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November 2017
No. 216 £4.99


FSM NOV 17 COVER.indd 1 27/09/2017 12:17

FSM NOV 17 COVER.indd 1 22/09/2017 11:03
FORMATION NOV. 27/9/17 12:19 Page 3


The Boeing PT-13/17 Stearman might be
regarded as an ‘American Tiger Moth’,
although it exuded a much more brash and
powerful image. But like the ‘Tiggie’ is was it
was a universal WW2 basic trainer that has
survived as an air show classic right
through to present time. Davie Fisher’s
model was built from the Flair Models kit.
Read all about in on page 40.
(Photo: Alex Whittaker)

NOVEMBER 2017 NO.216

Just for starters
12 6 guild of aviation artists 2017
Annual ‘Aviation Paintings of the Year’ exhibition

12 stahlwerk (Part 2)
full size free plan feature (part 1)
Peter Rake concludes construction of his 46" span, easy-to-
build and fly, electric powered 1920s ‘flivver’

18 kit review: TND hawker typhoon

Ken Sheppard finishes and test flies his 1/8th scale electric
‘Tiffie’ build from the Tony Nijhius Designs kit

24 typhoon n detail
Close-up photo study of the RAF Museum’s Typhoon Mk.1B
provides surface detail for scale modellers

28 TYPHOON warpaint
WW2 colour schemes for the ‘Tiffie’

32 the quiet zone

18 Peter Rake offers a 19” wingspan Bristol F2B ‘Brisfit for Indoor
or Outdoor electric flying, with full size pull-out plans

40 timeless trainer
Davie Fisher’s Boeing PT-17 Stearman, built from the Flair
Models kit

46 type history boeing PT-13/17

From sturdy military trainer to ag-industry crop sprayer and Air
Show star, the Stearman gained a life well beyond that
orginally envisaged

50 stearman scale drawing

1:40 scale detailed three-view drawing

52 stearman in detail
Close-up detail study to aid in applying surface detail

56 scale at the bmfa nationals

Tom Daly files his photo report of a Scale Nats blessed
with sunshine
40 62 ply dirty
Ken Sheppard shares the 'low-tech and effective techniques he
developed to add surface realism to not-so-large scale models,
applicable to both scratch-built models and ARTFs


CONTACT Tony OK.QXT 25/9/17 09:43 Page 2

Editor: Tony Dowdeswell

Publisher: Alan Harman
Design: Peter Hutchinson
Website: Webteam
Advertising Manager: Sean Leslie
Admin Manager: Hannah McLaurie
Office Manager: Paula Gray


monthly by Doolittle Media, Doolittle
Mill, Doolittle Lane, Totternhoe, Beds,
LU6 1QX. Reproduction in part or
whole of any text, photograph or Peter Shaw’s Avro 19 Anson
illustration without written permission finished in the colours of the
example held and displayed
from the publisher is strictly prohibited. for a long time at Old
While due care is taken to ensure the Warden.
contents of Flying Scale Models is
accurate, the publishers and printers
cannot accept liability for errors and
omissions. Advertisements are
accepted for publication in FLYING
SCALE MODELS only upon Doolittle
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acceptance of advertising, copies of
CONTACT ur regular ‘Subjects for Scale’ feature is intended to steer
which are available from the
advertising sales department of

O readers away from the typical mainstream fare of Spitfires,
Me109s and Mustangs. Nothing wrong with those subjects
of course, you build - and fly - whatever scale subject
appeals! Personally, in more that sixty years of involvement
in aeromodelling, I’ve never built a model Spitfire since my very early
‘teans, when I build five or six of the old Keil Kraft 18” wingspan rubber
powered Spits one after the other, maybe enough for a lifetime ... but
& CIRCULATION: Doolittle Mill,
you never know!
Doolittle Lane, Totternhoe, Beds, Our September issue presented the Avro Anson Mk.1 as a suitable,
LU6 1QX. non-mainstream case for treatment and received a very quick-fire
Tel. 01525 222573 Fax. 01525 222574. response from Peter Shaw, with pictures of his 84” wingspan ‘Annie’
based on the Mk.1 design by Duncan Hutson, plans for which were
Email: presented a long time ago now in R/C Model World. However Peter
injected his own individuality into the project to create a model of the
CIRCULATION TRADE ENQUIRIES: post-WW2 Avro 19 Anson, which had a deeper fuselage and which
Seymour Distribution, 2 East Poultry could be seen in 1950s-era UK skies bumbling along while undertaking
such mundane RAF service tasks as Communications, Navigation
Avenue, London, EC1A 9PT Training and weekend ‘Air Experience’ rides for Air Training Corps
020 7429 4000. cadets. Where I lived, close to RAF Bovingdon in Hertfordshire, one
always knew when there has an Anson in the circuit due to the
distinctive sound of the twin Alvis Leonades engines!
NEWSTRADE: Select Publisher Services,
Duncan H’s original was far enough back in time that twin glow
3 East Avenue, Bournemouth. engine power has the only viable option, but as Peter Shaw says, these
BH3 7BW. days electric power is the way to go for the sake of avoiding
01202 586848 asymmetric power settings or engine-out emergencies and he sensibly
applied two Axi 2826/12 electric motors, fed from a common 4S
Email: 8,000mAh power source. The result of Peter’s creativity is here to see
and we hope to have the full story of this model soon.
SUBSCRIPTIONS: Doolittle Mill, Meanwhile, getting back to Spitfires without actually being one, the
Subject for Scale feature in our December issue will be going Naval
Doolittle Lane, Totternhoe, Beds,
with the Supermarine SEAFIRE Mk.XVII, with scale drawings, close-up
LU6 1QX. detail study and colour schemes.
Tel. 01525 222573. Fax. 01525 222574. Go on, FLY NAVY!

A naval Subject for Scale, the Supermarine

PRINTING: Henry Stone Ltd., Seafire Mk.XVII, the ‘Subject for Scale’ in FSM
Oxfordshire December (next month).

(c) Copyright Flying Scale Models

2017 Doolittle Media.

The paper used on this title is from

sustainable forestry


BELAIR MAR 17.indd 1 25/01/2017 12:23
GUILD OF AVIATION ARTISTS (Revised) Tony OK 27/9/17 12:23 Page 2

Annual Aviation Paintings of the Year 2017

t many of the major summer full size air original works of truly superb quality.
shows like Flying Legends and the Royal Works on show range across the whole of aviation
International Air Tattoo (RIAT), there are era, from the earliest times, right through to the very
usually dealers offering aviation-subject latest and this year's event produced its own crop of
original artworks and limited edition prints. excellence as our selection here reveals - not
The source of many, maybe most of these necessarily depicting those that achieved special or
inspirational pictures of aviation scenes comes from top awards, but those that caught the editor's eye -
the highly talented hands and trained eyes, of the which only goes to prove that everyone has their own
members of the Guild of Aviation Artists. preferences!
The very best of their works are put on display every It truth there is something that appeals to any
July at the Guild's annual Aviation Paintings of the Year individual whose interest is Aviation - the standard is
show, perennially held at The Mall Galleries, London, first class, so look out for next years event in July 2018
just up the road from Buckingham Palace. The Show is - well worth attending.
free, runs for a week and this year drew more than 400


GUILD OF AVIATION ARTISTS (Revised) Tony OK 22/9/17 09:52 Page 3

LAKELAND PASS: BAe Tornado GR4, of No.41 Sqn. RAF, by Andrew Harris.

S 2017


GUILD OF AVIATION ARTISTS (Revised) Tony OK 22/9/17 09:52 Page 4


Short Sunderland III, 422 Sqn RCAF, by John Wynne Hopkins. Short Sunderland Mk.V, by John Wynne Hopkins.


Convair B-58 Hustler & XB-70 Valkyrie by Richard Wheatland. MDD Phantom launch from HMS Ark Royal, by Graham Henderson.


Lockheed C-130 & MDD Phantom
FGR2s, by Chris French.


GUILD OF AVIATION ARTISTS (Revised) Tony OK 22/9/17 09:53 Page 5


Grumman TBM-3 Avenger, by John Peter Cutts.


Queen Mary liner & Supermarine Stranraer,
by Ken Farmer.

RAF E.E. Lightning & MDD F.4 Phantom, by Paul Warrener.
Bristol F2B in the thick of it, by James Field.

Rittm. Von Richthofen, April 1918, by Simon Smith. DAZZLING DUO:
Felixstowe F2A & RMS Mauretania,
by James Field.
GUILD OF AVIATION ARTISTS (Revised) Tony OK 22/9/17 09:53 Page 6


T120 Bonneville and Gloster Javelins, by Lee Lacey. SE5s of No.60 Sqn, 1917, by James Colthorpe.

GLORIOUS FLYCATCHER: 405 Flight, HMS Glorious, by David Stilling.


GUILD OF AVIATION ARTISTS (Revised) Tony OK 22/9/17 09:53 Page 7


Vickers Valiant B(K)1 & Gloster Javelin FAW 9R, by Simon Mumford. Royal Navy Sea Harriers, by Paul Couper.

SKY PIRATES: Blackburn Buccaneers S2B, by Simon Mumford. LIGHTNING GETAWAY:

No.56 Sqn Lightning F1A, by Chris Tyler.


STAHLWERK PART 2.qxd Tony OK.qxd 21/9/17 09:56 Page 2


PART 2: Concluding the construction article for a 46" span, easy-to-build-and-fly, electric powered
model designed by Peter Rake.
what little weight you can at the tail

aving dealt in some depth with enough or not, substitute with bass. It’s
the tail surfaces and landing quite a long tail on the Stahlwerk, with without sacrificing strength.
gear in the last issue, this month fairly large tail surfaces attached to it. As It’s a fact of aeromodelling life that on
it’s time to deal with the build you can possibly imagine, that these short nosed models, you definitely
proper - the wings and fuselage. combination will exert quite a strain on are going to need nose weight in order
the longerons should you have an for the model to balance correctly (very
FUSELAGE ‘eventful’ landing. A fuselage that is slightly nose low when supported at the
There’s nothing really difficult about prone to break its back because the point indicated on the plan). The thing
building the fuselage, but you do need to longerons are too soft is of precious little you have to bear in mind is that every
try to keep the tail end light. However, use to anyone. ounce of unnecessary weight at the tail
don’t be tempted to use anything less All I’m saying is not to think the tail end could require as much as five or six
than HARD balsa for the longerons. can be ‘improved’ by beefing up the ounces of lead in the nose to counter it.
Uprights and cross braces can be medium structure. Keep the longerons hard (but We’ve already saved as much weight as
balsa but the longerons must be at least hopefully not heavy - so no oak thank we could in the tail surfaces with those
hard balsa. In fact, if in any doubt as to you), build the model as shown on the laminated outlines and wood just hard
whether your longeron strip is hard plan and rely on choice of balsa to save enough to do the job, so it’s well worth it

With power reduced the little Stahlwerk sinks in for another smooth landing.


STAHLWERK PART 2.qxd Tony OK.qxd 21/9/17 09:56 Page 3


How all good fuselages begin, a side frame built over the plan. Note
F2 and F3 with the wire struts already bound and glued in place.

Although not actually being done over the plan the tail is pulled in With the front pulled in and glued the nose block is built up using
and cross braces glued in position once the front section is dry. various pieces of thick balsa in place of actual block balsa.

to carry that practice through into the F4. Work over the plan and ensure laminated parts N as indicated and spot-
rear fuselage. The less dead weight we everything is straight and square and glue to the fuselage, but glue properly to
have to add the lighter, and easier to fly allow to dry completely before the upper nose block. The lower part of N
(slower) the finished model will be. So, with continuing. Next, still working over the and the lower nose block are glued
that out of the way, let’s get on with plan to arrive at a straight, square properly to the fuselage and the whole
some building. fuselage, pull in the tail and fit part TS, all forward end trimmed and sanded to
Start by laying down two identical the cross braces and the 1/8” balsa cable shape. If you’d like extra cooling for the
fuselage sides over the plan. I like to build exit plates. The latter form part of the laser motor drill some holes in the front face of
one over the plan, then turn that over cut kit the publisher has available. parts N.
and build the second on top of it. Strip While everything is still held securely over The nylon tube (or aluminium tube)
wood is notorious for its variation in size, so the plan, pull in the nose and fit the ready cable exits should be fitted and trimmed
working that way means that both sides drilled motor mount part M. Note that the flush with the fuselage outer surface. If
are built onto a flat surface and the flat small hole in M is not central in the former. using aluminium tube take care that the
surface is thus on opposite sides of the It is deliberately offset to allow for down inner ends are belled and that there are
frames, both of which will become the and right thrust on the motor. Mount part no rough areas that will cut into
inside face. This way any unevenness in M with the hole to the right (viewed from the cables.
thickness isn’t magnified by building the front) and centre the motor on this Sand the fuselage overall and set aside
straight on top of the first side and will hole, packed under the mounting lugs for for covering.
eventually be sanded off during the final 2 degrees down and right thrust.
sanding process because it’s all on The motor should be fitted at this point. WINGS
the outside. Then, continue to pull in the nose onto F1. As with the longerons, ensure that the
While the side frames are drying, Allow to dry completely and glue (epoxy) spars really are hard balsa. Once again, if
accurately bind and glue the centre in the landing gear mounts UC. These may not, substitute with bass.
section strut wires to formers F2 and F3. It is either be drilled to allow the Before actually starting the build,
important that they are accurately undercarriage legs to be bound in place, position a rib R1 over the side view and
aligned on the formers because the or left undrilled so that small clips may be mark the positions of the two split pins that
accuracy of the wing mounting depends used to retain the undercarriage. will retain the wing. Transfer these marks to
on it. That’s why I suggest doing it now, Fit the 1/16” balsa decking and then the other R1 and groove them both so
while you can line it all up over the plan, spot-glue in place the upper balsa nose that you aren’t left trying to drill holes into
rather than after the formers are installed block. Only spot-glue because this will a glue joint once the wing panels are
in the fuselage. form a removable hatch for battery joined. Ensure that you don’t fill these
Once all that is completely dry, the two access. If you also want this hatch to grooves with glue while joining the panels.
side frames can be joined using F2, F3 and provide some motor access, then cut the With those points made, actually


STAHLWERK PART 2.qxd Tony OK.qxd 21/9/17 09:56 Page 4

Drifting gently overhead, the model has proven itself a reliable, stable flier.

building the wings is really very simple. wings while they are still separate panels snugly against the pinned down panel.
Begin by pinning down over the plan, the simply because I use a razor plane to trim This ensures the correct dihedral (1.25”
leading edge, part WT and trailing edge, the leading and trailing edges to shape - under each tip) rather than relying on
gluing as required. Now, using a couple of it’s easier if there isn’t another panel in the aligning the panels using DH. It also
ribs to ensure precise location, glue in the way to prevent smooth operation of the means that both panel roots can be
two spars that will already have been plane. It can’t get in the way in pinned to the board and the second
suitably notched and tapered. With that other words. panel propped up parallel to the board.
done, simply glue in place the wing ribs. Parts CS should be shaped to follow the There’s nothing going to spoil the way the
Use the dihedral guide to angle the root wing section, with the curved edge left model flies so much as poorly aligned, or
ribs, R1 and R2, and ensure all other ribs square. Parts WT should have their outer twisted, wing panels.
are at 90 degrees to the board. edges rounded off and blend into the
Fit parts SM1 and SM2, the laminated slope of wing trailing edge. COVERING AND FINISHING
parts CS and the part WG. Allow to dry When it comes to joining the panels We all have our own favourite covering
and then, while it’s all still pinned down, fit (bearing in mind what was said earlier material but, bearing in mind the tail
the 1/16” balsa root bay sheeting. That’s about not getting glue in the grooves in needs to be kept light, it needs to be a
it, one wing panel ready for trimming and R1), glue part DH into one panel (epoxy or reasonably light covering. Litespan is my
sanding. Repeat the process for the wood glue, not CA), pin that panel to the favourite, but So-Lite or Solarfilm are
opposite wing. board and pack up the other panel by viable alternatives. Solartex or any of the
I find it easiest to trim and sand the the indicated amount as it is butted heavyweight films are not to be


Wing construction doesn’t get much How the split pins are soldered in place on The cable exits trimmed flush and the
simpler than this. Don’t leave the main the centre section struts. These have yet to control runs in place on the finished
spar quite as long as seen here or it will be trimmed to length. model.
show through the tip covering.


STAHLWERK PART 2.qxd Tony OK.qxd 21/9/17 09:56 Page 5

recommended under any circumstances. Not only do they add
unnecessary weight, but they tend to shrink quite aggressively, putting
the relatively lightweight structure at risk of warping badly. To further
complicate matters, all that additional weight at the tail will need to
be compensated for with even more dead weight at the nose,
resulting in a model that ends up a lot heavier than would otherwise
have been the case.
Heavy models fly faster (they have to, in order to stay in the air) and
are consequently more difficult to control. When the inevitable
happens, there is that much more momentum involved and the
damage is often far worse than would be the case with a
lighter model.
As you can see from the photos, the opportunity for adding details to
this model is fairly limited. You could add a little rigging, some metal
(silver paint) nose panels (most Stahlwerks had at least some) and the Get straight down to construction without delay!
diagonal struts that have yet to be added to this model. Almost This month’s full size free plan feature is supported
mandatory, however are the dummy cylinders that are so prominent by a laser-cut set of ready-to-use balsa and
and a pilot figure (also still to be added to the model in the photos. plywood components. This provides the parts that,
otherwise, you would need to trace out onto the
Before starting the actual assembly I would suggest installing the radio wood before cutting out and includes wing ribs
gear and over-length control cables so that you don’t have to mess and tips, tail centre parts, fuselage
about with a fully assembled model to do it later on. doublers, top deck,formers etc.
Begin the assembly by placing the model onto a large enough flat
surface and packing up the tail so that the wing will be more or less IT DOES NOT INCLUDE STRIP
parallel to the surface. Using slow setting (30 minute at least) epoxy AND SHEET MATERIAL OR
glue the wings onto the split pins attached to the centre section struts. SHAPED WIRE PARTS
Using whatever you have to hand, pack up evenly under both wing
tips and allow the glue to dry. While you have everything held steady is Price £69.00
as good a time as any to make up and glue in place the wing struts. plus carriage: £11.50 (UK); Europe £26.00
Make them up by measuring their length in situ and make a matching
pair of both front and rear struts. Order set CUT/FSM531
Once that is all completely dry you, have something to which the tail Shipping Note: For shipping to destinations outside the UK and
surfaces can be aligned as they are glued into position. Complete the Europe, you will be charged our standard flat-rate price of £49.
linkages and the model is very nearly finished. This covers most destinations and secures your order with us.
If you didn’t do it earlier, fit the landing gear (easier earlier if binding However, we will contact you accordingly with an accurate
total shipping charge prior to dispatch and either issue a
in place), glue in the tailskid and add the cosmetic diagonal struts.
refund or a PayPal money request for the balance.
As regards retaining the hatches, it’s worth pointing out that the radio
bay hatch will only need to be used if you have problems with the
Visit our secure website:
radio gear. As such, the ply hatch can just be taped into place, or
omitted altogether and substituted by covering that bay. If you do
need access it’s a simple enough task to cut away that panel of to order yours
covering and replace with fresh covering once any repairs have been
made. The nose hatch is probably best retained by a locating peg
that plugs into a hole drilled into F2 and rare earth magnets let into the
upper and lower parts of N.

The most important factor here, apart from having all the electronics
working well, is to ensure the model balances correctly. There’s an old
adage about nose heavy models not flying well, but tail heavy ones
not flying very long. Nothing could be more true. You can always
remove weight from a model that’s slightly nose heavy after it has
proven itself, but it may well be a case of rebuilding a model that was
tail heavy.
Don’t be tempted to use a bigger motor than indicated on the plan.
Despite what some people will tell you, you definitely can have too
much power available. With models like this, I aim for no more than 50
watts of power per pound of model, but don’t expect to use all of it for
most of a flight. A little reserve for windier conditions is fine, but I do
stress a LITTLE reserve.
Other than those points, your little Stahlwerk should give you no
problems when it comes to flying her. Hold the model on the ground
until ample speed has been built up, using down elevator and then
simply releasing that down elevator should see the model lift smoothly
into the air. Don’t, under any circumstances, be tempted to haul the
model into the air before adequate speed has been built up - you
won’t like the results. The model will probably be fairly unhappy about
it too. These models fly on the wing, not the prop, so let the wing do its
job and you won’t have problems.
The model isn’t a trainer by any stretch of the imagination, but is a
stable, steady flier that responds smoothly to control inputs. Loops, stall
turns and touch and goes are all possible as long as you don’t over
stress anything - and used sufficiently hard wood for the spars.
Landings just require you to line the model up with the strip and
gradually reduce power until the model sinks in. A little flair as it Order direct from:- Doolittle Media, Doolittle Mill, Doolittle Lane,
touches down and holding the tail down through the run out will Totternhoe, Bedfordshire, LU6 1QX, UK. Tel: 01525 222573/
complete the task. I


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TYPHOON KIT PART 2 Tony OK 21/9/17 09:59 Page 2



TYPHOON PART 2: Ken Sheppard finishes and flies the 1/8 scale
'Tiffie' from Tony Nijhuist Designs...

The Typhoon’s clean

lines are emphasized in
a banked pass.


TYPHOON KIT PART 2 Tony OK 21/9/17 09:59 Page 3

ast month I described the build need to keep the weight down, so early
and the powertrain considerations on I made the decision to keep scale
for the ‘Tiffie’. This month just a few detailing to a minimum - no rivets, panel
words on finishing - and the flying, lines, tail reinforcement plates, etc. At
the best bit! 1/8th scale, I think these are all a bit
unnecessary anyway - but that’s a
Scale finish decisions personal view however and, as the model
As I mentioned last month in Part 1, turned out pretty close to the target
before starting any of my scale builds weight, if you want to go down the
(unless it’s an ARTF) I usually do a bit of surface detailing route, you’ll probably
research on the different Marks of the get away with it.
type, identify distinctive detailing and start The second decision was the choice of
to think about a colour scheme. This covering. I had enough heatshrink film left
model was no different and I looked no over from a previous build in Olive Drab
further than the excellent Richard A and Light Grey to do the Tiffie. I know, not
Franks book ‘The Hawker Typhoon the same as the RAF Dark Green and
Including the Hawker Tornado’, available Ocean Grey with Medium Sea Grey
in the ‘Airframe in Miniature’ series, book undersurfaces, but needs must...
No.2, published by Valiant Wings The photos of the finished model will
Publishing (available from ADH Media) show that the Light Grey film is a little too
Good reference source - Richard which, although primarily aimed at the dark, but not, I hope too noticeable. The
Franks’ book for enthusiasts and plastic modeller, contains all the info and camouflage pattern uses pretty well
modellers. detail you will need to produce an equal amounts of grey and green, but as
authentic-looking 1/8th scale replica I had more green film than I did grey I
(or bigger!). opted to cover the whole of the top
I was conscious from the start of the surfaces in green and cut out the grey


TYPHOON KIT PART 2 Tony OK 21/9/17 09:59 Page 4

Detail of the cowl - the ali spinner adds weight where it’s needed. The exit the cowl at the rear - no fingers near the prop now!
exhaust stack is from an old ARTF - not exactly scale, but... Note the Lipo
connectors - this was the original position, they have since been re-routed...

parts using paper templates cut to match finish and using lightweight filler to smooth exhaust stub strips that came off an old,
the airframe and the superb colour out any gaps, blemishes, etc, and when long gone ARTF warbird (I think it was a 40
schemes in R. Franks’ book. satisfied, brushing on a coat of Balsalock sized Mustang) which, although not scale,
straight from the jar. This significantly were about the right size and, to my eyes,
Markings increases adhesion of the skin on sheeted would look pretty good when glued on
Before starting the covering, I had to areas. Don’t use it and I’ll guarantee that with contact adhesive.
consider the roundels, serial numbers, the film will lift in unsightly bubbles at the
registration, etc. You can choose to paint first hint of prolonged sunshine! Camouflage and smaller details
them on of course, and on a larger To maintain the colour of the heatshrink So, with a basic covering in place - green
model, that is the path I would have covering used, without having to match on top, grey underneath, I cut out paper
chosen, but for a smaller model, I take the the colours in enamel or acrylic (never templates for the grey film wing, fuselage
easy way out (but more expensive) by easy) for the white ABS vac-formed cowl, I and tail camouflage bits - very easy to
using self-adhesive vinyl. What’s more, I was very pleased to see a scheme in the do, just using scissors to cut round the
sourced a suitable set of markings from Richard Franks book that featured a white pencilled curves - then the individual
Pyramid Models - buy them, peel them off nose - it was in fact, an early Mk.1b paper templates were laid on top of the
the backing paper, position and press into Typhoon (with the car door style canopy grey film and a scalpel used to cut out
place - what could be easier? rather than the later bubble type), but the required bits. They were applied wet,
Scale nerds will tell you the markings are hey, who would notice! So I saved some using soapy water to position the pieces,
actually from a Hurricane (to the same weight by not having to spray the entire which were then left overnight to dry out,
scale in the Pyramid Models range of aircraft, just to match the cowl! (For the before applying a warm iron (we wanted
warbird sets), but really - who is going to ‘aeronerds’ out there, apparently the only to soften the adhesive, not shrink the
call you out? So, while awaiting them to white nose was only used temporarily for film!) to fix them in position.
arrive in the post, I commenced covering. high visibility marking, according to Mr. The canopy was masked up for the
Franks - good enough for me!) cockpit framing, which was painted on
Covering The cockpit was kept minimalist, too, just using Humbrol enamel and the Sky Blue
Preparation for covering means rubbing a suitably-sized pilot bust and a headrest. band added around the real fuselage in
down all the surfaces for a nice smooth In my spares box I found a pair of the same way. The yellow wing leading

A dirty pass! The undercarriage doors hide the spindly wire retract legs and add character to the model.


TYPHOON KIT PART 2 Tony OK 21/9/17 09:59 Page 5

edge strips were from leftover scraps of hereabouts. I only wish I had used black holidaying ‘oop North’ in a few weeks in
Solartex film and the black invasion stripes Velcro to secure the Lipo packs in the the Peak District. I had suggested to him
on the lower surface of the wing were cowl, as the white Velcro shows up very then that if I couldn’t find anyone by then,
strips of black Solartrim. I meant to spray clearly through the chin radiator aperture! perhaps he would like to meet up and fly
the white stripes, but forgot! The control throws given on the plan are for me - and so it came to pass, the stars
You’ll notice I’ve omitted the wing- fine, although this is very much a personal aligned, the weather promised to be
mounted cannon. This is just a foible of choice. You could increase the aileron on perfect - and his wife wanted a days
mine - I don’t like guns. I’m modelling the high rate for crisper rolls (not scale, shopping in Manchester! As it turned out,
aircraft, not the armament, so I leave though) and the elevator range is fine, the sun didn’t appear for long, and there
them off. I know the dummy argument is given that the landing speed needs to be was a bit of a breeze, but hey, it was dry
part of the whole, but I wanted to kept up to a bit fast rather than a bit slow, and quite warm, so two out of four
celebrate a flying machine, not a killing which leads me on to... wasn’t bad!
machine - it’s just my personal view. My new club tends to be busier during
Undercarriage doors were cut from thin Flying the week than at weekends, so it was
aluminium sheet (heavy gauge lithoplate) I had to wait several weeks before making inevitable, being midweek, that there
and fixed to the legs with Silicone that first all-important flight. Not because were quite a few spectators present,
Bathroom Caulking. When fully cured, this the weather was bad - we did have some waiting to watch the show, as they do
is flexible, which allows the door to fit to really excellent days, but because it’s with any new model, despite being fairly
the wing skin when the wheels are ingrained in me to ‘get the photos first’! late in the afternoon. The Tiffie was the
retracted, yet firm enough to hold them in That is to say, before really wringing the centre of attention when I arrived at the
place in the airstream when lowered. model out for evaluation, do a few nice field and started to get myself organised,
I added an exhaust stain along the passes for the camera to get some nice having charged the lipo packs and Tx
fuselage using a can of grey auto primer cruising shots - certainly before the one battery the night before. I had brought
and then when all painting was fully dry, I mandatory manoeuvre, the first landing! my sports hack for Tom to get his thumbs
gave the whole airframe a sprayed on Normally I would call on my usual and brain aligned before taking the
coat of Tufcote Satin finish fuel proofer resident club expert to fly the model while Typhoon up and whilst he was having his
(the model was initially fitted with an IC I took the pictures - he and I have worked fun on the sticks, I put the wing on and
four-stroke engine) - if you go electric together many times and he knows how carried out my usual preparation checks,
from the start you can omit this, although to present the model the way I like it! including, as it was a new model, range
it is easier to keep the model clean and However, having recently moved North, checks with motor off and running.
tidy when it’s fuel-proofed and it gives an that option was not open to me and I had brought my ply model stand that
even sheen to the whole model. having looked around at several local allowed me to rest the fuselage on its
clubs, I didn’t really know anyone I could back, fit the wing and then connect up
Set up trust with either the flying OR the the Lipo packs - much better than laying
So all that was then left to do was to photography! the model directly onto the grass. All
balance the model and check out all the However, while at the last Old Warden worked Ok, so just waited for Tom to finish
systems and set the throws. I’ve already meeting, one of the regular fliers, whom I his flight, and then talk though the
described how the necessary noseweight know to be a very accomplished pilot intended flight so that we were both on
was fitted and I have repeated the photo happened to mention that he was the same wavelength, regarding the


TYPHOON KIT PART 2 Tony OK 21/9/17 10:00 Page 6

A bit of damp has invaded the canopy - either that or the pilot is The castering tailwheel and the rudder linkage.
sweating a lot! Simple pilot bust and headrest fitted.

The EP motor set-up with Lipos in place, in Ali plate undercarriage doors if fitted flush to the wing skin certainly look neat in the air.
front of a substantial amount of church roof
needed to balance that short nose moment -
should have used black Velcro, though!

airbone ohoto-shooy. low rates, the controls felt positive and

SPECIFICATIONS After a short comfort break, Tom very responsive, but left alone she flew
Manufacturer: TND (Tony Nijhuis Designs) declared himself ready. So it was time to straight and level. After a couple of
Scale: 1/8 pick up model and camera and make circuits to get the feel and he decided he
Wingspan: 62" (1575mm) our way out to the flightline. Everyone else was ready for the photos and that the
Length: 48.5" (1232mm) kindly stopped flying to allow us free Tiffie was definitely in a groove!
AUW: (TND target: 7lb/3.2kg) Actual airspace (and to watch, of course - no After some nice passes, including a
weight: 7lb. 4oz. pressure!), so I positioned the model nose figure eight, which allowed me a very
Wing Area: 4.5sq.ft. into the breeze, held the tail while Tom nice head-on shot Tom lowered the
Wing loading: (TNM target: opened the throttle to full chat briefly and retracts for a dirty pass and I have to say
24oz/sq.ft./7.2kg/sq.m) then scuttled back to the pilot line to prep that she looked really nice as she went
Functions: 5 channel (mechanical the camera. along the pilot line. Having got the shots I
retracts recommended) Tom had agreed to talk me though the reckoned I needed, I let Tom play around
Power: 4-stroke glow, or AXI flight, reporting on the handling, trim a bit. Keeping a close eye on the time,
4120-14 (660kv) outrunner recommended changes, etc, so getting the nod that I but with two Lipos in parallel giving plenty
2 x 4S x 3700Mah Lipo pack was ready, he cranked up to full throttle, of reserve power, he proceeded to fly a
Price: £191 (online offer saving £100) - holding in some up elevator to keep the typical fighter warbird schedule - Cuban
comprises plan + vac form set + CNC tail down and she was off, requiring just a eight, inside and outside loops (err.. what’s
pack + wood pack (other options dab of right rudder to keep her straight ‘scale’ about outside loops with a
available) and after quite a long run to get up to Typhoom - Ed?, reversals, stall turns and
Also required: Retracts (no fixed flying speed, she was up and climbing - a an inverted circle - the Tiffie managed
unercarriage supplied in kit) couple of clicks of right aileron and after them all with ease, with no apparent
4" diameter spinner (if IC powered) - an the first turn Tom reported that she would nasty vices. This really is a great-looking
optional vac formed electric spinner is fly comfortably hands off. In his words, and performing scale machine that could
available from TND definitely one of those ‘it feels like a good be flown with great precision - if you are
4 x mini servos one’ moments! up to it, of course.
1 standard size retract servo (if using On command, the undercarriage The timer sounded - I had set it for seven
mechanical retracts) retracted - the mechanical retracts were minutes - and so Tom brought her round
6 channel radio of your choice quite slow and slightly out of phase so that and lined up, dropped the wheels, eased
Propeller/esc/fuel tank to suit chosen one leg pulled up before the other - down the throttle for a gentle sink rate
powerplant almost realistically! Tom reckoned she felt and let her fly herself down onto the strip
very smooth and stable - excellent. On for a greaser - leave the elevator alone


TYPHOON KIT PART 2 Tony OK 21/9/17 10:00 Page 7

An all-over coat of satin finish fuel proofer damps down

the level of shine to a nice finish, whether it be IC or EP.

and she does it for you (so he said!). and a few circuits to get used to her, I its top edge - time to bring her in. Landing
Tom had to leave shortly after, having took her up and checked out the stall. was almost a complete a non-event - just
had a call from his shopping-sated wife, With full up elevator fed in, the nose drops as Tom had described, except for one
so off he went, leaving me to pack away before a wing drops, but control is small bounce - but she was down!
the model and gear. It was then I realised regained pretty quickly when the speed A quick once-over to check all was OK
we hadn’t tested the stall, something I builds back up! In my experience, this is and it was back to the pits for a cuppa
usually do fairly early in the test flying! Still, fairly unusual in a scale warbird - tapered and to get the feedback from the guys
I knew that the Typhoon flew and flew wings like to catch you out, but Tony who inevitably had taken time to watch.
very well, I had some good flying shots, so Nijhuis had got it right! Very good comments including the usual
all was well with the world. I went home For the remaonder of the flight I threw sarcastic “It made you look like a good
happy, quite happy to continue the test her about, my favourite manoeuvre being flier” showed that the Typhoon had got
flying myself at the next opportunity. a low strafing run up the strip, up into a the seal of approval from my new
Next week, remembering the discipline steep chandelle and back into the circuit. clubmates at least - me? I love it! I
of my test flying procedures this time, after What seemed like ages later I detected
a straightforward take off and climb out that the power was just beginning to lose

Coming in for a strafeing run - although, with no guns fitted, it’s just Another pass - you would never guess the vinyl registration was in fact
another low pass! for a same-size Hawker Hurricane!


TYPHOON IN DETAIL Tony OK 21/9/17 10:02 Page 2


A Close-up look at the RAF Museum, Hendon’s Mk.1B

1: View down the fuselage centre

section showing rivet and panel lining,
and the wing/fuselage fairing.

2: Retractable mounting stirup for

cockpit access on the right hand
fuselage side.

3: Fuselage mid-section showing the

sprung flaps to the hand-grips for
cockpit access.

4: Fuselage underside, just behind the

wing. Left hand s1de


TYPHOON IN DETAIL Tony OK 27/9/17 12:26 Page 3

5 6 7

5: Elevator trim tab.

8 9
6: Tailplane/elevator hinge
line at the tailplane tip.

7: Fairing panel over

tailplane/fuselage joint.

8 & 9: View of the cockpit

windshield as fitted to the
bubble canopy Typhoon Mk.

9: The clear bubble cockpit

canopy of the Mk.1B
provided a far superior view.

10 13 14


10: Detail of the rear guide rail

for the sliding cockpit rear
canopy. 11: On the Mk.1B the
12 rear canopy is a single ‘blown’
unit. 12: Further view of the
cockpit windshield. 13: Nose
section, showing panel detail
and propeller spinner.
14: Engine cowl underside, with
the radiator flap fully open,
reveals internal ducting.

15 16


15: The gaping air intake for the radiator and oil cooler. 16: Exhaust stack and panelling. 17: View from under the wing looking looking forward
into the lower rear of the radiator duct.


TYPHOON IN DETAIL Tony OK 21/9/17 10:04 Page 4

18 19 18: Fin and rudder, showing the

hinge line and hinge positions

19: Close-up etail of the rudder

trim tab.

20: Fin/tailplane fairing, also

showing the rudder control rod
horn and link.

21: The main undercarriage

retraction linkage and bracing

22: Close-up of the knuckle link

that lifts the main undercarriage
leg and locks it when extended.

23: Main wheel unit.

24: Main undercarriage leg and

fairing door.

25: Another view to illustrate the

main undercarriage lifting/locking
linkage, which is hydraulically

26: Tailwheel unit, retracts forward


21 22 23

24 25 26


TYPHOON IN DETAIL Tony OK 27/9/17 12:29 Page 5

27 28

27: Another view of the tailwheel until seen from the rear. 28: View up into the fuselage tailwheel unit retraction well. The tailwheel unit retracted
forward. 29: Rear fuselage, showing the ‘fishplates’ revetted around the the skin, just ahead of the tailplane as a ‘fix’ for the major problem of
rear fuselage structural failure. 30: View down the rear fusleage underside. 31: Aileron, showing the hinges. 32: Wing underside showing the line
off the flaps. 33: One of the hyraulic rams that lift the inner undercarriage fairing door. 34: View inside the main undercarriage wheel well.
35: Pitot head on left wing underside.

29 31 32 33

34 35


36, 37 & 38: The 36

weapon for which
the Typhoon was
the ‘delivery
vehicle’ of choice
during the Allied
drive across
northern Europe
diring 1944-45.

37 38


TYPHOON FLYING COLOURS Tony OK 21/9/17 10:14 Page 2


TYPHOON FLYING COLOURS Tony OK 21/9/17 10:14 Page 3
TYPHOON FLYING COLOURS Tony OK 21/9/17 10:14 Page 4


TYPHOON FLYING COLOURS Tony OK 21/9/17 10:14 Page 5
QUIET ZONE.qxd Tony OK.qxd 21/9/17 10:16 Page 2

e s, I’m back again. However,

Y having got the basic stuff out of

the way over the past two
months, normal service is
resumed. Well, as normal as you
can expect from this column.
Since the end of the flying season is fast
approaching that means it’s time for
another of those pesky indoor models - no
printed foam this time, just a plan for a
conventional built-up model. Indoor, calm
weather outdoor, at 19 inch span it’s
equally suited to either unless, that is, your
indoor venue is pretty restrictive.

The model is totally conventional in
construction and will come as no surprise
to anyone in the least familiar with my
designs. It may not look overly strong, but
it is more than adequately strong enough
for its intended role. It is designed to be
more than strong enough to take any
flight loads you may subject it to, but is
not intended to survive full power flights
into obstructing objects (walls, floors,
spectators, etc.). Build as shown, keep it
light and don’t over-power the poor little
model. That way you might even find that
the lack of mass involved means that
R/C SCALE ELECTRICS with gently bouncing it off walls will do far less
damage than might otherwise be the
Peter Rake case. Bounce it off spectators and all bets
are off.



Lightweight film, minimum paintwork and

homemade decals are just as effective at
keeping the weight down while resulting in
an attractive model.


QUIET ZONE.qxd Tony OK.qxd 21/9/17 10:16 Page 7
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Just one colour option, between-the-wars silver. WW1 colours based How the P-51 style motor unit fits. You see why the centre section
on PC10 camouflage is an alternative. struts should already be in place?

Although these were for the earlier version, the lighter (fewer ribs) Tissue is a very suitable covering for this type of model. I think the
version shown on the plan is of a very similar construction. vice is overkill though!

“ You'll notice that some of the photographs don't quite match the drawings presented here.
These are of a slightly earlier version that used more ribs and wire centre section struts

You’ll notice that some of the

photographs don’t quite match the
Although that’s what I use in models of
this type and size, there’s absolutely no
gathering bits and pieces from
differing sources.

drawings presented here. These are of a reason why other similar equipment can’t
slightly earlier version that used more ribs be used. TIPS
and wire centre section struts. These areas Very small brushless motors are a viable Apart from the obvious advice not to beef
were revised to save weight on the final option, but not without their up the structure, the only real point of
plan and are nothing for you to worry disadvantages. Thrust wise they are no interest involves the centre section struts. I
about. Construction follows precisely the improvement on the brushed unit shown know it will complicate fitting the balsa
same format, there’s just a bit less of it. on the plan, but they do tend to be a bit decking, but I strongly suggest that you fit
The slightly ‘stained’ appearance of the more energy hungry (they draw more the struts very early in the assembly
fuselage structure is something you’ll just current). So that means either reduced process - while you can still see precisely
have to put down to a bit of a mishap flight times, or larger battery packs. Larger what’s going on. I’ll let you work out how I
with the CA glue during the build. It batteries means heavier models and know that.
doesn’t indicate that different, or harder heavier models fly faster and require more Fit the upper centre section struts to the
wood is used for these areas. Well, harder power to do so. Heavier and faster means formers while alignment can be assured by
it certainly is, but only because of the glue that when you do bounce the model off doing it on a flat surface and build the
spilled on it. Harder, more difficult to sand something, it’s likely to incur more lower struts into the fuselage side frames
and heavier, so this is not something I damage. while they too are flat to the board. Then,
advocate you emulate on your model. Ex-helicopter bricks are another assuming you position the formers
option, either with linear or rotary accurately, that will make them self jigging
EQUIPMENT servos. The rotary servo units are a little when it comes time to glue the wings in
Because of the number of plan sheets heavier, but only a little. The only position which makes life a whole lot
involved I need to keep this brief if it isn’t potential issue could be battery simpler.
to take up half the magazine so, back to connectors since many helicopters of Oh yes, don’t forget that the bottom
basic stuff again it appears. the type I’m talking about use their own wing has to be in place BEFORE you glue
The model is designed for, and the plan dedicated battery style - fine if you’re the u/c legs to the fuselage.
shows Parkzone equipment; a three starting with all the required Right, that’s it then for this month. If
channel ‘brick’ receiver and the motor components from a dismantled you’d like to contact me I can be found
unit from that company’s P-51 foamie. helicopter, but not so helpful if you’re at I


QUIET ZONE.qxd Tony OK.qxd 21/9/17 10:16 Page 8
Available in the ‘HOW TO BUILD...’ series

Tamiya’s 1:32 Mosquito FB.IV
by Brett Green


FSM NOV 17 P39.indd 1 22/09/2017 15:19

MASTER MODELS STEARMAN TD 21/9/17 10:18 Page 2


Timeless Trainer
Alex Whittaker admires Davie Fisher's model of the most famous US trainer of all time

he Stearman Aircraft Company Boeing reputedly built another 2,000 in the Grant through a cornfield, and eventually
introduced their two-seater trainer form of spares. Canada, China, The crashes into a truck.
in 1934. Boeing bought the Philippines, Venezuela, Argentina, and
Company out, giving the PT-17 its Brazil all used these aircraft for both The Model
double-barelled surname. Later military and civilian uses. The this PT-17 replica was built from the
the Canadians were to christen the PT-17 The PT-17 even made it to Hollywood. In celebrated but now sadly discontinued
the ‘Kaydet’. the famous sequence in the film ‘North By Flair kit.
More than 8,500 were factory-built and Northwest’, a Stearman chases Cary This delivers a 1/4 scale model with a


MASTER MODELS STEARMAN TD 21/9/17 10:18 Page 3

wingspan of 89”, and in this case, a flying realised he was too busy designing his own documentary evidence, three-view
weight of 11kgs. models to complete it. Thus it was passed drawings, and photographs for the
This specific model has an interesting on to another noted Nats competitor chosen US trainer scheme.
history. It was barely begun by a Scots Davie Fisher, who got stuck in and built the
modeller who sadly died before he could superbly finished model we see before us. Construction
complete it. Thence it came into the There is little to comment upon here, since
hands of noted Nationals Scale Documentation the Flair kit is of utterly conventional and
competitor, Mick Henderson, who soon Davie used the internet to source all his traditional built up construction. It uses


MASTER MODELS STEARMAN TD 21/9/17 10:18 Page 4


mostly balsa, and plywood, though in true

Flair style there are ABS mouldings and a
full range of scale accessories.

Power system
Originally, Davie fitted a Laser V-Twin glow
engine, which flew the PT-17 well. However,
the Flair tank proved too small to last the
required BMFA Nats Scale Schedule. Now it
so happens that the tank is built deep in
the model, in a very inconvenient way.
Davie’s clever solution, to avoid major
fuselage surgery, was to leave the tank in
place, but swap to a more economical
petrol engine. Therefore the model now
sports an AGM 30cc petrol engine.
The AGM drives an 18.8”x6” prop, which
is a good, tractable combination.To get
everyting hidden, Davie fitted an AGM
Pitts-style silencer although, after flying
tests, he had to modify it somewhat, since
initially it proved a trifle too noisy.
Davie’s phone shot of his PT-17 on the bench.
These are the Flair commercial items from
the kit. Note that they came complete
with scale covers.

Covering and painting

The model is covered in Solartex. When I
first saw this model, I was struck by how
well the yellow and blue matched my
expectations, based on sightings of full
size examples. The dark blue is not too
light, and the yellow has enough red in it
to give that authentic rich hue. In fact,
diligent Davie tracked down a PT-17
engineer, who gave him authentic paint
samples from a full-size aircraft.
Ingeniously, Davie then had those paint
samples spectrum-analysed. The results
were then given to a specialist paint
company who mixed up the paints, and
supplied them in aerosol cans.

Davie’s phone shot of the litho panelling being applied. Legending

Davie tracked down all the required PT-17

The PT-17 is a colourful and appealing scale subject.


MASTER MODELS STEARMAN TD 21/9/17 10:20 Page 5

1 2 3

4 5 6

1: Davie constucted his own instrument panel. 2 & 3: The PT-17 is two-holer! Note cockpit detaiing and screen. 4: Davie fitted an 18.8”x6” prop.,
a good match to the engine. 5: Litho plate metal sheetwas used for the fuseage panelling. 6: Airplane or aeroplane? Davie sourced the legends
from the internet and found a local company to cut the vinyls.

registrations, stencils, and annotaions on notes that the design precludes a lower for the scale tank, and a new cowling for
the internet. He then sorted them out on hatch, which would have been much the air intake and used litho sheet for the
his computer. Once cleaned up, he sent more convenient. forward cockpit panelling.
the results off to a local company in All the micro self tapper panel screws
Ayrshire to make up the vinyls. The Pilot came from Model Fixings.The dummy
company, Abbey Screen Printers, then This fine figure of a pilot is a discontinued engine was modded to fit around the
scaled them to suit, and cut them to Mick Reeves Models item. Davie says that new petrol engine, and the instrument
Davie’s exact specifications. this a shame since they are so good. panels were all hand made.
I agree.
Radio system Flying notes
Davie notes that the Flair kit design Scale details The model was only completed in May
requires a bit of keyhole surgery since the Davie made the rigging more authentic, 2017, and since then the flying weather in
radio has to go in via the cockpit floor. using parts sourced from Mick Reeves Scotland had been too poor for extended
Forceps and patience are required. He Models. He also devised new pipe work flights. In fact she only had three before

Davie used Mick Reeves Models items to upgrade the rigging.


MASTER MODELS STEARMAN TD 21/9/17 10:20 Page 6

7: Combination of 7 8
fabric covered
stringers and metal
panels creates an
impression of

8: Note the fuselage

structure visible
through the covering.

9: Distinctive PT -17
rudder and fin,
shown off well in this
lovely classic

10: The tail rigging

shows a good blend
of practicality and
scale fidelity.

9 10

the 2017 Nats. she has a lovely glide if the donkey stops, needs to be kept to the minimum. Overall
Initial flights resulted in a couple of and can be landed with authority. she is a viceless flyer, and looks
deadsticks with the initial Laser installation. In general flying she is very easy to exceptionally sweet in the air. Davie’s only
However, these had a silver lining because handle, though turns need to be initiated problem has been trying to get in enough
the ‘deadsticks’ landings demonstrated with combined rudder and aileron. flying hours during a disappointing British
that the glide on the PT-17 was utterly However, in rolls, and with 30% aileron summer. I
outstanding! In fact, Davie reports that differential applied, the rudder input

Well over 8,000 PT-17s were built during WWII, plus enough unassembled airframes to bring a total of around 10,000.
Davie’s example looks spot-on.


MASTER MODELS STEARMAN TD 21/9/17 10:22 Page 7


12 14

Boeing Stearman PT-17
from the Flair Kit

Scale: 1/4
Wingspan: 89” 13
Weight: 11kgs
Engine: AGM 30cc petrol
Exhaust: Modified AGM
Pitts type
Prop: 18.8”x6”

11: Decent sized ailerons, yet turns and rolls need a bit of rudder input too. 12: Non-slip
treadway on wing. 13: Top wing detail: note filler cap. 14: The undercarriage detailing is
very crisp. See text about the mini screws. 15: Davie Fisher at the BMFA Nats with his Boeing
Stearman PT-19.



SUBJECTS FOR SCALE STEARMAN.qxd Tony OK.qxd 2 22/9/17 11:18 Page 2


From sturdy military trainer to ag-industry crop sprayer and Air Show star, the
Stearman gained a life well beyond that orginally envisaged
of aircraft, at least not directly, he did dependable. After the stock market

hile it was not the last military
biplane to be designed and contribute to this classic trainer. Stearman collapse and onset of the Great Depression
built in USA, Boeing’s came to aviation early, having learned to fly in October 1929, The Stearman Division of
Stearman ‘Kaydet’ will be Curtiss N-9 floatplanes in the U.S. Navy during UATC looked to the military market,
remembered as the last in World War I, and after the war, went to work specifically to aircrew training, in order to
production. It was remarkable too, as the first for the E.M. Laird Airplane Company in stay in business. They developed the
aircraft to meet the specifications of both US Wichita, Kansas. When Laird reorganized as Stearman Model 6, eventually building ten
Army and US Navy - never before had the the Swallow Aircraft Company, Stearman of these two-seat biplane trainers. By the
two services, with their strong rivalries, became chief engineer and Walter Beech end of 1930, the U.S. Army Air Corps was
completely reconciled their differences in (another landmark name in the aviation looking to replace its primary trainers, and
aircraft requirements. world) was the test pilot. Then, in 1925 Stearman submitted the Model 6, which the
The ‘Kaydet’ was a biplane in the classic Stearman and Beech, along with Clyde Air Corps designated XPT-912.
American style, with its radial engine Cessna (the pioneer names keep coming Following revisions to more closely match
(strange that in its military guise it was never don’t they?), formed the Travel Air the US Army specification, Stearman was
cowled - maybe for serviceability Company. awarded a contract for four service test
considerations), minimum upper wing The following year Stearman went to trainers, designated YPT-9s and although the
dihedral and heavy wing stagger. Venice, California, and with members of the YPT-9 was not ordered into series production,
Also characteristically American were the Lyle-Hoyt Aircraft Company, a Travel Air Stearman sold a half-dozen Model 6s in the
large cockpits with high seat positions, distributor, formed the Stearman Aircraft civilian market under the name Cloudboy.
necessitating ample windscreens, long travel Company. In 1927, Stearman Aircraft
undercarriage and a beautifully smooth relocated to Wichita, Kansas and two years GETTING CLOSER
exterior and well finished. later, along with a dozen other aviation After Lloyd Stearman left his Company at
However, before Boeing’s manufacturing companies, became part of United Aircraft the end of 1930, the organisation continued
appendage was tacked on to the PT-13/17 & Transportation Corporation (UATC), which to pursue the aircraft trainer market,
designation, quite a lot of water had already was owned by William Boeing. producing the Stearman Model 70, an
trickled under that particular bridge. Stearman built a series of aircraft for civilian open-cockpit biplane trainer based on Lloyd
Although aviation pioneer Lloyd Carlton use and mail transport, and these earned a Stearman’s Model 6. As with the Model 6,
Stearman did not design the PT-13/17 series reputation as being durable and this new aircraft was aimed at winning a

Tony Poulson's beautiful Stearman E.75 Kaydet G-AZLE/75-8543, formerly CF-XRD, takes
off from West Tisted, Hampshire on 2 June 2010. (PHOTO: Richard Riding).


SUBJECTS FOR SCALE STEARMAN.qxd Tony OK.qxd 2 22/9/17 11:18 Page 3

Boeing A75N1 Kaydet G-BIXN/75-2248 crashed at Frensham Ponds, Close-up of the seven-cylinder Continental W-670 radial engine of
near Farnham, Surrey in April 1996 and is believed to be awaiting Kaydet G-AZLE. (PHOTO: ichard Riding).
restoration. (PHOTO: Richard Riding).

Close-up of the seven-cylinder Continental W-670 radial engine of The real star of the 1986 fantasy film Biggles - Adventures in Time -
Kaydet G-AZLE. (PHOTO: Richard Riding). was 1942 Boeing PT-17 A75N1 Kaydet G-AROY/75-4775, owned and
flown spectacularly by the late and unforgettable John Jordon.
(PHOTO: Richard Riding).

military contract. Unlike most biplanes of the the military. Model 75s produced was 8,585, although
day, the Model 70 had a single-strut oleo The Model 75 was an improved Model 73 the total may be regarded as around 10,000
main undercarriage. One of the objections with a lengthened fuselage and larger tail, if unassembled spares are included.
raised by the Army regarding the YPT-9 has slightly modified main undercarriage and a
been that it was actually too easy to take NACA 2213 airfoil. This became the NEW LEASE OF LIFE
off and land - the military wanted a more Army PT-13. Rather than being scrapped like so many of
challenging aircraft with which to train their In 1938, Boeing incorporated Stearman its WWII contemporaries, the Model 75 was
prospective aircrew. With its tall, narrow Aircraft, more formally into the parent group granted a new lease on life. Due to its
undercarriage legs, the Model 70 suited their as a Boeing Division. The majority of the rugged steel-tube fuselage and docile flight
requirement. Model 75 trainers were built during the characteristics, it became a much-sought-
By modifying an existing airframe, ensuing years and therefore the data plates after aircraft for civil use, especially for
Stearman engineers designed and built the carry the Boeing name rather than agricultural work. Though it was a rough-
new biplane trainer in just 60 days. Stearman’s, though the aircraft is usually and-tumble existence that claimed many
The sole Model 70 first took to the air on referred to as a Stearman although examples, agricultural flying in the end
January 1, 1934, but when evaluated by enthusiasts for the type and current saved many Stearmans.
both the Army and the U.S. Navy, the Stearman operators often simply refer to the Converting Stearmans for agricultural use
aircraft exhibited stall characteristics that biplane as a PT-17, regardless of its original involved extensive modifications. The
were considered too tame for cadet military designation. chemical tank was normally located in the
training, while additionally, it did not meet Three different radial engines were used in front cockpit, with some tanks extending to
the Navy spin-and-recovery requirement: a the Model 75 trainers: the Continental R-670, the instrument panel of the rear cockpit,
one-turn recovery after a 10-turn spin. The Lycoming R-680 and Jacobs R-755. Each which necessitated relocating the engine
cure for the latter was the addition of stall engine/airframe combination had its own and flight instruments. Wing tips were
strips, or more accurately spin strips, small Army and/or Navy designation. Engine sometimes modified, some squared off,
triangular strips of wood on the wing leading selection depended primarily upon some incorporating end plates, some with
edge, subsequently applied to all Steadman availability. Hoerner tips. Other changes included
primary trainers. In addition to its formal military numerical canopies over the cockpit, different
designations, the Model 75 was called the tailwheel assemblies and enlarged rudders.
GOT IT RIGHT! ‘Kaydet’ by the Army and ‘Midshipman’ The stock engine was often replaced by a
The Navy was the first to order the new by the Navy, though those terms were 450-hp Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Jr. from a
trainer, initially purchasing 41 examples in seldom used. Army pilots generally Vultee BT-13.
1934 and later adding another 20. The Navy referred to it as a Stearman. Naval In a bit of irony, Lloyd Stearman formed the
designation for the Model 73 production aviators nicknamed their yellow-painted Inland Aviation Company in Los Banos, Calif.,
version was NS-1. Since the Navy had excess version the ‘Yellow Peril’, a moniker that to convert surplus Stearmans to crop dusters.
Wright J-5 Whirlwind engines in its inventory, originated with the yellow N3N biplane
these powered the NS-1 rather than the trainer built by the Naval Aircraft Factory STILL GOING STRONG
Model 70’s Lycoming R-680. Stearman in Philadelphia. The rugged Stearman also became a
Aircraft was now in the business of supplying The actual number of fully assembled favourite of air show performers. As a


SUBJECTS FOR SCALE STEARMAN.qxd Tony OK.qxd 2 22/9/17 11:18 Page 4

G-AWLO is a PT-13D, photographed at Little Gransden airfield soon Another view of G-AZLE in a previous guise pictured at a PFA rally at
after restoration. Cranfield. (PHOTO: Richard Riding)

primary trainer, it was approved for all the The Steadman should have been left SPECIFICATION
manoeuvres a trainee pilot would need to abandoned or scrapped after all its years of Wingspan: upper-32ft 2in (9.804m)
learn. Painted in bright colours, with a service, but the War bird restoration lower-31ft 2in. (9.450m)
smoke system added, the big biplane movement occurred at just the right time to Length: 25ft (7.62m)
presented quite a spectacle while doing grant the airplane yet another lease on life. Wing chord: 5 ft (1.27m)
loops and rolls. Add a wing-walker and the The restoration movement began in earnest Aerofoil: NACA 2213
act was complete. as the Steadman was being phased out of Max. level speed: 125 mph (200 Kph)
Eventually purpose-built agricultural the ag-business in the late 1960s. Cruising speed: 100mph (160 kph)
aircraft relieved Steadmans of their duty Other countries that operated the Landing speed: 56 mph (89.6 kph)
flying low over fields, dodging power lines ‘Kaydet’ were China, Brazil, Cuba, Bolivia, Service ceiling: 12,000ft (3,048m)
and trees. Aerobatic aircraft that can Colombia, Guatemala, Argentina,
perform manoeuvres undreamed of years Venezuela, Peru, Dominican Republic and
ago now wow air show crowds, though Philippines. For scale modellers, there’s
Steadmans still grab attention with their plenty of scope for colour schemes ... if you
smoke, sound and classic shape. can find them! I


One of the most prominent users of the PT-13/17 for
commercial publicity work in the last decade has been
the Dairy Crest Group to promoted tehir ‘Utterly Butterly’
brand. The aircraft have been substantially modified
from standard, with cowled engines, spatted
undercarriages and cockpit rear fairings


SUBJECTS FOR SCALE STEARMAN.qxd Tony OK.qxd 2 22/9/17 11:23 Page 5

1. Firewall; 2. Baggage compartment; 3. Instrument panels; 4. Fire extinguisher; 5. Throttle; 6. Control lock lever; 7. Ruder pedal; 8. Eelevator trim; 9. Corrugated heel boards;
10. Link rod to aileron crank; 11. Aileron crank; 12. Step; 13. Fuel filler cap; 14. Oil filler cap; 15. Static discharge rod; 16. Carb. Air intake; 17. magneto switch operating rod;
18. Fuel gauge; 19. Elevator control tube; 20 RPM dial; 21; Oil temp and pressure; 22. Clock; 23. A.S.I.; 24. Compass; 25. Altimeter; 26. Instrument panel bevelled along sight
lines; 27. Inertia starting handle - rear cockpit only; 28. Rudder cable; 29 Mag. Switch. 30 Fuel cock; 31 Front seat; 32. Mounting lugs for pedals; 33. Complete undercart
assembly detaches. 34. Engine mounting lugs; 35 Cowling attachment points; 36. Canvas cover; 37. Front spar mounting.


STEARMAN SCALE DRAWING.qxd Tony OK.qxd 21/9/17 10:26 Page 2
STEARMAN SCALE DRAWING.qxd Tony OK.qxd 21/9/17 10:26 Page 3

SCALE 1:40
STEARMAN IN DETAIL Tony OK 22/9/17 11:55 Page 2


1 2

1 & 2: Cockpits showing windscreens and leather coaming. 3: Elevator detail. 4& 5: Linkage to the elevator trim tab, top and bottom. It is top
surface hinged. 6 & 7: Close up of elevator hinges. 8: Bracing wire anchor points on tailplane. 9: Detail of bracing wire anchor on tailplane
underside 10: Undercarriage fairing with fuselage side. 11: Pressed metal fairing at wing root leading edge just behind undercarriage fairing.
12: Inner side view of wheel hub. 13: The full undercarriage fairing. 14: Tailwheel, showing the fabric cover to the fuselage fairing. 15 & 16: Two
views of the uncowled, nine cylinder engine. 17: Close-up of the proeller hub.


STEARMAN IN DETAIL Tony OK 22/9/17 11:56 Page 3

3 4 5

6 7 8

9 10 11

12 13 15


16 17


STEARMAN IN DETAIL Tony OK 22/9/17 11:56 Page 4

18 19 20

21 22 23

24 18: Access hatch on lower top surface wing. 19: Rear strut anchor, lower wing. 20: Wing tip
hand grip, lower wing. 21: Front strut anchor point, lower wing. 22: Mirror under wing centre
section. 23: Hand grip on upper wing centre section. 24 & 25: Lower wing undersides showing
aileron in up and down positions. 26: Wing-walk panel for cockpit access. Lower portside wing
root. Starboard is similar. 27: Hand grip on rear lower fuselage. 28: Inspection hatch, rear
upper fuselage, port side only. 29: Metal tailplane/fin fairing. Starboard side folds over port.
30: Fuselage anchor point for tailplane underside bracing wires 31: View of rear fuselage
starboard side under tailplane, showing fairing for rudder cable, metal panel work and
tailplane bracing wires. 32: Metal panels behind the rear cockpit well and the radio aerial.

25 26

27 28 29

30 31 32


STEARMAN IN DETAIL Tony OK 22/9/17 11:56 Page 5

34 35 34: General view of tailcone.

35: Rudder aerodynamic
balance and the anchor
points for wire braces.
36: Annotation at foot of
ruddder. 37: Detail of bracing
wire anchor point at tailpost.
38: Tail light on rudder.
39: Braceing wire anchor
point at fin leading edge.
40: Full view of the interplane
strut, starboard side.
41: Wooden bracing wire
spacer between upper and
lower wings. 42: View from
rear, showing the rudder
control horn, angled down 45

36 37 38 39

40 41 42

43 44

43 & 44: Wing strut and 46 47

bracing wire anchor points,
on upper wing lower
surface. 45: The cabane
struts, starboard side.
46: Close-up of cabane
strut anchor points. 47: The
anchor points for wing
bracing wires at lower wing
root. 48: Anchor point for
rear interplane strut at
lower wing trailing edge.
49: Leading edge lower
wing strut anchor point.
50: Pitot head on port 51
interplane strut, also seen in

48 49 50


BMFA SCALE NATS Tony OK 22/9/17 12:44 Page 2


Mick Reeves aerobatting his Sopwith Strutter.


BMFA SCALE NATS Tony OK 22/9/17 12:45 Page 3

NATS! Tom Daly files his photo report of a Scale Nats
blessed with sunshine

he week before the Scale Nats, the weather forecast Scale Administrators, Contest Directorss, and Organisers who
seemed to be predicting 'typical Barkston' weather: cool make it look easy and it all went off seamlessly, to the delight
blustery cross-winds, and the chance of showers. Then of the crowd.
miraculously, the weather relented and despite a bright
breezy Nats Bank Holiday Monday, we had lots of sun Airco DH9
and warm temperatures. However, the wind did back and veer A new model from the Mick Henderson hangar is always a
quite a bit, and canny pilots had to deal with the dodgy gusts. significant event for keen traditional make-it-all-yourself, high-end
scale folk. Mick's previous steed, his first and famous DH9, just had
Three competition events too many hours on the clock, so a replacement was in order.
This year there were three R/C scale competitions, FAI This time Mick went for what he termed a 'simpler' model, built
International Class F4C, Stand-Off Scale, and Flying-Only. perhaps to not quite the same standard as the predecessor. Well,
Each discipline demanded a different approach from the you could have fooled me. The new DH9 is exquisite. It also sports
pilots - not to mention the Contest Director and the Scale an eye-catching scheme.
Tech Team. Currently, we are lucky to have a group of slick Designed to 1/4 scale, naturally she is scratch-built and is

Mike Sollit's Ryan STA. OS .40GF petrol four stroke power. Dave Toyer’s Miles Messenger

John Elkington's lovely Cessna 150 on short finals. Remote start, too! Brian Woods had to enter this ARTF Corsair at the last minute since his
new model was not finished.


BMFA SCALE NATS Tony OK 22/9/17 12:46 Page 4

Dave Womersley pushes his Chipmunk T Firts flight of the comp: Dave Osbourne's The Judging Process underway in the Scale
Mk10. Andy Bowman with tx. Tucano had an altercation with the furniture. Marquee.

Jim McCalls' Spacewalker from the Sig kit. Mysterious engine failure dogged Richard Alan Glover's Tiger Moth on a low fly by.
Weighs 21lbs. MVVS 40 petrol power. Crapp's Westland Wessex all weekend.

fitted with a well-tempered Laser 360, covering finished with Mick Reeves Models and he romped home to victory. Mind
which I thought powered her very paints. A really beautiful and exciting you, Alistair used to be an RAF Test Pilot, so
realistically. Mick covered his new DH9 model in the air. perhaps all those hours paid off when
with Sig Coverall, topped off with scaled down. Excellent stuff!
Klasscote finishes and was entered into DH 112 Venom
Stand-Off Scale. Amazingly, she flies on Alistair Foot was attending his first Nats as Hawker Typhoon
just four channels. We will take a closer a competitor. He fielded a 1:8.5 scale DH Leisure habits are changing; lifestyles are
look at here in a later issue. Venom DH 112. This is the Freewing foam changing; the times they are a-
ARTF, fitted with a 3748-1450kV motor, changing. This has had a knock-on effect
Howard 'Pete' driving a 90mm EDF (electric ducted fan) on the scale hobby. As we all become
We have seen her before, at Old Warden unit. The model uses a six -ell 4,500mAh busier, The Thousand Hour Hand-Built
Scale Day last year, but John Carpenter's battery, and weighs 6lbs. scale flting model is becoming an
Golden Age racer never fails to impress. In The pretty scheme is that of the Swiss endangered species. Step forward Dave
fact, this was the first time I had seen her Aerobatic Display Team. Alistair flew the Charles (son of first-ever (1970) Scale
in full sunshine, and it few magnificently. Venom very smoothly indeed in the Flying- World Champ, Mick) with his ARTF
'Pete' is hand built to 1:3.6 scale, and has Only event. It soon became clear that he Typhoon.
Laser 180 power. John used Solartex was the one to beat, but no one could The Black Horse Typhoon ARTF is

Alex Kennedy's 1/5th scale DH 60 Moth.

Seagull ARTF kit, RCV .91 CD power.
BMFA SCALE NATS Tony OK 22/9/17 12:46 Page 5

Terry Manley's 1/6th scale Blackburn Blackburn.

manufactured to 1:6.2 scale and Dave Flying-Only and placed Second, beating obvious for all to see. Incidentally, Andy
has fitted a Saito 220, complete with another heavily modded ARTF (a also scratch-built the fine dummy engine.
petrol conversion. I must assure you that Westland Wyvern from Peter Fullard) into The Jungmeister was entered in Flying-
this is a very attractive model fighter, Third place. Only but did not place. I thought it
which looks appropriately warlike in looked very pretty in the air, and to
the air. Bucker Bu 133 Jungmeister modellers of a certain age, very
Dave has made significant modifications Andy Bowman was campaigning his reminiscent of the early days of R/C scale
and improvements to the original factory- much-modded 1/4 scale, 65" span Bucker aerobatics.
built airframe. He has also modified the Bu 133c Jungmeister. This is based on the
pre-painted vinyl finish and has also fitted new(ish) Seagull ARTF, to which Andy has De Havilland DH60
electric retracts instead of the factory- fitted O.S.120 FS power. The covering is Well known Nats competitor Alex
supplied air units, and he has installed self-adhesive film and Andy painstakingly Kennedy flew a 1/5th scale DH 60 Moth,
working landing lights, plus a retracting modified the cowl which, originally, was assembled from the Seagull ARTF kit to
tailwheel. far too long. Sorting this out was no quick- which Alex has fitted RCV 91 CD power.
The warpaint scheme chosen is fix, and needed considerable traditional He entered the model in Flying-Only
modelled on the Hendon Museum sole building skills, including much thought where, sadly, it did not make the podium.
survivor. Dave entered his Typhoon in and energy. However, the results are This is a very pretty model, which flies very

John K Thomas's Steve Webb Models / World Martin Fardell with his Fairchild Model 71, Martin Fardell's Fairchild Model 71, 120"
Models 1/4 scale Piper Cub. built to 1/5th scale. span, electric powered.

Alistair Foot's 1.5m span EDF foamie DH Andy Bowman walking out with his Bucker Andrew Bowman's modded Bucker
Venom. Weighs 2.9 kgs. Jungmeister. Note accurately modded cowl. Jungmeister from the Seagull ARTF.


BMFA SCALE NATS Tony OK 22/9/17 12:48 Page 6

Mick Henderson's latest model is a cracker: Davie Fisher reckons there should have been Jim Currie and his 35 year old DH Tiger Moth,
another Airco DH9! Cockpit detail below. a wheel on that bare axle. as Judges look on.

Davie Fisher's beautifully finished Boeing Jim Currie's Flair DH Tiger Moth looking
Stearman. superb on a low pass.

nicely indeed and one has to remark that 'required reading'. His own-design / hand finished with Sig Koverall and B+Q spray
the factory finish is amazingly good. built Fairchild Model 71 is a sweetie. cans! She failed to place in Flying-Only.
Martin has the knack of choosing
Fairchild Model 71 appealing )although less-than- The Old Firm
To many of us, Martin Fardell represents mainstream) prototypes and making them The good thing about watching such
the epitome of the doughty self-design / fly well. This Fairchild is no exception. experienced scale competitors, is that you
scratch-build radio-scale modeller. For Martin has recently started to use electric are seeing the best practice their craft.
many of us, his writings on scale topics in power, and this 'leccy powered 1/5th Three full days of fine models being
the magazines over the years was Fairchild wafts along beautifully. She is beautifully flown in excellent conditions

RAF Barkston Heath actually in the sun!!


BMFA SCALE NATS Tony OK 22/9/17 12:48 Page 7

reminded us all why we love scale flying

models. In the end, Dave Knott triumphed
in F4C, with Dave Womersley Second, and
Mick Reeves (who came close to winning)
placing Third. All previous Champions it
should be noted.
In Stand-Off Scale, Alan Glover placed
1st, Jim McCall 2nd, and Terry Manley 3rd. BMFA Official Results
t was only in Flying-Only that the 'Old
Firm' slightly loosened their grasp on the F4C 2017
silverware, with Alistair Foot in 1st Place, This competition is considered the ultimate International Scale Competition class. High
Dave Charles 2nd, and Peter Fullard 3rd. levels of accuracy in documentation, building, and flying are demanded. There is the
Beyond these factual observations, I need BOM (Builder Of The Model Rule). This means that the pilot must build his own model,
to make no other comment. We can all and it must not weigh more than 15kgs. This is a complex competition, whose rules are
read the runes. extensive. The BMFA Scale Technical Committee website has a downloadable copy of all
the current rules which should be consulted for up-to-date details. For instance, the use
The Verdict of gyros has recently been admitted, which has upset some.
Hand-built models, some ARTFs, and some
new ideas from the competitors this year. Dave Knott Hawker Hurricane Mk I
However, in F4C at least, it must be noted Dave Womersley DHC-1 Chipmunk
that a mixture of cunning, experience, Mick Reeves Sopwith 1/12 Strutter
and nifty prepartion triumphed.
The BMFA Scale Tech. Committee is to FLYING ONLY 2017
be congratulated on a very well This is designed to be the most accessibe scale competition at The Nats. There is no
organised Scale Nats. Wind shifts, B.o.M. Rule, and no requirement for documentation.
managing the issues of 'overflying', and a
full-size Air Ambulance Heli Med-Evac, Alistair Foot DH 122 Venom
were all taken in an easy stride. In Dave Charles Hawker Typhoon
addition, the larger BMFA made a fine job Peter Fullard Westland Wyvern
of the Nats this year. I thought the BMFA
Official 2017 Nats Programme was a STAND OFF SCALE 2017
thoroughly well conceived and clearly Based on FAI Class F4H. Many see this competition as 'FAI F4C-Lite'. Consult the BMFA
laid out booket that matched its webiste for full details. However, in brief: this class requires minimum documentation to
ambitions. cover outline, colour, and markings. Static judging takes place at 5 metres. No Builder of
For those of us who also like to slip off to The Model (B.o.M.) requirement, though final surface finish must be the work of the pilot.
look at Control Line Scale and a bit of
Control Line Carrier, this was a very useful Alan Glover DH82 Tiger Moth
document. Overall, this was a memorable Jim McCall Spacewalker
Nats for the balmy weather, the lack of Terry Manley Blackburn Blackburn
hitches, and the continuous flying over
three long, sunny, satisfying days. I

Dave Charles' Typhoon on flaps-down short finals. Saito 220 power. John Carpenter's fabulous Golden Age Howards ‘Pete’ Racer.

Dave Knott's Hurricane MkI sweeps to victory in F4C. Peter Fullard's extensively modded ARTF Westland Wyvern.


PLAY DIRTY NEW Tony OK 21/9/17 10:27 Page 2


the model finished plain! For very little

took the plunge a few years ago and looks good on a model is directly
started weathering my scale models. I effort, and next to no cost, the results can proportional to its physical size, the
am talking now of the more common transform any scale model, either scratch- method of construction and usage of the
smaller scale of model (up to 6ft span, built from plans or an ARTF from something original full-size prototype.
or so), these being the optimum size for that looks like all the rest, into something If the model is small and represents an
the particular methods discussed here. unique - and more importantly, give it that all- metal aircraft, then most of the
Larger models demand higher levels of something that separates it from the fasteners and all the panel lines will not be
detail, which require a different normal high volume production ‘toy’. visible - if they are all faithfully
approach. I believe that even the most basic of represented, it just won’t look right - so
I have never used an airbrush and sports scale models will benefit from forget rivets (particularly if these
although the finish that can be achieved ‘playing dirty’ too, it’s not just the are countersunk) and
by using that method - the Ian Peacock accurate scale model that gains an extra forget panel lines,
titles on the subject are classics - it does bit of ‘dimension’ by a bit of gentle except for those
take quite a lot of skill, not to mention the highlighting and painless distressing. I panels that would
cost of decent equipment, to get up and say painless, in fact, if the model is a have been
running - and to end up with a large one, the method described regularly removed
presentable finish. What I hope to achieve below can render one or two of for maintenance,
here is perhaps to give some of you the your digits extremely sore - but re-arming, stowage
courage to have a go - I promise you, I’m running ahead oft of and the like. These
that’s all it takes! myself... panels would
The skills needed are owned by probably have their
everyone - the most difficult part is Decisions, edges chipped, be
developing the ability to know when to decisions... most likely to have
stop (I still haven’t learnt that yet!); The amount of been dropped and
overdoing it can be just as bad as leaving ‘weathering’ that dented - and the

Take a ‘bog-standard’ ARTF, a handful of courage, add a

bit of paint, a bit of dust and a bit of imagination - and it
starts to look interesting. It’s a good starting point from
which to develop technique without spoiling a major true-
scale project!


PLAY DIRTY NEW Tony OK 21/9/17 10:27 Page 3

The editor’s 9ft. span B24 Liberator - a first attempt at a fully Using a right-angle paper template to add ‘fabric over metal
weathered model - maybe a bit overdone - but looked great in the structure’ effect on a B24 aileron - all done by eyeball, no
air. Note the various techniques tried out to reproduce flap lines, oil measurements made - not a lot of chalk used, but the effect is quite
stains and access covers on a totally featureless surface. visible.

Doing the tail on a P-39 Airacobra. The postcard chalk dust ‘palette’ The larger the model, the more the small detail can be seen. Here the
is also being used as a straight edge mask, as brown sienna ‘hinge P-39 Airacobra’s engine access panels have been given the full
lube stain’ is applied to the elevator. ‘chipped-paint-and-fasteners’ treatment. Note also the ‘worn paint’
on the leading edge of the air intake fairing.

fasteners holding them on would have the surface finish of the real thing - the case with the fuselage sides.
been similarly abused, too. Dirt will also unfortunately, it is also outside of the Lower surfaces? Well, no one can see
tend to accumulate between panels scope of just one piece on this technique, them, can they! Well, yes they can in the
The best way to assimilate the level so let’s just concentrate on general air, but absolute accuracy is not so
needed, is to study photographs of the ‘dirtying’. important at a distance of thirty or forty
full-size aircraft - I’m not talking museum feet and at flying speed!
exhibits, but the workhorses ‘we-fly-’em- Number one tool - the eyeball! So what we do is treat one wing panel
day-and-night’ type of machine. These I have never positioned any of the panel at a time, then copy it on the opposite
are the ones that burn, stain, leak and lines on my models using a ruler - just the surface but, whilst being careful to
collect the dust, grime and general paint eyeball. Start by getting hold of a scale position the lines accurately, we don’t
oxidisation that occurs over a period three-view drawing of the aircraft being want the degree of weathering to be
of time. modelled that shows the panel and joint symmetrical - or at least, not a mirror
I always enjoy researching the aircraft I lines. If you can’t find one, get one of a image! Again, not so important on the
am modelling, not only to choose a similar aircraft type - the construction fuselage, as you can’t see both sides at
suitable colour scheme, but to check out methods are probably very similar and the same time!
the small detail - not only the panels, but anyway - no-one is going to take you to
what lies beneath. Why? Panels fitted over task about not having the right number of Gentlemen, prepare your surfaces...
hot internal components will discolour with access panels on a wing, or having the All the surfaces to be weathered need to
the heat. Panels adjacent to exhaust exits spar half an inch out of position! be flattened - no, don’t tread on it - by
will discolour, too. Engine cowlings will pick The important thing to bear in mind is that I mean that the surface must not be
up the local stains of leaks and overfilling, that, except for access panels which glossy - matt is great, satin is OK, too. If the
as well as any exhaust residues. could well be in different places on the surface is shiny (moulded glass fibre, for
Edges of panels and airframe surfaces aircraft, most panel lines are symmetrical example), then the entire surface must be
that meet the airflow in flight will have i.e. wing panels are the same position and rubbed down with fine wet-and-dry paper
paint chipped off and the hollows of size, port and starboard (they probably (used wet, preferably), until a uniformly
distortions will collect ‘out-of-wind’ grime. ARE different top and bottom, however) matt surface remains. If not, the chalk will
Curved leading edges will have paint and the same on both left and right side not adhere. If the surface is film-covered
abraded away by the dust in the air, and of the fuselage. The former is the most (as on an ARTF, for example), then very
have paint chipped off by larger airborne critical as usually, the top of both wings fine wet and dry can be used gently over
particles. All these factors contribute to are visible at the same time - which is not sheeted areas using 1000/1200. Open


PLAY DIRTY NEW Tony OK 21/9/17 10:27 Page 4

The front end of a Flair 90-sized P-47 Thunderbolt, given a light The same P-47, showing minimal highlighting of the moulded-in panel
dirtying, emphasising the engine servicing panels and the hot lines. An attempt (only partly successful) has been made to show the
exhaust discolouration behind the cowl cooling shutters. A model this opening supercharger cooling air flaps - a key feature of a P-47,
size really needs ‘built-in’ surface detail to look good, but as an ARTF, which has been, unaccountably, been omitted from the fuselage
it looks better than ‘as supplied’, I think. moulding.

structure needs to be treated differently. In addition to the tone, the length of the part of a round panel, for example, is
In this case, I use Flair Spectrum Clear finger stroke can be varied too - this formed, then the eye assumes that the
Satin fuel proofer and spray all over the effect is difficult to describe, but take a panel is continued, even when they is no
film areas and allow the proofer to good look at some of the photos shown marking there - again, see the photo of
completely dry out, before commencing here and you will see what I mean. It is the Liberator wing. Fuel filler access
the application of wear and tear! very easy to overdo it, so ‘a-little-now- panels are done this way, to the left of
and-again’ is best, building up the each engine nacelle - no idea if it’s scale,
Chalk dust and finger pressure! intensity, rather than putting it on in one it just looks OK!
The medium I use is Artist chalk sticks - not go. On light base-colour surfaces, the For stains, I usually use strokes of sienna
the oil-based type, though. These can be slightest discolouration, sometimes difficult brown applied just once - and
bought at art supply shops for just a few to see with the paper mask in place, firmly. I use this on lower
pence each. I only use three colours - becomes a clear, but subtly defined line surfaces as leaks and spills
lamp black, sienna brown and grey. The when the paper is removed. and at hinge points to
only other tools required are a couple of Cut a right angle out of a piece of indicated excessive
paper masks (A4 copy paper is perfect) - paper and you can build up an lubrication, or
and the tip of your index finger! impression of structure under a fabric wear, etc.
In simple terms, you lay the straight edge covering. One of the pictures here shows I
of the paper on the surface where the this technique being applied on the
line is going to be, with the paper aileron of my B-24D Liberator. The
FORWARD of the line. Rub the chalk stick impression of leading edge, ribs etc, has
back and forth on a spare piece of paper been created purely by using a 90° mask.
to generate some dust on the paper and The illusion of access panels can be
then rub the tip of your index finger in the created by cutting out paper templates,
dust. Apply the dust by stroking it onto the the size and shape of the panel, holding
model from the paper side only. them in place on the surface with one
Obviously, the more dust that is on your finger and stroking dust across the
finger, the darker will be the colour template (to the rear only - because
transferred to the model, so by varying that’s the direction of the airflow while in
the amount of dust applied, the ‘tone’ of flight). You don’t need to go all round the
the weathering can be adjusted. panel - it would look wrong if you did - if

Position the paper mask, check that it lines up with any previously applied detail (for The paper mask simply wraps around curved
symmetry), then stroke your finger over the paper onto the fuselage fore-to aft -one way only) surfaces - double curvatures may need to be
repeatedly and unevenly , then remove the paper... and voila! A panel line. done in several stages.


PLAY DIRTY NEW Tony OK 21/9/17 10:27 Page 5

The Ripmax Phantom; by

no means a true-scale
model but - a .40-sized
ARTF model with just a
little ‘dirtying up’ to give
it a bit more ‘presence’.

The blurred finger is repeatedly stroking the Applying ‘stain’ areas, after the basic lamp D.I.Y. decals are fitted before ‘dirtying up’, so
dust across the paper edge, varying the black ‘grime’ has been done. Here the colour that they become part of the surface detail.
intensity of the dust colour. Having planned is being built up, by applying more dust to To create the impression of the fuselage on
the line positions (if they are not already an existing ‘streak’. the flat surface, a single paper mask is used
moulded into the ARTF model skins), a 40- after putting a piece of low-tack masking
sized model can be dirtied up in about 45 tape down either side, full chord. The dust
minutes (you get quicker as you go along!). doesn’t have to create a complete line - the
eye will continue the line, even if there isn’t
anything there!


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