = Ah2i r f ~ $ = r f:
This nishes the proof.

right by ~i, sum over i, and use (10.2.7) with q = 0, we get

Z

11.5 Vanishing integral theorem
R continuous, and D0 dV (~ )f (~ ) = 0 for every open subset D0 of D. Here dV (~ ) is the u u u volume element in U . Then f (~ ) = 0 for all ~ 2 D. u u
Proof: Suppose ~ 0 2 D and f (~ 0) 6= 0. If f satis es the hypotheses so does ;f , so u u if f (~ )0) < 0 we may replace f by ;f . Therefore, we may assume f (~ 0) > 0. u u u u u u u Then there is a > 0 such that if j~ ; ~ 0 j < then ~ 2 D and jf (~ ) ; f (~ 0 )j < f (~ 0)=2. But then ;f (~ 0)=2 < f (~ ) ; f (~ 0) < f (~ 0)=2, so f (~ ) > f (~ 0)=2 if u u u u u u u u u u ~ 2 B (~ 0 ), the open ball of radius centered at ~ 0. Then Z Z u ~ u dV (~ )f (~ ) > u u dV (~ ) f (2 0) = jB (u0 )j f (2 0) u ~ ~ B(~ 0 ) u B(~ 0 ) u where jB (~ 0 )j = volume of B (~ 0 ). But jB (~ 0 )jf (~ 0)=2 > 0, and u u u u R B (~ 0 ) is an open subset of D, so we must have B(~ 0 ) dV (~ )f (~ ) = 0. u u u u This contradiction shows f (~ 0) = 0. u

Lemma 11.5.26 Suppose D is an open subset of Euclidean space U , f : D ! R is

11.6. TIME DERIVATIVE OF AN INTEGRAL OVER A MOVING VOLUME

133

x

x x x x
u
V

Wδ t

.

I

II x x

x III x

{

n

∂K(t) ∂K(t+ δ t)

Figure 11.3:

Theorem 11.5.26 Suppose U and V are Euclidean spaces, D is an open subset of U , ~ and f : D ! V is continuous. Suppose that for every open subset D0 of D, we have R dV (~ )f (~ ) = ~ . Then f (~ ) = ~ for all ~ 2 D. ~ u 0V u ~ u 0V u D0

Proof:

~n) be a basis for V , with dual basis ( ~ 1 ~ n). Let f i = Let ( ~1 ~ i f . Then f i : D ! R is continuous, and for every open subset D0 of D, ~ R dV (~ )f i(~ ) = 0. Hence, f i = 0 by lemma 11.5.26. Hence f = f i ~ = ~ . ~ u u i 0V D0

134

CHAPTER 11. INTEGRAL IDENTITIES

11.6 Time derivative of an integral over a moving volume
Suppose that for each instant t we are given an open set K (t) in Euclidean vector space U , with boundary surface @K (t) and outward unit normal n. Suppose that K (t) changes ^ with time su ciently smoothly that its surface @K (t) has a well de ned speed normal to itself. At ~ 2 @K (t), this speed is W (~ t), and it is > 0 if @K (t) is moving outward from u u K (t), < 0 if inward. In gure 11.3, W > 0 on the part of @K (t) marked with x's and W < 0 on the part of @K (t) marked with o's. Suppose that all the sets K (t) are subsets (K (t) = K (t) @K (t) = closure of K (t)) of ~ an open set D, and f : D R ! V , where V is another Euclidean space. Thus for each ~u ~ 2 D and t 2 R, f (~ t) is a vector in V . We suppose this vector depends continuously u ~ on ~ and is continuously di erentiable in t (i.e. f ( t) is continuous for each t 2 R, and u ~u f (~ ) is continuously di erentiable for each ~ 2 D ). Then u

d Z dV (~ )f (~ t) = Z dV (~ )@ f (~ t) ~ u t~ u dt K (t) u u KZt) ( + dA(~ )(W f )(~ t): u ~ u
@K (t)

(11.6.1)

~u ~u ~u Here @t f (~ t) stands for @ f (~ )](t), or @ f (~ t)=@t. Proof:
Let @K (t)+ stand for the part of @K (t) marked with x's in gure 11.3, while @K (t); stands for the part marked with o's. Let II be the set K (t) \ K (t + t), while I is K (t)nK (t + t), and III is K (t + t)nK (t). See gure 11.3. Let

~ F (t) =
Then

Z

K (t)

dV (~ )f (~ t): u ~u

Z Z ~ F (t) = dV (~ )f (~ t) + dV (~ )f (~ t): u ~u u ~u I II Z Z ~u ~ (t + t) = dV (~ )f (~ t + t) + dV (~ )f (~ t + t): F u u ~u
II III

11.7. CHANGE OF VARIABLES OF INTEGRATION

135

Correct to rst order in t,

~u ~u ~u f (~ t + t) = f (~ t) + ( t) @t f (~ t) in D dV (~ ) = ( t)W (~ t)dA(~ ) in III where W > 0 u u u dV (~ ) = ;( t)W (~ t)dA(~ ) in I where W < 0: u u u
Thus, correct to rst order in t,

dV (~ )f (~ t) = ;( t) u ~u I Z Z ~(~ t) = ( t) dV (~ )f u u
III

Z

Z
@K (t);

dA(~ )W f (~ t) u ~u

@K (t)+

dA(~ )W f (~ t): u ~u dA(~ )W f (~ t): u ~u
(11.6.2)

Therefore,

Z

III

Z Z dV (~ )f (~ t) ; dV (~ )f (~ t) = ( t) u ~u u ~u
I

@K (t)

Also,

Z h ~u i dV (~ ) f (~ t + t) ; f (~ t) = ( t) dV (~ )@t f (~ t) u ~u u ~u II Z II Z = ( t) dV (~ )@t f (~ t) ; ( t) dV (~ )@t f (~ t): u ~u u ~u I K (t) R u ~ R But I dV (~ )@t f = ;( t) @K (t); dA(~ )W@tf , correct to rst order in t. Thereu fore, correct to rst order in t, Z Z h~ i ~(~ t) = ( t) dV (~ )@t f (~ t): u ~u (11.6.3) dV (~ ) f (~ t + t) ; f u u u
II
K (t)

Z

Combining (11.6.2, 11.6.3), we have, correct to rst order in t,

~ ~ F (t + t) ; F (t) = t

"Z

@K (t)

dA(~ )W f (~ t) + u ~u

Z

K (t)

dV (~ )@t f (~ t) : u ~u

#

Dividing by t and letting t ! 0 gives (11.6.1).

11.7 Change of variables of integration
Suppose (U AU ) and (V AV ) are two oriented n-dimensional Euclidean spaces. Suppose L 2 L(U ! V ). For any ~ 1 u ~ n 2 U , de ne A(~ 1 u u ~ n) = AV L(~ 1) u u L(~ n)]. u

Then AV L(~ 1 ) u L(~ n)] = (det L)AU (~ 1 u u ~ n) u (11. We note that @rj =@xi = @i rj .7.7. so by (11.3) f ~ (xk xk )] det @ r j dx1 dxn: r ^ @xi K H The reader is presumed to know this formula for changing variables in a multiple integral.2).136 CHAPTER 11. Thus det L depends not only on L but on how U and V are oriented.7. ^ ^ ^ then1 L(^i ) = Lij yj and so x ^ det L = (det L)AU (^1 x xn) = AV L(^1 ) ^ x L(^n )] x = AV Lij1 yj1 ^ Lnjn yjn ] = L1j1 Lnjn AV (^j1 ^ y Therefore det L = L1j1 Lnjn "i1 in yjn ): ^ (11. one the negative of the other. At any ~ 2 H we have @irj = (r ~ )ij = xi r ~ ] yj so the determinent of ^ r x ^ ~r ^ ~rx the matrix @i rj (^) is det r ~ (~ ).7.7.4) @xi Z f (rj yj )dr1 ^ drn = Z 1 Proof: Lij yj = xi L yj yj = xi L ^ ^^ ^ $ $ . For ~ 2 H write ~ = xi xi and de ne x x ^ ~r rj = yj ~ .2) = det(Lij ): Now suppose H and K are open subsets of U and V respectively and ~ : H ! K is r a continuously di erentiable bijection of H onto K . We denote this scalar by det L and call it the determinant of L. and which value it has depends on which of the two unimodular alternating tensors AU and AV are used to orient U and V . as we see from (11. $ If (^1 x xn) is a pooob in U and (^1 ^ y yn) is a pooob in V and Lij = xi L yj . suppose f : K ! R is integrable with respect to volume in V . at ~ 2 H x ! @rj = det r ~ (~ ): ~r x det (11. so there is a scalar kL such that A = kLAU .7. Note that det L changes sign if we replace either AU or AV by u its negative.2). x Finally. det L can have two values. For a given L.1) for all (~ 1 u ~ n) 2 X nU . INTEGRAL IDENTITIES Clearly A 2 nU . The determinant det(@rj =@xi ) is the Jacobian of the coordinate transformation. Then f r : H ! R is integrable with respect to volume in U and (11.

7.7. Then so is fi = ~i f . CHANGE OF VARIABLES OF INTEGRATION 137 The local volume elements in U and V are dVU (~ ) = dx1 x so (11. Suppose f : K ! W is integrable.3) can be written dxn and dVV (~) = dr1 r drn.5) ~p) and dual basis Now suppose W is another Euclidean space. Z K dVV (~)f (~) = r r Z H ~r x ~ r x dVU (~ ) det r ~ (~ ) (f ~ )(~ ): x (11.5) holds ~ ~ (~1 for each fi.7.7.6) . with basis ( ~1 ~ p).7. If we multiply the resulting equations by ~ i and sum over i we obtain Z K dVV (~)f (~) = r ~r Z H ~r x ~ r x dVU (~ ) det r ~ (~ ) (f ~ )(~ ): x (11.11. and (11.

INTEGRAL IDENTITIES .138 CHAPTER 11.

Part II Elementary Continuum Mechanics 139 .

.

of course. nothing more can be said r about the system. If the system of particles is a classical (pre-quantum) atom. To predict the motion of such a \discrete" system. one ascribes to each particle a mass. for some purposes the discrete model of the solar system is too crude. In the case of the solar system. A complete description of the motion of such a system consists simply of N vector-valued functions of time the value of the 'th function at time t is the position of the 'th particle at time t. And.1 Discrete systems For some purposes. one must usually add other properties to the model. if all the velocities and positions are known at some time t0. It cannot model or predict the angular acceleration of the earth's moon due to the tidal 141 . If the values of the positions ~1(t) r ~N (t) of all particles are known for all times. Then. the solar system) can be regarded as consisting of a nite number N of mass points. m being the mass of the 'th particle.Chapter 12 Eulerian and Lagrangian Descriptions of a Continuum 12. one needs not only their masses but their charges in order to calculate their motion. all the functions ~ (t) can be calculated from Newton's laws of motion r and gravitation. some physical systems (for example.

One way to label the points in the continuum is to give the Cartesian coordinates of their positions at some particular instant t0 . Nearby particles have nearly equal labels. Nevertheless. This number triple is a label which moves with the particle and remains attached to it. in fact too many to count by labeling them even with all the integers. A di erent sort of model has been developed over the last three centuries to describe such physical systems. x Another label would be simply the position vector ~ at time t0 of the particle relative to some xed origin and axes which are unaccelerated and non-rotating (so that Newton's laws can be used). The label attached to a particle could be the number triple (r ) giving the values of its radius. This theorem was proved by Georg Cantor in about 1880. 12. the discrete model of the solar system is very useful.142 CHAPTER 12. water or rock consists of such a large number of particles that a discrete model for it would be hopelessly complicated. relative to some Cartesian coordinate system. In fact. This model. water and rock nearby particles behave similarly.) Nearby points are given nearby labels. The collection of all particles required to describe the motion will usually ll up an open set in ordinary real 3-space. A point mass has no tidal bulges. (There are too many real numbers between 0 and 1 to label them as x1 x2 . labelling by number triples can also be thought of as labelling . No one would suggest abandoning it because the solar system has properties not described by such a model. Any in nite sequence of real numbers between 0 and 1 will omit most of the numbers in that interval. Of course there are many ways to label the particles in a continuum.2 Continua A parcel of air. colatitude and longitude in a system of polar spherical coordinates at the labelling time t0. and particles with nearly equal labels are close to one another. Then each particle is a point to which is attached a number triple (x1 x2 x3 ) giving the Cartesian coordinates of that particle at the \labelling time" t0 . exploits the fact that in air. EULERIAN AND LAGRANGIAN DESCRIPTIONS OF A CONTINUUM bulges on the earth. The continuum model for a lump of material regards it as consisting of in nitely many points. called a \continuum".

2. We use this notation: ~ L(~ t) := position at time t of the particle labelled ~ : r x x (12.1) The label ~ is in the open subset H of label space L.4) . With this labelling scheme.) In order to leave ourselves freedom to choose di erent ways of labelling.3) This function is called the Lagrangian description of the motion of the continuum. and we will orient it in the usual way. We will simply assume that there is a three-dimensional oriented real Euclidean space. This amounts r x x to knowing the function r L : H R ! P: (12. with addition and multiplication by scalars de ned coordinate-wise and with the dot product of (u1 un) and (v1 vn) de ned to be uivi.2) The motion of a continuum is completely described by giving the position of every particle at every instant.12. since a number triple is a vector in the Euclidean vector space R3 . we will not specify one particular scheme.2. and we do not do so. The labels describing a continuum will be the vectors ~ in a certain open and subset H of label x space L. called \t0 -position labelling. Therefore we need never give two particles the same label ~ .e. We denote its label by ~ E (~ t). We will denote real physical space by P . or simply A.2. We denote by K (t) the set in position space P occupied by the particles of the continuum at time t. i. Thus x r x E (~ t) := label of particle which is at position ~ at time t: r r (12. CONTINUA 143 by vectors. denoting the \right handed" unimodular alternating tensor by AP . (Rn is the set of real n-tuples. and to choose some xed time t0. from which the labels are chosen. One special case which is easy to visualize is to take L = P . and the particle position ~ L(~ t) x r x is in P ." we have r L(~ t0) = ~ for t0 -position labelling: x x (12. We assume that particles neither ssion nor coalesce each particle retains its identity for all time. by giving ~ L(~ t) for all ~ 2 H and all t 2 R. and to label the particles by their positions at t0 . But then if ~ 2 K (t) there is exactly one particle at position ~ at x r r time t.2.2. (L AL ).

~ L( t). therefore the chain rule implies that if ~ = ~ L(~ t) or. Therefore.2. Most of the useful properties are local. whose inverse is ~ E ( t) : r x K (t) ! H . but that they are continuously di erentiable as many r x times as needed to make our arguments work. electric current density. then x x r 8 > r ~ L (~ t) r ~ E (~ t) =$L >~r x ~x r I > < (12. EULERIAN AND LAGRANGIAN DESCRIPTIONS OF A CONTINUUM From the de nitions. Examples are temperature. i.6) In order to enforce that nearby particles have nearby labels we will assume not only that ~ L and ~ E are continuous. Either function is a complete x description of the motion of the continuum. it is clear that if ~ 2 K (t) and ~ 2 H then r x ~ = ~ L(~ t) . entropy density.1 = ~ E ( t): r x (12. the electrical conductivity tensor and.) Since (12.6) implies ~ L( t) ~ E ( t) = IP jK (t). the identity function r x on P . charge density. ~ = ~ E (~ t): r r x x x r (12. restricted to H . . restricted to K (t). and either can be found from the other. x r x r x x r r knowing the label function ~ E is equivalent to knowing ~ L.2.7) > >~ E $ > r ~ (~ t) r ~ L(~ t) = I P : : x r ~r x 12. r r x ~ = ~ E (~ t).e.2. the pressure.5) says that ~ L( t) : H ! K (t) is a bijection. mass density. If we know the function ~ E ( t).5) But (12. For any xed t.3 Physical quantities If the motion of a continuum is to be predicted from physical laws. we can nd the function ~ L( t). in a uid.2. magnetic polarization. they have a value at each particle at each instant. ~ L (~ t) is the unique solution ~ of the equation ~ = ~ E (~ t). and also ~ E ( t) ~ L( t) = ILjH . (Usually. the identity function on x r L. For x r any ~ 2 H .144 CHAPTER 12.2. twice continuously di erentiable will su ce. more properties of the continuum must be considered than simply the positions of its particles at various times. equivalently.

We have found some mathematical rules which are satis ed by certain entities that we feel comfortable to call physical quantities. the function ~ E .3) This is equivalent to asserting (12.3.4) or (12.5). We call these the Lagrangian and the Eulerian descriptions of f .3. then we can nd r the labelling function ~ E . PHYSICAL QUANTITIES 145 A local physical property f can be described in two ways: at any instant t. we can nd both f E and f L x if we know either one of them. So far. or we can say what is the value of f at x the particle whose position is ~ at time t. but they are given r by di erent functions.3.3.4) These two assertions are equivalent in turn to (12.3. vector or tensor. The two values are the same. our discussion of \physical quantities" has been somewhat intuitive.3. obviously 8 > if ~ = ~ L(~ t) or ~ = ~ E (~ t) then > r r x x x r > < > > > : f L(~ t) = f E (~ t): x r 8 > f L(~ t) = f E h ~ L(~ t) ti and > x r x > < > > E > f (~ t) = f L h ~ E (~ t) ti : : r x r 8 > f L( t) = f E ( t) ~ L( t) > r > < > > E > : f ( t) = f L( t) ~ E ( t): x (12. In the spirit of mathematical model building. it is .1) f E (~ t) = value of physical quantity r f at time t at the particle whose position is ~ at time t: (12.3.3. From the de nitions.12. which we denote by f L and f E . They are de ned thus: f L(~ t) = value of physical quantity f at time t at the particle labelled ~ x x (12. Then using (12.5) If we have the Lagrangian description of the motion.2) r The physical quantity f can be a scalar. we can say what is the value of f at the particle labelled ~ .

3. Because of what we have learned above.6) These in turn are equivalent to (12.3. . the Lagrangian description of the r motion of the continuum.44. a physical quantity f is x x ii) The domain of f E is a subset of P R. EULERIAN AND LAGRANGIAN DESCRIPTIONS OF A CONTINUUM useful to give a precise de nition to what will qualify as a \physical quantity". then f L(~ t) = f E (~ t) .3.3. We can de ne a new physical quantity f by giving either its Eulerian description f E or its Lagrangian description f L. and the domain of f E ( t) is K (t) r iii) If ~ L(~ t) = ~ . Clearly f E (~ t) = 7. The missing description can be obtained from (12. r and whose labelling function is ~ E . and we can regard 7 (or any other constant) as a physical x r quantity. or ~ E (~ t) = ~ .7) Temperature.44 Given a continuum whose motion is described by ~ L : H R ! P . Property iii) is equivalent to 8 > f L(~ t) = f E h ~ L(~ t) ti or to > x r x > < > h i > E > r : f (~ t) = f L ~ E (~ t) t for all t 2 R: x r 8 > f L( t) = f E ( t) r L( t) or to > > < > > E > : f ( t) = f L( t) ~ ( t) for all t 2 R: x (12.3. with ~ E ( t) : K (t) ! H .7). and f E is the Eulerian description of f .6) or (12.146 CHAPTER 12. mass density. we introduce an ordered pair of functions (f L f E ) with these properties: i) The domain of f L is H R De nition 12. assuming that we have ~ L. and the other items enumerated beginning on page 144 are physical quantities in the sense of de nition 12.3. The advantage of having such a formal de nition is that it enables us to introduce new physical quantities to suit our convenience. A somewhat trivial example is the f such that f L(~ t) = 7 for x all ~ t. r x r x r x x The function f L is the Lagrangian description of the physical quantity f .

3.6).1).3. L x L x Dt f L(~ t) = lim f (~ t + ) .4. its Eulerian description is ~ E the label function.4. DERIVATIVES OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES 147 A more interesting example is a physical quantity which we call \particle position". The fact that the physical x quantity ~ is conserved at each particle turns out to be very useful in some variational x formulations of the equations of motion of a uid. f (~ t) r !0 = time derivative of f E (~ t) at spatial position ~: r r (12.4.3) h i ~ r ~ @ f E (~ t) = r f E ( t) (~) = gradient tensor of the function f E ( t) r at the position ~ in P: r (12. 12.2.12. and denote by ~ .9) From (12. its Lagrangian description is the ~ L of (12. f (~ t) x !0 = time derivative of f L(~ t) at the particle label ~ : (12. It is de ned by requiring that its Eulerian description be r ~ E (~ t) = ~ for all t 2 R and ~ 2 K (r): r r r r (12.4.2) E r E r @t f E (~ t) = lim f (~ t + ) .4.3. although at rst glance the fact seems rather trivial.4) . It is de ned by requiring that its Lagrangian description be x ~ L(~ t) = ~ for all (~ t) 2 H R: x x x x (12.4 Derivatives of physical quantities It will be useful to introduce the following notation for the derivatives of a physical quantity f = (f L f E ).6). the Lagrangian der scription of the motion. Another interesting example is a physical quantity we call \particle label".8) From (12. and denote by ~ .1) x x h i ~ x ~ Df L(~ t) = r f L( t) (~ ) = gradient tensor of the function f L( t) x at the particle label ~ : x (12.3.

(12.148 CHAPTER 12.5) ~ r ~x r ~ x @ f E (~ t) = @ ~ E (~ t) Df L(~ t): (12. EULERIAN AND LAGRANGIAN DESCRIPTIONS OF A CONTINUUM From these de nitions. and the chain rule. De ne h i R3 ( ) = R2 ( ) + @t f E ~ + ~ ( ) t . it is clear that if ~ = ~ L(~ t) (or r r x ~ = ~ E (~ t)) then x x r ~ x ~r x ~ r Df L(~ t) = D~ L(~ t) @ f E (~ t) (12.4.7) We also have h i h i where R2( ) ! 0 as ! 0.4.7).8) .4. @t f E (~ t) : r h r Since ~ ( ) ! ~ as ! 0 therefore h 0 8 > > R3 ( ) ! 0 as ! 0 and > < > > L > f (~ t + ) = f E h~ + ~ ( ) ti + @t f E (~ t) + R3 ( ): : x r h r (12. We will calculate the former from the latter. ~ L(~ t): h r x r x We have 8 > ~ ( ) = Dt ~ L(~ t) + R1 ( ) where ~ >h r x > < > > > ~ : R1 ( ) ! 0 as ! 0: h i h i f L(~ t + ) = f E ~ L(~ t + ) t + = f E ~ + ~ ( ) t + x r x r h = f E ~ + ~ ( ) t + @t f E ~ + ~ ( ) t + R2 ( ) r h r h (12.6) It is also useful to relate Dtf L and @t f E .4. We assume that ~ and ~ are chosen so r x ~ = ~ L(~ t): r r x Then we de ne ~ ( ) for any real by h ~ ( ) = ~ L(~ t + ) .3.

4.12. DERIVATIVES OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES 149 Also 8 > f E (~ + ~ t) = f E (~ t) + ~ @ f E (~ t) + k~ kR4(~ ) > r h r h ~ r h h > < > > > : where R4 (~ ) ! 0 as ~ ! ~ : h h 0 f E (~ + ~ t) = f E (~ t) + Dt ~ L(~ t) @ f E (~ t) r h r r x ~ r + R5 ( ) (12.4.8) that x r ~ x @t f E (~ t) = Dt f L(~ t) + @t ~ E (~ t) Df L(~ t) r x where r = ~ L(~ t) (or ~ = ~ E (~ t)): r x x x r (12.4. we can infer immediately r x from (12.13) .11 it follows immediately that 8 > Dt f L(~ t) = @t f E (~ t) + Dt ~ L(~ t) @ f E (~ t) > x r r x ~ r > < > > > where ~ = ~ L(~ t) ( or ~ = ~ E (~ t)): : r r x x x r (12.9) Substituting (12.7) in (12.4.4. so substituting (12.4.10) where ~ r ~ R5 ( ) = R1 ( ) @ f E (~ t) h i ~ + Dt ~ L (~ t) + R1 ( ) R4 ~ ( ) : r x h Thus R5 ( ) ! 0 as ! 0. That is. From 12.8) gives h i f L(~ t + ) = f L(~ t) + @t f E (~ t) + Dt ~ L(~ t) @ f E (~ t) x x r r x ~ r + R3 ( ) + R5( )] (12.3.4.4. Therefore. we can interpret ~ as label and ~ as position.10) in r x (12.12) The formal mathematical relationship between labels and positions is symmetrical.4.4.4.9) gives (12. Moreover.11) where R3( ) + R5( ) ! 0 as ! 0. f E (~ t) = f L(~ t).

15) (12.13) that for any physical quantity f .4.18) (12. Dt ~ L(~ t) @ f E (~ t) + @t ~ E (~ t) Df L(~ t) = 0: r x ~ r x r ~ x (12. 12. Note the consequence of (12.13) can be computed in the same way as was (12.19) (12. ~ . @t f = partial time derivative of f .4.4.17) (12. @ f .4.4.4.4. @t f are de ned as follows: De nition 12.20) The names of these physical quantities are as follows: ~ = particle velocity v ~ = particle acceleration a ~ Df = label gradient of f ~ @ f = spatial gradient of f Dtf = substantial time derivative of f = material time derivative of f = time derivative moving with the material.4.45 Let ~ be the physical quantity \particle position" (see bottom of r ~ L(~ v x ~ L (~ a x ~ x (Df )L(~ ~ r (@ f )E (~ (Dt f )L(~ x (@t f )E (~ r t) t) t) t) t) t) = Dt ~ L (~ t) r x = Dt~ L(~ t) v x ~ x = Df L(~ t) ~ r = @ f E (~ t) = Dtf L(~ t) x = @t f E (~ t): r (12.12. v a ~ ~ Dt f .150 CHAPTER 12. page 146) and let f be any physical quantity.16) (12. .4. and can be greatly simpli ed by introducing some new physical quantities.4.12).14) The notation has become somewhat cumbersome.4. The physical quantities ~ . (12. Df . EULERIAN AND LAGRANGIAN DESCRIPTIONS OF A CONTINUUM Alternatively.4.

for each ~ .21). The converse is true.23) (12.4.4.4. the position r x be calculated without further information if the particles are \t0 -position labelled".56 Suppose the Eulerian description ~ E of a continuum is given. in the following sense.4. we can solve (12. r x QED Remark 12. the position ~ L(~ t) of the particle labelled ~ can be r x x calculated for every time t. the Eulerian description can be obtained from (12.12. the relations among the derivatives of a physical quantity become ~ v ~ a ~ Df Dt f ~ @f @t f = Dt ~ r = Dt~ v ~r ~ = D~ @ f (12. 1 Corollary 12.4. Then the Lagrangian description of the x motion can be calculated.e. Therefore. Suppose v that at one instant t0 . at time t0 of the particle labelled ~ is known.21) (12. That is. Proof: By de nition of ~ .24) (12. then the Lagrangian description of the motion can v If @t~ E = ~ .27) is an ordinary di erential equation in t if ~ is xed.1 If the Lagrangian description is known.4.25) (12.4. DERIVATIVES OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES 151 With these de nitions. v 0 . we have for ~ = ~ L(~ t) the relation Dt ~ L(~ t) = ~ E (~ t) v r r x r x v r or h i Dt ~ L(~ t) = ~ E ~ L(~ t) t : r x v r x (12. if their labels are their positions at some tme t0 .22) (12.27) for ~ L(~ t) if we know x r x ~ L(~ t0 ) for one t0 . x for any xed particle label ~ .4.4.4.4. the function ~ L( t0) is known that is.43 If ~ E is known. the motion is called \steady".26) = @t f + ~ @ f v ~ ~x ~ = @ ~ Df = Dt f + @t ~ Df x ~ v The function ~ E is called the Eulerian description of the motion of the continuum.4. i.27) But (12.4.

Suppose f has the following properties. v v v Hence . v v b) For any ~ ~ 2 V .c)~ ) = f (.c)~ ) = (. v 0 a3) If c~ 6= ~ and c < 0. x 12. x x iv) If ~ + ~ + ~ = ~ then f (~ ) + f (~) + f (~) = ~ .f (c~ ) by ii) above. u v v u v . v 0 v 0 v 0 v a2) If c~ 6= ~ and c > 0. f is linear. one of f (~ ) and f (~ ) is ~ by i) above.5.f (~ ) x x iii) f (a~ ) = af (~ ) for any positive real a (i. a 2 R a > 0). E. f (~ + ~ ) = f (~ ) + f (~ ). for any nonzero ~ ~ ~ 2 V : xyz i) f (~ ) = ~ 0 0 ii) f (.5 Rigid body motion For this discussion we need a lemma about linearity: Lemma 12.c~ ) = . either c = 0 or ~ = ~ . uv u v u v b1) If ~ or ~ is ~ .e.27 Suppose V and W are real vector spaces and f : V ! W . if ~ = ~ .~ ) = .c)f (~ ) by iii) above.. so f (c~ ) = ~ = cf (~ ).. x y z 0 x y z 0 In that case.152 CHAPTER 12. use iii) above. EULERIAN AND LAGRANGIAN DESCRIPTIONS OF A CONTINUUM Proof: With t0-position labelling ~ L (~ t0) = ~ .cf (~ ). But v 0 v v f ((. then f ((. u v 0 u v 0 u 0 f (~ + ~ ) = f (~ ) = f (~ ) + f (~ ).f (c~ ) = . so ~ L(~ t0) is known for all particle r x x r x labels ~ .g. Proof: a) For any c 2 R and ~ 2 V . f (c~ ) = cf (~ ) v v v a1) If c~ = ~ .

~ L(~ t) = ~t (~ ) . r x r y r x r y k~t (~ ) . for any t 2 R and any particle labels ~ .w) = ~ . ~k for all t 2 R and ~ ~ 2 H: r x r y x y xy (12.~ so f (~ + ~ ) = u v u v 0 v u u v f (~ ) = ~ = f (~ ) . ~ and ~ +~ are nonzero. so ~ 2 H . then ~ = . By ii) this is f (~ )+ f (~) . Step 1: Choose one particular particle in the continuum. Step 2: Choose t0 2 R. ~ 2 H . u v ~ 0 u v ~ 0 or f (w) = f (~ ) + f (~ ).1) for all ~ 2 H and t 2 R.w) = ~ so uv u v ~ u v u v ~ 0 by iv).5.12. RIGID BODY MOTION 153 b2) If ~ and ~ are nonzero but ~ + ~ = ~ . de ne a mapping ~t : H ! P by r ~t (~ ) = ~ L(~ t) . The r pivot particle is labelled ~ . Then ~ +~ +(. We want to study rigid body motions. Choose a reference frame for real physical space P so that its origin is at the position of the pivot particle at time t0 . let w = ~ +~ . 0 0 u u u u u v b3) If ~ .~ ) = f (~ ) + f (~ ).5. f (~ ) = f (~ ) + f (.2) . ~ u v QED The motion of a continuum is called \rigid body motion" if the distance separating every pair of particles in the continuum is independent of time. f (w) = ~ . so. by the de nition of a rigid body. Moreover. Step 3: Introduce t0 -position labelling to give the Lagrangian description of the motion. Let H denote the open subset of L = P consisting of the particle labels. Thus r 0 ~ ~ L(~ t) = R(t) + ~t (~ ) r x r x (12. ~ L. ~t(~)k = k~ . x x y ~ L(~ t) . ~t(~). and call it the pivot particle. ~ L(~ t) r x r x r 0 ~ ~ and de ne R : R ! P as R(t) = ~ L (~ t).5. and 0 0 ~ L(~ t0 ) = ~ for all ~ 2 H: r x x x Step 4: For each t 2 R. f (~ )+ f (~ )+ f (.

L is linear and orthogonal) such that for all ~ 2 H x $ f (~ ) = ~ L= L(~ ): x x x Proof: Lemma 1: kf (~ )k = k~ k for any ~ 2 H . 2f (~ ) f (~) + kf (~)k2 = k~ k2 .4) kf (~ )k2 .ai f (~ i)k2 = kf (ai~ i)k2.5. x x y y Lemma 3: Suppose a1 f (ai~ i) = ai f (~ i). Then 0 0 xy x y x y there is a unique L 2 (P ) (i. x y x y xy Proof: kf (~ ) . from the de nition of R(t) and (12. ~t (~ ) = ~ for all t 2 R: r 0 0 The main result implied by the above is contained in (12. f (~ )k = k~ . kf (~ )k2 = k~ k2 and kf (~)k2 = k~k2 . x x x x 0 x 0 x 0 x Proof: kf (~ )k = kf (~ ) . f (~)k = k~ . ~ k = kf (~ ) . ~k2 so x y x y (12.5.2aj f (~ j ) f (ai~ i) +kaif (~ i)k2 = x x x x x x kai~ i k2 . Suppose f (~ ) = ~ and for any ~ ~ 2 H .27 Suppose f : H ! P where H is an open subset of real Euclidean vector space P . this x x x x x is kai~ i k2 . EULERIAN AND LAGRANGIAN DESCRIPTIONS OF A CONTINUUM ~ Also.154 CHAPTER 12.3) Theorem 12. ~k.1). kf (~ ) .5. and ai~ i 2 H . ~ k = k~ k . 2aj xj (ai~ i )] + aiaj (~ i ~ j ) = kai~ i k2 . f (~)k2 = k~ .e.5. x Lemma 2: f (~ ) f (~) = ~ ~ for all ~ ~ 2 H . x x aN 2 R. x x x x x 0 then ~ 2 H . 2~ ~ + k~k2 : x x y y x x y y But by lemma 1.. Then x Proof: kf (ai~ i). De ne x . x x x x x x x Lemma 4: Choose > 0 so small that if k~ k < x L : P ! P as follows: i) L(~ ) = ~ 0 0 ii) L(~ ) = (k~ k= )f ( ~ =k~ k) if ~ 6= ~ . By lemma 2. ~ 1 x x ~ N 2 H . 2aj f (~ j ) f (ai~ i)] +aiaj f (~ i) f (~ j ). aiaj ~ i ~ j = 0.

a0 = .~ ) = . x x x x $ By theorem (12. take N = 1. so x y z x x ~ = L(~ ) + L(~) + L(~)]. > 0) that x 0 ~ 2 H . and similarly for ~ ~. ~ = f (~ ) = f ( ~ + ~ + ~) = f ( ~ )+ f ( ~)+ f ( ~).5. x x x x Then L(~ ) = f (~ ) for all ~ 2 H .f ( ~ =k~ k): Thus L(. ~ 1 = ~ =k~ k. Proof: First. By iii) above. Therefore L 2 (P ).27 that L : P ! P is linear. for each t 2 R there is an orthogonal tensor L (t) 2 P P such that in equation (12.5. k ~ k = kL( ~ )k . 0 x y z x y z 0 It follows from lemma 4 above and lemma 12. x x x x x6 0 iv) Suppose ~ + ~ + ~ = ~ and ~ ~ ~ nonzero.L(~ ). Choose so small x y z 0 xyz ( 2R > 0) that ~ + ~ + ~ 2 H .5. Thus ~ = x L( ~ ) + L( ~) + L( ~).5.5.1) we can write $ ~ ~ L(~ t) = R(t) + ~ L (t) r x x for all ~ 2 H: x (12. a0 = =k~ k. x x i) is obvious ii) L(. so. and from ii) above. if ~ 2 H then in lemma 3 take N = 1. f ( ~ ) = L( ~ ). k ~ k = k ~ k . x x x x obviously L(~ ) = f (~ ).27.~ ) = (k. ~ =k~ k): In lemma x x x x x x x 3 above. k ~ k = x x x x x x x kf ( ~ )k . Thus L(~ ) + L(~) + L(~) = ~ . ~ k= ) f (. For any ~ 6= ~ in P . x x x x iii) L(a~ ) = (ka~ k= )f ( a~ =ka~ k) = a(k~ k= )f ( a~ =ak~ k) x x x x x x x = a(k~ k= )f ( ~ =k~ k) = aL(~ ) if a > 0 and ~ = ~ . ~ =k~ k) = x x x x x . RIGID BODY MOTION 155 Lemma 3 then implies f ( ~ =k~ k) = =k~ kf (~ ).5. etc.27.12.5) Then clearly Thus kL(~ )k = k~ k for all ~ 2 P . ~ 1 = ~ . choose so small ( 2 R. Then f (. Then (kL(~ )k . L( ~ ) = L(~ ). k ~ k = 0.6) . and L satis es conditions i)-iv) of x x x lemma 12. k~ k) = k L(~ )k . ~ =k.27). ~ k) = (k~ k= )f (. Then ~ + ~ + ~ = ~ . Now for i)-iv) of lemma 12.. x y z x y z 0 using lemma 3 . x x x QED $ ~r x D~ L(~ t) =L (t) for all ~ 2 H: x (12.5. 0 0 x y z x y z x x yz 0 Since ~ 2 H .5.1.

12) . R(t)] $ (t)T . Therefore det L(t) = +1 L(t) 2 + (P ) for all t 2 R: (12.5.10) is h i $T (12. We have $ ~ ~ L(~ t) = Dt ~ L (~ t) = t R(t) + ~ t L (t): v x r x x (12.5. Now let us nd the Eulerian description of the motion whose Lagrangian description is (12.10) $ $T $. R(t) L (t)T t L (t): v r r We introduce these abbreviations: ~ ~ V (t) = t R(t) (12.9) and using r r ~ L ~ L(~ t) = ~ E (~ t) gives v x v r h ~ i $ $ ~ ~ E (~ t) = t R(t) + ~ .5.5.5) with (12. EULERIAN AND LAGRANGIAN DESCRIPTIONS OF A CONTINUUM $ ~r x We are assuming that D~ L(~ t) is continuous in ~ and t. r 0 0 x r x x Thus $ $ ~ R (t 0 ) = ~ 0 (12. x r where as usual ~ = ~ L(~ t) or r r x $ ~ = R(t) + ~ L (t): r ~ x (12.5.] To obtain the Eulerian description from (12.5.11) ~ = ~ .8) Every rigid motion can be written as in (12. L =L .5.9) ~ ~ Note: Since R and $ are functions of t alone.7) L (t0 ) = I P $ and det L (t0) = +1. and det L(t) is always +1 or .5.5).1 Since L2 +(P ). At the labelling time we have R(t0 ) = ~ L(~ t0) = ~ and so ~ L (t0) = ~ L (~ t0) = ~ .5.] Substituting this (12.5. But det L(t) depends continuously on t since L(t) does. R(t) L : x r ~ Note: It follows that x E (~ t) = ~ .5.8). so as not to confuse them with @t or Dt . so L (t) is a continuous function x $ ~ of t.5. we write their time derivatives as t R and L $ t L.7) and (12.1 since L(t) is orthogonal.156 CHAPTER 12. Therefore the solution of (12.9) we must express ~ in terms of ~.5.

we have the remark Remark 12. Proof: $ $ $ $ Since L (t) is orthogonal..15) where A is the unimodular alternating tensor we have chosen to orient real physical space P . Thus T + = 0 . But = L t L and T = ( t $ $ $ $ $ ( t LT ) (L). $ (t) = A ~ (t): (12.5.58 $ (t) = .13) (12. R(t) (t): v r r $ $ $ $ For any ~ 2 P .17) ~ j: x . x x x x x Hence.16) We claim that for any vector ~ 2 P we have x $ ~ (t) = ~ (t) ~ : x x Proof: Take components relative to a pooob. $ (t)T . $ (t) is antisymmetric. ( $ $ $ $ $ $T $ ( t L) = t I P = 0 for all t.5.57 Proof: t $ T L (t)] = t LT (t).5.5.12. I. $ $ (t) = 1 Ah2i (t) 2 $ t LT ) L + LT $T $ T L ) (L T ) = QED $ $ Now de ne (12. By exercise 6. But x x x x x $ $ $T $ T ~ t L] = ( t L) ~ .5.5. Hence. Then $ = ~ A ~ j = xi "ijk k x ~ x j = "kij k xi = Ah2i~ ~ j = ~ x (12.5. so t L (t)] ~ = t LT (t)] ~ for all ~ 2 P . RIGID BODY MOTION 157 $ $ (t) =L (t)T t $ L (t): (12.e.5. ~ L (t) =LT (t) ~ . LT (t) L (t) = I P for all t. h ~ i $ ~ ~ E (~ t) = V (t) + ~ .14) Then the Eulerian description of the motion is Remark 12. so ~ t L (t)] = t LT (t)] ~ .

18) gives the Eulerian description of a continuum motion.5. At t = t0. Thus L (t) 2 +(P ) for all t. This proves L (t) 2 (P ).18) The vector ~ (t) is called the angular velocity of the motion relative to the pivot particle. and de ne V = t R. To see this. (t) is. L Proof: $ $T $ $ T L L +L tL $ $ $T $ $ $ T = L L +L L $ $ $T $ $T $T = L L +L L $ $ $T $T $ $ $T $ = L + L = L O L =O : $ $ $ Thus.5. QED t $ $T L L = t .19) with the initial condition $ $ (12.5. so it is always $ $ $ I P .59 $ (t) obtained from (12.5.20) is proper orthogonal.) We obtain L (t) by solving (12. An obvious question not answered by the foregoing discussion is this: if we are given ~ ~ ~ two arbitrary di erentiable functions R : R ! P . then (12. so it is always +1.158 CHAPTER 12.5.18) the Eulerian description of a $ $ rigid body motion. and R(t) is its position. any choice of R and ~ will make (12.5. of course. but we don't assume that. $ antisymmetric.5. ~ ~ Obviously V (t) is the velocity of the pivot particle. ~ : R ! P .12.14) can be written ~ ~ E (~ t) = V (t) + ~ (t) v r h ~ i ~ .5.13 as if LT =L.5. Now de ne L (t) as follows: $ $ $ : (12. And det L (t) is continuous in t and always $ 1 and +1 at t0. R(t) r ~ ~ V = tR : (12.5.1. use the given (t) as in (12.20) L (t0 ) = I P : Remark 12. EULERIAN AND LAGRANGIAN DESCRIPTIONS OF A CONTINUUM Thus (12. or do rigid body motions produce particular kinds of functions R : R ! P and ~ : R ! P ? ~ In fact.5. it is I P .19) t L=L $ $ $ (This is obtained from 12. Is this always a rigid ~ body motion.5.16). L (t) L (t)T is independent of t.19.

To see what we mean.6. After t seconds.18). with all their mass at the center.6.12.5. Indeed. let us examine how to make a continuum model of a gas in which the individual molecules are moderately well modelled as randomly colliding very small hard spheres. continuum models are \two scale" approximations. RELATING CONTINUUM MODELS TO REAL MATERIALS 159 Now we can write (12.5.5.. Let r r Mt B (~ )] be the sum of the masses of all the molecules whose centers are in B (~ ) at r r time t. The average density in B (~ ) at r r r time t is 1 h i (~ t) = jB (~ )j Mt B (~ )] : r r (12.1) does not sample very di erent physical conditions inside B (~ ). (12.18) in the form (12.5) is a rigid-body $ motion. by about (10.18). ~) L (t)k = k~ .6. equivalently (12. 12.e.14) or.14).5. i. individual molecules move at random. ~ L(~ t)k = k(~ . for any ~ and ~ 2 P .5. Let jB (~ )j = 4 3=3 = volume of B (~ ). two water molecules which were initially neighbors are separated. the motion whose Lagrangian description is (12. because then ~ L(~ t) would quickly become a very r x discontinuous function of ~ . Let B (~ ) be the open ball of radius with center at ~.5. That is.6 Relating continuum models to real materials In a rock there is some jumping of atoms out of lattice positions. In water and air. \self-di usion". What is the physical meaning of a \particle" in water or air? We cannot mean a molecule.1) r To use a continuum model. But as long as L(t) 2 +(P ) for all t. As we have seen in deriving (12.5. on average.5) then has Eulerian description (12. but crystal structures stay mostly intact. k ~ L(~ t) .5t)1=2 cm and two air molecules at sea level are separated by (0:2t)1=2 cm. must be so small that k ~k can be many times and yet h i (~ + ~ t) r r r r . are very small fractions of h i (~ t). But at the same time. r r must be so small that (12. x In reality. ~k x y r x r y x y x y if L(t) 2 (P ). we must be able to choose so large that the jumps in h i (~ t) as a function of ~ and t. however. which occur when individual molecules enter or leave r r r B (~ ) as ~ and t vary.

EULERIAN AND LAGRANGIAN DESCRIPTIONS OF A CONTINUUM λ r Figure 12. and yet we must have >> average distance between nearest neighbors.1: will di er from h i (~ t) by only a very small fraction.2) r ~ r where Pt B (~ )] is the sum of the momenta m~ for all the molecules in B (~ ) at time v r t. and determines the shortest sound wave treatable by continuum mechanics. we must use << in (12. Then we de ne the average velocity at ~ t to be r ~ P r h~ r (12. and if >> mean free path.3) h~ i (~ t) = hpi (~ t) = Mt B ((~r )] : v r i (~ t) r t B ~ )] If is the shortest length scale in our gas over which occur appreciable fractional changes in average physical properties. Actually. In the spirit of (9.6.3). to do all of continuum mechanics accurately (including momentum and heat) we must have >> mean free path of air molecules. We cannot nd such a to use in (12. the average physical r conditions must not change appreciably over a length . For example.6.160 CHAPTER 12.4) . we would de ne the average momentum in B (~ ) at time t as r 1 ~ r hpi (~ t) = jB (~ )j Pt B (~ )] ~ r (12. Therefore.5 cm at sea level to 10 cm at 100 km altitude.1) unless >> mean free path of air molecules.1). and model our gas as a continuum whose Eulerian velocity function is ~ E (~ t) = h~ i (~ t): v r v r (12.2. we can choose any in mfp << << .6.6. if we want to use a continuum approximation to study sound waves of wavelength in air. This mfp varies from 10.6.

4. Usually t0-position labelling is v convenient. An example of the breakdown of the continuum model is a shock wave in air. .6.6. they can be thought of as individual molecules.4). at least for times short enough that self di usion is unimportant. the \particles" of the continuum model are ctitious. They are considerably less thick than one mean free path. Evidently in a gas.27) with ~ E given by (12. In fact. RELATING CONTINUUM MODELS TO REAL MATERIALS 161 The Lagrangian description of this continuum is obtained by choosing a labelling scheme and then integrating (12. continuum models work better inside shocks than is at present understood.12. In a solid.

162 CHAPTER 12. EULERIAN AND LAGRANGIAN DESCRIPTIONS OF A CONTINUUM .

The outward normal velocity W (~ t) r of @K 0 (t) at ~ 2 @K 0 (t).1). ^ r r We will use dVL(~ ) to denote a very small open subset of H 0 containing the particle x label ~ . (L AL) is oriented label space and (P AP ) is oriented real physical space.6. is W (~ t) = nP (~ t) ~ E (~ t). dVL(~ ). It follows that. so dVP (~) consists of the positions at time t of the particles r r x r whose labels are in dVL(~ ). but will always contain the same particles. We will denote the positive numerical volume in L of this small set by the same x x r symbol. to be used in (11. @H 0 consists of a nite number of smooth pieces).1) . K (t) and K 0 (t) will change position in P . We will always assume when using this notation for the sets that ~ = ~ L(~ t) and r r x dVP (~) = ~ L( t)] dVL(~ )]. and the open subset of K (t) consisting of the particles with labels in H 0 will be written K 0(t). The sets K (t) and K 0 (t) are said to move with the material. We use dVP (~) to denote a very small open subset of K 0(t) containing the particle position ~ we also use dVP (~) for the positive numerical volume of this small set r r in P .Chapter 13 Conservation Laws in a Continuum In this whole chapter we will use the following notation. x ~r x dVP (~) = det D~ L(~ t) dVL(~ ): r x 163 (13. The open set in P occupied by the particles at time t will be written K (t). for the numerical volumes.e. H is the open subset of L consisting of the labels ~ x of all the particles making up the continuum and H 0 is any open subset of H with piecewise smooth boundary @H 0 (i. As t varies. where ~ is r r ^ r v r v the particle velocity and nP (~ t) is the unit outward normal to @K 0 (t) at ~ 2 @K 0 (t).0.

0.3) The physical quantity ~ is the mass per unit of volume in label space. so r r x x x ~r ~ = j det D~ j: (13.1 Mass conservation 13. (We will accidentally prove it later. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM We assume that the reader knows this Jacobian formula from calculus.1. x Therefore. The material with labels in H 0 always consists of the same particles. 13.1). for all ~ 2 H and all t. we can also write dm = ~L(~ t)dVL(~ ) x x (13. so it cannot change its mass.1. Since dVL(~ ) is x de ned in a way independent of time.1.1 Lagrangian form The mass of the collection of particles with labels in dVL(~ ) is x r r dm = E (~ t)dVP (~) (13.5) .4) Dt ~ = 0: (13. Because of (13.1. t0 2 R. This is our mathematical r model of how mass is distributed in a continuum. dm in (13.1) where E (~ t) is the mass per unit of volume in physical space. Therefore ~L (~ t) = L(~ t)j det D~ L(~ t)j = ( j det D~ j)L(~ t).1.) Note that L means Lagrangian description and L means label space.1.1.2) ~r x if we set ~L(~ t) = E (~ t)j det D~ L (~ t)]. so x x (13.2) must be independent of time. it follows that ~L(~ t) must be independent of t. But E (~ t) = L (~ t) since we are assuming x r r x ~r x ~r x ~ = ~ L(~ t). Therefore. or (Dt )L(~ t) = 0. x ~L (~ t) = ~L (~ t0 ): x x An equivalent equation is Dt ~L(~ t) = 0.164 CHAPTER 13.

1. the law of conservation of mass.8) The physical law of mass conservation is d M E K 0 (t)] = 0 (13. we see that if K 0 = K 0 (t) then Z K h ~ v iE r dVP (~) @t + @ ( ~ ) (~ t) = 0: r 0 (13. but rather confusing. x x $ $ ~r x ~r x so D~ L (~ t0) = I P and det D~ L(~ t0) = det Ip= det IP = 1.1.3) makes this law useful.1.6) ~ x for all ~ 2 H and all t.1.1.1.1. MASS CONSERVATION 165 Either equation (13.6. If we use t0 -position labelling. Thus.4) we deduce L (~ x ~r x ~r x t) det D~ L(~ t) = L(~ t0) det D~ L (~ t0) x (13.1.3) and (13.13.7) 13.2 Eulerian form of mass conservation An informal physical argument like (13.4) or (13.1. with t0-position labelling.1.10).1.5) expresses the content of a physical law. 13.11) . The total mass in the set K 0(t) in physical space P at time t is M E K 0 (t)] = Z K 0 (t) dVP (~) E (~ t): r r (13. The mathematical identity (13. L (~ t) det D~ L (~ t) = L (~ t ): ~r x x x 0 (13. The bookkeeping becomes clearer if we account for real.1.1.1) with w = nP ~ E (~ t) we have the mathematical identity ^ v r d M E K 0(t)] = Z dV (~)@ E (~ t) + Z dAP (~)^P ~P (~ t) r n vE r P r t r dt K 0 (t) @K 0 (t) where nP is the unit outward normal to @K 0 (t). From (13. An application of Gauss's theorem to the ^ surface integral gives d M E K 0(t)] = Z dV (~) h@ + @ ( ~ )iE (~ t): ~ v r (13.9) dt because K 0(t) always consists of the same material.2) is possible here. t0 2 R.1. Using (11. nite masses and volumes.1.1. then r L(~ t0) = ~ .1.9) and (13.1.10) P r t dt K 0(t) Comparing (13.

In other words.16) . CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM Now let K 0 be any open subset of K (t). K 0(t) = K 0.12) is the Eulerian form of the law of mass conservation. Let H 0 be the set of labels belonging to particles which are in K 0 at time t.1.1. The density is constant at each particle.28 Suppose U and V are Euclidean spaces. A material is incompressible if it is incapable of any motion except incompressible motion. the motion is incompressible i ~ v @ ~ = 0: An extremely useful consequence of the continuity equation follows from (13. Then g ~ ~g ~ ~ g ~ ~g @ (f ~ ) = (@ f )~ + f (@~ ): (13. Comparing (13.12) Equation (13. i. (13.166 CHAPTER 13.13). Dt ln = Dt = . A motion is incompressible i Dt L(~ t) = 0 for all ~ 2 H and x x t 2 R.1. as long as @K 0 is piecewise smooth. and ~ f : D ! U and ~ : D ! V are di erentiable.13) By the chain rule for ordinary di erentiation.1.14) A motion of a continuum is called incompressible if it makes L(~ t) independent x of t at each particle ~ . @t + @ ( ~ )]E (~ t) = 0 for all t 2 R and all ~ 2 K (t).1.e. so ~ v Dt (ln ) + @ ~ = 0: (13. i Dt = 0. with piecewise smooth boundary @K 0 .1. ~ v ~ v ~ v Since @ ( ~ ) = (@ ) ~ + (@ ~ ) and Dt = @t + ~ (@ ).1. Therefore. the continuity equation v ~ can also be written ~ v Dt + (@ ~ ) = 0: (13. but can vary from x particle to particle. D is an open subset of U . so (13.11) holds.15) Lemma 13. It is called the \continuity equation". Therefore r ~ v @t + @ ( ~ ) = 0: (13. by the vanishing ~ v r integral theorem.1.11) holds for every open subset K 0 of K (t).1. Then for this set of particles.1.

16) is equivalent to @i (figj ) = (@i fi)gj + fi(@i gj ).1.0. Then (13.1.17) may be physically more enlightening.4.1).1) to change the variable of integration in (13. V . An alternative proof of (13. Suppose K 0(t) is any open set moving with the material in a continuum (i.1. ^ Applying Gauss's theorem to the surface integral gives d Z dV (~)( f )E (~ t) ~ r dt K 0(tZ P r ) h ~ ~ iE = 0 dVP (~) @t ( f ) + @ ~ f (~ t): r v~ r K (t) @K (t) ~ Remark 13. Then d Z dV (~)( f )E (~ t) = Z dV (~)( D f )E (~ t): ~ r (13.13. Then r h i Z K 0 (t) dVP (~) E (~ t)f E (~ t) r r ~ r . But this is the elementary rule for the partial derivative of a product.6.1.17) to ~ instead of x ~. we have d Z dV (~) f E (~ t) = Z dV (~)@ ( f )E (~ t) ~ r pr t ~ r dt K 0(tZ) P r K 0 (t) + 0 dAP (~)^P (~ f )E (~ t) rn v ~ r where nP is the unit outward normal to @K 0 (t) and dAP is an element of area.1.28).21-12.. MASS CONSERVATION 167 Proof: Take components relative to orthonormal bases in U and V . which proves (13.e. We use (13.4.1.60 Suppose f is any physical quantity taking values in a Euclidean space ~ ~ ~ v ~ v ~~ The integrand is (@t )f + (@t f ) + @ ( ~ ) f + ~ (@ f ) because of lemma ~ v ~ ~ v (13.17).26) and (13. This integrand can therefore be written @t + @ ( ~ )]f + @t f + ~ ~~ ~ ~ (@ f )].1.12) this is 0f + Dt f . From (12.1.1.17) P r t~ r dt K 0(t) P r K 0 (t) Proof: By (11. always consisting of the same particles).

To do this. (13.12) was extracted from (13.1 Eulerian form ~ We use the notation introduced on page 163.2.2.1) ~ is essentially a de nition of F E K 0(t)].1.1.3) Z = dV (~ )~L(~ )f L(~ t): x x~ x 0 L H Z CHAPTER 13.1. We denote by P E K 0 (t)] the total momentum at time t of the material in subset K 0(t) of P at time t.2.168 ~r x = 0 dVL(~ ) det D~ L(~ t) L (~ t)f L(~ t) x x ~ x H (use 13. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM Since H 0 and ~L(~ ) do not vary with t.1) a local form of the law of conservation of momentum in the same way that (13. so its r r r r momentum is dVP (~) E (~ t)~ E (~ t).1) ~ where F E K 0 (t)] is the total force at time t on the material in K 0 (t). The law of conservation of momentum is d P E K 0(t)] = F E K 0(t)] ~ ~ dt (13.2. As it stands.9). (dVL(~ )~L(~ ) = dm) x x x d Z (t)dV (~)( f )E (~ t) = Z dV (~ )~L (~ )D f L(~ t) ~ r x t~ x L x dt K 0 Z P r H0 ~ x ~r x = 0 dVL(~ ) det D~ L(~ t) L (~ t)(Dt f )L (~ t) x x ZH ~ r = dVP (~) E (~ t)(Dtf )E (~ t): r r K (t) QED 13.2 Conservation of momentum 13. we also need an expression ~ for P E K 0(t)]. Summing over all the volume elements dVP (~) in r r v r K 0(t) gives Z ~ P E K 0 (t)] = 0 dVP (~)( ~ )E (~ t) r v r (13. but this is simple. and our task is to calculate this force and then to extract from (13.2. The mass in dVP (~) is dVP (~) E (~ t) at time t.2) K (t) . This material consists of the particles whose labels are in H 0 and whose positions at time t are in K 0 (t).

1. Something important is still missing in our model of F E . a v v v ~v ~ Finding F E K 0(t)] is less simple. CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM 169 d P E K 0(t)] = Z dV (~)( ~ )E (~ t) ~ (13. and the entering molecules may have. . we expect that the molecules just outside @K 0 (t). In addition to these long range average forces. to some extent. Also. The total gravitational r r ~ ~ ~ r plus electromagnetic force on the matter in dVP (~) is r ~ r dFB (~) = dVP (~)f E (~ t) r~ r where (13. ~E ~ If we accept FB as a good model for F E .2. on average.3) P r a r dt K 0(t) where ~ = Dt~ = @t~ + ~ @~ = particle acceleration. If is the gravitation potential. The physical origin of our di culty is clear.5) (13. then the gravitational force on the matter in dVP (~) at time r ~ ~ ~ t is dVP (~) E (~ t)~ E (~ t). the only force acting on a cubic centimeter ~ ~ 0 of ocean or rock is ~ (assuming E = B = ~ ). If E and B are the electric and magnetic elds.2.4. and these contribute to F E K 0(t)]. so that ~ = . The forces in (13. in gases and.@ is the local acceleration of gravity. and f is the body force density per unit of physical volume.2.1.26) we obtain the identity ~ g ~ ~ ~ f = ~ + QE + J B: The total gravitational plus electromagnetic force on the matter in K 0 (t) is Z ~E FB K 0 (t)] = K 0(t) dVP (~)f E (~ t): r~ r ~ This is called the \body force" on K 0(t). the physical density of body force.17) and (12.4) (13. and yet neither is observed to fall at g ~ 981cm2=sec.2.5) are calculated from the average distribution of molecules and charge carriers.2. in liquids.2. di erent momenta from the exiting molecules. The expression for it is one of the major eighteenth ~ g century advances in mechanics. will ~ exert forces on the molecules just inside @K 0 (t).6) If we apply to this equation both (13.4. individual molecules will cross @K 0 (t).13. and Q and J r r g r are the electric charge density and electric current density then the electromagnetic force on the matter in dVP (~) at time t is dVP (~)( QE + J B )E (~ t).21-12. as in Figure 12.

If the material is a gas or liquid. It depends on ~ r and t. by (13. and the population of molecules one mean free path in front of dAP (~) may be r 1 if the linear dimension of dA is >> distance between molecules Ba ck dAP ( r ) Figure 13. Assume that S is so small that the molecular statistics do not change appreciably across S . it is part of dP K 0 (t)]=dt and hence.1). Then the total force exerted by the molecules just in front of dAP (~) on the molecules r just behind dAP (~) will be proportional1 to the area of dAP (~). Choose a very small nearby r plane surface S in K (t) such that S passes through ~.2. but that S is considerably larger in diameter than the intermolecular distance or the mean free path. on the unit normal nP (~). i. and it may also depend on the orientation of the surface S . The proportionality constant is a vector.1: . We write this area as r r ~ r dAP (~).170 CHAPTER 13. there will also be a net transfer of momentum ^ r from front to back across dAP (~) because molecules cross dAP (~) and collide just after r r crossing.e. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM S nP ( r ) ^ r o Fr nt This will result in a net contribution to the rate of change of the total momentum in ~ ~ K 0(t). and let nP (~) be the unit normal to S extending in front of S . Both the intermolecular force and the momentum transfer by molecular motion can be modelled as follows: Fix time t and choose a xed ~ 2 K (t). which we write Sforce. Therefore. Choose an even smaller surface r dAP (~) which passes through ~ and lies in S . part of F E K 0 (t)]. Arbitrarily designate one side of S as its r r ^ r \front".

8) is called the surface force on K 0 (t). it will r exert a net force on that material.8) .7) (13. and r ~ the proportionality constant is another vector.2.7) over all the elements of area r dAP (~) on @K 0 (t) gives r Z ~E FS K 0(t)] = @K 0(t) dAP (~)S ~ t nP (~ t)] r~r ^ r where nP (~ t) is the unit outward normal to @K 0 (t) at ~ 2 @K 0 (t). It is the total force exerted on the material just inside @K 0 (t) by the material just outside @K 0 (t).13.2: (13. which we write Smfp. This force will also be proportional to dAP (~).2.t and nP (~). Summing (13.2.2. The total force exerted by the material just in front of ^ dAP (~) on the material just behind dAP (~) is r r ~ r dFS (~) = dAP (~)S (~ t nP ): r~r ^ This is called the surface force on dAP (~). The sum S (~ t nP ) = Sforce(~ t nP ) + Smfp (~ t nP ) is called r ^ r r ^ the stress on the surface (S nP ).2. The expression ^ r r (13. CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM ^ n P 171 r dAP (r ) K’ statistically di erent from the population one mean free path behind dAP (~). The net r rate of momentum transfer from just in front of dA(~) to just behind dAP (~) will produce r r a time rate of change of momentum of the material just behind dAP (~) that is. The total force on K 0(t) is the sum ( t) Figure 13. This vector also ~r ^ ~ ~ r ^ depends on ~.

1.10) for all shows that the rst term in this power series.11) is true.10) can be expanded in a power series in .2. ^ r r As with (13. valid for all ~ 2 K (t) at all times t.172 CHAPTER 13.e. while the right side goes to zero like 2. Let be a typical linear dimension of K 0 .2.2. F E K 0(t)] = FB K 0(t)] + FS K 0(t)]. (13.2.1.1. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM ~ ~E ~E of the body and surface forces. In modern language.2.10) must hold for every open subset K 0 of K (t). as long as @K 0 is piecewise smooth.2.10) to a local equation. f )E (~ t) = r a ~ r 0 P Z @K 0 dAP (~)S ~ t nP (~)] : r~r ^ r (13.3) and (13.10) where K 0 = K 0 (t) and nP (~) is the unit outward normal to @K 0 at ~ 2 @K 0 . as we did in going from (13.2.10) prevents this. at every ~ 2 K (t).10) and use Gauss's theorem to write Z Z $E $E r r~ r dAP (~)^P (~) S (~ t) = 0 dVP (~)@ S (~ t): rn r K @K 0 . or internally inconsistent.2) for P E K 0(t)]. Suppose that K 0 shrinks to a point while preserving its shape.2. Even worse. He argued that the right side of (13. The surface integral in (13. the 2 term.2. r ^ ~ r ^ ^ $E r S (~ t n) = n S (~ t): (13. r $E there is a unique tensor S (~ t) 2 P P such that for each unit vector n 2 P .2. This conclusion is forced on us if we accept the mathematical ~ models (13.11) If equation (13. we can substitute it in the surface integral in (13. How can they be equal for all > 0? Cauchy resolved the apparent contradiction in 1827.9) for F E K 0(t)] and (13.9) Combining the physical law (13. Cauchy showed that this can happened i at every instant t.11) to (13.2. and the validity of (13. Then the left side of (13. so Z Z ~ F E K 0 (t)] = K 0(t) dVP (~)f E (~ t) + @K 0(t) dAP (~)S ~ t nP (~ t)] : r~ r r~r ^ r (13. to r \remove the integral signs") we would like to invoke the vanishing integral theorem.12).2.10) seems to go to zero like 3.11). must vanish.2.1) with the mathematical expressions (13. (i.2. (13..10) makes our model look mathematically self-contradictory. To convert (13.9) gives Z K dV (~)( ~ .2.2.2.

14) This theorem is true for any value of dim U 2. f . r ^ ~r^ ^ $ r S (~ n) = n S (~): (13.10) to (13. K ~ is an open subset of U . @ S (~ t) = 0: r a ~ ~ r K0 Theorem 13.2. CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM 173 Then (13. a proof can be given in exactly the same way except that ~ 1 ~ 2 must be replaced by the vector in Exercise 7. t appears only as a parameter. The tensor S (~ t) called the r $ Cauchy stress tensor at (~ t).2. Suppose that for any open subset K 0 of K whose boundary @K 0 is piecewise smooth. so we examine it in detail.28 (Cauchy's Theorem) Suppose U and V are Euclidean spaces.] u u Proof: K dV (~)f (~) = r ~r 0 U Z @K 0 dAU (~)S ~ nU (~)] r~r^ r (13. We give the proof only for dim U = 3.2. Then (13.12) $E This is the Eulerian form of the momentum equation.2. For other values of dim U . as r we shall assume. f : K ! V is continuous.2.2. In (13. we have Z where nU (~) is the unit outward normal to @K 0 at ~ 2 @K 0 . Then for each ~ 2 K there ^ r r r $ is a unique S (~) 2 U V such that for all n 2 NU .13. Therefore $ ~ ~ = @ S +f : a ~ (13. so we will ignore it. it is continuous. ^ ~ and S : K NU ! V is continuous.2. NU = set of all unit vectors n 2 U . The argument which led Cauchy from (13. The physical quantity S is also called the Cauchy stress r tensor. the case of interest to us. the vanishing integral theorem implies that the integrand vanishes for all ~ 2 K (t) if.2.2.11) is fundamental to continuum mechanics.13) .11) because of $E dV (~) ~ .2.10) implies (13.10) becomes Z Since this is true for all open subsets K 0 of K (t) with piecewise smooth boundaries @K 0 .10).2.

The diagram above is for r 1=2.3: Two lemmas are required. ~0 = (~ . and use dA(~) r r r both as the name of this set and as the numerical value of its area. Then by r r r r . Let dA(~) r r r r r r r denote a small nearly plane patch of surface in @K 0 .28.2.2. and denote its area also by dA (~ ). ~ shrinks U r r r r r r r r r r r r uniformly toward ~0 by the factor . De ne K 0 = ~ (K 0) so @K 0 = ~ (@K 0 ). Let the set dA (~ ) be de ned as ~ dA(~)].174 CHAPTER 13.29: For any real in 0 < < 1. @K ~ ~ Lemma 13.. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM K Figure 13. Choose ~ 2 @K 0 and let ~ = ~ (~). Then Z dAU (~)S ~0 nU (~)] = ~ V r~r ^ r 0 (13. with ~ 2 dA(~). be any point in K and let K 0 be any open bounded (i. Since ~ (~) . with piecewise smooth boundary @K 0 . ~0 ). de ne ~ : U ! U by r ~ (~) = ~0 + (~ .2.15) 0 if nU (~) is the unit outward normal to @K 0 at ~ 2 @K 0 and dAU (~) is the element of area ^ r r r on @K 0 . We don't need r r K 0 K .e. there is a real M such that ~ 2 K 0 ) k~k M ) subset of U . Let ~0 r Proof of Lemma 13. ~0 ) for all ~ 2 U .29 Suppose f and S satisfy the hypotheses of theorem 13.2.

S ~ n (~ )] : (13.2.2. S ~0 n (~ )] r ~r ^ r K0 Z r ~r ^ r + 0 dA (~ )S ~0 n (~ )] : @K From (13. jK 0j = volume of K 0.2. K 0 K .2.3) and (13.2. S (~ n)k for all ~ 2 @K 0 and all n 2 NU . Let jK 0 j = volume of K 0 .19) imply Z @K 0 dA(~)S ~0 n(~)] r~r ^r jK 0jmf~( ) + j@K 0 jmS ( ): ~ (13. j@K 0 j = area of @K 0 . so (10. CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM 175 geometric similarity dA (~ ) = 2dA(~): r r (13. Let j@K 0 j = area of @K 0 . Therefore @K r ~r ^ r 0 dA (~ )S ~0 n (~ )] = 2 Z @K 0 dA(~)S ~0 n(~)] : r~r ^r (13. by hypothesis. n(~) and n (~ ) point in the same direction.17) Z If is small enough. Then.13. it follows that r (13.2.13) with K 0 and @K 0 replaced by K 0 and @K 0 .18) Z K r ~r 0 dV (~)f (~) = Z n o ~r ^ r dA (~ ) S ~ n (~ )] .19) 2 @K 0 ~r ^ ~r^ Let mS ( ) = maximum value of kS (~0 n) .18) it follows that Z Z dA(~)S ~0 n(~)] = 12 0 dV (~)f (~) r~r ^r r ~r @K 0 K Z dA (~ ) r +1 ~r ^ r ~r ^ r S ~0 n (~ )] . r ^ ~ ~r r Let mf~( ) = maximum value of jf (~)j for all ~ 2 K 0 . By similarity.16) Let n(~) be the unit outward normal to @K 0 at ~. Then j@K 0 j = 2j@K 0 j and jK 0 j = 3jK 0 j.2. r ^r ^ r Being unit vectors.2.2. we have (13. they are equal: n (~ ) = n(~): ^ r ^r Since ~0 is xed.20) . and let n (~ ) be the unit outward ^r r ^ r normal to @K 0 at ~ .2.

2. To prove this. F (c~ ) = cF (~ ).15) and hence proves lemma 13.n) + "L S (^1) + S (. it su ces u u u to prove ~ ^ ~n S (. Suppose that for any open set K 0 with piecewise Z @K 0 dA(~)S n(~)] = ~ V r~ ^r 0 (13.n2 ) = ~ V : n ~ ^ ~n ~ ^ 0 Hold L xed and let " ! 0.21) gives h~ i ~n ~ ^ L2 S (^ ) + L2S (. Then divide by L2 and (13.2.2. This proves (13.20) is true for all su ciently small > 0.n1 ) + S (^2 ) + S (. We also need ~ smooth boundary @K 0 .2.2. u 0 0 0 ii) If c > 0 and ~ 6= ~ U . Therefore the left side must be 0. u ~u u u .2. b) If c 2 R and ~ 2 U .2.2.S (^) for all n 2 NU : ^ (13.2. Proof of Lemma 13. For this box. and the left side is non-negative and independent of . CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM As ! 0.2. S satis es ~ Lemma 13.23) is the result. as ! 0. u u u i) If c = 0 or ~ = ~ U . Therefore.22) F (0 0 u 0 u u k~ k u Then F is linear.29. mf~( ) remains bounded (in fact ! kf (~0)k) and mS ( ) ! 0 because r ~ ~ S : K NU ! V is continuous. Suppose F : U ! V is de ned ^r r as follows: ! ~ u ~ U ) = ~ V and if ~ 6= ~ U F (~ ) = k~ kS ~ : (13.20) ! 0. F (c~ ) = kc~ kkS (c~ =kc~ k) = ck~ kS (c~ =ck~ k) = u 0 u u ~ u u u ~ u u ck~ kS (~ =k~ k) = cF (~ ) .n) = . (13.~ ) = .2.176 CHAPTER 13.30 Suppose S : NU ! V .23) Let K 0 be the at rectangular box shown at upper right. this is obvious from F (~ U ) = ~ V .21) where n(~) is the unit outward normal to @K 0 as ~ 2 @K 0 .30: a) F (.F (~ ) for all ~ 2 U . the right side of (13. Inequality (13.

4: . CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM 177 ε n2 ^ L -n1 ^ -n ^ n ^ n ^ 1 -n2 ^ L Figure 13.13.2.

F (~ 1 + ~ 2) = F (~ 2) = ~ V + F (~ 2) = F (~ 1) + F (~ 2).2.2. Then F (c~ ) = . ~ 2. But .2. ^) so dividing by L and using (13.~ .22) gives (13. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM iii) If c < 0.(. F (c~ ) = . and ~ i is perpendicular to that side and points out of the triangle.2. The length of side ^ ~ i is u u u k ^ ~ ik = k~ ik.2.25) .30.c)F (~ ) by ii). u u u u u u i) If ~ 1 = ~ U .178 CHAPTER 13.21) to u u u this K 0 gives 3 X ~ ~ AS (^) + AS (.24) note that since ~ 1 . ~ 2 2 U .c~ ) by a) above. or .~ 3) = F (~ 1) + F (~ 2). ~ 2. ~ 2. ^ ~ 3. We place the plane of this paper so that it contains ~ 1 u u u u u and ~ 2. If we rotate the triangle with sides ~ 1 .F (. The base and top of the cylinder have area A = k~ 1 ~ 2k=2 and their unit outward normals are ~ and .2. The three rectangular u u faces of K 0 have areas Lk~ ik and unit outward normals ~ (i) =k~ (i)k.S (.) Under the hypotheses of lemma 13. let ~ 3 = . u 0 u u u 0 u u u ii) If ~ 1 6= ~ U and ~ 2 = c~ 1 then F (~ 1 + ~ 2) = F (1 + c)~ 1] = (1 + c)F (~ 1) = u 0 u u u u u u F (~ 1) + cF (~ 1) = F (~ 1) + F (c~ 1) = F (~ 1) + F (~ 2).c~ ) = u u u (.c)F (~ ) = cF (~ ). i=1 Corollary 13. Applying (13. u u u u we obtain a triangle with sides ^ ~ 1.23).2. ~ 2 are linearly independent. u u u u u u iii) If f~ 1 ~ 2g is linearly independent.2.44 (to Lemma 13. there $ is a unique S 2 U V such that for all n 2 NU ^ ~n ^ $ S (^) = n S : (13. ^ ~ 2. u u u u c) F (~ 1 + ~ 2) = F (~ 1) + F (~ 2) for all ~ 1.~ 1 . ^) + Lk~ ikS (~ i=k~ ik) = ~ V : u ~u u 0 ~ ~ But S (^) = . We want to prove u u u u u u u u u u F (. Let u u u K 0 be the right cylinder whose base is the triangle with sides ^ ~ i and whose generators u perpendicular to the base have length L. ~ 3 90 counterclockwise. or u F (~ 1) + F (~ 2) + F (~ 3) = ~ V : u u u 0 (13. and ^ points out of the paper. The vectors ~ 1.30. ~ 3 form the three sides of a u u u u nondegenerate triangle in the plane of the paper. we can de ne the unit u u vector ^ = (~ 1 ~ 2)=k~ 1 ~ 2k.F (~ 3) = F (~ 1) + F (~ 2).c > 0 so F (.2. ^ ~ i is obtained by rotating ~ i 90 u u counterclockwise.24) To prove (13.

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM 179 u3 u1 u ^ x ν 3 .5: .13.2. ^ ν ^ ν x u1 u2 ^ x ν u2 ^ −ν L ^ x u3 ν ν^ x u 1 ^ ν ^ ν x u 2 Figure 13.

14).180 CHAPTER 13. If n $1= n $2 for all n 2 NU then(cn) S 1 = (cn) $2 for all ^ S ^ S ^ ^ ^ S n 2 NU and c 2 R. we have proved that if $E (13. the tensor in U V corresponding to the F 2 L(U ! S .10) holds for all K 0 then Cauchy's stress tensor S (~ t) exists and r satis es (13.2.11) leads automatically to the Eulerian momentum equation (13.2.2.8). $ Existence.27) If K 0 is any open subset of K (t). And as we have seen. Then the force dFS exerted by the material just in front of dA on the material just behind dA is. Therefore by corollary 13. according to (13.2. or force per unit area. u u Now we return to the proof of Cauchy's theorem (theorem 13.2. ^ ^ n ~n $ Uniqueness.28).44 there $ ~r is a unique S (~0 ) 2 U V such that for any unit vector n 2 U . exerted on the material just behind dA by the material just in front is $E ~r ^ S (~ t nP ) = nP S (~ t): ^ r (13. Then n S = n F = F (^) = S (^).26) dFS = dAP nP S (~ t): ^ r The stress. Hence S 1=S 2 .30.12). $E ~ (13. at time t. If ~0 is r ~r any xed point in K1 then by lemma 13. It is important to have a clear phys$E ical picture of what the existence of a Cauchy stress tensor S (~ t) means.2. r If dAP is any small nearly plane surface in the material in physical space P at time t.11). ^ r n ~r ^ Having completed the proof of Cauchy's theorem.2. S (~0 )](^) = r ^ n $ ~r n S (~0).2. (13.2.22. But S (~0 )](^) = S (~0 n) so we have (13. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM Proof: $ $ V ) de ned by 13.2. the function S (~0 ) : NU ! V satis es the hypothesis of lemma 13. and let nP r ^ ~ be the unit normal extending in front of dAP . choose one side of dAP to be its front. then at time t the total surface force on the matter in K 0 is. But every ~ 2 U is cn for some c 2 R and n 2 NU . with piecewise smooth boundary @K 0 . so ^ ^ ^ $ $ $ ~ S 2 for all ~ 2 U .29.2. Take $=F . and if ~ 2 dAP .2.2.

28) $E dVP (~)@ S (~ t): r~ r (13. An example is an iron doughnut in orbit around the sun (to cancel gravity).2.29).2. CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM ^ nP 181 r .13. so r x ~ L(~ t) = Dt ~ L(~ t) = ~ . dAP front back Figure 13. for every open subset K 0 of K (t). ~ L(~ t) is independent of time.2. Z E ~ E K 0] = dVP (~) f + @ $ (~ t): F r ~ ~ S r (13. we can write this as E dAP ( ~ )^P (~) S (~ t): rn r $ r @K 0 (13.32) $ The physical quantity S is called a \static stress eld" if it satis es (13.30) that the surface force on the matter in K 0 exactly balances the body force.31) the \static equilibrium equation.2. and ~ L(~ t) = Dt~ L(~ t) = ~ .30) 0 ~E FS K 0 ] = K Z If the particles are all motionless.2. ~E FS K 0] = Z Using Gauss's theorem.2. according to (13. we see from (13.29) K0 The total force on the matter in K 0 is.32).9) and (13.12) reduces to $ ~ ~ = @ S +f 0 ~ (13.2." In this case.6: and (13. and the momentum v x r x 0 a x v x 0 equation (13. .2.2. ~ 0 If we have both ~ = ~ and f = ~ .27).2.2. then a 0 ~ $ 0 @ S= ~: (13.2.

7: Cut out a slice.7 The resulting doughnut will contain a nonzero static stress eld.35) The vector nSn(^) is called the normal stress acting on the oriented surface (dA n). and remove the pressure. The net force on every lump of iron in the doughnut vanishes because the body force vanishes and the surface force sums to ~ .2.n n S n $ pn(^) := .46 $ Sn(^) := n S (^) = n S n n ^ ~n ^ ^ ~ n ~n ^ n ^ $ ^ ^ $ ^ SS (^) := S (^) .2. namely (dA n).6). and the pair (dA n) is an oriented surface. the ^ n ^ ~ n vector SS (^) is called the tangential or shear stress acting on (dA n).34) (13.33) (13.2. pressure and the stress deviator We want to discuss some of the elementary properties of stress and the Cauchy stress tensor.n) depending on which side of dA we call the front. and pn(^) is the ^ n . CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM Figure 13. choosing which side of dA is the \front" is called \orienting dA". ^ r De nition 13. as in gure 13.Sn (^) = . so we r will omit ~ t and also the superscript E .182 CHAPTER 13. close the gap by pressure.n S n: n n ^ ^ (13. We will work only with Eulerian descriptions r ~r ^ at the single point ~ and time t. and (dA . Thus the stress S (~ t n) on small nearly plane oriented r $E $ ~n area (dA n) will be written S (^). weld. Two oriented surfaces can be produced from ^ dA. and S (~ t) will be written S .2 Shear stress.2. In gure (13. 0 13. ^ ^ We want to study the state of stress at one instant t at one position ~ 2 K (t).2. nSn(^) = n S .

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM 183 pressure acting on (dA n).2. It is written hpni(~ t).45 n SS (^ ) = 0 ^ ~ n ~n ^ n ~ n S (^) = nSn(^) + SS (^) = . This suggests Thus De nition 13.1=3 tr S (13.n S n = . We do not write the (~ t) in this chapter.npn(^) + SS (^): ^ n ~ n (13.2.61 hpni = .36) (13. the spherical surface of radius 1 centered on ~ in P .2. ^ n ~ To visualize S as a function of n. parallel to dA. Thus S attaches to each n 0 0 ^ ~n on the unit sphere NP a vector S (^) whose radial part is nSN (^ ) and whose tangential ^ n ~ n part is SS (^).13.niSij nj = .47 The average value of pn(^) for all n 2 NP is called the average or n ^ mean pressure at ~ t.2.Sij ninj : n ^ ^ By the symmetry of NP . and take components relative to ^ ^ ^ this basis. ^ Corollary 13. The normal stress acts ^ oppositely to n if pn(^) > 0.38) Proof: Let y1 y2. n $ Remark 13.2. note that the set NP of unit vectors n 2 P is precisely ^ ^ ~ @B (~ 1). Then $ pn(^) = . y3 be an orthonormal basis for P . r r r 1 Z dA(^)p (^) hpni = 4 N n n n P where dA(^) is the element of area on NP .2.37) The shear stress is always perpendicular to n.2. dA(^)ni nj = 0 if i 6= j and n Z Z Z Z 2 2 2 dA(^)n2 = dA(^)n2 = dA(^)n2 = dA(^) (n1 + n2 + n3) = 43 : n 1 n 2 n 3 n 3 NP NP NP NP NP Z .

where U is any Euclidean space.48 $2 U U is \traceless". 41 Sij N dA(^)ni nj = .2.32 If $2 U U . $ Remark 13.62 If S 2 U U . there is exactly one isotropic tensor $U and one I $ deviator S D such that $ $ $ (13. Proof: $ $ The isotropic tensors are the scalar multiples of I U . S S $ $ Corollary 13. I Proof: $ $ Let y1 ^ yn be an orthonormal basis for U .2.31 tr $U = dim U .32.46 S is a deviator .2.2. To see this we need a brief discussion of tensors in U U .184 CHAPTER 13. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM Therefore. 1 tr S : 3 3 Z Lemma 13.S h2i I U = 0.2. tr $=$U h2i S . tr S = Sii = ij Sij = ( I U )ij Sij = I U h2i S .2. ^ ^ $ Lemma 13. Z NP dA(^)ni nj = 43 n ij and $ ~ n Only part of S produces the shear stress SS (^). S is orthogronal to all isotropic tensors in U U . Then I U = yiyi and tr I U = ^ ^^ yi yi = n = dim U .39) S= I U + SD : . 1 Sii = . S S I Proof: $ $ $ $ With yi as above. 1 ij Sij n 3 P $ = . or a \deviator" if tr $= 0. But S is orthogonal to $ $ $ ^ I U . ^ De nition 13. hpni = .2. Now use lemma 13.

Then $ De nition 13.2.2.2. and $D is the deviatoric I S $ Remark 13. Then S $ $ $ $ $ $ tr S = (tr I U ) + tr S D = tr S +tr S D so tr S D = 0.2. Since tr $D = 0. S D is the stress deviator.39). the same is true $ of S D . ^ $ $ ~ n SS (^) is the sum of a contribution from I P and one from S D .39) tr S = 3 .39).e. S D = 0 ) then pn(^) = . (13.34).34).35) and (13.2.. if n is xed. Then.2. Proof: $ $ i) By (13. from (13.39).64 If a Cauchy stress tensor produces no shear stress for any n. tr S = . SS (^) depends linearly on S .. By ii) $ above.2. for all n and S S (^) = ~ for all n n ^ n 0 ^ $ $ iii) S and S D produce the same shear stress for all n (i. $ $ $ $ $ ii) If S = I P (i. the shear stress is due entirely ^ $ to the deviatoric part of S ). By (13. the contribution from I P vanishes.2.2.49 In (13. Proof: Remark 13.13. $ stress tensor S .61).e.2.39) implies tr $= tr $U = (dim U ). it is ^ .39). $U is the isotropic part of S .3hpni. Choose = (tr $)= dim U and de ne SD by (13.63 Suppose $P and S D are the isotropic and deviatoric parts of Cauchy I i) hpni = . If U = P and S is a Cauchy stress tensor. CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM 185 Proof: Uniqueness. $ $ $ part of S . By remark (13. S S I $ Thus is uniquely determined by S .2.2. $ $ ii) Substitute I P for S in (13.2.2. $ Existence. $ ~ n iii) From (13. isotropic.

2. so we may choose an n n n ^ y n ^ ^ ^ with n yi 6= 0 for all of i = 1 2 3. we consider certain elementary uid problems. De nition 13. (13. that n S = nSn(^) for all unit vectors n. From remark 13.51 In a non-viscous uid. from (13.2.2. This is true for any n.186 CHAPTER 13.64).63. De nition 13.50 A uid is a material which cannot support shear stresses when it Corollary 13. or in a uid in static equilibrium. so n S yi = yi S n.2. or in a uid in static equilibrium. Thus $ $ S = . y3 be an orthonormal basis for P . and thus nSn(^) yi = yiSn(^i) n. Then setting n = yi gives ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ $ $ $ $ $ $ P yi S = y(i) Sn(^(i)). y2. But S = I P S = (^iyi) S = yi(^i S ) = yiyiSn(^i).34). r r Proof: $E $ From remark (13.2. S (~ t) = (~ t) I P . Then Sn(^) = Sn(^1) = Sn(^2) = Sn(^3). ^ ^ y y^ ^ y ^^ y That is 3 $ X = yiyiSn(^i): ^^ y S $T $ $ $ ^ n ^ ^ y ^ But then S =S . ny^ n QED i=1 Fluid Motion: As an application of Cauchy stress tensors and the momentum equation.2. or ^ ^ ^ ^ Sn(^)(^ yi) = Sn(^i)(^ yi). r r = .47 In a non-viscous uid. A non-viscous uid is a material which can never support shear stresses. ^ ^ n y y y $ $ so S = Sn(^)^iyi = Sn(^ ) I P . ^ ^ n ^ Let y1.hpni. is in static equilibrium.p I P : ~ I ~ Remark 13.65 @ (p $) = @ p.40) . hpni is called simply \the" pressure. and S (~ t) = .2.2.hpni(~ t) I P . the Cauchy $E $ stress tensor is isotropic. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM $ The hypothesis is. i). written p.

13. then the pres- ~ ~ Let be the gravitational potential.66 Static equilibrium in a uid subjected to body force f is impossible sure and density of the uid are constant on gravitational equipotential surfaces which are arcwise connected. ~ ~ @ is also a scalar multiple of @ . Proof: Remark 13.2. this is often written a u u u ~u (13. @ . .2. @ f = ~ . @ (p I P ) = @ p I P +p@ I P .2. then ~ (~) @ (~) = ^(~) @ p(~) = 0. (13. Since @ f = ~ .23. We have ~ ~ 0 unless @ f = ~ . r r ~ r r ~ r and p are the same at both ends of C .42) ~ ~ @p = f : ~ ~ 0 Therefore.2. QED. CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM 187 Proof: ~ $ ~ $ ~ $ ~ $ $ ~$ By exercise 11a. But @ I P = I P h2i@ I P = 0 $ ~$ ~ $ ~ because I P is constant and @ I P = 0. the Eulerian momentum equation in a non-viscous uid is ~ ~ ~ = . Therefore. ~ = ~ .2.43) ~ Remark 13. so (13. Therefore. And @ f = .2.@ p + f : a Since ~ = Dt~ = @t~ + ~ @~ .2.43) shows ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 that @ p is a scalar multiple of @ . if C is any curve lying in a gravitational equipotential surface.@ @ .@ p + f : u u ~u In a uid in static equilibrium. and if ^(~) is the unit tangent vector to C r at ~.41) ~ ~ @t~ + ~ @~ = . Therefore. so a 0 (13.67 If a uid is in static equilibrium in a gravitational eld. Also @ p I P = @ p.2. by theorem 11. Then f = .

188 CHAPTER 13.3) .3 Lagrangian form of conservation of momentum We use the notation introduced on page 163.2.2.1) dt t Since the set H 0 does not vary with time.3) by means of r x (11. so the total mass of the x particles whose labels are in dVL(~ ) is ~L(~ )dVL(~ ).3. Their velocity at time t is ~ L(~ t).2) should agree with (13.3. at time t. Then the law of conservation of momentum requires d P L H 0] = F L H 0] : ~ ~t (13. we nd ~ Let FtL H 0] denote the total force exerted on those particles at time t. and (13.7.2) L x a x dt t H0 The particles whose labels are in H 0 occupy the set K 0 (t) in physical space P at time ~ ~ t. ~ PtL H 0] = Z can be seen by changing the variables of integration from ~ to ~ in (13.7. x x x v x so their momentum is dVL(~ )~L(~ )~ L(~ t). we use x dVL(~ ) to stand for a small set containing ~ and also for the volume of that set. That it does H0 dVL (~ )~L(~ )~ L(~ x xv x t) = Z H0 dVL(~ )(~~ )L(~ t): x v x ~L FB t H 0] = or Z H0 ~r x ~ x dVL(~ ) det D~ L(~ t) f L(~ t) x ~L FB t H 0 ] = Z H L dVL(~ )~~ (~ t) xf x 0 (13. By changing the variables of integration in (13. The x x mass per unit volume in label space is ~L(~ ).6). Therefore PtL H 0] = P E K 0 (t)].6) and then using (13. ~L Let FB t H 0] denote the total body force on the particle with labels in H 0.3).3. Then ~L ~E FB t H 0] = FB K 0(t)]. we also have the mathematical identity d P L H 0] = Z dV (~ )~L(~ )D ~ L(~ t) ~ x tv x L x dt t H0 or d P L H 0] = Z dV (~ ) (~~ )L (~ t) : ~ (13.1.3).6) from ~ to ~ r x via (11. If ~ is a point in label space L. independent of time.2.3. The total momentum of the particles whose x xv x labels are in open subset H 0 of H is. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM 13.

3.3. ~ The force dFS exerted by the particles with labels just in front of dAL on the particles with labels just behind dAL is proportional to dAL. the picture is of a small patch of surface in label space. not physical space. The vector S will change if nL changes. i.4).3. x Now.4) f can be seen physically as follows. so ~L ~E FS t H 0] = FS K 0 (t)] : (13. and it ~ ~ ~ ~S ~ ~ proportionality by S ^ .3. Let dAL(~ ) be any small nearly plane patch of surface in label space L containing the x label ~ 2 H .0.e. xf x f The surface force at time t exerted by the particles whose labels are just outside @H 0 ~L on the particles whose labels are just inside @H 0 we will denote by FS t H 0].8 is the same as gure (13. and let nL be the unit normal to x ^ dAL(~ ) on its front side.1) this force is dVL(~ )~~ (~ t) with ~~ given by (13.8: where ~~ = det D~ f : ~r ~ f (13.5) ~ ~L ~L ~L Then FtL H 0] = FB t H 0] + FS t H 0]. The body force on the particles in the small set dVP (~) r x is dVP (~)f E (~ t) at time t.13.4) The vector ~~ is the body force density per unit of label-space volume. We denote the vector \constant" of ^ ~ . as long as nL is xed. as long as the orientation of that small surface does not change. Choose one side of dAL to be the front. Figure 13. The particles with labels just outside (inside) @H 0 are those whose positions at time t are just outside (inside) @K 0 (t). however. But these are the particles whose labels are in dVL(~ ). so by r~ r L (13.6) except for the labelling. LAGRANGIAN FORM OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM ^ nL 189 x . Then dF L = SdAL. It remains to study the surface force FS t H 0].. Formula (13. front dAL ( x ) back Figure 13.3.

10) $L ~ x The tensor S (~ t) is the Piola-Kircho or body stress tensor. It is mathematically of the same form as (13. We would prefer to call it the label stress tensor.3.10) and the same application of Cauchy's $L ~ x theorem (13.2. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM ^ (x ) nL x ∂H ′ .3.3.9) .8) Inserting this and (13.9: also will depend on ~ and t. The total surface force on the particles in H 0 is then Z L ~S t H 0 ] = ~ F dAL(~ )S ~ t nL(~ )] x~ x ^ x (13. Proceeding in the way which led from H Z L dVL(~ ) ~~ . but history prevents us.3.190 CHAPTER 13.3) ^ x x and (13.3.2) in (13.7.3.7) 0 where nL(~ ) is the unit outward normal to @H 0 at ~ 2 @H 0 . ^ $ ~ (~ t nL) = nL S L (~ t): ~ Sx ^ ^ x (13.3.3. so at time t at label ~ x x ~L S x ^ ~ dFS = ~ (~ t nL)dAL(~ ): x (13. Now we can combine (13.6) ~ ~ (Compare (13.3.7) to obtain @H ~ FtL H 0] = Z H dV (~ )f~L(~ t) + x x 0 L Z @H 0 ~ dAL(~ )S ~ t nL(~ )] : x~ x ^ x (13. ~~ (~ t) = x a f x 0 @H 0 ~ dAL(~ )S ~ t nL(~ )] : x~ x ^ x (13.28) shows that there is a unique tensor S (~ t) 2 L P such that for every unit vector nL 2 L.) The vector S we call the \label stress".2.3. H′ Figure 13.1) gives Z Equation (13.9) is true for every open subset H 0 of H for which @H 0 is piecewise smooth.2.

Let nP be the unit r x ^ normal to dAP (~) on its front side.3. LAGRANGIAN FORM OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM 191 (13.8. The relation between ~ ~ and is (13. f x a H0 Since this is true for all open H 0 H with @H 0 piecewise smooth. and that we x have chosen one of its sides as the front. Choose the front side of dAP (~) so that particles r are just in front of dAP (~) if their labels are just in front of dAL (~ ). Then the force exerted on the particles just behind r $E dAP (~) by the particles just in front can be written either as dAP (~)^P S (~ t) or as r rn r $L dAL(~ )^L S (~ t).3).6) can now be written $L L ~S = dAL(~ )^L S (~ t) dF xn ~ x (13.1.12) refer to the same motion.3. D $ (~ t) = 0: ~ S x ~ dVL(~ ) ~~ .10) to (13. these two expressions must be equal: xn ~ x $L $E (13. At time t. the vanishing integral Z theorem gives $ ~~ = ~~ + D S: a f ~ ~ (13. Let dAL(~ ) and dAP (~) denote both the sets of points which make up the small x x surfaces and also the areas of those sets.4).3.3. x ^ .11) Equations (13. The relation between ~~ and f is (13.2.2.14) dAP (~)^P S (~ t) = dAL(~ )^L S (~ t) rn r xn ~ x This is the Lagrangian form of the momentum equation.13) ~ both sides of this equation being the force per unit mass on the material. Let nL be the unit normal to dAL(~ ) on its ^ x front side.12) ~L where dFS .3.13.11) and (13. Equation (13.12) we note that by Gauss's theorem Z Z $L $L dAL(~ )^L S (~ t) = 0 dVL(~ )D S (~ t) xn x x~ x @H 0 H so !L ~~ . But what is the $ $ ~ relation between S and S ? Suppose that dAL(~ ) is a small nearly plane surface in label space L.2.3. Let dAP (~) be the small nearly plane surface r r x r in physical space P consisting of all positions at time t of particles whose labels are in r dAL(~ ).3. dAL(~ ) and nL refer to gure 13. let ~ = ~ L(~ t).3. which can also be written f ~~ f f=~ (13. Therefore.

14 holds.3.14). Our program is to express dAP (~)^P in terms of dAL(^)^L in (13.15) (13.3.3. back r dAP ( r ) back Figure 13.16) h i dAP (~) = ~ L ( t) dAL(~ )] : r r x Notice that in (13. xn whatever the shape of dAL(~ ). ~ + ~2.14). CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM ^P n front x .3.3. Then dAP (~) will be a very slightly x x distorted parallelogram with vertices ~ r ~ + ~1 r ~ + ~2 r ~ + ~1 + ~2 r = ~ L(~ t) r x = ~ L(~ + ~1 t) r x = ~ L(~ + ~2 t) r x = ~ L(~ + ~1 + ~2 t): r x Correct to rst order in the small length k~ik. ~ + ~1. ~ + ~1 + ~2. It is convenient to take it to be a small parallelogram x x x r whose vertices are ~ .3. dAP and dAL are positive real numbers. and thus to obtain the relation between S and S .3. Equation 13.10: if and ~ = ~ L(~ t) r r x (13. while in (13. the small surfaces whose areas appear in (13. to cancel rn xn $ $ ~ dAL(^)^L .17) .14).192 ^ nL CHAPTER 13. front dAL ( x ) .3. we have ~r x ~ + ~i = ~ L(~ t) + ~i D~ L(~ t) r r x so ~r x ~i = ~i D~ L(~ t): (13. areas.16) they stand for sets.

k~1 ~2 k = dAP (~).19) But which sign is correct? We have to work out which is the front side of dAP (~). r+ ρ +ρ 1 2 Figure 13. Thus ^ dAP (~)^P = ~1 ~2: rn (13. so k~1 ~2 k 6= 0 (recall that L and P are oriented 3-spaces. and ~1 ~2 is perpendicular to dAP (~).3.3. If ~3 2 L is small.3.21) . so cross products are de ned). ~3 ~1 ~2 > 0: (13.13. ~ + ~3 is in front of dAL(~ ) . with ~3 given by (13. so x dAL(~ )^L = ~1 ~2: xn (13. because r that is where we put nP .3. so ~1 ~2 = k~1 ~2knL. x But k~1 ~2k = dAL(~ ). ^ x x ^ and hence . so ~1 ~2 = r r k~1 ~2 knP . back x +ξ +ξ 1 2 r . We number ~1 and ~2 in the order which ^ ensures that ~1 ~2 points into the region in front of dAL(~ ). Then x r 8 > ~3 (~1 ~2 ) = AP (~3 ~1 ~2) = AP (~1 ~2 ~3 ) > > > > > < ~ rL ~ rL ~ rL > = AP ~1 D~ ~2 D~ ~3 D~ > > > > > = hdet D~ L(~ t)i AL ~1 ~2 ~3 = hdet D~ L(~ t)i ~3 ~1 ~2 : ~r x ~r x : (13.11: We naturally take ~1 and ~2 in di erent directions. LAGRANGIAN FORM OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM ^ nP ^ nL front x +ξ 2 ξ2 193 .17). ~3 nL > 0. clearly. dAP ( r ) 1 r+ ρ 2 x .20) The particle with label ~ + ~3 has position ~ + ~3 .18) Also. ξ1 dA L ( x ) ρ 1 r+ ρ x +ξ 1 .3.3.

3.3.3. That is. so that ~ + "nP is in front r ^ r ^ ~r x of dAP (~) when " > 0. r r ~r x sgn ~3 (~1 ~2) = sgn det D~ L(~ t): (13. = . Therefore sgn nP (~1 ~2 ) = sgn det D~ L (~ t).3.3. ~2. Thus r ^ ~r x ~1 ~2 = k~1 ~2 knP sgn det D~ L(~ t) ^ and ~r x dAP (~)^P = (~ ~2) sgn det D~ L(~ t): rn (13.22) We have chosen the front of dAP (~). ~3 (~1 ~2) has the same sign as r r ~r x det D~ L(~ t). if ~1 .1 if c < 0. and = 0 if c = 0. sgn c = +1 if c > 0.18) and (13.3. h iT ~r x dAP (~)^P D~ L(~ t) = dAL(~ )^L det D~ L(~ t) : rn ~r x xn (13. so ~3 D~ L(~ t) dAP (~)^P ] = ~3 dAL(~ )^L] det D~ L(~ t) : ~r x ~r x rn xn Since this is true for any ~3 2 L. ~3 are given by (13. ~3 2 L. letting T stand for transpose.23) Using (13.25) .23). Then position ~ + ~3 is in front of dAP (~) .3.194 CHAPTER 13.24) and using c sgn c = jcj. The two ends of (13.3.24) for any ~1.3.21) give ~r x ~3 (~1 ~2) = ~3 ~1 ~2 det D~ L(~ t) (13.18) and (13.17).3. ~2 .3. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM Thus the position ~ + ~3 is in front of dAP (~) . we hope to relate to dAP nP and dALnL . so we try to ^ ^ relate ~1 ~2 and ~1 ~2. Let sgn c stand for the sign of the real number c. we nd ~r x ~3 dAP (~)^P ] = ~3 dAL(~ )^L ] det D~ L(~ t) : rn xn ~r x But ~3 = ~3 D~ L(~ t). and the direction of nP . Substituting (13. we must have ~r x ~r x D~ :(~ t) dAP (~)^P ] = dAL(~ )^L det D~ L(~ t) rn xn or.23) in (13.

27) implies rn $L $L ~r x ~ x ~r x D~ L(~ t)T S (~ t) = S (~ t) det D~ L (~ t) x or $ $ ~x r ~ ~r x This gives S in terms of S . By (12.3.26) gives " # $L ~ r L(~ t)T S (~ t) ~ x dAP (~)^P ] D~ x rn $L ~r x = dAP (~)^P ] S (~ t) det D~ L(~ t) : rn x (13.3.27) is linear rn in dAP (~)^P . Therefore (13.3.3.3.3. Thus r r x $L $L dAL(~ )^L S (~ t) = dAP (~)^P S (~ t): xn ~ x rn x Substituting this on the right side of (13.27) We have proved (13.29) ~r ~r where we use det(D~ ).26) $L ~S = dAL(~ )^L S (~ t) = dAP (~)^P $E (~ t) dF xn ~ x rn S r where ~ = ~ L (~ t).3.3.3.3.28) gives $ ~ ~ x T $ ~ x . we obtain $L ~ x dAP (~)^P D~ L(~ t)T S (~ t) rn ~r x $L ~r x = dAL(~ )^L S (~ t) det D~ L(~ t) : xn ~ x But (see 13.14) (13.25).1 = (det D~). Dotting this on the left r r x in (13. as in Figure (13. But rn ~1 and ~2 can be arbitrary as long as they are small. ~x r ~r x where ~ = ~ L (~ t). @ ~ E (~ t).1 S = @ ~ S det @ ~ (13. LAGRANGIAN FORM OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM 195 $L ~ x If we dot S (~ t) on the right of each side of (13.13. ~r D~ T $ $ ~ ~r S = S det D~ : (13.7. 13. Hence so can dAP (~)^P = ~1 ~2 . Since (13.3.28) . D~ L (~ t) has an inverse.3.14).3. so D~ L(~ t)T has the inverse @ ~ E (~ t)T . Thus (13.3.27) is true when dAP (~)^P is any small vector in P .27) when dAP is a small parallelogram. it is true whatever the size of that vector.24).3.1 .2.

196 CHAPTER 13. so h = 1:0544 1. the angular momentum ~ r i h r r dVP (~)( ~ )E (~ t) = dVP (~)(~ r v r ~ )E (~ t): v r It is possible that the individual atoms in dVP (~) might have angular momentum this r might be from the orbits of electrons not in closed shells. there may be an intrinsic atomic angular momentum of ~E (~ t) per kilogram at position ~ at l r r time t.1).1 Eulerian version Refer again to the notation on page 163.29) as 0$1 0 $1 ~ r @ ~A @ S A = D~ T B S C ~ (13. while ME K 0(t)] denotes the total torque on them.28) and (13.1) dt Our problem is to express this law locally. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM By appealing to (13. Orbital angular momentum is quantized in integer multiples of h. we can write (13.4 Conservation of angular momentum 13.3. from the spins of unpaired electrons. r r r v r ~ relative to OP .30) (13.3. The law of conservation of angular momentum is d LE K 0 (t)] = ME K 0 (t)] : ~ ~ (13.4.3. while spin angular momentum is in units of h=2. All torques and angular momenta are calculated ~ ~ relative to the origin OP in physical space P . Let LE K 0 (t)] denote the total angular ~ momentum of the particles in K 0 (t).3. Here h = h=2 and h is Planck's constant.4. If the atoms are not randomly aligned. or from nuclear spin. The momentum of the particles in dVP (~) is dVP (~) E (~ t)~ E (~ t) and this produces.31) 0$1 ~ BS C = @ ~ @ ~A ~ x T 0 $1 @S A : 13. and the total r r l r angular momentum in dVP (~) is r ~ dLE = dVP (~) r h ~ ~ +~ r v l iE (~ t): r .3. Then the intrinsic angular momentum in dVP (~) is dVP (~)( ~)E (~ t).34 joule sec.

dAP (~)S ~ = . r r n r ^ r $ $ (Exercise 11b gives a de nition of ~ Q. or dVP (~)(~ f )E (~ t). (^ Q) ~ = n Q ~]. so this is true for all Q. and Q ~ is de ned similarly.13.) Thus r r $ E ~ dAP (~)S (~ t nP ) = . d LE K 0(t)] = Z dV (~) h D ~ ~ + ~ iE (~ t): r P r t r v l dt K 0(t) Now Dt(~ ~ ) = (Dt~) ~ + ~ Dt~ = ~ ~ + ~ ~ = ~ ~ r v r v r v v v r a r a d LE K 0 (t)] = Z dV (~) h ~ ~ + D ~ iE (~ t): r a tl r (13.1.4.4.2) P r dt K 0 (t) To calculate the torque on the particles in K 0(t) we note that the torque exerted by the r~ r r r ~ r body force dVP (~)f E (~ t) is ~ dVP (~)f E (~ t).dAP (~) n S r~r ^ r r~ r~ r r ^ $ $ $ $ (~ t)] ~.dAP (~)^P S ~ (~ t): r r~r ^ rn r r so . If Q2 P P is a polyad.12).12: The total angular momentum in K 0(t) is Z h i LE K 0(t)] = K 0(t) dVP (~) ~ ~ + ~ E (~ t): r r v l r From (13. The torque exerted r~ r r $E by the surface force dAP (~)S (~ t nP ) is ~ dAP (~)S = . CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM 197 Figure 13.

other than that due to nP S (~ t).198 CHAPTER 13. the torque about OP which is exerted on the particles in K 0 (t) by the body and surface force acting on them is . for example. so there is a \torque stress" acting on @K 0 (t). atoms just outside @K 0 (t) exert a torque on atoms just inside @K 0 (t). if the material were a solid bar of magnetized iron ~ ~ placed in a magnetic eld B . ~ r ^ We write the proportionality constant as M (~ t nP ). we might r ~ ~ r ~ want to allow for an intrinsic body torque of m joules/meter3.3) the material just behind dAP (~) by the material just in front is proportional to dAP as r long as the orientation of that small patch of surface. there may be a torque acting on each atom in dVP (~)..e.4.3).13: ~ Therefore. The torque exerted on . r Z @K 0 (t) dAP (~)^P rn E $ E r r S ~ (~ t): By applying Gauss's theorem to the surface integral. In general. in a magnetized iron bar. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM front ^ nP r back Figure 13. there would be a torque dVP (~)M B acting on dVP (~) and not included in (13. @ S ~ r r ~ ~ r K 0 (t) (~ t): r (13.4. dAP ( r ) Z K 0(t) ~E r dVP (~) vecr f (~ t) . its unit normal.4. stays xed. If the magnetization density was M . i. is ^ r In addition to this torque.3) must be supplemented by a term Z dVP (~)mE (~ t): r~ r K 0 (t) Finally. we can write this torque as Z $ dVP (~) ~ f . r This would be true. The torque exerted on the material $E just behind dAP by the material just in front. so that (13.

y3 be a poob in P .4. so we must also supplement (13.4. and leads via Cauchy's the$ r r orem to the same conclusion. m = @ M: r a l r ~ ~ r ~ ~ ~ (13. and the vanishing integral theorem to the volume integral. m E (~ t) r a tl r ~ ~ S r ~ r K 0(t) P r R = @K 0(t) dAP (~)M ~ t nP (~ t)] : r ~ r ^ r (13. we note that it can be greatly simpli ed by using the momentum equation (13. CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM 199 ~ r ^ M (~ t nP )dAP (~).7) Before we accept this as the Eulerian angular momentum equation.4.4. At ~ t there is a unique tensor M E (~ t) 2 P P .13.10).5) This equation has the same mathematical form as (13.4.2) and (13.4. Let y1 . We have (~ ~ ) = ~ f r a r ~ $ =~ r ~ .5). which we call the (Cauchy) torque-stress tensor.4.2.3) by a term r Z dAP (~)M (~ t nP (~ t)) r ~ r ^ r 0 where nP is the outward unit normal to @K 0 (t). f = ~ (@ S ).12).7) is a ~ r ~ $ ~ $ $ Dt~ + ~ @ S + @ S ~ = m + @ M : l r ~ r ~ ~ (13. we obtain R dV (~) ~ ~ + D ~ .4.2.6) Substituting this on the right in (13.4) in (13. (^1 x2 x3) a pooob in ^ ^ ^ x ^ ^ L. @ S ~ + m (~ t) Z + dAP (~)M ~ t nP (~ t)] : r ~ r ^ r @K 0(t) @K (t) (13.1). gives $ ~ ~ + Dt~ .4. applying Gauss's theorem to the surface integral. and take components relative to these bases. Then $ ~ $ ~ (@ S ) = "ijk rj (@ S )k = "ijk rj @l Slk : r ~ i .4. y2.4. such that for every unit vector nP 2 P we have ^ $ ~ r ^ M (~ t nP ) = nP M E (~ t ): ^ r (13.8) This can be still further simpli ed.4. ~ f + @ S ~ . so (13.4) If we substitute (13. Thus we nally have ^ Z E $ ~ r r ~ ~ r ~ r ME K 0 (t)] = K 0(t) dVP (~) ~ f . ~ f + @ $ ~ .

w 2 P .4. In non-magnetic materials $ it is believed that ~.200 CHAPTER 13. m are M and all negligible. so this is "ikj Sjk = . for ~ . $ Q w = Qik "jklwl : ~ ij Therefore $ r S ~ ~ $ r @ S ~ li i = Slk "ikj rj $ = @l S ~ = @l Slk "ikj rj ] r li = "ikj @l (Slk rj ) = "ikj (@l Slk ) rj + Slk @l rj ] : Referring to page 199 and using "ijk + "ijk = 0.9) (13.10) This is the Eulerian form of the angular momentum equation. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM Also. and that the essential content of (13. we get ~ r ~ ~ ~ $ r @ S +@ S ~ $ But @l rj = lj .4. (~ ~ ) w = ~ (~ w) (this is how we use the lifting theorem to u v ~ uv ~ u v ~ $ $ de ne Q w for Q2 P P and w 2 P ) so ~ ~ (~ ~ ) w]ij = ~ (~ w)]ij = ui (~ w)j uv ~ uv ~ v ~ = ui"jkl k wl = (~~ )ik "jklw: uv $ Therefore for any Q2 P P .11) . ijk Sjk = . AP h2i S . Thus ~ r Thus (13.8) is i = "ikj Slk @l rj : i $ ~ $ ~ $ r @ S + @ S ~ = .4.10) l ~ is $ AP h2i S = ~ : 0 (13.4.4. ~ .AP h2i S : $ $ Dt~ = AP h2i S +m + @ M : l ~ ~ (13.

~n ^ $ n S (^) = n S = S (^): (13. y S = by. We denote by ^ r ^ ^ $ ^ S the linear operator on P corresponding to the tensor S . body torque and torque stress are all negligible.13. dAP as dA).4.4. the Cauchy stress tensor is symmetric.e.4. z S = cz so ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ $ $ $ $ x ^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ S = I P S = (^x + yy + z z) S = x (ax) + y (by) + z (cz) so (13. Multiply by "ilm and sum on i. because we are looking at one time t and r ~n one position ~ in physical space. r $E $ We will abbreviate S (~ t) as S in this chapter. c such that S (^) = ax S (^) = by S (^) = cz : x ^ y ^ z ^ $ $ $ Then x S = ax.14) $ ^ ^ ^^ ^^ S = axx + byy + cz z: (13.4. and this becomes (see page D-9) ( or or jl km .13) Since S : P ! P is a symmetric operator. P has an orthonormal basis x y z consisting ^^^ of eigenvectors of S . CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM 201 That is.15) . "ijk Sjk = 0. we write S (~ t nP ) as S (^ ). Then for any unit vector n. This greatly simpli es visualizing the stress at a point ~ at time t. torque and torque stress. if intrinsic angular momentum. We denote by S (^ ) the stress on the oriented small area r ~r ^ ~n (dA n) at ~ t (i. there are scalars a.2 Consequences of S T =S $ In the absence of intrinsic angular momentum. That is. b. and nP as n.4. $ 13.12) The conservation of angular momentum requires that the Cauchy stress tensor be symmetric. jm kl ) Sjk =0 Slm .4. Sml = 0 $ $ S T =S : (13.

A < B < C: (13.4.c: (13. z are called \principal axes of stress" and a. Also if we change the sign of any of x y z both (13. y. c are \principal ^ ^ ^ stresses." By relabelling. Therefore ^^^ we may assume that (^ y z) is positively oriented.17) $ The pressure pn(^) acting on (dA n) is pn(^ ) = . we can always assume that a b c.a B = .19) ~ n We want to try to visualize pn(^) and the shear stress SS (^) acting on (dA n) as funcn ^ tioning of n. pn(^)^ nn ~n S (^) = .4.4.21) (13. Its value is unchanged if we replace any of x y z by its negative in (13.4. as functions on the spherical surface (13. pn > 0.e. x^^ For any vector ~ 2 P we write n ~ = xx + yy + zz : n ^ ^ ^ The unit sphere NP consists of those ~ 2 P for which n (13.4.15) remain unchanged.22) First consider pn. ~n ~ n S (^) = SS (^) .. ^ ^ ^ ^ In the earth. so it is convenient to introduce the principal pressures A.16).n S n = . since S (^) = n S . ^ We have pn(^) = Ax2 + By2 + Cz2 n (13. Byy .18) Then A B C . It can be n ^ n ^ ^ thought of as a function of position n = xx + yy + zz on the spherical surface (13. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM The unit vectors x. Czz : ^ ^ ^ (13.16) x2 + y2 + z2 = 1: (13.b C = .Axx . C .4.202 CHAPTER 13.20) ~n ^ $ and.17).4. Therefore pn is symmetric under re ections in the coordinate planes x = 0.4.4. b.4. . if necessary.4. i. B .4. We will examine the usual case.17).14) and (13. de ned by A = .(ax2 + by2 + cz2 ). The cases where equality occurs are special and are left to the reader.

17) in great circles. so pn(^) = A only for n = x.4. It is de ned by (13.14. The value p = A requires y = z = 0. (C . with p = B . B ) z = B .17). and ^ ~ n ~n from (13. only for n = z .25) into x ^ ^ and these two planes intersect the sphere (13. p) z2 = 0: (13.4.4. (13.24) (13.25) (13. p) x2 + (B .21). so pn(^) = C n ^ ^ n pB .28) > (B . this is a vector tangent to NP . A: : Therefore the projection of the level curve (13. B .4.4. let ^(^) be the unit n n ^ n . Next.26) imply all three of the following: 8 > (C . The value p = C requires x = y = 0. A = z C . when x 0 y 0 z 0: (13. At a point n 2 NP .25). p) y2 + (C .4.13.4.4. (13. n ^ i.4. consider the shear stress ~ n SS (^). then the level line pn(^) = p on Np satis es n Ax2 + By2 + Cz2 = p x2 + y2 + z2 = 1: Hence. The level are the great circles where Np intersects the planes x lines of pn on NP are the dashed curves in gure 13.17) onto the xy or yz plane is part or all of an ellipse.23) If p is any constant. pB . A) z2 = p .4. A) y2 + (C . For any value of p in A < p < C . it satis es (A .17) have no real solutions (x y z) unless A p C so the values of pn(^) all lie in the interval (13. even when k~ k 6= 1.4. n x = 1.23). and its projection on the xz plane is part of a hyperbola with p p n asymptotes x B .4. B . Therefore it su ces to study pn(^) when n is in the rst octant of (13. A = zpC . The value of p = B makes (13.27) This equation and (13. B . p > > < 2 2 (13. The level lines pn(^) = B on Np. B ) y2 = C .4.4.25) and (13.4. p > > (B .4. A) x .4. At any n 2 NP .26) (13. CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM 203 y = 0. z = 0. A) x2 + (C .4.27). A = z p C .4.4.1=2 @ pn(^) where pn is to be considered as a function de ned for all ~ 2 P by (13. one of which lies in (13..20).e.22) S (^) = .

204 CHAPTER 13.14: . CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM ^ z pn = C pn = B ^ y pn = B ^ x pn = A Figure 13.

13.30) (13.4.22) to a little algebra yields ~ n SS (^ ) = sin cos (^ cos . CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM 205 vector tangent to the level curve of pn passing through n. (13. ~ n These \lines of force" give the direction of SS (^) everywhere on NP .4.32) (13.29). The \lines of force" of the ^ ~ n shear stress on NP are the curves which are everywhere tangent to SS (^).21). y = 0. we appeal to n (13. half way between x and y on ^ ^ the quarter circle. Thus the shear stress SS (^) at n 2 NP is n ~ n ^ perpendicular to the level line of pn which passes through n. A) sin 2 if n = x cos + z sin n ^ ^ ^ (^) = 1=2(C . (^) = 1 (B . y sin ) on n = x cos + y sin : x ^ ^ ^ ^ Therefore.31) This reaches a maximum value of (B . z = 0. The other octants are obtained by re ection in the three coordinate planes x = 0.4.21). A) sin 2 if n = x cos + y sin : n 2 ^ ^ ^ (13. ^(^) SS (^) = 0. subjecting (13.14. A)=2 at = =4.4.29) Again we consider only the rst octant.4. and since ^ ^ n ^(^ ) is tangent to a curve lying in the level surface pn(~ ) = constant in P . z 0.4. from (13. First consider the edges of the rst octant. y 0.4. we would like to nd kSS (^)k on NP . And (^) = (^) = 0.4. x 0. and are everywhere perpendicular to the level lines of pn. z > 0. They are the solid curves in gure 13.4. ~ n Finally. where x = 0 or y = 0 or z = 0. Therefore.20) and (13. Then n ^(^) = 0.4.4. 0 ^ ^ ^ =2. On the quarter circle n = x cos + y sin . which we abbreviate as ~ n (^) = kSS (^)k: n (13. y > 0. from (13. it follows that n n ^(^ ) @ pn(^ ) = 0.4. Similarly x y (^) = 1=2(C . we have n ~ n ^(^) S (^) = 0 n ~n and ^(^) n = 0: n ^ ~ n Then from (13. B ) sin 2 if n = y cos + z sin : n ^ ^ ^ To see what happens to (^) when x > 0.33) .29).

33 On any level line of pn in the rst octant on NP .4. Proof: ~n From (13.4. kS (^)k2 = (^)2 + pn(^)2 so n n ~n (^ )2 = kS (^)k2 . for some ^ dn = n S (^): ^ ~n dy ^ Now dn=dy = x(dx=dy) + y + z (dz=dy) on the level curve.35) n n P s dy n On that level curve. A) n S (^): (13. pn(^)2: n n (13. A): ^ ^ ~n Ax By Cz Thus = 1=xz(C .4. Hence.4. of course pn(^) is constant.34) We can parametrize the level curve pn(^) = p on NP by the value of y at n.4. so S (^) dn=dy = 0.y n S (^) = x y z = .36) ~ n n p s dy n The vector dn=dy on pn(^) = p is tangent to that level curve. and dn = ^ 1 ^ ~n dy xz(C .xz(C . . A).37) .35) is equivalent to d kS (^)k2 < 0 on the curve p (^) = p on N 0 rst octant: (13. so ^ ^ ^ ^ ~n ^ ^ ^ 0 1 0 . CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM Lemma 13.4. (^) decreases monon tonically as y increases. Hence n ^ n ^ ~ n ^ ~n ^ dn=dy = 0 and @ p(^) dn=dy = 0.4. We want to show that ^ ^ d (^) < 0 on the curve p (^) = p on N 0 rst octant: (13. n ^ namely y n = y.4.21).206 CHAPTER 13. Hence ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ y dn = 1 so 1 = y n S (^): ^ dy ^ ^ ~n But n = xx + yy + z z. so (13.34) shows that n (13.S (^)Axx + Byy + Czz .

13.4. CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM
d ~ n ^ ~ ~ n By the chain rule, dy kS (^)k2 = dn @ kS (^)k2 . From (13.4.22), dy

207

~n kS (~ )k2 = A2 x2 + B 2y2 + C 2z2 so ~ ~n @ kS (~ )k2 = 2A2xx + 2B 2 yy + 2C 2zz : ^ ^ ^
Therefore

h ~ i 2 d kS (^)k2 = 2 ~n ^ n ^ 2 ^ 2 ^ dy xz(C ; A) n S (^) A xx + B yy + C zz x y z 1 1 1 2 2y = xz(C ; A) ;Ax ;By ;Cz = ; (C ; A) A B C A2 x B 2 y C 2z A2 B 2 C 2 = ;2y(C ; B )(B ; A) < 0:
This proves lemma 13.4.30 . QED. From (13.4.31, 13.4.32, 13.4.33) and lemma 13.4.33, we infer that the largest value of p (^), the magnitude of the shear stress, is (C ; A)=2, and this occurs at n = ( x z )= 2, n ^ ^ ^ and for no other n. ^ It is of some interest to see which pairs (pn(^) (^)) are possible on NP . On the three n n quarter-circles in (13.4.31, 13.4.32, 13.4.33) we have

0 1 0 pn(^) C B A+B ; B;A cos 2 n B @ A = @ 2 B;A 2 n n (^ ) 2 sin 2 0 1 0 n B pn(^ ) C = B A+C ; C ;A cos 2 @ A @ 2 C ;A 2 n n (^ ) 2 sin 2 0 1 0 n B pn(^) C = B B+C ; C ;B cos 2 @ A @ 2 C ;B 2 n n (^ ) 2 sin 2

1 C if n = x cos + y sin ^ A ^ ^

(z = 0) (y = 0)

(13.4.38) (13.4.39) (13.4.40)

1 C if n = x cos + z sin ^ A ^ ^

1 C if n = y cos + z sin : (x = 0) ^ A ^ ^

For z = 0, the possible pairs (pn(^) (^)) are given by (13.4.38) and trace out the n n seimicircle marked z = 0 in Figure 13.15. For y = 0, the possible pairs are given by

208

CHAPTER 13. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM

MOHR

σ( ^ ) n

MOHR start

stop

. .
A p

y=0

z=0

x=0 pn (^ ) n

B

C

θ increases in the direction of the arrows.

Figure 13.15:

13.4. CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM

209

(13.4.39) and trace out the semicircle marked y = 0 in Figure 13.15. For x = 0, use the third semicircle in Figure 13.4.38. In gure 13.14, suppose we start at a point with y = 0 and move along the level line of pn till we hit either x = 0 or z = 0. Then in the ( pn) plane we will start at the point marked \start" in Figure 13.15, and we will remain on the vertical dashed line pn = p. According to lemma 13.4.33, as we increase y on the level curve pn ; p in Figure (13.14), we will decrease (^), so we move down the dashed line in Figure 13.15 until we strike n the point marked \stop." Therefore, the possible pairs (pn(^) (^)) which can occur on n n NP are precisely the points in the shaded region in Figure 13.15. Coulomb suggested that a rock will break when the maximum value of (^) exceeds n a critical value characteristic of that rock. Navier pointed out that when two plates are pressed together, the greater this pressure the harder it is to slide one over the other. Navier suggested that the fracture criterion is that there be an orientation n for which ^ n (^) > c + pn(^), where c and are constants characteristic of the rock (when p(^) = 0, n n Navier's fracture criterion reduces to Coulomb's). The constant is a sort of internal coe cient of friction. Mohr suggested that Coulomb and Navier had over-simpli ed the problem, and that the true fracture criterion is (n) > f p(^)], where f is a function n characteristic of the rock, which must be measured empirically, and about which one can say in advance only that

f (p) > 0

df=dp > 0:

(13.4.41)

Even with such a general criterion, much can be said. The curve = f (p) is marked \MOHR" in Figure 13.15. If A, B , C are moved so as to produce an overlap of the shaded region with the Mohr curve, the rock will break at rst contact of the curve and the shaded region. This rst contact will always occur on the plane y = 0, at a value of in 13.4.32 which is between 0 and =4, so the normal to the plane of fracture will lie in the xz plane, closer to x than to z . The circles in Figure 13.15 are called Mohr circles. ^ ^

210

CHAPTER 13. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM

13.5 Lagrangian Form of Angular Momentum Conservation
~t Refer again to the notation introduced on page 163. If LL(H 0) is the angular momentum ~t of the collection of particles with labels in H 0, and ML(H 0) is the total torque on them, the law of conservation of angular momentum is d LL(H 0) = ML(H 0): ~ t dt t Using the notation introduced on page 195 and page 164, Z h i ~L(H 0) = dVL(~ ) ~~ + ~~ ~ L (~ t) Lt x l r v x 0
H

(13.5.1)

so Moreover,

d LL (H 0) = Z dV (~ ) h ~ D ~ + ~ ~ iL (~ t) : ~ x L x tl r a dt t H0

(13.5.2)

ML (H 0) = t

Z

dV (~ ) ~ ~~ + m (~ t) x r f ~ x 0 L H " # Z $L! ~ ~ x ^ x + 0 dAL (~ ) ~ nL S + M (~ t nL (~ )) x r ^ ~
H

L

~ where nL (~ ) is the unit outward normal to @H 0 at ~ 2 @H 0 , m is body torque per unit ^ x x ~ x ^ x ~ of volume in label space, and M (~ t nL(~ ))dAL is the force exerted by the material with ^ labels just in front of (dAL nL) on the material with labels just behind (dAL nL). Again ^ $ $ $ we have ~ (^L S ) = ;(^L S ) ~ = ;nL (S ~), so using Gauss's theorem, r n ~ n ~ r ^ ~ r !#L " Z ~~ + m ; D $ ~ (~ t) L(H 0 ) = ~ x (13.5.3) Mt dVL (~ ) ~ f ~ ~ S r x r H0 Z ~ + dAL (~ ) M ~ t nL(~ )] : x ~ x ^ x (13.5.4)
H0

Therefore

" !# R dV (~ ) ~ D ~ + ~ ~ ; ~ ~~ ; m + D $ ~ ~ r f ~ ~ S r tl r a H0 L x R ~ = @H 0 dAL (~ ) M ~ t nL(~ )] : x ~ x ^ x

(13.5.5)

13.6. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

211

Applying Cauchy's theorem to (13.5.5) shows that for each (~ t) there is a unique x $ ~ x M L (~ t) 2 L P such that for any unit vector n 2 L, ^ $ $L ~ x ^ ^ ~ x M ~ t n] = n M (~ t) : (13.5.6) If we substitute this on the right in (13.5.5) and use Gauss's theorem and the vanishing integral theorem, we obtain $ ! $ ~ + ~~ ~ ; ~ ~~ ; m + D S ~ = D M: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r ~Dtl r a r f ~ Using the Lagrangian momentum equation (13.3.11), we can write this as $! $ ! $ ~ + ~ D S + D S ~ = D M + m: ~ ~ ~ ~ r ~ ~ ~ ~Dtl r Finally, by the sort of argument which led to (13.4.9), we can show " $! $ ! $# ~ S + D S ~ = ;AP h2i D~ T S ~ ~ ~ r ~r ~ ~ D r so the Lagrangian form of the angular momentum equation is " # $ $ T $ ~r ~ ~Dt~ = D M + m + AP h2i D~ S : l ~ ~ ~ (13.5.7)

$ $ $ $ ~ ~ ~ The relation between M and M is the same as that between S and S . If the intrinsic $ ~ angular momentum ~, body torque m, and torque stress M are all negligible, (13.5.7) l ~ reduces to " # T $ ~r ~ AP h2i D~ S = 0: (13.5.8)
A glance at (13.3.30) shows that (13.5.8) is the same as (13.4.11), so we learn nothing new from (13.5.7) in this case.

13.6 Conservation of Energy
13.6.1 Eulerian form
The velocity ~ E (~ t) imparts to the matter in dVP (~) a kinetic energy dVP (~) E (~ t) 1 k v r r r r 2 ~ E (~ t)k2. In addition, that material has kinetic energy of molecular motion, and the v r

212

CHAPTER 13. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM

potential energy of the intermolecular forces. The sum of these latter is called the internal energy. We denote by U E (~ t) the internal energy per kilogram in the matter at ~ t. Then r r the total energy in dVP is

dVP (~) r
The total energy in K 0(t) is

1 v2 + U 2

E

(~ t) : r
E

EE

K 0 (t)] =

Z
K 0 (t)

dVP (~) r

1 v2 + U 2

(~ t) : r

(13.6.1)

The law of conservation of energy is

d E E K 0(t)] = W E K 0(t)] (13.6.2) dt where W E K 0 (t)] is the rate at which energy is being added to the matter in K 0(t), i.e., the rate at which work is being done on that matter. ~ The body force f does work on dVP (~) at the rate of dVP (~)(~ f )E (~ t) watts. If r r v ~ r E $ ~ 2 @K 0 (t) then the surface stress nP S (~ t) does work on the particles just inside r ^ r $E r v r @K 0 (t) at the rate of dAP (~)^P S (~ t) ~ E (~ t) watts. Thus the purely mechanical rn component of W E K 0(t)] is Z Z $ E ~ E (~ t) + dVP (~) ~ f r r v dAP (~)^P S ~ (~ t) : rn v r 0 0
K (t) @K (t)

Using Gauss's theorem, this can be written

Z

In addition to this mechanical method of adding energy to K 0 (t) there are nonmechanical methods. Examples are

$ dVP (~) ~ f + @ S ~ r v ~ ~ v K 0 (t)

E

(~ t) : r

(13.6.3)

~ i) ohmic \heating" at a rate of dVP (~)kJ k2= watts, where J = electric current density r ~ and = electrical conductivity.
ii) \heating" by absorption of light (e.g., sunlight in muddy water). iii) radioactive \heating".

13.6. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
front ^ nP r back

213

dAP ( r )

Figure 13.16: All these \heating" mechanisms together will add energy to dVP (~) at a total rate of r dVP (~)hE (~ t), where hE is the sum of the heating rates per unit volume. The resulting r r contribution to W E K 0(t)] is

.
dVP (~) hE (~ t) watts: r r
(13.6.4)

Z

K 0 (t)

Finally, energy can leak into K 0(t) through the boundary, @K 0 (t). The physical mechanisms for this are molecular collision and di usion, but that does not concern us. We are interested only in the possibility that if dAP (~) is a small nearly plane surface containing r ~, with a designated front to which a unit normal nP is attached, the energy can leak r ^ across dAP (~) from front to back at a rate proportional to dAP as long as the orientation r of dAP is not varied, i.e., as long as nP is xed. We write the constant of proportionality ^ r as ;H (~ t nP ), so that energy ows from front to back across dA(~) at a net rate of r ^ ;H (~ t nP )dAP (~) watts. This \heat ow" contributes to W E K 0 (t)] the term r ^ r

;

Z

@K 0 (t)

dAP (~) H (~ t nP ) watts: r r ^

The minus sign in the de nition of the proportionality constant is a convention established for two centuries, and we must accept it. Indeed, there is aesthetic reason to put a minus $ $ ~ ~ sign in the de nition of S , to avoid the ;p I term. Our choice of signs for S and S was also dictated by history, and it is unfortunate that the same choice was not made in both cases.

214 CHAPTER 13.6. ~ f .12) Dt v2 = Dt (~ ~ ) = 2~ Dt~ = 2~ ~ : v v v v v a .6. " # dE E K 0 (t)] = Z dV (~) D 1 v2 + U E (~ t) : r P r t dt 2 K 0 (t) Substituting (13.12).9) to E $ ~ ~ r dVP (~) Dt 1 v2 + U .9) Applying Cauchy's theorem 13.6.9) shows that at each (~ t) there is a r ~ r unique vector H E (~ t) 2 P such that for all unit vectors n 2 P ^ H (~ t n) = n H E (~ t) : r ^ ^ ~ r (13.11) r v ~ ~ v 2 K 0 (t) Since K 0 (t) can be any open subset of K (t) with piecewise smooth boundary.9) and ^ rn ~ r applying Gauss's theorem converts (13.28 to (13.6.ow vector.6.6.6.6.6) From (13.2) gives (13.dAP (~)^P H E (~ t) watts.1) and (13.6. @ S ~ .10) ~ r The vector H E (~ t) is called the heat. 0 dA (~) H (~ t n) : r r ^ @K (t) (13.8) (13.6.7) in (13. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM The sum of all the foregoing rates at which energy is added to the matter in K 0 (t) gives WE K 0(t)] = Z E $ dVP (~) ~ f + @ S ~ + h (~ t) r v ~ ~ v r 0 KZ(t) . Heat ows from front to back across (dAP nP ) at the rate of .2.1.6.6. Inserting (13.5) (13.6. the vanishing 0= Z integral theorem gives $ ~ ~ v ~ ~ v Dt 1 v2 + U + @ H = h + ~ f + @ S ~ : 2 This equation can be simpli ed. 0 dAP (~) H (~ t nP ) : r r ^ @K (t) (13.6.10) in (13. ~ f . @ S ~ .6.6) and (13. We have (13. h (~ t) r v ~ ~ v r K 0 (t) Z = . h + @ H (~ t) : (13.6.7) Z E $ 1 dVP (~) Dt 2 v2 + U .

20) in (13. @H 0 dAL (~ ) 6 H (~ t x x Z $ ! #L ~ v S ~ + h (~ t) x nL(~ )) : ^ x (13.6. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 215 Also. or heat equation.12) is (13.18) The law of conservation of energy is d E L H 0] = W L H 0 ] (13.13) (13. The total energy of the material with labels in H 0 is. ~~ ~ .20) L x t dt t 2 H0 Substituting (13. Z L EtL H 0] = 0 dVL (~ ) ~ 1 v2 + U (~ t) : x x (13.18) and (13.21) @H .14) ~ ~ ~ v ~ $ v $ ~v ~ ~ + Dt U + @ H = h + f ~ + @ S ~ + S h2i@~ : a v $ But the momentum equation says ~ = f + @ S . h L (~ t) ~ dVL (~ ) ~Dt 2 x f v ~ S v x H0 Z = .6.6.2 Lagrangian form of energy conservation The argument should be familiar by now. leaving only a ~ ~ $ ~ ~ ~ Dt U + @ H = h+ S h2i@~ : v (13.6. at time t.6.16) 2 The rate at which energy is added is H WtL H 0] = " dV (~ ) ~~ ~ + D x f v ~ 0 L H Z .6. D $ ~ .13.6.19) t dt t and from (13.6. ~ $v @ S ~ = @i (Sij vj ) = (@i Sij ) vj + Sij @i vj ~ $ v $ ~v = @ S ~ + S h2i@~ : Therefore (13.6. taking components relative to an orthonormal basis.6. 0 dAL(~ ) 6 H (~ t nL(~ )) : x x ^ x (13.6.19) gives " ! # Z 1 v2 + U .6.6. 13.6.15) This is the Eulerian form of the internal energy equation.16) we have the identity d E L H 0] = Z dV (~ ) ~D 1 v2 + U L (~ t): x (13.6.17) (13. so those terms cancel.6.

h = . D $ ~ . and applying Gauss's theorem and the vanishing integral theorem gives $ ~ ~ ~Dt 1 v2 + U . Cauchy's theorem 13." The idea has produced some confusion. .2. so we discuss it here. ~~ .6. angular momentum and energy are all examples of a general mathematical object which we call a \stu . Using (13.6. and v v v a $ ! $! $ ~ ~ v ~ ~ v ~ ~v D S ~ = D S ~ + S h2iD~ so ! ~~ ~ .7 Stu Mass. D S = ~ .30) was proved.216 CHAPTER 13. 6 H (~ t n) = n 6 H L(~ t).3. ~~ . D S ~ h = . CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM At any (~ t).21). momentum. permits some cancellation and a f ~ ~ 0 leaves us with $ ~ ~ ~ ~v ~Dt U + D 6 H = h + S h2iD~ : (13.D 6 H: f v ~ v 2 But Dt v2 = 2~ Dt~ = @~ ~ .25) and the identity dAP n H = dALnL 6 H ^ ~ ^ ~ one proves ~ H = D~ ~r T ~ 6H ~ (13. ~~ ~ . $ h2iD~ .D 6 H: ~ S v S ~v ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ + ~Dt U = f v a v $ The Lagrangian momentum equation.6.23) in the same manner as (13.28 assures us of the existence of a unique vector x ~ x 6 H L(~ t) 2 L such that for any unit vector n 2 L. Substituting ^ x ^ ^ ^ x this on the right in (13.22) This is the Lagrangian form of the internal energy equation. 13.3.

2) F ( t) : K (t) ! P V: $E E The function ~ is called the spatial density of the stu F is the spatial current density or spatial ux density of the stu .53 Suppose t 2 R. We also use dA(~ t) to denote the area of the small surface. Suppose dA(~ t) r r r moves with speed W normal to itself.13.7. K (t) is an open subset of physical ~ E ( t) : K (t) ! V (13. with W > 0 when the motion is in the direction of n. with piecewise continuous boundary @K 0 (t) and unit outward normal n(~) at ~ 2 @K 0 (t).7. Suppose K 0(t) moves so ^r r that the outward velocity of @K 0 (t) normal to itself at ~ 2 @K 0 (t) is W (~ t). W ~ (~ t)] is called the rate at which the stu r ^ r r dA(~ t) n] from back to front.1) $E $E (13. .7. And ~ E . r r r De nition 13. r ^ E ows across iii) dV (~)~ E (~ t) is called the rate at which stu is created in dV (~) at time t. and for each t 2 R.7.52 A \stu " is an ordered pair of functions ( ~ E F ) with these properties: V is a Euclidean space. W (~ t) ~ (~ t) is called the rate at which stu ows r ^r r r r ~ out of K 0(t) across @K 0 (t) at time t.7. Then r r i) R r K 0 (t) dV (~) ~ ~ K 0 (t)] E (~ t) is called the amount of stu in K 0 (t) at time t.54 Let K 0 (t) be any open subset of K (t).3) De nition 13. is de ned to be E ~ $E ~ E = @t ~ + @ F : (13. Then ^ i) dV (~) ~ (~ t) is called the amount of stu in dV (~) at time t r r r $E E ii) dA(~ t) n F (~ t) . Denote if by r " # $E R E ii) @K 0(t) dA(~) n(~) F (~ t) . STUFF 217 space P and De nition 13. ~ 2 K (t). and n is the unit normal on the front side of r ^ dA(~ t). Suppose dA(~ t) is a small r r r nearly plane oriented surface containing ~. and dV (~) is a small open subset of K (t) r r containing ~ dV (~) will also denote the volume of that subset. the creation rate of the stu .7.7. Denote it by F K 0 (t)].

r~ r dA(~)W ~ (~ t): r r K 0 (t) @K 0 (t) Therefore.5) The physical quantity ~ is called the density of stu per unit mass of continuum material (\material density of the stu . F K 0 (t)] for any open subset K 0(t) of K (t). . ~ . r r v r r $ $ Let ~." for short).218 CHAPTER 13. ~ E (~ t) ~ (~ t).7. . while F is the ux density of the stu in space. Then the de nitions of ~ E and F imply ~ = ~ = or ~ = ~ (13. Suppose and ~ are the density v of mass and the particle velocity in the contiuum. The physical quantity F is the ux density of the stu relative to the $ material in the continuum.4) $ ~ = F . F .7. . Proof: ~ Remark 13. E (~ r moving in any way whatever.~ ~ or $ =F + ~ ~: v F $ v (13. F . Denote it by ~ K 0(t)]. F be.68 d=dt ~ K 0(t)] = ~ K 0 (t)] . ~ . respectively the physical quantities whose Eulerian descriptions $E E $E $ E are ~E . Then de ne De nition 13.52 is the set of positions occu- E i) ~E (~ t) = ~ (~ t)= E (~ t) r r r $E $E E ii) F (~ t) = F (~ t) .55 Suppose the K (t) in de nition 13.7.7. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM iii) R r K 0 (t) dV (~)~ t) is called the rate at which the stu is created in K 0 (t) at time t. E d ~ K 0 (t)] = Z dV (~)@ ~ E (~ t) + Z r t r dA(~)W ~ (~ t) r r dt K 0 (t) @K 0(t) Z Z $E E ~ F K 0(t)] = dV (~)@ F (~ t) .7. K (t) $ E! F K 0(t)] : pied by the particles of a certain continuum at time t. F . d ~ K 0(t)] + F K 0(t)] = Z dV (~) @ ~ E + @ ~ ~ r t dt K 0 (t) Z = 0 dV (~)~ E (~ t) = ~ r r . or the material ux density. while ~ is the density of stu per unit volume $ of physical space.

49 In a continuum with particle velocity ~ and density . Corollary 13.13.7.56 Suppose ( ~ F ) for each v = 1 N is a stu .7.4).7. Stu s can be added if their densities and uxes have the same domain and same range. $ $ Then PN=1 c ( ~ F ) stands for the stu (PN=1 c ~ ) (PN=1 c F ).7) ~ $ ~ $ @t ~ + @ F = Dt ~ + @ F $ so the creation rate of the stu ( ~ F ) is ~ $ ~ = Dt ~ + @ F : Proof: @t @t ~ = (@t ) ~ + @t ~ ~ ~ ~ $ h~ v i @ F = @ F + @ ( ~) ~ + ( ~) @ ~ v ~ h h i ~ $ ~ ~ ~ vi + @ F = @t + @ ( ~ ) ~ + @t ~ + ~ @ ~ + @ F v ~ ~ $ = 0 ~ + Dt ~ + @ F : QED.48 The stu PN=1 c ( ~ F ) has creation rate PN=1 c . Suppose c1 cN 2 R.6) (13. Proof: Obvious from (13.7. STUFF 219 (13.1).3). respectively PN=1 c ~ and PN=1 c F v.69 Suppose the two pairs of functions ( ~ F ) and ( F ) are related by (13. $ Corollary 13.7.7.7.7. and that all these stu s have the same K (t) and V in de nition (13. We have $ De nition 13. the material v ~ density and material ux density of the stu PN=1 c ( F ) are.7.7. . Then $ ~ Remark 13.

7. Mass is v not created. AP h2i S Total Angular Momentum: $ $ ~ = ~+ ~ ~ $= ~ ~+ ~ ~ . F = ~ . and its material ux is zero.7. ~ = ~ . ~ ~ ~ v ~ ~ 0 = . M . $ $ $ $ Intrinsic Angular Momentum: ~ = ~ .7. M . Thus ~ = m + ~ f: ~ r ~ . M + S ~ : l r v r Since total angular momentum is the sum of intrinsic and kinetic angular momentum in the sense of de nition (13. = 1. @ M = m + AP h2i S . The name of each stu is capitalized and underlined. and then its spatial density ~ . ~ = ~. material density ~. F = ~~. $. Then $ is calculated from (13. M + S ~ l r v F v l r v r $ $ $ = ~+ ~ ~ F= . its creation rate is the sum of their creation rates. $ $ $ ~ ~~ Momentum: ~ = ~ . material ux F .4) and (13. and creation rate ~ are given. so = l vl l $ $ Dt~ . Both ~ and F . l ~ ~ Mass: Kinetic Angular Momentum: ~ = ( ~ ~ ) $ = ~ ( ~ + ~ )+ $ ~ r v F vr v S r ~ = ~ ~ F =S ~ r v $ $ r ~ = Dt ( ~ ~ ) + @ S ~ = ~ ~ .7. F = .7. spatial $ $ ux F .4). The stu is $ $ not de ned by ~ or ~ alone. = @t + @ F = @t + @ ( ~ ) = 0. F = ~ . AP h2i S : r ~ $ ~ $ @ S .220 CHAPTER 13.5). ~ r v ~ $ r r a r $ ~ = ~ f .48). F = ~~ . by corollary (13. or both ~ and F must be given. The choice of F is dictated by convenience in applications. $.3). ~ = Dt +@ F = Dt~ .@ S = f v vv S v v ~ S . F = . Now we consider a number of stu s which arise out of the conservation laws. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM Proof: Obvious from (13.

and de ne a stu called TOTAL INTERNAL ENERGY with ~ ~ F = ~ (U + nuc) + H v = (U + nuc) ~ ~ = U + nuc F = H: ~ ~ ~ ~ The creation rate of this energy is = Dt + @ F = Dt U + @ H + Dt $ ~ $ ~ = h+ S h2i@~ . v v nuc This \total internal energy" is not very useful when the value of nuc is una ected by what happens to the material. Physics of the Earth. If h = hnuc. p.7.13. We will assume that these lose most of their energy by collision with molecules so close to ~ that the macroscopic properties of the x continuum are nearly constant over the region where the collisions occur. they emit x x -rays and massive particles. 28).7. Then kinetic energy of molecular motion is added to the material near ~ at the rate x . Dt nuc : (13. so hL (~ t) = . the L x radioactive heating rate. Let nuc(~ t) be the nuclear energy in joules per kilogram of mass near particle ~ . That is the situation at the low temperatures and pressures inside the earth (with one possible small exception see Stacey. we must multiply by the nuc x density. L (~ t)Dt L (~ t) or x nuc x nuc x hnuc = .Dt L (~ t) watts/kg. In such situations. hnuc. STUFF 221 Internal Energy: ~ ~ = U F = ~U + H v ~ ~ = U F =H ~ ~ = Dt U + @ H so $ ~ = h+ S h2i@~ : v An alternative de nition of internal energy suggests itself if h is entirely hnuc. As the radioactive nuclei near ~ decay. To convert to watts/meter 3 . hnuc= is a property of the material which is . then =S h2i@~ .8) We can regard U + nuc as total internal energy density.

Then the stu \potential energy" is de ned by = = ~ 0 F =~ ~ F= ~ v . Then Dt = r ~ v v ~ v ~ @t + ~ @ = ~ @ so Dt = . In the deep interiors of stars. S ~ v 1 v = 1 v2 2 $ ~ = 1 v2 F =. so it has ~ ~ $v = 1 v2 + U F = ~ 1 v2 + U + H . pressures and temperatures are high enough to a ect nuclear reaction rates. x By contrast. @ where the potential function E (~ t) is independent of time. independent of the motion of the continuum.7. S h 2i @ ~ : IK Energy: (Internal plus Kinetic Energy). @ S ~ . i. Sij @ivj v a $ $ ~ = ~ .. the molecular U is not known at ~ t until we have solved the problem x of nding how the continuum moves. @ S ~ = ~ Dt~ .56.f ~ . S ~ v 2 2 1 v2 + U ~ ~ $v =2 F = H. @t = 0. S ~ ~ v = h + f ~: ~ ~ ~ Potential Energy: Suppose the body force density f is given by f = . S h2i@~ a ~ v v ~ v $ ~v = f ~ . (@i Sij ) vj . so it is useful to include nuc with U .e.S ~ v 2 ~ ~ 1 ~ $v = Dt + @ F = 2 Dt v2 . Kinetic Energy: $ ~ F = ~ 2 v2 . This is the sum of internal energy and kinetic energy in the sense of de nition 13. @i (Sij vj ) relative to an orthonormal basis for P v v = ~ ~ .222 CHAPTER 13. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM known at any particle ~ at any time t.

internal and potential energy. but piecewise smooth. That is. STUFF 223 ~ v so its creation rate is = Dt = . Now we analyze what happens when there is a surface S in the continuum.7. r Examples of such surfaces are the interface between the ocean and atmosphere.48." 13. Then so will ^(~ t). and a shock wave in air. or positive. Earthquakes are too weak to excite them. Usually. We will denote the unit normal to S on its front. but the two limits are di erent.) We will assume that it is possible to choose a front side of S (Mobius strips are excluded) and that we have done so. S is a large surface. and we will call its back side the negative side.7. solar heating). ~ ~ If f = . side by ^.1 Boundary conditions So far we have dealt only with physical quantities which were continuously di erentiable to the extent needed to justify using Gauss's theorem and the vanishing integral theorem.7.f ~ . (Shock waves in rock are excited only by nuclear blasts and meteor impacts. S ~: By corollary 13. not nearly plane. then we de ne the stu \IKP energy" as the sum of internal.56). Moreover. the ocean bottom. so = h. S ~ = 1 v2 + U + 2 1 v2 + U + ~ = F = ~ 2 v2 + U + v 1 2 ~ $v + H. the r normal to S (t) at ~ 2 S (t). water or rock.7. lim E (~ t) exists as ~ r r approaches ~0 2 S from either side of S . this is not done.g. kinetic and potential energies in the sense of de nition (13. so ^ can vary with position ~ 2 S . then = 0. We will write W (~ t) for the velocity with which S (t) moves r r . If we include nuclear potential energy in U and neglect other sources of h (e. and IKP energy is called \total energy. r we will permit S to move. Then ~ ~ $v F = H. the core-mantle boundary.13. IKP Energy: (Internal plus kinetic plus potential energy). so that S (t) may vary with time t. across which physical quantities may have jump discontinuities. is the sum of the three 's for kinetic. @ with @t = 0.

If the surface is given in physical space P .224 CHAPTER 13.7. and we take W > 0 if the motion is in the direction of r ^. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM ^ ν( r ) S r . : x x x We will need the surface version of the vanishing integral theorem. W < 0 if opposite. with hL i+ (~ 0 t) . And we de ne h E (~ r0 i+ t) . = L (~ 0 t)+ . we write it as S L(t). If is any physical quantity with a jump discontinuity across S (t). If it is given in label space L. S is a surface in P or L. The . we write E (~0 t)+ for the limiting value of E (~ t) as ~ ! ~o 2 S E (t) from r r r r in front of S E (t). and R dA(~)f (~) = O for every open patch S 0 on S . we write it as S E (t).9) This quantity is called the jump in E across S E (t). L (~ 0 t). E (~0 t). This says that if ~ V is a Euclidean vector space. = E (~ r0 t)+ . for the limit of E (~ t) as ~ ! ~0 from behind r r r r S E (t). and f : S ! V is continuous. then f (~) = O for all ~ 2 S . We write E (~0 t).: r (13. We introduce a similar notation for label space. Here an ~ r ~V r ~ r ~V r S0 \open patch" on S is any set S 0 = K 0 \ S . + front back Figure 13.17: normal to itself at point ~ 2 S (t). where K 0 is an open subset of P or L.

and @K 0 (t)+ for the whole boundary of K 0 (t)+. except that + is replaced by . but now we assume that the surface S (t) passes through K 0 (t).5. And n.7.7. @ + K 0(t) for the part of @K 0 (t) in front of S (t). = n on @ .7.7.11) This looks obvious until we recognize that there are physical situations which we might want to model by placing a mass per unit area on S (t). Therefore. the physical law of mass conservation is d M K 0(t)] = 0: (13. We begin with Z 0(t)] = MK dV (~) (~ t) : r r (13. We will consider only the Eulerian forms of the conservation laws. Here ~ is ^ v the particle velocity in the continuum. including K 0(t) \ S (t).W on K 0(t) \ S (t). The outward normal velocity of @K 0 (t). If is a function de ned and continuous on the closed set K 0 (t) = K 0 (t) @K 0 (t). The unit outward normal to @K 0 (t)+ will be written n+ . As on page 163.. except for a jump discontinuity on S (t). where its value is the + of equation (13. We use K 0 (t)+ for the part (excluding S (t)) of K 0(t) which is in front of S (t). The ^ ^ unit outward normal to @K 0 (t) will be written n.13. We use the notation introduced on page 163. We label objects behind S (t) in the same way.9).10) dt We need a mathematical identity like (13. so we will omit the superscript E .2 Mass conservation Let M K 0 (t)] denote the mass of the material in K 0(t). STUFF 225 proof of the surface version of the vanishing integral theorem is essentially the same as the proof of the original theorem 11. we must augment the notation. which would have to be added K 0 (t) . we write + for the continuous function on K 0(t)+ de ned as except on K 0(t) \ S (t)..26. will be written n. The reader can easily work out the Lagrangian forms of the law. = ^ on K 0 (t) \ S (t). Then the outward normal velocity of @K 0 (t)+ relative to itself is n ~ on @ + K 0(t) and . relative to itself is n ~ on @ .1. The unit outward normal to @K 0 (t). Since K 0(t) always consists of the same particles. K 0 (t) and W on K 0(t) \ S (t). so we omit it. ^ ^ ^ we choose K 0(t) so that it always consists of the same particles. Then n+ = n on @ + K 0(t) and n+ = .9). ^ v 13. while n. K 0(t).7. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ on K 0 (t) \ S (t).

18: .226 CHAPTER 13. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM Figure 13.

so it vanishes.7. but @ + K 0 (t) is not a closed surface. or S (t) = the ice pack on a polar sea. so we can apply (11.16) dt K 0 (t)+ @ K (t) K (t)\S (t) We would like to use Gauss's theorem on the right in (13. with h i Z M K 0(t)+ = 0 + dV (~) +(~ t) r r K (t) h 0 .1).7. so we break (13. We ignore these possibilities and assume mass on S (t) = 0: (13.7. W )].14) and (13.7.11).13. and d M hK 0 (t)+i = Z dA (^ ~ .7. : v dt K 0 (t)\S (t) (13.i = Z dA (^ ~ .7.17) (13. (~ t): r r K (t) (13.7.16) gives Z h d M hK 0 (t)+i = Z ~ v i+ dV @t + @ ( ~ ) + 0 dA (^ v . we try to di erentiate (13. W )]+ : ^ dt K 0 (t)+ K (t)\S (t) ~ v ~ v But @t + @ ( ~ )]+ in K 0(t)+ is just the value of @t + @ ( ~ ) there.6. dV (~) .13) (13.7.11) into h i h i M K 0(t)] = M K 0 (t)+ + M K 0(t).7. The jump discontinuity on S (t) \ K 0(t) prevents this. d M hK 0 (t).18) .10) using (11.14) (13.7.6.7.12) Next. 0 r ^ v dA W +: (13. STUFF 227 to (13. Then Z @ + K 0(t) dAn ( ^ ~ )+ v = = Z Z@K 0(t)+ K 0 (t) dA n+ ^ ( ~ )+ . To close it we must add K 0(t) \ S (t).15) The two integrands in (13. Examples are S (t) = the soap lm in a soap bubble in air.7.i Z M K (t) = 0 .7.16).15) are continuous.7.7. W )]+ : v 0 (t)\S (t) dt K By an exactly similar argument.1) to obtain Z Z d M hK 0 (t)+i = Z dV (~) @t + + + 0 dA n ~ + + . v Z ~ v dV @ ( ~ )+ + + Z K 0 (t)\S (t) dA n+ ( ~ )+ ^ v K 0(t)\S (t) dA ^ ( ~ )+ v Using this in (13.

It is then called a contact surface. S (t) is a boundary between materials. Thus m = (^~ .7.24).7.7.24) We must nd mathematical identities for the two sides of (13.25) K (t) . W )].7.19) gives for K 0 = K 0(t) Therefore. and write it m(~ t) since it depends on ~ and t. (13.228 CHAPTER 13.7. W )]+ = 0 v . (13.18.7. S (t) is a shock wave or shock front.23) 13. v v r r the ux of mass across S (t). CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM d M K 0(t)] = Z dA (^ ~ . = W: ~ If m 6= 0. Therefore. on S (t): (13. by the surface version of the vanishing integral theorem K 0 (t)\S (t) Z (^ ~ . Then mometum conservation requires d P K 0 (t)] = F K 0 (t)] : ~ ~ dt (13.12). Let P K 0(t)] be the momentum in K 0 (t). while F K 0(t)] is the force on that material. W )]. dt K 0(t)\S (t) Combining (13. we call either (^ ~ .7. : v v (13.7.3 Momentum conservation ~ ~ Again refer to gure 13.10) and (13. Then ^ v + = ^ ^. W )]+ or (^ ~ .21) By analogy with de nition 13.22) If m = 0. W )]+ : v . we have Z ~ P K 0(t)] = 0 dV ~ : v (13. W )]+ = 0: v (13.19) dA (^ ~ . It is not crossed by particles. Because of (13. W )]+ = (^~ .53 ii). Since K 0 can be any open subset of K (t).7.20) .7.7. K 0 \ S (t) can be any open patch on S (t).7.7.

6. = 0 . appealing to (11.26) where h i Z ~ K 0 (t)+ = P dV ( ~ )+ v K 0 (t)+ h i Z ~ P K 0(t).7.7.7. dV ( ~ ). W ) v ]+ : v ~ K (t)\S (t) h ~ v i v h v v ~ vi @t ( ~ ) + @ ( ~~ ) = @t + @ ( ~ ) ~ + @t~ + ~ @~ v ~ vv $ ~ = Dt~ = ~ = @ S +f v a ~ Now . (13. Z + @K 0 (t)+ Z dA n+ ( ~~ )+ ^ vv dA n+ ( ~~ )+ ^ vv dA ^ ( ~~ )+ : vv K 0 (t)\S (t) 0 KZ(t)+ ~ vv dV @ ( ~~ )+ K 0(T )\S (t) Thus h i+ d P hK 0 (t)+i = Z ~ dV @t ( ~ ) + @ ( ~~ ) v ~ vv 0 dt KZ(t)+ + 0 dA (^ ~ . because of the jump discontinuity on S (t).: v K (t) (13. Therefore we imitate the procedure beginning on page 224.28) Then. We have h i ~h i ~ ~ P K 0 (t)] = P K 0 (t)+ + P K 0 (t). we have d P hK 0 (t)+i = Z ~ dV @t ( ~ )+ v 0 dt KZ(t)+ + + 0 dA n (~ ~ )+ ^ vv @ K (t) Z .1) to di erentiate (13.6.27) (13.25).7.7.1). K 0(t)\S(t) dA W ( ~ )+ v dA n (~ ^ v ~ )+ v = = and Z @ K 0 (t) + Z .13. STUFF 229 Again we cannot appeal directly to (11.

In addition. the water molecules just behind S (t) and the air .32) does involve assumptions. If S (t) is an air-water interface holding an electric charge per unit area.7. adding (13.7. @ K (t) Z .7. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM $+ d P hK 0(t)+i = Z ~ dA n+ S ^ dt @K 0(t)+ Z Z ~+ + 0 + dV f dA (^ ~ . W ) ~ : v v K (t)\S (t) Using 13.32) 0 0 K (t) @K (t) so. . there will be an electrostatic force per unit area on S (t) which must be added to (13.7.29) and (13. using Gauss's theorem But (13. This seems easy: Z Z $ ~+ ~ K 0 (t)] = F dV f dA n S : ^ (13. $+ is n S behind S (t) and n S in front of S (t).32) assumes that the stress on the material just inside @K 0 (t) by the material just outside @K 0 (t) $.7. W ) ~ ]+ v v 0 (t)\S (t) Z K (t) Z K $ ~ = 0 + dV f + + 0 dA n S ^ K (t) @ K (t) Z + $ + 0 dA .7.7. K 0(t)\S(t) dA m~ . we nally get Z $ d P hK 0 (t)+i = Z ~ ~ dV f + + + 0 dA n S ^ dt K 0 (t)+ @ K (t) Z + $ + 0 dA . In fact.22. ^ S : v (13. all the way to S (t). for example.24).30) S Therefore.7.7. ~ We still need a mathematical identity for F K 0 (t)] in (13.29) K (t)\S (t) An exactly similar argument gives Z $ d P hK 0(t). ^ $ : v (13. ^ S + ((^ ~ ) .30).230 CHAPTER 13.31) K (t)\S (t) . ^ S +m~ : v (13. 0 dA n S ^ dt K 0(t). i = Z ~ ~ dV f + . $ d P K 0(t)] = Z dV f + Z ~ ~ dA n S ^ dt K 0 (t) @K 0 (t) Z $+ + 0 dA m~ .32). if S (t) ^ ^ is an air-water interface. the surface integral on the right in (13.7.7.

^ S dA.7. . for any open subset K 0 of K (t). and gains momentum m t ~ ]+ dA = m~ ]+ tdA. Where does this come from? In the material the v.35) reduces to $+ ^ S = 0 on S (t): (13.32) in (13. This force per unit length is called the surface stress in S (t). i. along the curve @K 0 (t) \ S (t) there will be an additional force per unit length exerted by the molecules just outside @K 0 (t) on the molecules just inside @K 0 (t). By the surface version of the vanishing integral theorem.36).7. Mass m t dA crosses dA from back to front in time t. $ ux density of momentum is .7.36) . At a boundary between two materials (a contact surface).7. available to supply the required m~ ]+dA.31) and (13.35) .7. (13.7. S . is . the patch requires momentum to be supplied to v.35) has a simple physical interpretation.32) is correct. If m = 0. it at the rate m~ ]+dA per second.7. If S (t) is a boundary between two materials rather than a shock. ^ S . and substituting (13.34) K 0\S (t) . The net momentum accumulation S $ $+ rate in dA. the stress on the boundary (the \normal stress") is continuous across that boundary. We assume there is no surface stress or surface force per unit area on S (t): (13. so momentum arrives at the back of dA at the rate + $. dA + ^ S +dA v. . Therefore. Thus (13. STUFF 231 molecules just in front will be arranged di erently from those in the bulk of the air and water.7. it follows that $+ m~ .24) gives Z $+ dA m~ .35) simply says that the di erence in momentum ux into the .7. ^ S = 0 on S (t): v (13.e. Therefore.7. two sides of dA supplies the momentum needed to accelerate the material crossing dA. For an air-water interface it is tangent to S (t) and normal to @K 0 (t) \ S (t). Equation (13. and its magnitude is the surface tension.33) Then (13. v. this reduces to action = reaction. then m = 0 so (13. ^ S = 0 v (13.7.7. $ = ^ S ]+dA.7. Consider a small patch dA on S (t). ^ $ dA and leaves the front at the rate .13.

h i Z E K 0 (t)+ = K 0(t) dV with a similar formula for E K 0(t).232 CHAPTER 13.38) d E hK 0(t)+ i = Z dV @t dt K 0(t)+ Z + + 0 dA n ^ @ K (t) 1 v2 + U + 2 ~ 2 v2 + U v 1 + . $ ~: v 2 .4 Energy conservation The physical law of conservation of energy is where E K 0(t)] is the total kinetic plus internal energy in K 0(t) and W K 0 (t)] is the rate at which energy is being added.7.37).7. Z K 0(t)\S (t) dA W 1 v2 + U 2 + : Also i+ R h 1 i+ ^ v ~ 1 v2 + U = @0 K 0(t)+ dA n+ ~ 2 v2 + U v 2 i h 1 . ].18 and follow the by now well-trodden path to nd mathematical identities for both sides of (13.7.37) h i h i E K 0(t)] = E K 0 (t)+ + E K 0 (t). Then + where 1 v2 + U 2 + (13. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM 13. We refer again to gure 13. RK 0(t)\S(t) dA n+ ~ 2 v2 + U + ^ v i+ R h 1 i+ R ~ hv 2 = K 0(t)+ dV @ ~ 1 v2 + U + K 0(t)\S(t) dA ^ ~ 2 v2 + U : v R ^ @ K 0 (t) dA n + h Thus. We have d E K 0(t)] = W K 0(t)] dt (13.7. W ) 2 v K (t)\S (t) = 1 v2 + U 2 + Now on page 221 we see that IK energy is a stu with ~ ~ S v F = ~ 1 v2 + U + H . d E hK 0(t)+i = Z ~ v dV @t 1 v2 + U + @ ~ 1 v2 + U 0 (t)+ dt 2 2 K Z 1 v2 + U + : + 0 dA (^ ~ .

H + S ~ : ^ Therefore. K 0(t)\S(t) dA m 2 v2 + U + ^ H .43) .+ ~ $v dV h + f v dA n . and h i 233 + Z d E hK 0 (t)+i = Z ~ ~ ++ ~ $v dV h + f v dA n . .H + S ~ ^ K (t) @K (t) Z + 1 + 0 dA m 2 v2 + U K (t)\S (t) ~ v ~ = h + f ~ for this stu .7.40) Therefore d E K 0(t)] = Z dV h + f ~ + Z ~ v ~ $v dA n . (13.37) implies + ~ $v dA m 1 v2 + U + ^ H .H + S ~ ^ dt K 0 (t) @ + K 0(t) Z + 1 ~ $v + 0 dA m 2 v2 + U + ^ H . Z d E hK 0(t). ^ S ~ = 0 on S (t): v (13. S ~ : (13. 1 ~ $v . STUFF ~ ~ Therefore @t + @ F = h 1 2 i ~ ~ ~ ~ 2v + U + @ H .7. By the surface version of the vanishing integral theorem.i = Z ~ ~ . @ + K 0 (t) Z .7. S ~ = 0 (13. $ + 1 ~ m 2 v2 + U + ^ H . Also. Thus @t ( 1 v2 + U ) + @ 2 $ ~ v v S ~ = h + f ~ .41) K (t)\S (t) . $ ~ + : (13.7.42) 2 K 0 \S (t) . @ v + d E hK 0(t)+i = Z ~ ~ ~ $v ~ v dV . h + f ~ dt K 0(t)+ Z + 1 + 0 dA m 2 v2 + U Z K (t)\S(t) Z ~ v+ ~ $v = 0 + dV h + f ~ + 0 + dA n+ . W K 0(t)] = Z Z K 0(t) ~ v dV h + f ~ + Z @K 0(t) ~ ~ v dA n . S ~ : (13.H + S ~ ^ dt K 0 (t).@ H + @ S ~ .H + S ~ ^ dt K 0 (t)+ @ +K 0 (t) Z 1 v2 + U + ^ H .13.39) ~ S v + 0 dA m 2 K (t)\S (t) Similarly.7.7.7. for every open subset K 0 of K (t).

to put an upper bound on the component of ^ S in the v . ~ . The quantity ^ H ]+ is the net heat ow per unit area per second from the boundary into the surrounding medium.7. v~.7.47) . then v+ = v.46) (13.45).. Res. = ^ S ~ S ]+ : v . and $ $ $ $ $ $ $ ^ S ~ ]+ = ^ S ]+ ~ + .44) $ $ At a material boundary which is not a shock.43) can be written in general as h ~ i+ $ ^ H + m U . $+ $. S v + + v .7. v + + v . They used (13. $ $+ $.7. Geophys. = 0: (13.45) ~. (13. CONSERVATION LAWS IN A CONTINUUM If the material is stationary.^ 1 S + S ~ ]+ : v.7. = 1^ S . v . ^ $ ~ + = 1 ^ . Even when m 6= 0. = . from (13. direction of slip. v v v.7. v. so (13.7.7. v v.7. Henyey and Roy (J. 3821) used the absence of an observed heat ow anomaly along the San Andreas fault. from 13.35 ~ ~ 2 so 1 mv2 . $ surface stress (^ S ) on the boundary has a component in the direction of the tangential relative slip velocity..43) becomes h ~ i+ $ ^ H . if ~ = v ^ + ~S where vv = ^ ~ . v ++ $+ v~.23). ~ ~ 2 2 ~ ~ .7. $. (13. 2 De ne Then (13.7. m = 0. Equation (13. We have 1 mv2 + = 1 m v + . S v. S ~ S ~ S S 2 2 $+ $. v. v v Therefore (13. together with an $ estimate of ~S ]+ on the fault. 74.(^ S ). = ^ hS i+ ~ ]+ : . 2 (13.+ $.7. = (^ S ) ~ ]+ where ^ S = ^ S ]+ = ^ S ]..43) reduces to the thermal v boundary condition h ~ i+ ^ H .234 CHAPTER 13. so ~ ]+ = ~S ]+.45) says that heat is generated mechanically when the two materials slip past one another at the relative velocity ~S ]+ and when the v . $ hS i+ = 1 S + S = average S on S: .7. v Also. $+ v + .45. m = 0 and ~ = 0. so ^ S ]+ = ^ S ]. Brune.43) can be made to resemble 13.

~ L (~ A t) = ~ L(~ A + ~ t) . Suppose K 0 (t0) is a very small open subset of K (t0 ). ~ L(~ A t) r x r x r x r x so ~r x ~ ~ = ~ D~ L (~ A t) + k~kR ~ 235 (14. Let ~A be its position at time t. We would like to be able to visualize the particles in K 0(t0 ). ~ A.1. t0 is not small.Chapter 14 Strain and Deformation 14. and to see their spatial positions at a particular later time t. but K 0 (t0) is a very small set. Then label space L is the same as physical space P . Then r x r r x x ~ = ~ L(~ t) . First choose a particular particle ~ A 2 K 0(t0 ). and let ~ be its position at time t. The time di erence t . in a sense to be made precise shortly. ~A.1 Finite deformation Consider a continuum which at time t occupies open subset K (t) of physical space P . r x . De ne ~ = ~ . Then ~A = ~ L(~ A t). Then ~ = ~ L(~ t). ~ = ~ .1) ~ where R(~) is the remainder function for ~ L( t) at ~ A . We use t0 -position labelling. x r r r x x r r Consider any other particle ~ 2 K 0(t0 ). The r x particles in which we are interested have their labels in the set H 0 = K 0(t0 ). x and ~ L(~ t) = position at time t of the particle which was at position ~ at time t0 .

2) This is the sense in which K 0 (t0) must be a small set.1. The particle at ~ A is displaced to ~A. ~r x As we have noted (see 12.! ~ is linear. since det D~ L(~ A t0) depends x ~r x continuously on t0 and is never 0. Thus the e ect of the motion x r on the particles in K 0(t0 ) is clear.1) and write ~r x ~ = ~ D~ L (~ A t) : (14.1.2.3). r x L ( .3).2) is satis ed.1. so D~ L(~ t0 ) = I P and det D~ L(~ A t0) = 1.236 ξ . CHAPTER 14. and is (14.4) It follows from the polar decomposition theorem (page D-27) that there are unique tensors $ $ C and R2 P P with these properties: . Figure 14.1. If (14.3) If we measure initial positions in K 0 (t0) as displacement vectors from an origin at ~ A .7). it cannot change sign.1. . su er the linear mapping x (14.1. The relative positions of nearby particles. Therefore ~r x det D~ L (~ A t) > 0: (14. then we can neglect the remainder term in (14. relative to particle ~ A 's position. r A H ′=K ′(t 0 ) K ′(t) Now we assume that K 0 (t0) has been chosen so small that for every ~ 2 K 0(t0 ). But ~ L(x t0 ) = r $ ~r x ~r x ~ . x and nal positions in K 0 (t) as displacement vectors from an origin ~A. the mapping from r initial to nal positions ~ 7. Then. j det D~ L(~ A t0)j is never 0 for any t0 . t) . so it is always positive. STRAIN AND DEFORMATION x .1: ρ rA . x ~ ~r x kR ~ k << kD~ L (~ A t) k: (14.1.

7) $ $ $ $ $ $ Then yi C = c(i) y(i) so C = I P C = (^i yi) C = yi yi C = P3=1 c(i) y(i) y(i) . y2. there are scalars c1.1.1.2.. ^ iii) Thus (14. with edges of length " parallel to the $ axes y1.5) (14. a rotation through some angle between 0 and about some axis w). Now ~ = 1y1 + 2y2 + 3y3 ^ ^ ^ $ so ~ C = c1 1y1 + c2 2y2 + c3 3y3. y3 which are eigenvectors for C . the e ect of C is to multiply the i'th edge of the cube by ci.8) ^^ ^^ C = c1 y1y1 + c2y2y2 + c3y3y3: $ Since C is positive de nite. y2. The mapping x r $ $ $ ^ ^ ^ C may be worth discussing. r ^ $ The displacement ~ A 7. $ ii) R is proper orthogonal (i. If we imagine a cube with edges of unit length parallel ^ ^ ^ $ to the axes y1. y2. c1 and c2 and c3 must all be positive.3) is $ $ ~r x D~ L (~ A t) =C R : $ $ ~=~ C R: (14.e. FINITE DEFORMATION 237 $ i) C is symmetric and positive de nite.1. Since C T =C there is an orthonormal basis y1. We can use the cube on the left in 14.14.1.2 by ^ ^ ^ shrinking its edges to " and placing the hidden vertex at ~ A.1. y3.6) Thus the e ect of the motion on K 0 (t0) is to displace ~ A to ~A then to subject the relative x r position vectors (relative to particle ~ A) to the symmetric operator C and then to rotate x everything through angle about an axis passing through ~A in the direction of w. ^ ^ ^ transforming that cube to the rectangular parallelipiped in gure 14. Suppose that in K 0(t0 ) we imagine a small cube. c2.! ~A and the rotation R are easy to visualize. That is. c3 such that C (^i) = c(i) y(i) i = 1 2 3: y ^ (14. Thus ^ ^ y^ ^ ^ ^ ^ i $ ^^ (14. Then the e ect of ~ L ( t) x r on this cube is i) to translate it so the hidden vertex is at ~A r .1. y3 for P which consists of eigenvectors of C.

238 CHAPTER 14. STRAIN AND DEFORMATION ^ y 3 ^ y c2 3 1 1 c3 ^ y 2 1 ^ y ^ y 2 c1 ^ y 1 1 Figure 14.2: .

1 C R= ci yi R yi R : ^ ^ (14. and the stretching or compression as step iii). and to 0 when ~ L( t) = I P .9) 3 $ $ $ $ X $ $ C 0=R. as shown in Figure 14.14.1. about an axis passing through ~A in the r $ $ ~r x D~ L (~ A t) =R C 0 (14. The rotation x x All these strain tensors reduce to the in nitesimal strain tensor when the deformation is $ $ nearly the identity mapping (see next section). and the most useful is probably 3 X (ln ci) yiyi: ^^ i=1 De nition 14. the orthogonal axes along which stretching or $ $ $ ^ ^ compression occurs are the rotated axes y1 R. Then ~ L( t) : K (t0 ) ! K (t) is called the \deformation" of the continuum from t0 to t. For any t0 . the .5) and (14. The commonest $ $ is probably C . For r ~r x any ~ A 2 K (t0).10).1. ^ All this motivates the following de nition: $ $ x R in (14.1. Gt0 .57 Suppose a continuum is labelled with t0-positions.5) $ is the \prerotation stretch tensor at ~ A ". $ $ Various tensors obtained from C or C 0 are called nite strain tensors.5) implies where . If we x t0 . Suppose t 2 R. ^ Now (14.9.1.10) i=1 $ Therefore we can perform the rotation R as step ii).1. But then. is a x x physical quantity.1. with 0 direction w. I P . It is worth considering. y2 R. r In the foregoing discussion. the displacement of particle ~ A to position ~A was so easy x r to visualize that we said very little about it. and C in (14. y3 R.2 ^ iii) to rotate it through angle .1.1.1. and ~ L : K (t0 ) r R ! P is the resulting Lagrangian description of the motion.1.14.9) is called the \local rotation at particle ~ A". FINITE DEFORMATION 239 ii) to stretch or compress it by the factor ci in the direction yi. from (14. D~ L(~ A t) is the \deformation gradient" at particle ~ A . while C 0 in (14.10) is the \postrotation x $ $ ~r x stretch tensor at ~ A ." We will write D~ L(~ A t) as Gt0L(~ A t).1.

12) Equation (14.11) or (14. @~ . s whose Lagrangian description is the ~L de ned by (14. r x x x x s x r x x Therefore ~ = ~ .1.13) and (14. The de nition requires that s we x t0.15) 14. I 1 2 .1.11) As the notation indicates. (@ ~ )E (~ t) = @~ = I P so @ ~ = I P . called displacement. $P is small.1. $ $ $ $ De nition 14. @~ D~ = I P .12) makes it convenient to use t0 -position labelling when studying dis~x x ~x $ ~x $ placements. or s s $ ~ ~ ~ ~ $ s s s s I P +D~ . Then from (14. we will consider the physical quantity ~.240 CHAPTER 14. STRAIN AND DEFORMATION displacement vector of any particle ~ at time t is x ~L (~ t) = ~ L (~ t) . ~ L (~ t). (D ~ )L(~ t) = D~ = I P so D ~ = I P . for such labelling.1. so from (14.14). we change the de nition of ~.1.1. ~ for t0-position labelling: s r x (14. Thus. @ ~) ( I P +D~) = I P .1. and we discuss the displacement ~ s de ned by (14.12) ~ r $ ~s D~ = I P +D~ for t0-position labelling: ~r r ~r $ ~ r $ Also. If we change it. In particular. s For t0 -position labelling. A tensor Q2 P P is \close to the identity" if Q .@~ for t0 -position labelling: (14. ( I P .11). or ~ s ~s ~s ~ s ~s $ ~ s D~ = @~ + @~ D~ = @~ I P +D~ : (14. ~ L (~ t0 ) : s x r x r x (14. from (14.12).1.13) ~ x $ ~s @ ~ = I P .1.58 A tensor T 2 P P is \small" if k T k << 1.1.1.1. ~ L(~ t0 ) = ~ = ~ L (~ t) so ~L(~ t) = ~ L .12) (14.14) $ $ $ ~ $ ~x ~ r $ But (@ ~ ) (D~ ) = I P .2 In nitesimal displacements We use t0-position labelling throughout this section.2. That is k T h2i T $ $ k << 1.1.

~ s ~s D~ = @~: Proof: (14. and they are equal. @~ = D~ ($P I ~s n ~s +D~ ). this ! 0.1. T =T T T . I $1 $ $2 $ $ $3 $ $ $ $ $ $ .14. etc.2.1)n T n k n=M N X $ n kT k $ k T kM : $ 1. then k@~k << 1.15) .1.1) T = I P : IP n=0 QED ~s ~s ~s Corollary 14.1 exists and equals P1 (. (. kD~k).1)n T n.2.1 k kD~k= 1 .70 Suppose T 2 P P and k T k < 1.14. T =T T .2. so ~s ~s ~s ~s k@~k kD~kk IP + D~ .2.1)n D~ .1) T + (. Then s n=0 ~s ~ s I ~s s k($P +D~). and to rst order in D~. Proof: $ $ $ Remark 14.1) $ ~ ~s n By remark 14.1)n T n T =T . so the Cauchy convergence criterion assures the $ existence of limN !1 PN=0(. De ne (T )n =T n. N ! 1.1) T = (.1.k T k As M .1) T . kD~k : s . Then n N N N X n $n X n $+1 $ $ X n $n (. Then ( I P + T ) and limN !1 n=0 $ $ k N X n= M $ (.1) T n IP + T n=0 n=0 n=0 N X n $n N +1 n $n $ X $N +1 = (.1)N T : n=0 n=1 $N +1 $ But k T k k T kN +1.1 PN (.1k P1=0 kD~kn = 1=(1 . By (14. ( I P +D~). INFINITESIMAL DISPLACEMENTS 241 both exist. so T 0=$P . so letting N ! 1 on both sides gives 1 $ $ X n $n $ +T (.50 If kD~k << 1.1) T = I P +(.

and when squared gives $ + $ IP T n=0 can be proved in the same way as remark (14.2. $ $ $ Corollary 14.2. all T 's eigenvalues lie between . D~ (~ A t)T : Proof: . n + 1)=n! (= 1 if n = 0): Proof: $ $ $ If k T k < 1. Therefore I P + T has all its eigenvalues between 0 and 2. STRAIN AND DEFORMATION positive de nite and its positive de nite square root is $ $ $ $ Remark 14.12). Then to rst order in D~ we have ~s ~ s @~ = D~ (14.2.1 and 1.4) (14.71 If T 2 P P and T is symmetric and k T k < 1.2.2. the e ect 1=2 $ of PN=0 n T n can be studied on each of the vectors in an orthonormal n $ basis for P consisting of eigenvectors of T .5) i $ $0 $ 1 h ~ ~s x sx C =C = I P + 2 D~ (~ A t) + D~ (~ A t)T i $ $ 1 h~ ~s x sx R= I P + 2 D~ (~ A t) . $ $ IP + T 1=2 $ $ 1$ =I P +2 T : Theorem 14. is positive de nite. That $ = P1 1n2 T n exists.2) when I P is replaced by 1 and T by any of its eigenvalues.2.29 Use the notation of de nition (14.1. and de ne the displacement ~ s ~s ~s by (14.9). 1) @ A n (N . Therefore. it is positive de nite. Suppose that kD~k << 1. Then one simply uses the known $ $ validity of (14.2.70).1. then $P + T is I $ $ IP + T 1 =2 0 1 1 1 X B 2 C $n = @ AT n=0 n (14. Then correct to rst order in k T k.2.242 CHAPTER 14.2) where 0 1 B N C = N (N .51 Suppose T T =T and k T k < 1.2.3) (14. Alternatively.

1. Then the tensor $L (~ t) = 1 hD~L(~ t) + D~L(~ t)T i ~s x ~s x x 2 (14. D~ =R C 0 . INFINITESIMAL DISPLACEMENTS 243 $ ~s x We have already proved (14. so D~ $ $ $ $ 2 =C 0 I P C 0 = C 0 so T " $ $ ! $ $ #1=2 ~ ~r ~r C 0 = D~ D~ = IP + TT IP + T "$ $ $ $ $# = IP + TT + T + TT T ( $ $ $ $ ) $ 1 $T $ $T $! = I P + 2 T + T + T T + O k T T + T + T T + T k2 $ $T $ $ = I P + 1 T + T + O k T k2 : 2 n ~ o $1 $ $ $ $ $ 1 $ $ $ ~r Finally.6) .2.1 $ $ $ $ $ C =C I P C =C 2. 2 T + T + O kT k IP + T n ~ o $ 1 $ $T ! = I P + 2 T . abbreviate D~(~ A t) as T . R=C .14. D~ =C . $ $ ~r $ $ ~ r T D~ =C 0T RT R C 0 = C 0 R$ 1 R C 0 ~r Also.2. 2 T + T T +O kT k2 1=2 so $ R = n ~ 2o! $ $ $ 1 $ $T ! I P .59 Use t0-position labelling so the displacement ~ is de ned by (14.3). T + O kT k2 : QED. For the rest. $ $ $ $ $ $ $ ~r $ $ ~r ~r Since D~ =C R we have (D~ ) (D~ )T =C R RT C T =C R R.12).1 I P + T and C .2.1= I P . so " $ $ $ $ !#1=2 $ T 1=2 ~r ~r = IP + T C = D~ D~ IP + TT "$ $ $ $ $ #1=2 = IP + T + TT + T TT ( $ $ $ $ ) $ 1 $ $T $ $T ! = I P + 2 T + T + T T + O k T + T T + T T T k2 $ 1 $ $T ! $ = I P + T + T + O k T k2 : 2 $ $ $ $ $ . s ~s x Suppose kD~L(~ t)k << 1.2. De nition 14.

9) note that for $ any tensor T we have $ $ AP h2i T T = .11) To see this. But by changing index names we get "ijk Tkj = "ijkTjk = .9.2.10) (14.8) ~ s x ~ s x Corollary 14.3).10) follows from (14.2.7. 3 are the eigenvalues of $ (~ A t) belonging to the eigenvectors y1 .52 wL(~ t) can be written 1=2D ~L(~ t) or 1=2 @ ~ L (~ t) because ~ x (14.2. The vector $ x wL (~ t) = 1 AP h2i wL (~ t) ~ x 2 is called the in nitesimal rotation vector at particle ~ at time t. and x $ i 1 h~s x ~s x wL (~ t) = 2 D~L (~ t) . Applying (14.2. Proof: ~s L x wL (~ t) = 1 AP h2i @~ (~ t) : ~ x 2 (14. Then to rst order in D~L(~ A t). look at components relative to a pooob in P ."ijk Tjk . Then (14. STRAIN AND DEFORMATION is called the in nitesimal strain tensor at particle ~ at time t."ijk Tjk . to rst order in D~.2.244 CHAPTER 14. 2. y2.9) ~s and.AP h2i T : (14.2. where ~ A is as in de nition 14. ~ x .12) C i=1 where 1 .2.2.2.9) and (14. x 1 ~s x wL (~ t) = 2 AP h2iD~L (~ t) ~ x (14.2.8) with $ ~ s x QED T = D~L(~ t) gives (14. y3 be an orthonormal basis for P consisting of eigenvectors ^ ^ ^ ~s x of $ (~ A t).2. y2.2. Corollary 14.9).1.11) to (14. x ^ ^ ^ $ And R is a rotation in the right-handed-screw sense through angle kwL(~ A t)k about the ~ x ~ axis through OP in the direction wL(~ A t). To prove (14.7) (14. x x 3 X $ $0 $ $ =C = I P + (~ A t) = (1 + i ) yiyi x ^^ (14.2.2. D~L(~ t)T x is the in nitesimal rotation tensor.2.2.53 Let y1.2. y3.11) is equivalent to "ijk Tkj = . 14.

4). INFINITESIMAL DISPLACEMENTS ξ sin θ 245 δφ ω θ ξ OP ω x ξ Figure 14. Looking at components relative to a pooob. ~ ~ ~ QED. to rst order in D~ $ $ ~ x R= I P +AP wL(~ A t): $ If we apply R to a vector ~. the result is $ ~ R= ~ + ~ AP wL (~ A t) : ~ x We claim ~ AP ~ = ~ ~.13) ~ Abbreviate wL (~ A t) by w.3 where ~ R = ~ + w ~. To prove the results about R.5).2.3: Proof: We show $ (~ A t) = P3=1 i yiyi in the same way we showed (14. The x ^^ i $ rest of (14.2. we note from exercise 9c that $ x wL (~ A t) = AP wL (~ A t) : ~ x ~s Then from (14.2. v v (~ Ap ~ )i = j "jik vk = "ikj vk j ~ ~ i. . ~ x ~ ~ Since kw ~k = kwkk~k sin .14.2.1.2. and examine gure 14.12) follows from (14. clearly = kwk. Therefore v v $ ~ R= ~ + wL (~ A t) ~: ~ x (14.8).

Therefore.16) $L (~ t) =$L (~ t + t) = t 1 hD~ L (~ t ) + D~ L (~ t )T i ~ ~v x 0 x x 0 2 v x 0 h~ i $ x $ x ~v x wL (~ t) =wL (~ t0 + t) = t 1 D~ L (~ t0 ) . (14.20) .12). the mater^ x ~ v x ial also rotates through angle tk 1 D ~ L (~ A t)k about an axis through ~ A and in direction x 2 1 ~ vL x ~ vL x 2 D ~ (~ 0 t). to rst order in t.2. w by requiring for any ~ 2 P and any t 2 r that _ $ _ _ ~ x 0 $E (~ t ) = 1 hD~ L (~ t ) + D~ L (~ t )T i _ x 0 2 ~v x 0 ~v x 0 (14. we can de ne physical quantities $.2.14) ~ L (~ t) = ~ L (~ t0 ) + tDt ~ L (~ t0) + O ( t)2 : r x r x r x Then. In other words. D~ L (~ t0)T v x 2 h~ i $ x $ x wL (~ t) =wL (~ t0 + t) = t 1 Aph2i D~ L (~ t0 ) v x 2 ~ v x = t 1 D ~ L (~ t0) : 2 (14.2. i = _ i t. we have r v s x r x r x (14. w.15) ~L (~ t) = t~ L (~ t0 ) + O ( t)2 s x v x Then.18) (14. v x and yi in (14. it rotates with angular velocity 1=2D ~ (~ A t). the fractional stretching i being proporx h~ i ~v x tional to t.2. since Dt ~ = ~ and ~L(~ t) = ~ L(~ t) . ~ L(~ t0). with small t.2. the material stretches as in (14.17) (14. Relative to x particle ~ A. We can choose t0 to be any time we like the foregoing results are true for all t0 2 R. We prefer to think of them as occurring simultaneously.2. To rst $ $ order in t C 0=C .19) Consider the material near particle ~ A at various times t0 + t.12) is the corresponding eigenvector. so the rotation can occur before or after the stretching.246 CHAPTER 14.2. where _ i is one of the eigenvalues of 1=2 D~ L (~ A t0) + D~ L (~ A t0)T .2. The foregoing analysis began by choosing a time t0 at which to introduce t0-position labels. STRAIN AND DEFORMATION Now suppose t = t0 + t where t is small enough that it is a good approximation to write (14.2. And relative to particle ~ A .

21.20. this replacement leads to the conclusions $= 1 @~ + @~ T _ ~ ~v (14.22) at any particular t0 .23) 2 v $ _ ~ ~v w= 1 @~ . D~ L(~ t0) = I P .2.24) 2 v _ (14. and $ is the strain-rate tensor. Each t0 on the left calls for a new Lagrangian description on the right.2. Since the Eulerian description of physical quantities are independent of the way particles are labelled. we use that t0 to establish t0 -position labels in establishing the Lagrangian descriptions needed on the right. 14.21) 2 $E x _ ~ v x w (~ t0 ) = 1 D ~ L (~ t0) : (14.2.2. the one using t0-position labels. @~ T (14.25) w = 2 @ ~: ~ 1~ v _ _ The quantity 2w is called the vorticity.2. Therefore D~ L can be replaced by @~ E on the right in 14.2.2.2. ~ . INFINITESIMAL DISPLACEMENTS 247 h~ i $E x _ ~v x w (~ t0 ) = 1 D~ L (~ t0) .2. $ ~ ~r x ~ But with t0-position labels.20.2. D~ L (~ t0)T v x (14. so @ E f E (~ t0) = DLf L(~ t0 ) for any x x ~v ~v physical quantity f .14.22) 2 Here it is understood that to evaluate the left side of (14. 14.

248 CHAPTER 14. STRAIN AND DEFORMATION .

1.1.1) Momentum $ ~ ~ Internal Energy Dt U + @ H = h+ S h2i@~ v (15. But there still remains the question of nding H and S . We must rely on experimental measurements. clearly we must know f and h. at some instant t0 .1 Introduction Let us examine the conservation laws as a system. but theory and computational techniques are not yet adequate to this task for most materials. we might v v hope to integrate (15. we would like to be able to deduce these from the molecular pictures of matter. Ideally.Chapter 15 Constitutive Relations 15.1. They are Mass Eulerian Form ~ v Dt + @ ~ = 0 $ ~ Dt~ = @ S +f v ~ Lagrangian Form Dt ~ = 0 $ ~ S +~~ ~Dt~ = D ~ f v (15. and we will assume henceforth that these f $ $ ~ ~ ~ are given to us. To do ~ ~ this. or ~~ and h.3) forward in time to nd later values of these quantities. The outcomes of these experiments suggest idealized mathematical models for various classes of real materials. ~ and U .1.3) If we knew the initial values of . 249 . The equations which give their values when the state of the material is known are called the \constitutive equations" of the material. ~ and U . or ~.2) $ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~v ~DtU + D H = h+ S h2iD~ : (15. or H and S .

by linearizing in those deviations.3). The material can have a constant velocity. h = 0. for example. and we will not consider them. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS ^ n K ∂K Figure 15. But @t U = 0 v 0 $ so. Therefore. ^ then in order to maintain the material in an HTES we must apply to the surface @K a .3 momentum]) implies f = ~ . and when the macroscopic environments of any two particles are the same.250 CHAPTER 15. Then one studies small deviations from thermostatic equilibrium. Then DtU = @t U . in an HTES we have ~ 0 v 0 = constant H = ~ ~ = ~ : U = constant h = 0 $ ~ 0 S = constant f = ~ If the material occupies a volume K with boundary @K and unit outward normal n.1. from (15. Large deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium are not fully understood. but if it does we study it from a laboratory moving with the same velocity. so we may assume ~ = ~ in an HTES.1: In modelling a real material. The Cauchy stress tensor S must be the same everywhere at all ~ $ 0 ~ 0 times in an HTES. The second law of thermodynamics then implies that there can be no heat ow in the material. A homogeneous thermostatic equilibrium state (HTES) is said to exist in a material when no macroscopically measurable property of that material changes with time. They make plasma physics di cult.1. and (15. so @ S = ~ . one usually begins by considering its homogeneous thermostatic equilibrium states (HTES).

where t0 is any time when the material is in HTES0 .1.1. etc.15.7) G01 is constant.1. electrical properties. and we must prevent surface heat ow and volume heating. temperature. and it is independent of t for t t0 and for t t1 . entropy per gram. Changes produced by altering the surface stress applied to @K are said to \do work. We pick one HTES as a reference state. We carry out a change by violating (15.4) ^r ~ r > n(~) H = 0 at every ~ 2 @K > > h = 0 at every ~ 2 K: : r Two HTES's are di erent if they di er in any macroscopically measurable quantity. index of refraction for yellow light. The Lagrangian description of the motion is ~ L(~ t).1. only O16) liquid which have the same density and the same internal energy per unit mass will have the same values of pressure. For example.1. and call it HTES0 We use t0 -position labelling. including chemical composition. For water. Most pure substances require only the values of a few of their physical properties in order to specify their HTES's.) Changes from one HTES to another are produced by violating some of the conditions (15. We write r x ~ 01 (~ ) = ~ L (~ t1) : r x r x $ x ~r x G01 (~ ) = D~ 01 (~ ) : (15. they must have been subjected to the same stretch and the same rotation so $ x (15. neutron mean absorption length at 15 kev." For the materials in which ^ ~ we are interested. and wait until time t1 when the material has settled into a steady state.6) Since the environments of all particles must be alike in HTES1 . It is possible to alter U for water by polarizing it with an electric eld.4). HTES1. two isotropically pure samples of H2O (no deuterium. the set of all possible HTES's is a twoparameter family.1." and n H 6= 0 on @K involves \heat ow at @K . these changes can be described as follows. INTRODUCTION 251 $ stress n S .5) (15.4). and will ignore. independent of ~ : . (We have ignored. That is we need ^ 8 > surface stress applied to @K at ~ is n(~) $ > r ^r S > < (15. electrical resistivity." while changes produced by letting h 6= 0 are said to involve \internal heating or cooling.1.

the internal energy per unit mass. then particle position in HTES2 is ~ 1 G12 x $ where ~ 1 is particle position in HTES1 and G12 is calculated from (15.2 Elastic materials The observed HTES's of many material are approximated well by the following idealization: De nition 15. But also ~ 2 = ~ G02 . If we use HTES1 for refrence.2. $P k < M0 . and by its entropy per unit mass N1. iii) U .1.1.1. If a particle has position ~ in HTES0.252 CHAPTER 15. if $ $ G2 P P and R2 +(P ) then $ $ $ (15.9) G02 =G01 G12 for any HTES0 . is unchanged by rigid rotations. say HTES2.2.6) but with t1 x $ position labelling. If we x x want to study another HTES. so x x x x $ $ $ (15. ~ 01 (~ ) = ~ G01 + ~ 01 (~ ).1.8) r x x$ $ Here ~ is particle position in HTES0 and ~ G01 is particle position in HTES1.) Then from (15. there is an M0 > 0 such that for any G2 P P with k G . 15. there is an HTES1 whose deformation gradient relative to HTES0 is I $ $ G10 =G ii) Once a reference state HTES0 is chosen. HTES2. we can adopt either HTES0 or HTES1 as the $ reference state. we may move the material with a uniform r x x $ r 0 r 0 0 displacement so ~ 01 (~ ) = ~ . then ~ 1 = ~ G01 and so ~ 2 = x x x x $ $ $ $ position in HTES2 = ~ 1 G12 = ~ G01 G12 . If ~ 01 (~ ) 6= ~ .6). That is.1) U G N =U G R N : . Thus we may assume r 0 0 ~ 01 (~ ) = ~ G01 : (15.60 An elastic material is one whose HTES's have these properties: $ $ i) If HTES0 is any HTES. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS $ (G01 is called the deformation gradient of HTES1 relative to HTES0. HTES1. any other equilibrium state HTES1 is com$ pletely determined by its deformation gradient G01 relative to HTES0 .

D so.f1 for any property f of the two states." In such processes 412Q = jK0 j ~dN: In any transition from state 1 to state 2. reversible or not.2. ~ (15.2.4) Now suppose HTES1 and HTES2 are not very di erent. ELASTIC MATERIALS 253 Now consider two di erent HTES's of an elastic material. Energy conservation requires 412 W + 412 Q = U 2 .2) U i = MUi = jK0 j ~Ui in HTESi : (15. Suppose ~ L : K0 R ! P is the Lagrangian r description of the motion which carries the material from state 1 to state 2.2. say HTES1 and HTES2 .2. integrating over K0 and using Gauss's theorem. so the total mass of the material is M = jK0j ~ where jK0j = volume of K0 .2. N 1) (15.5) where N i = jK0j ~Ni = total entropy of state i. Here K0 is the region occupied by the material in HTES0 .2. Then we will write df = f2 . 412Q d N = ( N 2 . neither of them the reference state HTES0 . Thus (15.4) is d U = 412W + 412Q.6) Z K0 dVL(~ )Dt U = x Z K0 ~ dVLh . and is the smaller of 1 and 2 . The total internal energy of the material is (15.15. U 1 : (15. According to the second law of thermodynamics. These are called \reversible processes.3) Let 412W be the work done on the material and 412 Q the heat added to it in going from HTES1 to HTES2 .2. Z @K0 $ ~ Z ~ + dVL S h2iD~ ~ ~v dAL nL H ^ K0 .2. correct to rst order in small changes. ~ ~ $ ~v ~ H + h+ S h2iD~ ~ ~DtU = .5). It is possible to nd processes ~ L in which equality is approximated arbitrarily closely in r (15.

254 CHAPTER 15. dividing by jK0j ~ gives $ ~ $ S dU = d G h2i ~ + dN (15. and that $ $ @ (15.2.6) and (15. S will be nearly constant. Thus. (D~ )L(~ t) = DDt v r ~v ~ r ~v x t) = Dt D~ L (~ t) $ $ ~v = (Dt G)L(~ t).2.2. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS d U = Q + Z dV $h2iD~ ~ _ LS ~ v dt K0 _ where Q is the rate at which heat is added to the material. $ But U is a function of G and N . They are independent of ~ . Here and S refer to either the initial or the nal state. D~ = Dt G.2.4) we see that t1 K0 or Z t2 Z $ ~ ~v dt dVL S h2iD~ : t1 K0 $ ~ Now if the transformation is done slowly.2. U 1 = 412Q + dt dVL S h2iD~ : Comparing with (15.2.8) t1 ~ L(~ r x ~v dtD~ : $ ~ for small reversible changes between HTES's. d U = jK0j S h2id G +jK0j ~ dN .7). G (~ t1) : x x 0 $ $ But G (~ t1 ) and G (~ t2 ) refer to HTES's. and x $ Z $ $ ~ x 412W =S h2i K dVL(~ ) G (~ t2) . (15. Equation (15.2. about equal to its 412W = value in HTES1 or HTES2 so ~ 412W =S h2i $ Z K0 dVL Z t2 ~ ~r x But ~ = dt ~ so D~ = DDt ~ . Since d U = jK0j ~dU . since they are close. Thus.4).2. integrating from t1 to t2 Z t2 Z $ ~ ~v U 2 .8) says this function is di erentiable.7) $ $ ~ From (15. Thus x x x $ $ ~ 412W = jK0j S h2id G : (15.9) G N = @N U G N .

y3 is a pooob ^ ^ ^ for P . namely 0 $1 $ 0$ 1 ~ @ S A =GT B S C : @ ~A The equation $ ~ Sij = @U (G N ) : @G ij (15. y2.10) (15.13) $ U =U G N (15. $ N =N G U : (15. 15. De nition 15.2. from (15. so the missing information needed to integrate (15.1.2. x $ ~ 0 ~ In a perfectly elastic material.3.1.30).12).10) G G ~ h~ i ~ ~ $ where @$ U (G N ) is an abbreviation for @ U ( N ) (G). G the theory of such gradients is already worked out.2. Since P P is a Euclidean space. and S will be given by (15.2.2.10).15. if y1. then the dyads yiyj are an orthonormal basis for P P .14) is called the equation of state of the elastic material.2.3) is supplied by (15.2.2.2.1.15) This serves as the basis for U = U L (~ t).11) $ $ @U (G N ) @$U G N = yiyj @G ^^ G ij To obtain the Cauchy stress tensor we use (13.2. H = ~ . ELASTIC MATERIALS 255 $ $ ~ S (G N ) = @$ U $ N ~ (15. 15.12) (15. which is known if the equation of state is known.1.2. It can be solved for N as a function $ of G and U . In particular.2. and ^^ $ ^^ G= Gij yiyj : Then so.61 A perfectly elastic material is one in which the small region near $ ~~ any particle ~ at any time t behaves as if it were in an HTES with G= D r L(~ t) and x x . we will have (see page 250) h = 0.

1) (15.6) (15. the earth is at rest before an event.3.3) (15.3. if we write f = f1 .3.3. Then particle displacements are given by ~L (~ t) = ~ L (~ t) .4) We want to study HTES's which are close to the zeroth or initial state in the sense of (15.2.3. we have $ ~ $ ~ r s G= D~ = I P +D~ so where and $ $ $ G= I P + G $ ~ s G= D~ $ k G k << 1: (15. $ $ (15. we needn't distinguish between f L $ and f E ) then from (15. since particles are labelled by their positions in HTES0 . f1 being its value in HTES1 . CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS 15. We use subscripts 0 to refer to the initial state. (since f is constant throughout the material. to rst order in N and G we have $ $ U = N + 1 S 0 h2i G : 0 .7) Furthermore.8).2) ~s x kD~L (~ t) k << 1: Expressed in terms of deformation gradients. This resting state is used to label particles by their positions in the resting state. f0 for any physical quantity.3.5) G0 = I P ~0 = 0 $ $ ~ S =S0 : (15.3.256 CHAPTER 15.3.4).3 Small disturbances of an HTES In seismology. ~ : s x r x x Usually it is a very good assumption in seismology that (15. Then.

G0 by $ @ G0 N0 $ ~ $ + G h2i@$ G0 N0 = N G @N $ $ ~ $ ~ ~ = N @ S G0 N0 + $ h2i@$ $ $ N : G G S G0 0 S @N $ $ $ We de ne the following tensors.3. $ $ $ $ S 0 h2i G= 0 if GT = .2. N0 and G=G1 .3. so S0 . Consequently.15.9) $ @ $ $ @ ~ ~ W 0 = @N S G0 N0 = ~@N @$ U G $ ~ ~ = ~@$ @ U G0 N0 = ~0@$ G G @N Then (Note: ~ = .10) (15.3. G = 0. We can go further. B0 2 R: $ $ ~ $ $ $ ~ ~ ~ Q0 = @$ S G0 N0 = ~0 @$ @$U G0 N0 G G G (15.3.12) (15. W 02 2 P .3. so $ $ $0 ~ ~ ~ we can linearize (15.) Also $ G0 N0 ~$ @ G0 N0 (15.8) The Cauchy stress tensor is symmetric in every HTES of an elastic material.11) (15. 0.3. G : $T $ $T! $ $ $ $ But then for any G. all the changes f are small. The changes = 1 . SMALL DISTURBANCES OF AN HTES 257 $ $ $ $ $ $ If GT = . Since HTES1 is close to HTES0 . and therefore N = 0 implies U = 0.2.3. Q02 4 P . S =S 1 . S are $ $ $ given in terms of N = N1 . S0 h2i G= 0: Thus $ $ T S0=S0 : (15. S 0 h2i G . G.13) @ B0 = @N $ $ @2 G0 N0 = @N 2 U G0 N0 : 0$ 1 $ @W 0 A = NB0 + G h2i ~ 0 $ $ $ $ $ ~= N W 0 + G h2i Q0 : S . then G= I P + G is a rotation to rst order in G.13).12) and (15.

tr G +O k G k2 : $ $ S 1 = 1 .14) $ $ $ We would also like to calculate S =S 1 . tr ( G)] S 0 + GT S 0 + S .3. From (15.3. $ $ . and can never $ $ vanish.3). we have $ $ $ $ $ $ ~ S 1=S 0 . taking components relative to y1.258 CHAPTER 15. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS $ Furthermore. y2.2.16) $T ! $ $ $ ~ IP + G S0 + S $ where we have used (15.1 $ $ ~ (15.1 $T $ ~ S 1= det G01 G 01 S 1 : $ Now det G (t) depends continuously on t in going from HTES0 to HTES1 .2.3. Hence j det G j = det G and $ $ . It is 1 in HTES0. y2. if y1.13) and (13. y3 ^ ^ ^ $ det G = 1 + G11 G12 G13 G21 1 + G22 G23 G31 G32 1 + G33 $ $ $ = 1 + Gii + O k G k2 = 1 + tr G +Ok Gk2: Thus Then $ .15) and have linearized in G.1 $ $ det G = 1 . the change in the Cauchy stress tensor. S 0.15) S 1= det G01 GT 01 S 1: $ $ $ $ Now G01 =G= I P + G and.1. so is always > 0. tr G (15. y3 is any pooob for P .3.11) and write ^ ^ ^ $ $ Q0= Qijklyiyj yk yl ^^^ ^ then so Qijkl = @ 2 U=@Gij @Gkl = @ 2 U=@Gkl @Gij $ $ $ $ Qijkl = Qklij or (13)(24) Q0 =Q0 : (15. Keeping only terms up to rst $ order in G. and we write G as in (15.

3.17) becomes ~ Skl = Skl + Gik Sil .3. y3 from P .20) (15. take N = 0. Then we must have $T $ W 0 =W 0 : Next. S 0 tr G : $ ^^ S 0= Sij yiyj (15. ij Skl ) + NWkl : $ $ We de ne a tensor F 2 4 P by $ $ ^^ ^ ^ F 0= (Qijkl + Sil kj . SMALL DISTURBANCES OF AN HTES 259 or $ $ $ $ $ $ ~ S = S + GT S 0 . y1.13).22) Skl = Gij Fijkl = Slk = Gij Fijlk . Gjj Skl = ( Gij ) Qijkl + NWkl + Gij ( jk Sil .15. First. ij Skl ) = ( Gij ) (Qijkl + Sil kj . I P S 0 : Fijkl = Qijkl + Sil kj . ij Sk (15. y2.17) If we take components relative to the pooob. Then $ $ $ $ $ S = G h2i F 0 + N W 0 : (15.3.3. but Q0 is replaced by F 0 .3. take G= 0.19) (15.21) and $ $ $ $ This equation is of exactly the same form as (15.3. $ $ Now S is the di erence between the Cauchy stress tensors in two HTES's.3. ij Skl) yiyj yk yl or.3.18) then (15. and write ^ ^ ^ (15.3. so S T = $ $ $ S for any G whatever and any N . Then $ $ $ $ $$ $ $ F 0=Q0 +(24) S 0 I P .

Setting i = $ = 1. are the Lame parameters of the material) 8$ > S = .3. Fijlk ) = 0 Fijkl = Fijlk (15. However. )( ik jl .3. As we have seen S 0 and W 0 are symmetric.24). .3.25) Proof: $ $ In our discussion of I +(P )] we proved all of this except that for F we proved only the existence of three scalars . ik jl + il kj = il jk + ik lj . and we have the k $ expression for F given in the remark 15. .14). G is a joint property of two HTES's. $P < I $ $ $ $ > F = I P I P + (23) + (24)] $P $P or > I I > > : Fijkl = ij kl + ( ik jl + il kj ) relative to any pooob for P: (15. while F 0 satis es (15.3. il jk ) = 0. there are constants p. so = .3.72 In an isotropic HTES of an elastic material.3. j = l = 2 gives . and the nal state. From this follows $ $ $ $ (34) F 0=F 0 : Remark 15. such that Fijkl = ij kl + ik jl + il kj : But by (15.72. all these tensors must be isotropic. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS so $ for every G.24) $ Now in general.23) (15.$ HTES0 .3. the zeroth or initial state used $ $ $ $ $ $ to label particles. Q0 and F 0 are properties $ $ $ $ of the initial state alone. B0 .260 CHAPTER 15.3. or ( . Hence or Gij (Fijkl .p $P > I > $ > > W = . . . W 0 . such that ( . = 0. If the initial HTES is isotropic.23). S 0. and Q0 $ satis es (15.

15.20). We have from those two equations Fijkl = Fklji + Rijkl . SMALL DISTURBANCES OF AN HTES 261 Corollary 15.3. The sti ness tensor has two sets of symmetries (see 15.26) $ $ ~s ~s where $= 1=2( G + GT ) = 1=2 D~ + D~ = in nitesimal strain tensor.27) Rijkl := (15. Rklij : (15. the HTES0 of the elastic material is not isotropic. so Fkljk = Fjikl .27) and (15.3.3.3. Only those need be measured and recorded.3.3.3. and there are 81 such components. 8 > = ( N ) B .30) .3.54 For HTES's close to an isotropic HTES0 . Rjikl + Rklji: Then Fijkl = Fjikl + Rijkl .28) Then from (15. Qijkl = Fijkl . Rijkl.29). Then the sti ness tensor F 0 $ $ $ gives the response of S to small changes G in the deformation gradient G away from $ $ G0= I P .3.27) and (15.3. tr $ ( = ) < > S = tr $ $P +2u $ : $ I T (15.14) and (15.3.3. either because the $ $ $ material itself is anisotropic or because S 0 is anisotropic.3. Rklij + Rklji . Rklij : Interchange i and j in (15.3. To answer this question we need one more symmetry.29) Since Fijkl have to be measured experimentally.20.29) to see how many of these components are indpendent. ij Skl : (15.3. so from (15.23): Fijkl = Fijlk : The second symmetry is obtained (15. In most cases. we would like to use (15.3.29).14) Fijkl = Fklij + Rijkl . Rjikl: (15. deducible from (15. Let jk Sil .3.

Rklij + Rklji . Fklij ] + 1 Fklij . Fjikl] + 1 Fijkl . R ) . Fjikl] + 2 Fijkl .F ] + ijkl klij klij lkij 4 1 1 = Eijkl + 4 Fijkl . Rklij ] 2 = Eijkl + 1 (Rijkl .31) Then it is a trivial algebraic identity that 1 Fijkl = Eijkl + 1 Fijkl . Fjikl] 4 1 F . Rlkij ) 2 4 1 (R . kiSlj + lk Sij ) 4 1 .262 CHAPTER 15.F ]+ 1 F .F ] + 4 ijkl klij 4 ijkl lkij = Eijkl + 1 Fijkl . 4 ( ik Sjl .3. jiSkl .30) once as written and once with the interchanges i $ k and j $ l. il Sjk ] (15. ik Sjl + jk Sil . and using (15.3. Fklij ] 4 4 1 F . we get 1 Fijkl = Eijkl + 4 Rijkl .32) . Rklij ) + 1 (Rijlk . CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS 4P $ $ Now de ne E 02 by 1 Eijkl = 4 Fijkl + Fjikl + Fklij + Flkij ] : (15.29 once as written. Rijkl + Rijlk . lj Ski + kl Sji) : Therefore Fijkl = Eijkl + 1 2 kl Sij .3. Rjikl] + 1 Rklij .F +F . li Skj + klSij ) + 1 ( jlSik . Fijkl] + 4 Fijkl . Flkij ] : 4 Using (15. ij Skl + jl Sik . ij Slk . ij Skl .3. Rlkij ] 4 + 1 Rijkl . 4 jikl klji 1 = Eijkl + 2 ( jk Sil .

3.3.27) shows that the isotropic part of S 0 makes no $ $ contribution to F 0 . We have also shown that if F 2 P has the symmetries (15.33). 15.32) as $ $ $ $ $ $ Therefore F 0 has 26 independent components. to measure F 0 .3. Conversely.34) S 0 = .27. (31).3. 21 in E 0 and 5 in 40 .3. (12). ik 4jl + jk 4il . Therefore it is not $ $ possible to reduce the problem further. (33) and whose columns are counted by (kl) = (11). We need not consider (ij ) = (21). How many $ $ independent components does E have? From (15. A tensor in 4 P with the symmetries (15. and we can rewrite (15. (13).p0 I P + 40 with . These can be chosen arbitrarily but not all choices describe stable materials. (13).29) then it can be written in the form (15. ij 4kl + jl 4ik .33) Therefore we can think of Eijkl as a 6 6 matrix whose rows are counted by (ij ) = (11). (33). (22).3.3. a fact which is easily veri ed and is left to the reader.34) in (15. which $ call E 4(P ). (12). The fact that Eijkl = Eklij means that this 6 6 matrix is symmetric. if E 2 E (P ) and S 15. (23). only ve of the components of S 0 need be measured.3. it may be necessary $ to measure the six independent components of S 0 and the 21 independent components of $ $ $ $ E 0. We have just proved we $ 4 that dim E 4(P ) = 21. so $ $ $ $ (15. (22).3.3. Suppose 40 is the $ stress deviator for S 0 . 3p0 = tr S 0 : $ Then substituting (15. In principle.3. or (32) because of the rst of equations (15. 15.15.32).29). (23).28. $ $ $ $ $ $ 4 $ $ T =S and F is given by (15. then F has the symmetries (15.3. $ $ 15.27.3.3.33) is called an \elastic tensor. Therefore it contains only 21 independent components.31) Eijkl = Ejikl = Eijlk = Eklij : (15.3.32) with E 2 E 4(P ).3.28.3. Now we must measure the six independ$ $ ent components of Sij and the components of Eijkl in order to know F 0 .3. SMALL DISTURBANCES OF AN HTES 263 where we have used ij = ji and Sij = Sji.35) ." The set of all such tensors in a subspace of 4P . Fijkl = Eijkl + 1 2 kl 4ij . il 4jk ] : (15. Actually.

3. it is a linear combination $ $ $ of all possible permutations of I P I P I P . Jijklmn must satisfy (15.p0 I P where p0 is very large (say of the order$ of $ $ $ mantle pressure. we can combine two terms which di er only in interchanging m and n.35 megabar). . such that 2Jijklmn = ( ij km ln + ij kn lm)+ ( ik jm ln + ik jn lm) + ( il jm kn + il jn km) + ( im jk ln + in jk lm) +"( im jl kn + in jl km) + ( im jn kl + in jm kl). The new HTES will still be isotropic. so = = = " and = . and F 0 =E 0 will have the form (15. i. These are as follows: ij kl mn ik jl mn il jk mn im jk ln in jk lm ij km ln ik jm ln il jm kn im jl kn in jl km ij kn lm ik jn lm il jn km im jn kl in jm kl : Since 4mn = 4nm. Suppose then that a small (a few kilobars) stress deviator is added. n. ". Now E = J0h2i 40 where J0 2 6P .25).33) for any xed m. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS $ $ $ $ Suppose a material is originally$isotropic in an HTES with S 0= 0 .35).3. which involves only two constants.264 CHAPTER 15. Suppose the mater$ $ ial is strongly compressed so that S 0= . By Weyl's theorem. we can discard terms with mn . Moreover. Therefore J0 involves only two independent constants. Thus there are scalars . Then $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ will change by a small amount E which depends linearly on 40 . and 2Jijklmn = + Then ij ( km ln + kl lm ) + ( kl ( im jn + in jm ) ik ( jm ln + jn lm ) + il ( jm kn + jn km ) im ln + in lm ) + jl ( im kn + in km ) + jk ( ) : Eijkl = Jijklmn4mn = ( ij 4kl + kl 4ij ) + ( ik 4jl + il 4jk + jk 4il + jl4ik ) : . it is isotropic.e. the Lame parameters $ and . . Since 4mm = 0. and F 0 will change E0 $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ by F = E + terms involving 40 in (15.3. Therefore it is a member of I 6( +(V )). This tensor is a property of the original highly compressed isotropic HTES. 0.1 to 1. say 40.

Before an earthquake. 0~0 = D S 0 . and the two kinds of density and two kinds of stress tensor are the same. ~0~0: 0 ~ g ~ ~ g (15. 1 ij 4kl + + 1 kl 4ij (15. then E 0 can involve 21 $ $ and F 0 26 independent parameters. 1 ( ik 4jl + il 4jk) + + 2 ( jk 4il + jl 4ik ) : (15. we assume the earth is at rest in static equilibrium.35) gives Fijkl = + ij kl + u ( ik jl + il jk ) + $ $ If the anisotropy in F 0 arises solely because an isotropic material has been subjected to $ $ a small (anisotropic) deviatoric stress then F 0 involves only 9 independent constants. SMALL DISTURBANCES IN A PERFECTLY ELASTIC EARTH 265 Thus.3. we will treat the earth as a perfectly elastic body in studying its response to earthquakes. We label the particles by their equilibrium positions. = $ x S 0 (~ ) = x 0 (~ ) ~x ~ x ~ The body force is f (~ ) = f 0 (~ ) = 0(~ )~0(~ ) where ~ is the acceleration of gravity.2) ~0 (~ ) x $ ~ x S 0 (~ ) : . The conservation equations reduce to g $ $ ~ = @ S 0 . .3. (15. nally. either because it was a single $ crystal.3.1) $L > G (~ t) = ( D ~ )L (~ t) =$P : x r x I so the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of any physical quantity are the same.3. and xg x g ~0 is its equilibrium value.38) 2 (15. .4.4. u. Using subscript 0 to denote the equilibrium state. .15. the $ $ ve independent components of 40 and the four constants . If the anisotropy was already present in the crystal structure of the material.4 Small disturbances in a perfectly elastic earth Neglecting dissipation.37) 2 2 1 . or because its micro-crystals were not randomly oriented. so we use t0-position labelling where t0 is any time before the earthquake.4. we have 8 L > ~ (~ t) = ~ <r x x (15. When the earth is at rest.36) 15. correct to rst order in 4ij .

so we can write both f E (~ t) and f L (~ t) simply as f (~ t).6) f L (~ t) = f E (~ t) or f L = f E if f = Ok~ k: x x s (15.4. If f is of order ~. ~ as well as D~ is quite small.8) This is true in particular for f = ~. we have f L (~ t) = f E (~ t) where ~ = ~ L (~ t) : x r r r x x s x s If ~ L(~ t) = ~ + ~ L(~ t) then to rst order in ~ we have r x f L (~ t) = f E ~ + ~L (~ t) t = f E (~ t) x x s x x +~ L (~ t) @ f E (~ t) : s x ~ x If f is small of rst order in ~.266 CHAPTER 15. we can use f not merely for the pair s s of functions (f L f E ) but for either function alone. and it is almost always possible to s replace the exact conservation laws and constitutive relations by linearized versions in which all powers of ~ or D~ higher than the rst are omitted. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS Now suppose an earthquake occurs.4. In these problems it is s ~s useful to be able to convert easily between Eulerian and Lagrangian representations.4. there is no need to distinguish between its Eulerian and Lagrangian s representations.7) If f is small of order ~. since to order ~ they are equal.4.3) (15.4) ~s x kD~L (~ t) k << 1 for all ~ t: x $ $ ~~ ~~ x GL (~ t) = D r L (~ t) = I P +DsL (~ t) : x x (15. We discuss this conversion now.4. For any physical quantity f . Even s .5) ~s For earthquakes. For example. gravity is easy to calculate in the Eulerian representation. That is x x x f (~ t) := f E (~ t) = f L (~ t) if f = Ok~ k: x x x s (15. after which ~ L (~ t) = ~ + ~L (~ t) r x x s x with Then (15.4. we have s (15. and the constitutive relations are simple in the Lagrangian representation.

16) 0 x . so correct to Ok~ k s v ~ s s Dt f = @t f if f = Ok~k: s In particular. SMALL DISTURBANCES IN A PERFECTLY ELASTIC EARTH 267 when f is not small of order ~. ~L(~ t) @ f E (~ t) s x x s s x ~ x = ~(~ t) @ f0(~ ) and (15. so correct to rst order in ~.12) s s a s s (15. But ~ = Dt~ = Ok~k. (15. as a relationship between functions.4. and f . f (~ ) x x (15. Therefore. correct to Ok~k. Df = (D~ ) @ f = ( I P +D~) @ f = @ f + D~ @ f . correct to Ok~k. Dt f = @t f + ~ @ f .10) f L = f E + ~ @ f0 s ~ for any physical quantity f . and they are de ned by L f L (~ t) = f L (~ t) . f0 (~ ) is. v ~ v s s s s ~ @ f = ~ @ f0 .6) for any f is sx ~ x f L(~ t) = f E (~ t) + ~(~ t) @ f0(~ ) x x sx ~ x or.13) ~ = Dt~ = @t~ ~ = Dt~ = @t2~: v $ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~r ~ If f is any physical quantity. If s s f = Ok~ k then correct to Ok~ k s s ~ ~ Df = @ f if f = Ok~k: s (15. f0 is of order ~. D~ = @~.15.15) For any physical quantity f we de ne Lf and E f . f E (~ t) .4. correct to Ok~k s (15.4.4. and v ~ v ~ Dt f = @t + ~ @ f0 : v ~ (15.4. For any physical quantity f .9) (15.4.14) In particular.4.4.11) If f is Ok~k then ~ @ f0 is Ok~k2. so to rst order in ~. the Lagrangian and Eulerian derivatives of f from its equilibrium value. Thus for any f ~ ~s ~ ~ Df = @ f + @~ @ f0 correct to Ok~k: s (15.4. Both are physical quantities. D~ @ f = @~ @ f s ~ s ~s s ~ s ~ ~s ~ ~s ~ = @~ @ f0 . Relations between derivatives are also needed.4.

so we can apply to them the convention (15. E f = f L . for the functions.8) s even when f is not small of order ~.10).4. G0 = I P so ~ @ G0 = 0 . so. correct to rst order in ~. f0 = f E .4.19) (15. Therefore s But ~ = Dt~ = @t~ so. Thus.4. even in seismology.22) .4. and it is conventional to work with the former.1).4. f0 (~) : r r (15.18) (15.4. s Lf Ef = f L . based on the Lagrangian constitutive relations and Eulerian conservation equations. Therefore s ~ $ $ ~ L G= E G= @~ to rst order in ~: s s Lf (15.20) Then Lf . f E = ~ @ f0 from (15. the Eulerian and Lagrangian conservation equations and the constitutive relations can be linearized.@ ( 0~) : (15. We will give the derivation of these equations.17) Both Lf and E f are small of order k~k.4. v s s s @t For t = t0 (before the earthquake) h E E E i ~ s = .4. f0 : (15. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS t) = f E (~ t) .21) With the help of this machinery. The Eulerian mass conservation equation is ~ @t E (~ t) + @ r We have E E (~ r t) ~ E (~ t) = 0: v r = 0+ E and @t 0 = 0. s @t E ~ v + @ ( 0~ ) = 0: ~ s + @ ( 0~) = 0: = 0 and ~ = 0. They produce either Eulerian or Lagrangian equations of motion.268 E f E (~ r CHAPTER 15. correct to rst order in ~. so s ~ = E f + ~ @ f0 to rst order in ~: s ~ s $ $ $ $ From (15.4.

We nd E~ as g E (.4. We approximate s $ the neighborhood of each particle in the earth as a HTES. ~ . It is obtained from @ 2 = 4 . E ~ : g g0 0 @t ~ = @ S 0 +@ 0 g0 0 But then we can apply (15. so correct to rst order in ~. 0 ). g g g s $ 2s ~ $ ~ ES .2) to obtain $ 2s ~ ES . That is L N = 0 everywhere at all times.3. gives @2 E =4 . ~ E = ~0 + E~ . and the tensors F 0 and W 0 really will depend on ~ . E : (15. 0 @t ~ = @ We nd E E~ g 0 . the matter close to particle ~ . because (15.4. The initial HTES0 at particle ~ is the HTES appropriate for the region near that particle before the earthquake. Subtracting @ 2 0 = 4 0.22). E = 0 + E .@ ( E .4.27) .@ ~ g (15. and we assume that S can be calculated everywhere at all times as if the local material were in such a state.23).4.4. Thus at each particle ~ we can use (15.26) 0 x 0 x We must use the Lagrangian representation here. E (~ t) ~ E (~ t) : s r r g r $E $ $ Here S =S 0 + E S .4.4. (15. The x heat conductivity of the earth is so low that during the passage of earthquake waves almost no heat has time to ow.4.24) where is the gravitational potential. SMALL DISTURBANCES IN A PERFECTLY ELASTIC EARTH 269 The Eulerian momentum conservation equation is E ~ $E r Dt2~ (~ t) = @ S (~ t) .23) from (15. so there is no change in entropy per gram at each particular particle.@ ~ E ~ ) = .21) applies to a particular x x lump of matter.@ ~ = . E~ .4. so E~ = . it remains to express E S in terms of ~. = Newton's gravitational constant.20): x $ $ $ $ $ L S = L G h2i F (~ ) + L N W (~ ) : (15. E ~0 : g E +@ 0 ~ (15.15. Thus this HTES0 will $ $ $ vary from particle to particle.25) $ In order to solve (15. where .4.

to rst order in ~.28) where E~ is obtained from ~ via (15. g If we assume that the undisturbed state is the same everywhere and is isotropic. @ @ ~ ~ ~ s ~ s = ( + 2 )@ @ ~ .4.26) gives $ gives E S as E $ s S in terms of ~.~$ @ S 0 $! ~~h2i F 0 .4.23) nally becomes. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS L Thus equation (15.29) . s " $ # $ 2s ~ @~ h2i F 0 (~ ) .24) and (15. @ @ ~ : 0 Divide this equation by and de ne c2 = + 2 p 0 c2 = : s 0 (15. 0 E~ + @ ( 0~) ~0 g s g (15. (15. then Fijkl = so ij kl + ( ik jl + il jk ) " $# $ ~ @ s h2i F 0 = $kl $ ~s @~ h2i F 0 = ~ s @ ~ kl + (@k sl + @l sk ) h~ i ~ s $ @ ~ I P + @ ~ + (@~)T : s s If we assume that there is no ~ dependence in the equilibrium state (homogeneous x x earth) then and are independent of ~ .28) becomes " # $ $ 2 s = @ @~ h2i F ~s ~ s 0 @t l k 0 = @l @ ~ + @k @k sl + @k @l sk kl 2s 0 @t ~ ~ ~ s = ( + ) @ @ ~ + @ 2~ s h2 ~ ~ i ~ ~ s s s = ( + 2 )@ @ ~ + @ ~ .4.20) $ S = E$ = S $ $ s ~ S .4. And then (15.270 CHAPTER 15.4.4. it is safe to neglect ~ and @ S 0 . @ ~ @ S 0 ~s ~ s ~$ x 0 @t ~ = @ h~ i . ~ @ $0 : @s s ~S Thus (15. and (15.4.25). since L L $ ~ s G= @~.4.22). g s ~$ For waves short compared to the radius of the earth.4.

we have G= y3y1 so S = (^1y3 + y3y1) and sr r ^ y ^^ y^ ^^ $ y3 S = y1. @ 2~ gives v ~ s ~ s @t2 @ ~ = c2 @ 2 @ ~ : (15. These are called S -waves (secondary waves) or shear waves.3. the material either does not resist shear or aids it once it has begun.4.4. so S = "(3 + 2 ) I P . Taking x p s the divergence of (15. If this does not produce a drop in pressure. If ^ ^ 0.34) Combining these two relations gives 3( + 2 ) > 4 > 0. the material will explode.4.21) when N = 0 and F 0 is isotropic. In that case " $ $ $ T# $ $ G+ G : S = I P tr G + $ $ For a pure shear. ~(~) = (~ y3)^1.4.4. There is an interesting inequality involving cs and cp which we can derive by studying $ $ (15. SMALL DISTURBANCES IN A PERFECTLY ELASTIC EARTH 271 Then @t2~ = c2 @ @ ~ . so we must have > 0: (15. the same is true of c2 and c2.4. Taking the curl of (15. .4. sr r the material expands slightly. Therefore 3 + 2 > 0: (15. .15.33) $ $ $ $ For a pure dilatation ~(~) = "~.4.31) ~ s The scalar @ ~ propagates in waves with velocity cp. Hence it is the \primary" wave.30) Since we are assuming 0 . we have G= " I P . and arrives rst. so 2 0 < cs < 3 0 < cs < 0:866: (15.4. These are called P -waves (primary ~ ~ v ~ ~ v waves) or compression waves.30) and using @ @ ~ = @ @ ~ .30) gives ~ s ~ s @t2 @ ~ = c2 @ 2 @ ~ : p (15. If " > 0. c2 @ s p~ ~ s s~ ~ s @ ~ : (15.32) S ~ s The vector @ ~ propagates in wave with velocity cs.35) c2 4 cp p Therefore the P wave always travels faster than the S wave. independent of ~ .

Clearly = 1= .pd + dN so ( N ) = @U ( N ) @N In an HTES. The tensor V E (~ t) is called the viscous stress tensor at (~ t).3) to calculate pE (~ t) as if the uid were in an HTES at (~ t).5. Then with N = N E (~ t) and = r r r 1= E (~ t) we use (15. We need now a more precise de nition.5. HTES r The uid at (~ t) is not in fact in the HTES de ned by U E (~ t) and E (~ t). At each point in space.6) HTES $ $ where (15. r r r r We call this pressure the thermostatic equilibrium pressure at ~ t and write it pE (~ t).5.5. or by volume per unit mass. . U = U E (~ t) and use (15. ~.272 CHAPTER 15.5.5) but by r $ $ $ S E (~ t) = . there will be a well de ned density E (~ t) and a well de ned energy per r unit mass.6) de nes V E . @U ( N ) @ $ $ S = .2) (15.5. and by our assumption U = U ( N) : (15.1) From elementary thermodynamics.5.4) p ( N ) = . and entropy per unit mass. so the actual r r r $ Cauchy stress tensor S E (~ t) is not given by (15.p I P : (15. N .3) (15. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS 15.1) to calculate r r r N E (~ t) as if the uid were in an HTES at (~ t). .5 Viscous uids A uid is a material whose HTES's support no shear. the Cauchy stress tensor is (15. it is well known that dU = .pE (~ t) I P + V E (~ t) r r r (15.5.5. U E (~ t).5) Now suppose the uid deviates slightly from an HTES.5. so the Cauchy stress tensor is always isotropic. We set = 1= E (~ t). A uid supports no shear in an HTES. and r each instant t. r r It vanishes in HTES's. and each HTES is uniquely determined by the density and entropy per unit mass.

physical arguments suggest that a term @ m @tn E or @ m @tn v~E in (15. We expect V E to vanish when E is constant for all ~ t.5.5. so we v r expect $ $ V E (~ t) = 0 if E and v~E are constant r for all ~ and t: r $ For ordinary uids. Thus V E (~ t) can be expected to depend on the functions v r $ E and ~ E in the whole uid. @~ E (~ t) and @t~ E (~ t).8) = @~ h2i F + @ J + (@t~ ) K + (@t ) H : V .7) $ contributes to V (~ t) in the ratio ( =L)m (t=T )n where and t are mean free path and r mean time between collisions for a molecule and L and T are the macroscopic wavelength and time period of the disturbance being studied.15.5. @t E (~ t). J E (~ t) and K (~ t) 2 3 P .5. and H (~ t) 2 2 P such that r r r $ ! $ $ $ $ ~ $ ~ ! v v (15. and we can drop all but the linear terms.7). In v r fact. so that only rst derivatives need be considered in ~ ~ (15. $ On the basis of the foregoing approximations. In fact. In that case. V E (~ t) can be expanded in Taylor series in the quantities (15. VISCOUS FLUIDS 273 The deviation from an HTES can be measured by the failure of to be constant and $ by the failure of ~ to vanish. so we v r $E would expect V (~ t) to be determined by the values at (~ t) of r r 8 > @ E @t E >~ < > > @ v~E @t v~E :~ ~~ @@ E ~~ @t @ E @t2 E ~~ ~~ @ @ v~E @t @ v~E @t2 v~E (15.7) ~ r We will assume that the deviation from an HTES is small.7). This behavior is determined by the derivatives.5. we expect that V E (~ t) will depend r ~ r linearly on @ E (~ t).5. ~ E = constant for all ~ t is simply an HTES moving with constant velocity. r ~v r v r $ $ We$ thus led to a model in which at any point (~ t) there are tensors F E (~ t) 2 are r r $ $ $E $E 4 P . we would also expect V E (~ t) to be a ected only by the behavior of r the functions E and ~ E near ~ t. We will also assume that the in uence of distant uid on (~ t) drops o very rapidly r with distance in either space or time.

By the same argument.11) . the uid is being compressed at a uniform rate. = 100. = 0 and = . . @t~ and @t can be adjusted independently. .5. K . Then the same must be $ ! ! $ $ $ $ true of F . CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS It seems reasonable to assume that the uid is skew isotropic. v r r ^^ $ $ $ y^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ V = w (^3y1 + y1y3) and y3 V = y1w.5. then Sij = Sji. such r that relative to any pooob for P Fijkl Jijk Kijk Hij = = = = ij kl + ik jl + il jk "ijk "ijk ij: ~v ~ v It is observed experimentally that @~ .274 CHAPTER 15.9) v r gives Vij = . is required to conpress the uid at a nite rate. and H .9) If ~ E = . This V is antisymmetric.5. except in sound waves. @ . . If @t = 0 then (15. Then Vij = "ijk @k . $ ~ Therefore we can take all but @ to be 0. namely =0 0 0: (15. 2 3 ij ~ v @ ~ + ij @t : (15. over and above pHTES . J . However. Therefore we must have = 0. w. ~ E (~) = w~ y3y1. In the ocean.5. so Vij = Vji.5. Thus we conclude that Vij = ij ~ v @ ~ + (@i vj + @j vi) + ij @t : (15.5. @ ~ 0. If we assume that the intrinsic angular momentum. so the large value of in the ocean is not noticed except in the damping of short sound waves. The second law of thermodynamics gives more information about (15. body torque and torque stress in the uid are negligible. The tangential stress y3 V is times the rate of ~ v shear."~. Therefore at each (~ t) there are scalars . An extra pressure. The quantity = + 2 =3 is therefore called the bulk viscosity: (15.12) ~ v @ ~ + @ivj + @j vi .10) = + 2=3 : Then Vij = ij The quantity is called the shear viscosity because in a pure shear ow. ij (3 + 2 )".11). .

Therefore we denote them by NHTES(~ t).1=3 tr S the latter is a measurable quantity.5.16) shows that its creation rate is $ ~ ~ ~ = h + H @ 1 + 1 V h2i@~ : v (15.1 Dt = Dt ln = .g. U and are measurable physical x quantities even though the material is not in an HTES. Then (15.5. So we drop the subscripts HTES on and N .1=3 tr S is another candidate for the pressure and we do not want to confuse the two. At a particle ~ at time t. pL (~ t).@ H + h+ S h2i@~ = .5.4) give local values of p and at particle ~ at time t. x p. (15.5. then (15. If we follow particle ~ .3) x and (15.5.13) There are no other candidates for and N . If we multiply (15.2) implies x Dt U = .pHTES Dt + HTES Dt NHTES : (15. heat radiation by a transparent liquid into empty space if the liquid is a blob in interstellar space).5. x x HTES x $ L x HTES (~ t).15. VISCOUS FLUIDS 275 The argument is as follows. Therefore (15. However.15) $ $ $ ~v ~v $ ~v ~v ~v But pHTES(@ ~ ) = pHTES I P h2i@~ so S h2i@~ + pHTES(@ ~ ) = (S +pHTES I P )h2i(@~ ) $ ~ ~ ~ =V h2i@~ from (15. because .16) DtN + @ @ H A = h + 1 V h2i@~ + H @ 1 : If we de ne the stu \entropy" as the stu whose density per unit mass is N and ~ whose material ux density is H= . If we divide (15. ohmic heating) or negative (e.5.5.14) ~ v But Dt = .5. $ We do not do so on pHTES.6). (15.15) becomes 0 1 $ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ v (15. If the local values of U and are used in (15.9) by and use (13. .5.6.1).g.17) Now h can be positive (e.5. are not measured.5.5. They are calculated from the measured and U as if the material L near ~ at time t were in an HTES.15) by and use the identity @ (H= ) = v ~ ~ ~ (@ H )= + H @ (1= ).15) we obtain $ ~ ~ ~ .5.Dt ln = @ ~ .5.5. These local values of N . a local value of N can be found for particle ~ at time t.pHTES Dt + Dt N: v (15. Note that pHTES is not .14) is ~ v Dt N + @ H = h + S h2i@~ + pHTES @ ~ : v (15.

5.19) and (15.5.19) 1 (@ v + @ v ) = 1~ v 1 @ v + @ v .5. Since an isotropic and a deviatoric tensor are orthogonal.18). 2 ij @ ~ 3 (15. there are no cross terms $ 1~ when we calculate V h2i 2 @~ + (@~ )T ] from (15. Since ^ y ^^ ~ v this inequality must hold for " = 0. we must calculate V h2i@~ in (15. and (15.5.5.5. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS thermodynamics is generalized to motions near HTES by requiring that everywhere at all times .22) .276 CHAPTER 15. @ = ~ . We can also arrange experiments with ~ E (~ t) = "~. 3 I P @ ~ k2 : Thus for a viscous uid (15. = 0.17).5.5. 2 @ ~ : ~ (15.21) ~ 0 We can arrange experiments in which @ = ~ . v r r ~ 0 In such an experiment. and ~ E (~ t) = "~ + (~ v r r r ~v y3)^1. Therefore v ~v $ ~ ~v ~v T 2 $ ~ v v ~ v ~ v V h2i@~ = @ ~ @ ~ + @t + 2 k@~ + @~ . @ ~ = 3".5. and @t = 0. 3 I P @ ~ + @ ~ @t 0: (15. 0.21) becomes 9"2 + 2 2 0.5. h 0: (15.18) requires 2 ~ v2 ~v ~ v T 2 $ ~ v ~ v ~ ~ H @ 1 + @ ~ + 2 @~ + @~ .20) i j j i ij @ ~ + 2 3 2 i j j i 3 ij v $ ~v ~ v Then we have expressed V and 1=2 @~ +(@~ )T ] as the sum of their isotropic and deviatoric parts. The second law of $ ~ 1 1 1 v V h2i@~ = Vij @ivj = 2 (Vij + Vji) @i vj = 2 Vij @ivj + 2 Vji@vj = 1 Vij @i vj + 1 Vij @j vi = Vij 1 (@i vj + @j vi) 2 2 2 $ 1 ~ T = V h2i @~ + @~ : v ~v 2 ij Now suppose we write (15.5.5. h= is the creation rate of entropy by local events in the uid.18) $ ~ To use (15. and @t of any value.21) becomes 9"2 + 3" @t 0: (15. we must have 0.20). 6= 0 and for " 6= 0. we have v .10) as Vij = and write ~ v @ ~ + @t + ~ v @i vj + @j vi .5. Since Vij = Vij . (15. Then @~ = "Ip + y3y1.

.5. The fact that (15.15.5.18) as an extension of the second law of thermodynamics.5. VISCOUS FLUIDS 277 If 6= 0.12) are observed experimentally is one of the arguments for (15.3" . Therefore we must have = 0.5. take " > 0 and @t < .22) is violated. Then (15.

CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS .278 CHAPTER 15.

Part III Exercises 279 .

.

ik or Step 3. ~i = gij~j . Compute the inverse matrix to gij . b b Step 2. with the usual dot and cross products. where ~1. ~2 ~3. Let (~1 ~n ) be its Let (~1 b b b b dual basis. Let gij and gij be its covariant and contravariant metric matrices. b b Exercise 2 V is ordinary Euclidean 3-space. Compute gij = ~i ~j . the matrix gij such that gij gjk = gij gjk = ik (either equation implies the other). Thus we have a way to construct (~1 b b b b the procedure: Step 1.Set One Exercise 1 ~n) be an ordered basis for Euclidean vector space V . ~4 are arbitrary vectors v v v v 281 . Prove a) ~i = gij~j b b b) ~i = gij~j b b c) gij gjk = d) gij gjk = ik i k Note that either c) or d) says that the two n n matrices gij and gij are inverse to each ~n) when (~1 ~n ) are given. This is other. The function M is de ned by one of the following six equations.

c) Dot ~k into a) and use ~i ~k = b b b 1d. ~ = (~ ~j )~j (see equations (D-12) and (D-13). In each case. i) M (~1 ~2) = ~1 ~2 . Thus we obtain v b ~i = ~i ~j ~j or ~i = gij~j : b b b b b b 1. whether M is a tensor. v v v v v v vi) M (~1 ~2 ~3 ~4) = (~1 ~2 )(~3 ~4 ).a) For any vector ~ 2 V . i k. v v v v v v v v Solutions 1. state whether M is multilinear.282 in V . . and whether M is totally symmetric or totally antisymmetric. we know that v ~ = ~ ~j ~j v v b b See equations (D-14) and (D-15). State why you think so.b) For any ~ 2 V . v v v v v v) M (~1 ~2 ~3) = (~1 ~2) ~3 . Dot ~k into b) and use ~i ~k = b b b i k. Note that part b) can also be obtained v b b b b b b b ~n) as the original basis and (~1 ~n) as the immediately by regarding (~1 b b b b dual basis. Let i 2 f1 ng. Thus ~i = (~i ~j )~j . and apply this result to the vector ~ = ~i . v v v v iii) M (~1 ~2 ) = (~1 ~2 )~2. or ~i = gij~j . Apply this result to v v v b b ~ = ~i . 1. v v v v ii) M (~1 ~2 ) = ~1 ~2 . v v v v v iv) M (~1 ~2) = (~1 ~2 ) ~2.

M is not a tensor because its values are vectors in V .M .) M is both totally symmetric and totally antisymmetric because M (~1 ~2) = M (~2 ~1) = . so M is multilinear.i) M is multilinear because a dot product is linear in each factor. And we have M (~3 ~2 ~1) = (~3 ~2) ~1 = (~2 ~1 ) ~3 = .M (~1 ~2 ~3) v v v v v v v v v v v v . ~2 2 V .~2 ~1. v v v v 2. ~3 when the other two are v v v xed.M (~2 ~1) v v v v v v for all ~1 . (It is of order 2.iii) M is not multilinear because M (~1 2~2) = 4M (~1 ~2 ).283 2.) M is totally symmetric because ~1 ~2 = ~2 ~1 . M is a tensor because its values are scalars. (It is of order 3. v v M is a tensor because its values are real numbers. M is a tensor because its values are real numbers (scalars). v v 2. v v v v M is not a tensor and is neither totally symmetric nor totally antisymmetric because M (~1 ~2) is generally 6= M (~2 ~1) and 6= . M is totally antisymmetric because ~1 ~2 = . To show this. v v v v 2.) M is totally antisymmetric. (~1 ~2 ) ~3 = .ii) M is multilinear because a cross product is linear in each factor.iv) M (~1 ~2 ) = 0.M (~1 ~2 ~3) v v v so (12)M = . ~2 . we must show that (12)M = (13)M = (23)M = . v v v v v v 2. not scalars.M: We have v v v v v v v v v M (~2 ~1 ~3) = (~2 ~1 ) ~3 = .M (~2 ~1).v) M is multilinear because it is linear in each of ~1. (It is of order 2.

the identity permutation.M . (It is of order 4. V is an n-dimensional Euclidean vector space and L 2 L(V ! V ). b) If 2 Sq (i. However. and we must nd u u u u ~1 ~2 ~3 ~4 2 V such that M = (~1 ~3 ~2 ~4) 6= . (23)M is neither M nor . ~ 4 2 V such that M (~ 1 ~ 3 ~ 2 ~ 4) 6= M (~ 1 ~ 2 ~ 3 ~ 4). To see this.M . we must nd u u u u u u u u ~ 1. Yet if v v v v v v v v dim V = 1.M = (~1 ~2 ~3 ~4). v v v v v v v v Extra Problems In what follows. Show that c = 1.. u u v v ^ u u v v ^ Then M (~ 1 ~ 2 ~ 3 ~ 4) = 1 and M (~ 1 ~ 2 ~ 3 ~ 4) = 0. ~ 3 = ~ 4 = ~3 = ~4 = y. 1E. ~ 2. It is true that (12)M = M and (34)M = M .vi) M is multilinear because it is linear in each of ~1 . and M is totally symmetric.e. Suppose c 2 R is an eigenvalue of .) M is neither totally symmetric nor totally antisymmetric. M is a tensor because its values are scalars. show that there is a positive integer p q! such that p = e. then lp is an eigenvalue of Lp. ~4 when the other three v v v v are xed. ~3 . Note: One might be tempted u u u u u u u u to say that (~1 ~2 ) (~3 ~4) is \obviously" di erent from (~1 ~3)(~2 ~4 ). we do have (~1 ~2)(~3 ~4) = (~1 ~3)(~2 ~4). 2. Let x y z be v v v v v v v v v v v v ^^^ an orthonormal basis for V and let ~ 1 = ~ 2 = ~1 = ~2 = x. ~ 3. ~2 .284 so (13)M = .M . c) Regard 2 Sq as a linear operator on : q V ! q V . Finally M (~1 ~3 ~2) = (~1 ~3) ~2 = (~2 ~1 ) ~3 = . : f1 qg ! f1 qg is a bijection ).M (~1 ~2 ~3) v v v v v v v v v v v v so (23)M = . Recall that l 2 R is an \eigenvalue" of L i there is a nonzero ~ 2 V such that v L(~ ) = l~ . qV . v v a) Show that if l is an eigenvalue of L and p is any positive integer.

a b = b. And L3(~ ) = L L2 (~ )] = L(l2~ ) = l2 L(~ ) = l3~ . say a = b a < b. and p is as in b) above. lIV ) = c0 ln + c1ln. ~n) for V . Then L2 (~ ) = L L(~ )] = L(l~ ) = lL(~ ) = v 0 v v v v v v l2~ . a. Show that relative b b to B the matrix of L . . But eM = M . Use this u u 0 u 0 fact to give a pedantically complete proof that l 2 R is an eigenvalue of L i det(L .1c1 is called the trace of L.1)n. ~ 6= ~ and L(~ ) = l~ . c) If c is an eigenvalue of . use det L = L1 i1 Ln in "i1 in with L . Take p = b . lIV replacing L. lIV is Li j . Calculate tr L in terms of the matrix Li j of L relative to B . (Thus the degree of det(L .] b) Show that c0 = (. Finally. l i j . lIV ) is n. Since c 2 R. so there is a nonzero M 2 q V such that eM = cp M . a) Show that det(L . where IV is the identity operator on V . a) By hypothesis. Then . show that det(cL) = cn det L. written tr L. lIV ) is a polynomial in l with degree n. Etc.285 2E..a .1 exists i the only solution ~ of L(~ ) = ~ is ~ = ~ .e.a a = e = . then cp is an eigenvalue of p . Therefore. so cp = 1. lIV ) = 0. b) Sq has q! members. Hint: Choose a basis B = (~1 b b Let Li j be the matrix of L relative to B . among the q!+1 permutations e two must be the same. (or use mathematical v v v v v v induction on p). 3E. That is.1 + + cn. Solutions to Extra Problems 1E.1)n and cn = det L.) c) (. a) For any c 2 R. b) Recall that L. c = 1. det(L . 2 3 q! . L(~i ) = Li j~j . i.

L(~ ) . Hence it is the value of det(L . lIV ) = 0. v v6 0 v 0 3E. Among these nonzero terms. lIV )(~i ) = L(~i ) . l l l = L(n) (n) . Each term is a product of n monomials in l. Then A (cL)(~1 ) a) Let A 2 nV . lIV ): But 9~ 2 V 3 ~ = ~ and (L . l i j . Therefore each term is a polynomial in l of degree n.a) is a sum of nn terms. whose leading coe cients are 0 or . Hence so is the sum of all n! terms. b) l is an eigenvalue of L . lIV )(~ ) = ~ . (De nition of eigenv v 0 v v value. of L . l (n) (n) "1 L1 1 . (L . it is det L. l i j )~j . lIV (~i) = Li j~j = l~i = (Li j . because fi1 ing = f1 ng. note that (*) in the solution 3E. * Therefore det(L . so the matrix b b b b b b of L . b and c) To nd c0 and c1 . It is (y) L1 1 . But A (cL)(~1 ) = det(cL)A(~1 b b b (cL)(~n)] = A cL(~1 ) b b cL(~n)] b ~n). of IV ) . = cnA L(~1 ) b L(~n )] = cn(det L)A(~1 b b b b b det(cL) = cn(det L). Therefore. a) (L . in each .e.) . of which n! have a nonzero factor "i1 in . l n L(n) (n) . l L2 2 . there must be at least two failures among i1 = 1. 9~ 2 V 3 ~ 6= ~ and L(~ ) = l~ . l : In all other nonzero terms. l l i1 ) (Ln in . i. lIV )(~ ) = ~ v 0 ( def. Let (~1 b b b (cL)(~n)] b ~n). one has i1 = 1. lIV (~ ) = ~ v v 0 ( def. lIV relative to B is Li j . lIV ) = (Ll i1 .286 2E. i2 = 2 in = n. This is a sum of n! terms. A 6= 0.. ~n) = B be a basis for V . b) cn is the value of the polynomial when l = 0. lIV ) when l = 0.1. det(L . i2 = 2 in = n. l n in )"i1 in . Since A(~1 ~n) 6= 0.

. so the total degree as a polynomial in l is n .1 + : Thus c0 = (.1)nln + (.l L1 1 + L2 2 + h i + L(n) (n) ln.1)n. all the terms in ln and ln. Therefore.1Li i.287 nonzero term in (*) except (y) above.1 in det(L . lIV ) come from (y). at least two factors have no l.1)n. 2.1)n and c1 = (. Hence tr L = Li i. But (y) is (.

288 .

1. ~ n) is the basis of V dual to (~1 u v ~n).. Exercise 4 If V is Euclidean vector space. I is not a dyad ). v Solutions 3. Then A(^ (1) x x (n) ) = ( sgn )A(^1 ^ x xn). Hence (^1 ^ x xn) and (^ (1) ^ x x (n) ) ^ have the same or opposite orientation according as sgn = +1 or .e. Show that B and B 0 are ^ ^ ^ oppositely oriented.Set Two Exercise 3 Let (^1 x2 x ^ xn) = B be an ordered orthonormal basis for Euclidean space V . Let 2 Sn. Let ^ B 0 = (^2 x1 x3 x ^ ^ xn) (i. 289 . if dim V b) Prove that if n = dim V then (~ 1 u 2. the \identity tensor" on V is de ned to be that I 2 V V such that for any ~ ~ 2 V xy I (~ ~) = ~ ~: xy x y Suppose that ~ 1 u ~ n . just interchange x1 and x2 ). (Hence. ~1 u v ~n are xed vectors in V such that v n X I = ~ i~i : uv i=1 a) Prove that n dim V . Let A be one of the two unimodular alternating tensors over V .

with over V (that is. ~ ~ i ~ i = 0: x y y v u ~ = ~ ~i ~ i y y v u for any ~ 2 V: y (23) (24) (25) Thus For any xed ~ 2 V . using v b b b b b b b only the dot and cross products. Let (~ 1 u u ~ n) be u its dual basis. not A. Let A be any nonzero alternating tensor ~n) be an ordered basis for V . Write I = ~ i~ i. Choose xed j k 2 f1 ng and set ~ = ~ j . When n = 3.290 4. ~ = ~ k in (23). Let 4 = A(~1 ~n). v u Exercise 5 Let V be an n-dimensional Euclidean space. namely (~ 1 u ~ n). or y x y y v u 0 a) (25) shows that f~ 1 u ~ ng spans V . For each i 2 f1 ng de ne dual basis (~1 b b b b ~ i = 1 (. (24) is true for all ~ 2 V . A 2 nV and A 6= 0).1Ahn . 4 1 i n . then (~ 1 u ~ n) is an ordered basis for V .1)i. Let (~1 b b ~n). Change notation so as to use our restricted summation convention. u b) If n = dim V . Since (~ 1 u u ~ n) is a u basis for V . Hence. (~ ~ i)~ i = ~ . 1i ~ 6~b ~ : v b b Show that ~ i = ~i . Hence u ~ i = ~ i. there is exactly one such dual sequence. uv Then for any ~ ~ 2 V we have xy h i ~ ~ = I(~ ~) = (~ i ~ )(~ i ~) = ~ ~ i ~ i ~ : x y xy u x v y x u v y h i ~ ~ . x u y u Then ~ j ~ k = ~ i ~ j ~i ~ k u u u u v u or j k = i j ~i ~ k = ~j ~ k: v u v u Thus (~ 1 v ~ n) is a sequence dual to (~ 1 v u ~ n). Thus ~ . express (~1 ~2 ~3 ) explicitly in terms of (~1 ~2 ~3 ). n dim V .

its dual basis being (~1 Let (~1 b b b Let L 2 L(V ! V ). 1i ~1 6~bi ~n b ~ b b b 4 i. Suppose K 2 L(V ! V ) is antisymmetric.1 ~j Ahn . Hint: Let l(v) be ^^ the eigenvalues of L. a) Show that there are unique mappings S .1) A ~j ~1 b b b b b 4 .] Solutions 5. Show that ~ = 2 Ah2i K and that K = ~ A.291 Exercise 6 Suppose L 2 L(V ! V ).K ) and L = S +K . b If L is symmetric.2) and page D-9. show that V has an orthonormal basis x1 ^ xn with the property ^ $ Pn that there are real numbers l1 ln such that L= v=1 l(v) xv xv . Show that there is a unique vector $ $ $ ~ 2 V such that K = A ~ .a) We show that ~j v i = j i. See page D-27. We have ~j v i = 1 (. b $ b b b b a) Show that L= ~i L(~i) = ~iL(~i ).K . and then appeal to the fact that the dual sequence of an b ~ ordered basis is unique. Hint: Take k k k 1 k components relative to a positively-oriented ordered orthonormal basis. (Hint: then LT = S .1. ~n).1)i.1 ~i. Use (3. K 2 L(V ! V ) such that S is symmetric (S T = S ) K is antisymmetric (K T = .] Exercise 7 ~n) be a basis for Euclidean vector space V .) b) Suppose dim V = 3 and A is one of the two unimodular alternating tensors over V .1 ~i+1 ~n : = (.

b) When n = 3.b) Uniqueness: Suppose K = A ~ . LT ). Multiply by ~i and sum over i to get ~i L(~i ) = ~i ~i L] = (~i~i ) L b b b b b bb bb $ $ $ = I V L=L. and L = S + K . so (~1 b b b b b ~ j v i = 1 A ~1 ~i. K so S = 1=2(L + LT ) and K = 1=2(L . 2 Kji = Kij : 2 $ $ Hence. Existence: de ne S = 1=2(L + LT ) and K = 1=2(L . de ne ~ = 1=2Ah2i K . so A(~1 b b b b b b b ~ ~i. 4 = A(~1 ~2 ~3) = ~1 Ah2i(~2~3 ) = ~1 (~2 ~3 ). Also Kij = "ijk kk = kk "kij so K = ~ A. k k $ $ $ 7.292 ~i. If If j 6= i. K = A ~ .1 ~i+1 ~n) into It takes i . then A(~1 b 5. 1 ~1 ~3 = 1 ~3 ~1 4 4b b 4b b 1 1b b = 4 Ah2i(~1~2 ) = 4~1 ~2 : bb ~2 b ~3 b 6. and b b b b bb b b b ~ 1 = 1 Ah2i(~ ~ ) = 1 ~ ~ b bb b b 2 3 4 42 3 bb = . so k $ 2~ = Ah2i K .1 ~j ~i+1 ~n) = 0 and ~j v i = 0. 2~ =K h2iA. Thus. ~j appears twice.K .K then LT = S . k $ $ Existence: Given K antisymmetric. By viewing ~i as the original and ~i as the dual basis. 1 interchanges to change (~j ~1 b b b b b ~i. b b b b b ~ QED. Also 2kl = "lij Kij . $ 6. one then also b b $ nds ~iL(~i ) =L. 1 Ah2i(~2~3 ) = . j = i. Then S T = S . so ~j v i = 1.a) ~i L= L(~i ). b b . LT ). i m j l Klm 2 1 = 1 Kij .1 ~j ~i+1 ~n : b ~ 4 b b b b b ~i.1 ~i ~i+1 ~n) is 4. K T = . and each changes the sign of A. Relative to any pooob we have Kij = "ijkkk so k $ Kij "ijl = "ijl"ijk kk = 2 l k kk = 2kl .1 ~j ~i+1 ~n).a) Uniqueness: If L = S + K with S = S T and K T = . We have relative to k any pooob 1 A ~ ij = "ijk kk = 2 "klmKlm k = 1 i l j m .

it is possible to have A 2 a V .293 7. C 2 cV and E 2 l V which violate (26). d. b. so U it has a dual basis (~1 b b ~b ~b ~b b ~b b u i(~i ~j ) = v i(~i ~j ). ub vb u v 5E. so u i i j = v i i j .) 6E. e are non-negative integers. c. d. so in space under V 's dot product. c. show that ~ . That is. there are numbers l1 ln 2 R such that L(^1 ) = l1 x1 x ^ L(^n ) = x lnxn. Show that ~ i~i = ~ i~i implies ~ i = ~ i. Then U is a subspace of V and hence a Euclidean vector 4E. c. Suppose f~1 b b dim V m < dim V is possible!). d. We want to study whether it is true that Ahbi (C hdiE ) = (AhbiC ) hdiE: i) Using p 54 of the notes. Suppose A 2 a V . e violate the conditions found in i). v ~ u v ~ Solutions to Extra Problems ~m g. (26) ii) If dim V 2. E 2 eV . ~ . If u i~i = v i~i then (u i~i ) ~j = (v i~i ) ~j . b. Also. show that whenever a. In oriented Euclidean 3-space (V A). By 7a) ^ n n n X X $ X x^ = xv L(^v ) = xv (lv xv ) = lv (^v xv ) : ^ x ^ ^ L v=1 v=1 v=1 Extra problems ~m g is a linearly independent subset of Euclidean space V (so m 4E. (Hint: use polyads. w can be chosen so that ~ u v ~ u (~ w) 6= (~ ~ ) w. Then u j = ~ j . Let U = spf~1 b b ~m) is an ordered basis for U . b. C 2 cV . e which imply (26). (~1 b b ~m). ~ b b ~ b b ~ ~ ~ v QED.b) From page D-27. Suppose V is a Euclidean vector space and a. . Let (~ 1 u ~ m) and (~ 1 u v ~ m) be any m-tuples v of vectors in V . V has an orthonormal basis x1 ^ xn consisting of eigenvectors ^ of L. nd conditions on a.

If Ahbi(C hdiE ) is de ned we must have a b. e d. d c.294 a A p q b c C q r s s d E A e t Figure Ex-1: Exercise 5E. C = ~ 1 ~ c. ~1 ~e 2 V and let A = ~ 1 ~ a . The conditions that p q r s t a b c d e 0 reduce to 0 b a 0 d e b + d c: 5E. If (AhbiC )hdiE is de ned we must have d e and hki(AhbiC ) d. is it possible to violate the inequalities in i) in such a way that Ahbi(C hdiE ) and (AhbiC )hdiE are both de ned. b. b + 2d c + e and 2b + d a + c. If both triple products are de ned we must have b a. Then we have gure Ex-5ii And AhbiC = (~ a. A product P hqiR is de ned only if hki(P ) q and hki(R) q.b+1 ~ 1) (~ a " " . or a + c . etc. q = b. b. hki(C hdiE ) = c + e . s = d. b c. d. Thus hki(A) = a.ii) The question is. t = e . e = s + t. and also b a. r = c . Let hki(P ) = order of tensor P . solving for p q r s t gives p = a . 2b d. b . d. " " E = ~1 ~e.i 5E. c = q + r + s. hki(AhbiC ) = a + c . b = q. d = s. d e.i) The picture that makes (26) work is in gure Ex-1 There must be p q r s t 0 such that a = p + q. The only way i) can fail if all these hold is to have b + d > c. ~ 1 ~ c. Choose ~ 1 ~ a . 2d b and c d. b c.

b~b+2d. ~ .d ~c.d+1 ~1) (~ c ~d )~ 1 ~ a. " By choosing them linearly independent we have (AhbiC )hdiE 6= Ahbi(C hdiE ).d+1 ~1) " (~ a.d+1 ~d+1) (~ a ~b+2d.c) (~ c.d)(~ a.c) (~ b+1 ~d+b. and this equation will be violated. 2b . ~ so the dot products are 6= 0. " Choose all ~ .b and ~2d+b. with ~ = ~ + w.d~d+1 ~e and Ahbi(C hdiE ) = " " " " " (~ a. Now a .dn ~1) (~ c ~d)~ 1 ~ c. 6E.ii ~ b)~ 1 ~ a. v u ~ .b~ b+1 ~ c (AhbiC )hdiE = (~ a. so " (AhbiC )hdiE = Ahbi(C hdiE ) implies that ~ a.c+1) (~ c ~d) ~ 1 ~ a+c.d ~d+1 ~e.b+1 ~ 1) (~ a ~ b)(~ a+c.b+c. d. (~ ~ )w u v ~ u ~v u v~ (~ ~ ) w = w (~ ~ ) = (w ~ )~ .2b.b+1 ~ 1) (~ a. (w ~ )~ : u v ~ ~ v u ~ uv ~ vu u v~ v ~u u ~ These are equal i (~ ~ )w = (~ w)~ . Choose ~ and w mutually ? and of unit length.2b.b ~d+b.c are linearly dependent.295 a A b C c d E e Figure Ex-2: Figure Ex-5.c+1 ~e. " " " " " Similarly C hdiE = (~ c. ~ (~ w) = (~ w)~ . b > a + c .b+c.

h h 0 Exercise 8 Exercise 9 Suppose that Df and Dg are open subsets of Euclidean vector spaces U and V respectively. D is an open subset of U . $ $ $ ~ u h h f ~ + ~ = T ~ + ~ =T ~ + T ~ u h u . Do so by nding rf (~ ). f : D ! U u u u u u ~~u ~ u and g : D ! R are di erentiable. Let T 2 U U . (U A) is an oriented real three-dimensional Eu~ clidean space. Suppose there ~ is a ~ 2 Df where f is di erentiable and that ~ is di erentiable at ~ = f (~ ).] Solutions 8a. and the remainder functions. u ~g i) Which proposition in the notes shows that f ~ : D ! U V is di erentiable at ~ ? u ii) Show that at ~ u ~ r ~g ~ ~ g ~ ~g f ~ = r f ~ . f r~ : Note: In this equation. Let D be an open subset of U . For ~u $ u ~ each ~ 2 U .296 $ Let U be a Euclidean vector space. Show that u g v ~u dim U = dim V . De ne it in the obvious way and then prove the equation. let f (~ ) =T ~ and g(~ ) = ~ ~ . rg(~ ). ~ g Suppose that f : Df ! Dg and ~ : Dg ! Df are inverse to one another. one of the expressions is unde ned. and by showing that R(~ ) ! 0 as ~ ! ~ . Show that at every ~ 2 D. and f : D ! U and ~ : D ! V are both g di erentiable at ~ 2 D.] Exercise 10 Suppose V is a Euclidean vector space. Hint: See page 108.

R(~ ) ! 0 because ~ ! ~ u h h h h h 0 means ~ ! 0. By preliminary exercise 3. ~3 for U and ~1 b b b h~ r ~g ii f~ l = = = = = = ~g Aijk @j f ~ kl = Aijk @j (fk gl) Aijk (@j fk ) gl + fk @j gl ] ~ ~ r f i gl .24. f r~ i l : QED: g ~ ~g . Since they are linear. dim U = dim V . f r~ il g h ~ ~ i r f ~ . h $ ~ $ $ $ $ ~~ $ $ $ 9. De ne P = rf (~ ) and Q= r~ (~ ). Then. ~1 10.4. As ~ ! 0. h 8b. by 7. P Q= I U and Q P = I V .i) Method 1 on page 105 or method 2 on page 107. By example 9. the linear mappings P : U ! V and Q : V ! U satisfy Q P = IU and P Q = IV . g ~ +~ = ~ +~ ~ +~ u h u h u h = ~ ~ + 2~ ~ + ~ u u h u h = g (~ ) + ~ 2~ ] + u h u ~ h ~ ~ : h h ~ u Therefore rg(~ ) = 2~ . Aikj fk @j gl h ~ ~ ii ~g r f ~ l .2.20. Aijk fj r~ kl g h ~ ~ ii ~ ~g r f ~ l . they are isomorphisms of U to V and V to U . and R(~ ) = ~ . 1g $ $ $ 10.ii) For ~ 2 U and P 2 U V we de ne ~ P := Ah2i ~ P . Then u basis ~1 .297 ~ u h $T = f (~ ) + ~ T : ~ ~ u $T ~h 0 Therefore rf (~ ) =T and R(~ ) = ~ for all ~ . relative to any u u u $ ~n for V . applied to f ^ : D ! U R1 and ^~ : D ! R1 V . P and Q are bijections. we have (~ P )i l = Aijk j Pkl . ~2 . By iii) on page D-6. u gv Therefore.

for any M and N . i. Show that for any ~ 2 V . v v x x v x v xv x ii) Construct a sequence ~1 ~2 in V such that limn!1 ~ ~n = 0 for every ~ 2 V .30. V has two di erent de nitions. Let T 2 U U . and nd rf (~ ). v v i) Suppose limn!1 ~n = ~0 . D is empty and i) and ii) are trivial. leading to Frechet and Gateau derivation respectively based on norms and on components). de ne a~ + b~ = y x y 1 2 n=1 n x y (ax1 + by1 ax2 + by2 ). If ~ = (y y ) is also in V and a b 2 R. u 8E. Furthermore. Schwarz's inequality implies j PN=m xn ynj n PN x2 )1=2 (PN y2 )1=2 . de ne limn!1 ~n = ~0 by the obvious v v v extension of de nition 9. limn!1 k~0 . Let V be the set of all in nite sequences of real numbers. such that x P1 x2 converges. v v but limn!1 ~n does not exist. Let U be a Euclidean vector space. ~ = (x1 x2 ). u u u u u u i) Show that D is open.] V is a real ( n=1 n n=1 n x y dot-product space but not a Euclidean space. De ne $ g(~ ) = ~ T ~ . so Schwarz's inequality works in V . If T = 0 . u u u . ~ u ii) Show that f : D ! R is di erentiable at every point ~ 2 D. j~ ~j2 = j lim PN x y j2 = lim < ( n=m n xy N !1 n=1 n n N !1 n=m n PN x2 )(Pn y2 ) = k~ k2k~k2. v (For di erentiability. If ~ 2 D. because it is not nite dimensional.1. Let D be the set of all ~ 2 U u $ $ such that ~ T ~ > 0. Therefore assume k T k > 0.e.298 Extra Problems $ 7E. The sum converges by the n=1 Cauchy test because. limn!1 ~ ~n = ~ ~0 . ~n k = 0. Solutions $ $ $ 7E. De ne ~ ~ = P1 xnyn. de ne f (~ ) = ln(~ T ~ ). v v If ~0 ~1 ~2 is a sequence of vectors in V .

~0 )j k~ kk~n . all 0 except for a 1 in the n'th place. ~ + ~ . u ~ u ~ u and its gradient is @v f (v)rg(~ ) where v = g(~ ). If k~ k < " then jg(~ + ~ ) . ~ k = 1. f g is di erentiable. This is v. Thus g is di erentiable at ~ . Hence g(~ + ~ ) . v v v v v v v v v v v v Exercise 11 A mass distribution m occupies a subset D of ordinary Euclidean 3-space U . g(~ + ~ ) = g(~ ) + ~ (T + T ) ~ + k~ kR(~ ) where R(~ ) = u h u h u h h h $~ ~ (~ T h)=khk for ~ 6= ~ and = ~ for ~ = ~ . so u $ $T u T +T ~ $ ~ ln ~ T ~ (~ ) = : r u u u $ ~ T ~ u u 8E. By the chain rule. Hence D is open. ~0 k ! 0 x v x v x v v x v v if k~n . Therefore.1rg(~ ). ~n k = k~m . by the triangle and u h u h u u h h generalized Schwarz inequalities. n > N v v v p then k~m . g(~ ) > . v v 8E. But if k~n . with f (v) = lnv. x ~ ~n = xn ! 0 as n ! 1 because P1 x2 converges. Let " be the smaller of k~ k and u u u 0 u $ $ g(~ )=(3k~ kk T k).299 $ $ $ i) g(~ + ~ ) . ~0 k ! 0. g(~ )j < "k T k(2k~ k + k~ k) u u h u h u u h $ u u u h u u u h < 3"k T kk~ k g(~ ). ~ k ! 0 for some x v v v 1 n ~ 2 V then there is an N so large that if n > N then k~n .g(~ ). Then ~ 6= ~ . ~n k = 2. u $ $T ii) By i) above. ~ k < 1=2. ~ ~0 )j = j~ (~n . If m. ~n k k~m . g(~ ) = ~ T ~ + ~ T ~ T ~ . Let n be any ^ unit vector in U and denote by nR the straight line through U 's origin ~ in the direction ^ 0 . i) j(~ ~n . ~ k + k~n . ii) Let ~n = (0 v 0 1 0 ). so g(~ + ~ ) > 0. $ g ~ + ~ . g (~ ) k~ kk T k 2k~ k + k~ k : u h u h u h Assume ~ 2 D so g(~ ) > 0. That $ is. if ~ 2 D and " = smaller of ~ and g(~ )=(3k~ kk T k) then the open ball u u u u B (~ ") D. If ~ 2 V . But k~m . with h h 0 0 h 0 u $ $T ~ u rg(~ ) = (T + T ) ~ .

so that the mass at position ~ has velocity ~ (~) = ~ r. The ^ r vr ~ R angular momentum of the mass distribution about ~ is de ned as L = D dm(~) ~ ~ (~)]. r rr $ a) Show that J is symmetric. where and the kinetic energy of the mass distribution is de ned as K = 1=2 D r r v2 means ~ ~ . suppose the mass distribution rotates rigidly about the axis nR with ^ angular velocity ~ = n.~~. n Exercise 13 $ The second moment tensor of the mass distribution in problem 11 is de ned as M = R dm(~) ~ ~. The tensor J = D dm(~) T (~) is called the inertia r r $ R $ tensor of the mass distribution. $ b) Show that J (^) = n J n. 0 r r vr R dm(~)v(~)2. Show the following: v v ~ $ a) L =J ~ $ b) K = 1=2 ~ J ~ ~ c) L need not be J (^ )~ . n ^ ^ $ c) Show that to calculate J it is necessary to calculate only six particular integrals of real-valued functions on D with respect to the mass distribution m. n r ~r $ $ $ De ne T : D ! U U by requiring for each ~ 2 D that T (~) = r2 I U .300 of n.~~ ]. and is usually written J = D dm(~) r2 I U . r rr D . Here r2 = ~ ~ r r rr rr $ $ R $ and I U is the identity tensor in U U . so that ^ ~ r r ^ R the moment of inertia of the mass distribution about that axis is J (^) = D dm(~)w(~)2. Let w (~) be the perpendicular distance of the point ~ from the axis nR.) Exercise 12 In problem 11. (Once these six functions are calculated. the moment of inertia of the body about any axis is found from 11b.

301 $ R a) Show that tr M = D dm(~)r2. side 2a and center at ~ . d) If the mass distribution is a cube of uniform density . y3 be an orthonormal basis for physical space P . r r so Z Z Z $ $ $ (12) dm(~ ) T (~ ) = dm(~) (12) T (~ ) = dm(~ ) T (~ ): r r r r r r D D D Solutions . tr M and I U . tr J and I U . write ~ = riyi. y2. r a) Find the Lagrangian description of this motion. Consider a steady uid motion whose Eulerian description ~ E r r ^ v is given by ~ E (~ t) = r1y1 + c r2y2 = ~ (^1y1 + cy2y2) v r ^ ^ r y^ ^^ for all ~ 2 P and all t 2 R. For ^ ^ ^ any ~ 2 P .1 and straight lines if c = +1.) a d) Find the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of the particle acceleration ~ . (J can be observed by noting the reaction $ R r of the mass distribution to torques. n ^ Exercise 14 Let y1. $ $ 11 a) The permutation operator (12): P P ! P P is linear. using t0-position labels. c) Find the label function ~ E : P R ! P . b) Show that the paths of the individual particles lie in planes r3 = constant. and (12) T (~) =T (~). (It will depend on which xed t0 is used to x establish t0-position labels. Let c be a xed scalar. nd 0 J (^) when nR is the axis through one of the corners of the cube. r $ $ $ $ b) Express J in terms of M . Then 13c) gives M and 13a) gives D dm(~)r2 from such observations). and are hyperbolas if c = . $ $ $ $ $ c) Express M in terms of J .

~ ~ n: ^ rr ^ h i dm(~)^ r2IP . ~ ~ n rn rr ^ (27) D Z $ $ rr ^ ^ ^ (28) = n ^ dm (~) r2 I P . (^ ~ )2 n r $ = r2 n I P n . rirj : r J (^) = n D Hence Z 12 a) ~ L = h i dm (~) ~ ~ . x1 . Figure Ex-3: b) e r w (~ )2 = r2 . Jij = Jji.~ ~ ~ r rr D Z $ $ = dm (~ ) r2 I P . x2 . ^ n r ^ n w( r ) ~ . Then J = Jij xi xj and since J =J . Thus J is ^ ^ ^ ^^ known if we know J11.302 . ~ ~ ~ r r r r D ZD $ = dm (~ ) r2 I P .~ ~ n = n J n: r D $ $T $ $ c) Choose a pooob. J33 .~~ ~ =J ~ : r rr dm (~) ~ r r ~ = r D Z h~ i Z . J22. J31 relative to one pooob. J23. x3 . But Z h i Jij = dm (^) r2 ij . J12 . n rr n ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ $ = n r2 I P . r .

tr M = 2 tr M : $ $ $ $ $ $ Hence. ^ 13 a) tr : P P ! R is linear.~ ~ n rr ^ = m r2n . (^ ~ )2 n: n ^ ^ ^ h i ~ If L = J (^)~ then r2 . tr M = 3 tr M . D dm (~) ~ ~ r rr r r rr $ $ $ $ J = I P tr M . D dm (~) r2: r D D . M : c) From the above equation. since tr : P P ! R is linear.~~ ~ r rr 2 D 1~ $ ~ : 2 J c) Let the mass distribution consist of a single mass point m at position ~. ~ (~ n) ^ r r ^ h i $ n r ^ J (^ ) ~ = n J n n = m r2 .~ ~ $ $ ~ L = J ~ = m r2 I P . ~ ~ ~ i r r r 2 ZD 1 dm (~) ~ r2 $ . $ $ $ $ $ $ $ tr J = tr I P tr M . ~(~ n). tr M = 1=2 tr J and M = 1=2 I P (tr J ). J .303 b) K = = = = = = 1 Z dm (~ ) ~ ~ ~ ~ r r r 2 ZD 1 dm (~) h~ ~ ~ i r r r 2 ZD 1 dm (~ ) ~ hr2 ~ . To violate n n r n ^ rr ^ r ^ ^ r ^r r this condition choose n so it is neither parallel nor perpendicular to ~. (^ ~)2 ]^ = r2n . Then r $ $ rr J = m r2 I P .~ ~ ~ IP rr 2 D Z r $ 1~ dm (~) r2 I P .~ ~ = D dm (~) r2] I P . so Z Z $ tr M = tr dm (~) ~ ~ = dm (~) tr ~~ r rr r rr = Z $ R $ $ R R b) J = dm(~) r2 I P . so (~ n)2 n = (~ n)~.

(t.t0 ) + y3y3 : x r r ^^ ^^ ^^ .a Ra Thus Mij = 0 if i 6= j and M11 = M22 = M33 = 4a2 . n J n = 16a5 =3. Thus ( ) r1 = x1 e(t. Then ^ ^ ^ dx1 dx2 dx3 xixj Za Za = dx1 dx2 dx3 xi xj : .304 d) Let x1 .t0 ) + y3y3 : r ^^ ^^ ^^ h i ~ E (~ t) = ~ y1y1 e.a x2 = 8a5 =3.t0 ) + y2y2 e.t0 ) + y3y3 : x ^^ ^^ ^^ h i ~ L (~ t) = ~ y1y1e(t.c(t.t0 ) . Therefore $ $ $ M = 8a5 =3 I P and tr M = 8a5 so from ( ) above $ 16a5 $ J= 3 I P : $ Then for any n. For x ^ this particle when t = t0 .c(t.1)(t.t0 ) r2 = A2 ec(t. so xi = Ai. And r2=r1 = e(c.t0 ) r3 = x3 : ~ = riyi = e(t. x3 = r3.t0 )y1 + r2e. which is a hyperbola.t0 ) x2 y2 + x3 y3 r ^ ^ ^ ^ i h = ~ y1y1e(t.a .t0 ) + y2y2ec(t.t0 ) x1 y1 + ec(t.c(t.t0 ) r2 = x2 ec(t. And for a particular particle.t0 ) + y2y2ec(t. x2 .1. r1r2 = x1 x2 e(1+c)(t. so ~ = xi yi = r1 e. ^ c) From ( ) above.c(t.t0 ) + y3y3 : r x x ^^ ^^ ^^ b) y3 ~ is independent of time for each particle. so each particle lies in a plane y3 ~ = ^ r ^ r constant.(t. ^ ^ ^ cube Za Mij = Z 14 a) dr1 = r1 dr2 = cr2 dr3 = 0 so dt dt dt 1 = A1 e(t.t0 ) .(t.t0 ) + y2y2 e.t0 ) x2=x1 = x2 =x1 .t0 ) r3 = A3 : r The label ~ = xi yi belongs to the particle which was at that position at t = t0.(t. x2 = r22e. if c = +1.a .t0 ) = x1 x2 if c = .t0 ) + r3y3 x ^ ^ ^ h i = ~ y1y1e. x1 = r1e. Then this is a straight line through the y3 axis. x3 be a pooob parallel to the edges of the cube. ri = xi .

t0 ) + y2y2 e.t0 ) a x r x x ^^ ^^ h i ~ E (~ t) = ~ E (~ t) y1y1 e(t.t0 ) + y2y2 ec(t.t0 ) ^^ ^^ h i = ~ y1y1 + c2y2y2 : r ^^ ^^ Another way to get the same result is to observe that ~ E (~ t) = ~ (^1y1 + c y2y2) v r r y^ ^^ ~v r has no explicit t dependence. But v ~v r r y^ ^^ ~ E (~ t) = a r = = Dt~ E (~ t) v r @t~ E (~ t) + ~ E @~ E (~ t) v r v ~v r ~ + ~ y1y1 + c2y2y2 : 0 r ^^ ^^ Exercise 15 a) Given a continuum and a function f : R ! W which depends on t alone (W is a Euclidean vector space). and the angular velocity relative to the pivot particle is ~ (t). velocity and ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ acceleration of the pivot particle are R(t). and show that (Dtf )L(t) = (@t f )E (t) = t f (t). V (t) = t R(t) and A(t) = t V (t). At time t the position. .t0 ) a r x r ^^ ^^ h i ~ E (~ t) = ~ y1y1 e.t0 ) + y3y3 a r r ^^ ^^ ^^ h i y1y1 e(t. b) A continuum undergoes rigid body motion.t0 ) + c2y2y2 ec(t. so v r 0 ^^ ^^ ~ E @~ E (~ t) = ~ (^1y1 + c2 y2y2).t0 ) + c2 y2y2 ec(t.(t. Also @~ E (~ t) = y1y1 + c y2y2.305 d) h i ~ L (~ t) = Dt2 ~ L (~ t) = ~ y1y1 e(t. Find the Eulerian description of particle acceleration in the material. so @t~ E (~ t) = ~ .c(t. invent a physical quantity which can reasonably be called f .

1. Since @ f = 0. Dtf = @t f + ~ @ f = @t f .12) and (13.17). before the big bang was accepted. a) Let K 0 be an open set in the region occupied by the material. 0 Hint 1: Do all calculations relative to an orthonormal basis in P . 0 r Solutions 15 a) The physical quantity has as its Lagrangian description f L(~ t) = f (t). Then mass is not quite conserved. Then its x ~~ Eulerian description is f E (~ t) = f (t). 4P . Make the necessary changes in the derivation of the Eulerian form of the law of conservation of mass and in equations (13. Show that the total force F and the total torque L about ~ exerted on K 0 by the stress on @K 0 are the same as those exerted by a ctitious 0 ~ $ body force with density @ S newtons / m3 acting in K 0. the solid ball of radius c centered on ~ . R Hint 2: Use the symmetry of B (~ c) to evaluate B dV (~)rirj . and suppose its boundary ~ ~ @K 0 is piecewise smooth. and (12)S (2) = S (2) . S . and S . and that at position ~ at time t new matter is being created at the rate of E (~ t) kilograms r r per cubic meter per second. are constant tensors in r rr P P .1. r v ~~ . Fred Hoyle suggested that the expanding universe be explained by the continuous creation of matter. Exercise 17 $ At time t0 in a certain material. Suppose that a certain region of space is occupied by a continuum. and calculate F and L of a) for K 0 = B (~ c).306 Exercise 16 Several decades ago. 3 P . S . Neglect all terms except those involving $(0) $(1) $(2) ~ ~ 0 S . the Cauchy stress tensor S is symmetric. S . $ $ $(0) 0 r b) Write the Taylor series expansion of S about ~ in physical space P as S (~) =S $(0) $(1) $(2) +~ S (1) + 1=2(~ ~)h2iS (2) + where S .

R r ~ i M K 0 (t)] = Z K 0 (t) dVP (~) E (~ t): r r It is a mathematical identity (derivative over moving volume) that d M K 0(t)] = Z dV @ E + Z dApnp ~ E ^ v P t dt K 0 (t) @K 0 (t) Z h ~ v iE r = 0 dVp @t + @ ( ~ ) (~ t) : K (t) E Hoyle's new physical law is that d M K 0(t)] = Z dV E (~ t): r p dt K 0(t) h iE ~ v dVp @t + @ ( ~ ) . R + ~ ~ v a v v ~v r ~ h ~ i $ $ $ ~ ~ E (~ t) = A(t) + ~ . R : r ~ h E ~ (Dt~ )E = ~ E = @t~ + ~ @~ = A + @t ~ ~ . V (t) + ~ . R(t) r (t): ~v $ @~ E = so h i $ ~ ~ E @~ E = ~ E = ~ ~ E = ~ V + ~ ~ ~ . (~ t) = 0: r K 0 (t) Since this is true for every open set K 0 (t) with piecewise smooth boundary. R @t v ~ ~ = A . ~ V + @t ~ ~ . R v ~v v v r ~ h i $ ~ ~ $ r ~ @t~ E = A(t) .307 b) h ~ i ~ ~ E (~ t) = V (t) + ~ (t) ~ . R(t) v r r h ~ i $ ~ = V (t) + ~ . R(t) @t + a r r : 16. the vanishing integral theorem gives ~ v @t + @ ( ~ ) = : Therefore Z . The amount of mass in K 0(t) is ~.

"ikj K 0 dV (rj @l Slk + jl Slk ) Z "ijk 0 dV (rj @l Slk + Sjk ) Z K $ dV ~ @ S : r ~ K0 i Z b) (2) (0) (1) Sij = Sij + rk Skij + 1 rk rl Sklij 2 (1) + 1 k rl + l rk S (2) @i Sij = Siij 2 i i klij (2) (2) (1) = Siij + 1 rl Silij + rk Skiij 2 (1) + rk S (2) = v + rk w @i Sij = Siij j kj kiij ( de nes vj and wkj ): . d Z dV f ~ dt K 0(t) P E = = = = = h ~ ~ dVP (@t ) f + @t f 0 KZ(t) h iE + 0 dAP n ~ f ^ v ~ Z K (t) h ~ ~ dVP (@t ) f + @t f K 0 (t) Z n ~ ~ dVP (@t ) f + @t f K 0 (t) Z n ~ dVP @t f + ~ @t f v ~ K 0 (t) Z h ~ ~ iE dVP Dt f + f 0 K (t) Z iE ~ +@ ~f v~ iE i oE i oE ~ v ~ v ~ + @ ( ~) f + ~ @f ~ v ~ + @t + @ ( ~ ) f h h 17 a) $ Z ~ $ dAn S = 0 dV @ S ^ @K 0 K Z Z $ $ dA~ n S = .308 ~ Then for any other physical quantity f ."ikl K 0 dV (rl @j Sjk + jl Sjk ) Z . = = = = Z i Z ~ $ r dV @ S ~ = . 0 dA~ S ~ r ^ n r @K 0 K i = . 0 dV @j (Sjk rl "kli) K0Z K i .

the antisymmetric part $ of S . ^ ^ ^ ~ A permanent alnico magnet has magnetization density M = M y1 where M = 106 ^ amp/meter (close to the upper limit for permanent magnets). Then the volume torque on the magnet is m = M B ~ ~ ~ l joules /meter3 . The magnet is held at ~ rest in a uniform magnetic eld B = B y2 with B = 1 tesla (about the upper limit for ^ commercial electromagnets). Find 1=2(S . sketch .50. The density of dysprosium is 8:54gm=cm3. vanishes. Let S be $ $T the Cauchy stress tensor in the magnet. Compute the angular momentum of a stationary ball of solid dysprosium with radius r cm if all the dysprosium atoms are aligned in the same direction. and that its torque stress tensor M vanishes. If the symmetric part of S . y2. and its atomic weight is 162. in atmospheres of pressure (one atmosphere = 1:013 105 newtons/meter2 = $ $ $T 1:013 106 dynes /cm2 ). L = 4 =15 c5 j l jl i ijk jk ~ B Exercise 18 a) The angular momentum of a single dysprosium atom is 15h=4 where h is Planck's constant. Suppose that the magnet's intrinsic angular momentum density ~ $ $ does not change with time. how rapidly would the ball have to rotate as a rigid body in order to have the same angular momentum? b) Let y1. If the dysprosium atoms had no angular momentum.309 ~ $ @ S $ ~ @ S r ~ $ ~ @ S r ~ i Z $ ~ dV @ S B = ~ +~ w : v r $ = ~ ~ +~ r v r = = ~ F = ~ L = Z ~w r $ (~ ~ )i + "ijk rj rlwlk r v Z Z jB j~ + B dV ~ w: B dV ~ =$ so v r ~ r 0 4 c3~ = 4 c3 tr S (1) v 3 12 Z3 Z ~ $ Li = dV "ijk (rj vk + rj rl wlk ) : dV ~ @ S r B B dV rj = 0 and B Ah2itr23 S (2) . S ). R dV r r = 4 =15 c5 so L = 4 =15 c5 " w . y3 be a positively oriented ordered orthonormal basis for physical space P . 1=2(S + S ).

310
1 meter ^ n5 S5 ^ n4 S4 ^ x ^ z ^ y S1 S2 ^ n2 1 meter

^ n1

^ n3

S3

Figure Ex-4: the stresses acting on the surface of a small spherical ball of material in the magnet.

Exercise 19
~ a) Give the obvious de nition of the stu \y component of momentum". Give its ( F ), ~ its ( F ), and its creation rate . ~ b Show that in a material at rest with no body forces, the material ux density F of y ~ ~ ~ momentum satis es @ F = 0. (If F were the velocity of a uid, the uid would be incompressible.)
c) An aluminum casting 10 cm thick and 1 meter on each side is shaped as in gure Ex-4. A steel spring is compressed and placed between the jaws of the casting as shown. The spring and casting are at rest and gravity is to be neglected. Roughly sketch

311

~ the eld lines of F (the material ux density of y momentum) in the casting. (If ^ ~ ~ F were a force eld, the eld lines would be the lines of force if F were a velocity eld, they would be the streamlines.)
Hint for c): Estimate qualitatively the sign of the y component of the force exerted ^ by the aluminum just in front of (Si ni) on the aluminum just behind it for ^ the surfaces i = 1 2 3 4 5 sketched in the gure. Note for c): The x axis points out of the paper, the y axis is parallel to the axis of ^ ^ the spring, and the z axis points up, as shown in the gure. ^

Solutions
18 a) There are 6:025 1023=162:50 = 3:7 1021 atoms in a gram of Dysprosium. Each has angular momentum (15=4 )(6:625 10;27) erg sec. If all are aligned, one gram of Dy has angular momentum l = 2:932 10;5 erg sec/gm. A Dy ball of radius r cm has intrinsic angular momentum (4 =3) r3l. If this angular momentum were not intrinsic, but due to an angular velocity ! of rigid rotation, the angular momentum would be (2=5)r2(4 =3) r3!. Thus l = (2=5) r2!, or ! = (5=2) l=r2 = 7:33 10;5=r2 radians/sec, with r in cm. b)

~ 0 0 0 0

$ = m + Ah2i S so relative to the pooob y1 y2 y3 ~ ^ ^ ^
= mi + "ijk Sjk : Then = mi"ilm + "ilm"ijk Sjk = mi"ilm + (
lj mk ; lk mj ) Sjk

= mi"ilm + Slm ; Sml :

1 ( ) 1 (Slm ; Sml ) = ; 2 "lmimi : 2 In our problem, m = MB y3 so ~ ^ 1 (S ; S ) = ; 1 MB 2 12 21 2 1 (S ; S ) = 1 (S ; S ) = 0 and 2 13 31 2 23 32

312
m

. . . .
Figure Ex-5: 1 2 1 2

$ $T S;S $ $T S;S

$ $T = 1 S ; S yiyj so ^^ 2 ij = 1 MB (^2y1 ; y1y2) : y^ ^^ 2

1 MB = 106 joules/meter3 = 106 newtons/meter2 2 2 2 106 = 2 1:013 105 atm = 4:94 atmospheres: $ $ $ $T $ $T $ $T $ $ For any S , S = 1=2(S + S ) +1=2(S ; S ). If 1=2(S + S ) = 0, then S = 1=2(S T ~n ^ $ ; $ ). From (*), $= ;1=2 A m. The stress S (^ ) is n S = ;1=2^ A m so ~ n ~ S S Sj (^ ) = ;1=2ni"ijk mk = 1=2"jiknimk = 1=2(^ m)j . Thus n n ~ ~ n 1^ ~ S (^) = 2 n m: The stress is directed along lines of latitude about the north pole m, points west, ~ and has magnitude equal to the sine of the colatitude of n relative to m. ^ ~ 19 a) = ~ ~ v y =~ y v ^ $ ~ F = ~~ ; S y F = ; $ y vv ^ ~ S ^ $ $ ~ = Dt + @ ; S y = Dt~ ; @ S y = f y: ^ v ~ ^ ~ ^

313
^ n5 ^ n ^ z ^ y ^ x ^ n2 ^ n1

4

^ n3

Figure Ex-6:

~ ~ $ 0 ~ $ ^ ~ $ ^ b) If f = 0 and ~ = ~ then @ S = ~ so (@ S ) y = @ (S y) = 0. v 0

$ $ ~ c) F = ; S y. The double arrows show ni S on the ve surface sections. Then ^ ^ $ $ $ on S1 n1 F = y ; S y = ;y S y = ; n1 S y > 0 ^ ~ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ $ $ $ on S2 n2 F = ;z ; S y = ; ;z S y = ; n2 S y > 0 ^ ~ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
> 0 above $ $ on S3 n3 F = ;y ; S y = ; ;n3 S y ^ ~ ^ ^ ^ ^ < 0 below

$ $ on S4 n4 F = z ; S y = ; n4 S y > 0 ^ ~ ^ ^ ^ ^ $ $ on S5 n5 F = y ; S y = ; n5 S y > 0: ^ ~ ^ ^ ^ ^
Thus the ow lines are as in gure Ex-7.

314

Figure Ex-7:

Exercise 20
Geological evidence indicates that over the last 5 million years, the west side of the San Andreas fault has moved north relative to the east side at an average rate of about 6 cm/year. On a traverse across the fault, Brune, Henyey and Roy (1969) (J.G.R. 74, 3821) found no detectable extra geothermal heat ow due to the fault. They estimate that they would have detected any anomalous heat ow larger than 1:3 10;2 watts/meter2 . Use (13.7.45) to obtain an upper bound on the northward component of the average stress exerted by the material just west of the fault on the material just east of the fault. Assume that the fault extends vertically down from the surface to a depth D, and that the shape of the heat ow anomaly due to the fault is a tent function whose width is D on each side of the fault.

315

up

American Plate North Pacific Plate D east

San Andreas Fault

Extra heat flow due to fault, watts /m 2

.
D D

.

east

Figure Ex-8:

316

Solutions
20. We assume that the heat ow is steady. Since we are interested only in averages, we $ ~; may assume that S ]+ is constant on the fault, as is ^ H ]+ . D is probably < 20 km ; ~ (see Brune et al. 1969) so we may treat the fault as in nitely long. Then H lies in east-west vertical planes. Consider a length L along the fault. The amount of heat ~; produced by this section of the fault in LD ^ H ]+. It all ows out of the surface of the earth in a rectangle of length L along the fault and width 2D across the fault, the pro le being the triangular one sketched as the bottom gure in the exercise. The area under that triangle is Dh where h is the triangle's height, so the total heat ow ^; out in the length L and width 2D is LDh. This must equal LD ^ H ]+ in the steady ^; state. Thus h = ^ H ]+. Since no anomaly was detected, h 1:3 10;2w=m2. $ ^; Thus ^ H ]+ = ^ S ]+ ~ ]+ 1:3 10;2w=m2. Let x be a unit vector pointing ^ ; v; north, and let y = ^ point west. Then ~ ]+ = 6^ cm=yr = 6 10;2x meters/yr ^ v; x ^ = 2 10;9x meters/sec. The heat production must be positive, so ^ $+ 0 ^ S x 2 10;9 1:3 10;2 ^ ; or $+ 0 ^ S x 65 105 pascals. ^ ; The material just west of the fault exerts on the material just east of the fault, a $ $ stress ^ S ]+. The northward component of this stress is ^ S ]+ x, and it lies ; ; ^ between 0 and 65 bars (105 pascal ). $ See Brune et al., for a discussion of energy loss from ~ S ]+ ~ ]+ by seismic v ; v; radiation. This exercise works only for the parts of the fault where most energy is not radiated, i.e., the parts of the fault which creep.

Exercise 21
Below are the Eulerian descriptions of three motions of continua. In these descriptions, fx y z g is a right-handed orthonormal basis for physical space P , is a constnat real ^^^

Show that any two such functions ~ and ~ di er by the v v ~ velocity eld of a rigid motion that is. Let x1 . ~ a) ~ E (~ t) = ~ (^x . ~1(~) = V + ~ ~.317 number. and ~ is a constant vector. r v r v r ~ r 1 2 Hint for c) and d): Suppose gi : P ! R for i = 1 2 3. Let position vectors be written ~ = rixi . r Exercise 22 _ Let ~ . ~2(~) . r 0 . Also nd the local rotation rate tensor $. x2 x3 be a right-handed orthonormal ^ ^ ^ basis in physical space P . $ be the Eulerian descriptions of the velocity. For each motion. nd the local strain rate tensor $. d) Show that if $ is the function in c). and the local angular velocity w. ! its eigenvectors. c) Show that if $: P ! P P is any tensor-valued function of ~ such that everywhere r $: P ! P P can be found which satis es ij = ji and b) holds. $. You know from elementary vector calculus that there is a \potential function" f : P ! R such that gi = @if i Rr @i gj = @j gi everywhere and if this is so. ^ ^ ^ a) Show that @i !jk = @j ki . and its eigenvalues. yy) v r r x ^ ^^ ^ ^ b) ~ E (~ t) = ~ (^x) = yx v r r y^ ^ c) ~ E (~ t) = ~ v r ~.@j @k li +@k @l ij . Show that this function is unique up to an additive $ constant tensor which is antisymmetric. then f (~) = f (~ ) + 0~ drigi (line integral). there is a velocity function ~ : P ! P whose local v strain rate tensor is $. Take tensor components relative to x1 x2 x3. !ji and also a) above. Let @i denote the r ^ partial derivative with respect to ri.@l @i jk = 0.@k ij b) Show that @i @j kl . there are xed vectors ~ and V such that for all ~ 2 P . yy) = (xx . then a function ! !ij = . local strain rate tensor and local v _ ! rotation rate tensor in a certain continuum.

e. Exercise 24 Using the notation on page 260. W 0 B0. 21 a) Solutions ~v ~v @~ E = (^x . ).. U0 as a function of N and $ $ $ $ G. give the results of 23 a). N G and G G.) $ $ b) The tensor F 0. b) when HTES0 is isotropic. x y z ! 0 $= (^x . W 0 . yy) x ^ ^^ . $= 0 . $ $ $ $ a) Using only 0 .318 Exercise 23 Use the notation beginning on page 256 for discussing small disturbances of an HTES of an elastic material whose reference state is HTES0 . (^ . including the terms ( N )2 . B0. S 0. explicitly express U . (^ .0). so ~ = ~ . 0 . Q0. the tensor such that if = 0 then $ $ $ $0 S = G h2i F0 : $ $ $0 $ $ Express F0 in terms of F 0 . correct to second order (i. is called the isentropic or adiabatic sti ness tensor because if N = 0 (no change in entropy) then $ $ $ $ S = G h2i F : $ $ Find the isothermal sti ness tensor F00 . 0 . yy) = @~ E x ^ ^^ so T $ ! eigenvectors and eigenvalues being (^ ).

@~ E an eigenvector) 22. Then ! w= 2 Ah2i $= 1 2 (^ x . 1 z ~ 1 2 y ^ ^ ^ 2 ^ ~ E = Ah2i~ ~ = . . so $= 0 (so all eigenvalues are 0 and any vector is ~ v $ ~v Then @~ E = . x y) = . ~=~ : r r $ $ = . @k vj ) _ 2 _ ij = 1 (@ivj + @j vi ) 2 @k _ ij = 1 (@k @i vj + @k @j vi) 2 Replace (ijk) by (kij ) and this becomes @j _ ki = 1 (@j @k vi + @j @ivk ) : 2 @i !jk = 1 (@i @j vk . . @i @k vj ) : _ 2 Comparing these three equations gives a).319 b) T ~v @~ E = yx @~ E = xy ^^ ~ v ^^ $ = (^y + yx) $= (^x . a) T $=$ ~ = ~ : ! ! !jk = 1 (@j vk . ^+^ (^ 0) : z 2 2 2 2 $ c) Let = A ~ .~ A ~ v r r $ $ = . xy) ! 2 x ^ ^^ 2 y^ ^^ eigenvectors and eigenvalues of $ are ! ! xp y ^+ ^ xp y .

(y) @k ( _ ij + !ij ) = @i ( _ kj + !kj ) : _ _ But !ij was obtained by solving (*) on the preceding page. They insure that the line integral Z~ r ~ 0 drk (@i _ jk .. We want to try to solve _ r @i vj = _ ij + !ij : _ This will be possible. i ! j . @j _ ki) will be independent of path. by a). @l @j _ ik = 0: Now make the replacements j ! i. a) can be written () @k !ij = @i _ jk . which are exactly the integrability conditions for _ _ (*). Thus the solution of (*) exists. @i @k _ lj + @k @i _ li . @j _ ik ) : _ 0 _ r The integral is antisymetric in ij .e. c) Fix i and j . @j @i _ kl . . since _ kl = _ lk and @i @j = @j @i . and has the form !ij (~) = .!ij (~ ) + _ r _ 0 Z~ r ~ 0 drk (@i _ jk . Substituting (*) in (y) _ makes (y) an identity. !ij (~) will be antisymmetric for all ~. If !ij (~ ) is chosen antisymmetric in ij . @k _ lj ) = @l (@j _ ki . _ _ @i (@j _ kl .320 b) @i @l !jk = @l @i!jk so. r d) Let !ij (~) be given as in c). i. @k _ ij ) or. @j _ ki: _ Then b) implies @k @l !ij = @l @k !ij . and one proves b). and the solution will be vj (~) = Vj + r Z~ r ~ 0 dri ( _ ij + !ij ) _ as long as for each xed j the integrability condition @k @i vj = @i@k vj is satis ed.

a) $ ~ U . I = ij kl + ( = Fijkl + = Fijkl + p0 ( ik jl + il kj ) (0) (0) ij Skl . ij kl ) ij kl + ik jl + ( Qijkl = ( . G h2i WB00 . then N = . $ $ $ $ $ $ W F00 =F0 .p0 I $ = . In an isotropic material. B : 0 0 Therefore 24. so 0 0$ $ $ 1 $ $ @ $ W 0W 0 A S = G h2i F 0 .321 23. W 0B 0 : 0 0 $ S0 $ W0 Fijkl Qijkl $ = . U0 = N@N U + G h2i@$U G 1 ( N )2 @ 2 U + N h2i@$@ U + G ~G N N 2 $ $ ~ ~ + 1 G G h4i@$@$U + third order terms G G 2 $ $ 1 = N 0 + G h2i S 0 + 2 ( N )2 B0 0 $ $ $ $ $ $ Q + N G h2i W0 + 1 G G h4i 0 + third order term: 2 0 0 b) $ $ W0 = NB0 + G h2i 0 $ $ $ $ $ S = N W 0 + G h2i F 0 : If $ $ = 0. jk Sil jk il . p0) + p0 ) jk il .

2= 0 B0. 0 B0 ij kl : Thus 0 = . 0 = . ( N ) tr G 0 $ + ( + p0) G h2i b) + 1 ( N )2 B0 2 n $2 + 1 ( . U0 = N 0 . p0) tr G + 20 $T o G + third order terms: $ $ G h2i G 0 = ij kl + 0( ik jl + il jk ) 2 ij kl + ( ik jl + il jk ) . .322 a) $ U . p0 tr G 0 $ .

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