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Christopher Eur

May 15, 2014

**In the winter of 2013-2014, I decided to write up complete solutions to the starred exercises in
**

Differential Topology by Guillemin and Pollack. There are also solutions or brief notes on non-

starred ones. Please email errata to ceur@college.harvard.edu.

Notation: A neighborhood is always assumed to be an open neighborhood. A graph of a function

f is denoted Γ(f ).

Contents

1 Chapter 1: Manifolds and Smooth Maps 2

1.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.2 Derivatives and Tangents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.3 The Inverse Function Theorem and Immersions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.4 Submersions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.5 Transversality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.6 Homotopy and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.7 Sard’s Theorem and Morse Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.8 Embedding Manifolds in Euclidean Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

**2 Chapter 2. Transversality and Intersection 16
**

2.1 Manifolds with Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.2 Transversality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1

We have y ∈ V ⊂ RM open with G : V → RL smooth.1. and hence. y := f (x). So. and f : X → Rm is smooth / diffeomorphic. y 7→ p r − kxk2 2 r + kyk2 2 They are mutual inverses.2). Z ⊂ X. and let f : X → Y. G = g on Y ∩ V .e. if x ∈ X and φ : U → X is local parametrization at x. Then: f and g are smooth / diffeomorphism ⇒ g ◦ f : X → Z is smooth / diffeomorphism.1.1.1 Definitions Exercise 1 (1. Exercise 3 (1. and note that any linear map on V is smooth since it extends to a linear map on RN . Now. U ∩ Z is a neighborhood of z ∈ Z such that F = f |Z on Z ∩ U . Solution) Consider the maps rx ry Br (0) → Rk .4). Now. Now fix any x ∈ X. and G ◦ F = g ◦ f on X ∩ U since f (X ∩ U ) ⊂ (Y ∩ V ) by construction. Let X ⊂ RN . Exercise 2 (1. X ∩ U a neighborhood of z ∈ X) and F : U → Rm smooth such that F = f on X ∩ U . With diffeomorphism ψ : Rk → Br .1. Show that any open ball Br (0) in Rk is diffeomorphic to Rk . by choosing a basis of V we have an isomorphism φ : V → Rk . Y . Then G ◦ F : U → RL is smooth. xk ). and if φ : Rk → V is a linear isomorphism. 2 . and F = f on X ∩ U . Y ⊂ RM . Solution) It suffices to show the smooth part (then apply it to the inverse map to get diffeomor- phism). Every k-dimensional vector subspace V of RN is a manifold diffeomorphic to Rk . then f |Z is also smooth / diffeomorphic. Note that this is true when X. If X ⊂ RN . and by the previous exercise both are smooth (lots of composition of smooth maps). g : Y → Z. Since f : X → Rm is smooth.5). RM . each xi is a linear functional on V (projections πi : RN → R is linear). φ is smooth. Since xi = πi ◦ φ. . all linear maps on V are smooth. which we can extend to a linear map φe : RN → Rk . then take (for small enough r > 0) Br (φ−1 (x)) ⊂ U so that φ|Br is also a local parametrization at x. Exercise 4 (1. RL (Chain Rule from calculus).1 Chapter 1: Manifolds and Smooth Maps 1. Solution) It suffices to show the smooth part (diffeomorphism part follows easily). Z ⊂ RL . Lastly. Z are open subsets of RN . and thus V is a manifold diffeomorphic to Rk . Fix any z ∈ Z ⊂ X. we have a local parametrization φ|Br ◦ ψ : Rk → X at x. x 7→ p and Rk → Br (0). and x ∈ U ⊂ RN open with F : U → V smooth (if necessary by replacing U with U ∩ f −1 (V )). Solution) Lemma: every linear transformation L : Rn → Rm is smooth (∵ dLx = L ∀x ∈ Rn ). Let φ := (x1 .3). . if X is a k-dimensional manifold then every point in X has a neighborhood diffeomorphic to Rk . there exists z ∈ U ⊂ RN open (i. . then the corresponding coordinate functions are linear functionals on V (called linear coordinates). φ−1 : Rk → V ⊂ RN (linear) is also smooth. .

it also has a local parametrization Ba (0) → R3 via (u. √ Solution) f : R → R via f (x) = x3 is smooth and bijective but f −1 (x) = 3 x is not smooth at x = 0. . Let S k ⊂ Rk+1 sphere.1. the inverse map is same as projection so it is smooth). x21 + · · · x2k + 1 x1 + · · · x2k + 1 x21 + · · · x2k + 1 and that π. Y are open subsets (∵ f × g = (f1 . Now. u. if f.. 1 − uk+1 1 − uk+1 x21 + · · · x2k − 1 −1 2x1 2xk π : (x1 . 0) is removed from {x = 0} ∪ {y = 0} we get four disconnected components. . uk+1 ) 7→ . 7. 3 . hyperboloid in R3 defined by x2 + y 2 − z 2 = a.1. 8). . (A×B)∩(A0 ×B 0 ) = (A∩A0 )×(B∩B 0 ) ⊂ X ×Y (NOT true for unions). Smooth bijection need not be diffeomorphism. 2 .13). Lastly..1.6.. Exercise 6 (1. Let f : X → Y be smooth. V of X. Hence. If f : X → X 0 . 1) the north pole. x) is a diffeomorphism (∵ ∆ : RN → RN × RN has Jacobian [IN | IN ]t so it is smooth. . Then fe is a diffeomorphism (hence if X a manifold so is Γ(f )). so it is smooth. . so taking neighborhoods U . v) 7→ (± a + u2 − v 2 . A0 ⊂ X and B. f −1 × g −1 is smooth inverse of f × g.. g(y)) is smooth. Also. . F × G = f × g on (X ∩ U ) × (Y ∩ V ). v. g are diffeomorphisms. using the lemma and the previous exercise. G smooth. . B 0 ⊂ Y . 0.17). g are diffeomorphisms. .1. When a = 0. then the product map f ×g : X ×Y → X 0 × Y 0 defined by (x. Union of two coordinate axes in R2 is not a manifold.14. v) (switch x. Y with F. .3] and that they are mutual inverses is checked by direct computation. . The inverse map is same as the projection map. .Exercise 5 (1.15). Lastly.. Solution) Note that for A. ± u2 + v 2 − a). Finally. . gM 0 )).√if H is the hyperboloid. Then the stereographic projection π : S k − {N } → Rk is a diffeomorphism.√and for (x. . . If f. 0. Solution) Lemma: the diagonal map ∆ : X → X × X. (This also shows that S k is a k-dimensional manifold). (0.1. fN 0 . . 0) ∈ H ∩ {z = 0}. f (x)). y if necessary).12. .. a > 0 is a manifold (not when a = 0). When (0. x 7→ (x. y) 7→ (f (x). ..but R − {∗} has two components. π −1 are smooth follows from [1. H + and H − can be parametrized by R2 − Ba (0) → R3 via(u.16. and Rn − {∗} is connected for n ≥ 2. Solutions) Direct computation yields the maps explicitly: u1 uk π : (u1 . projection map X × Y → X is smooth. X × Y → X is smooth since RN × RM → RN is smooth (in fact the Jacobian looks like [IN | 0]). . so fe is a diffeomorphism. 0) has no neighborhood diffeomorphic to R2 (again use connectivity argument). y. and define fe : X → Γ(f ) by x 7→ (x. xk ) 7→ . it is easy to check that f × g is smooth when X. . and N = (0. . v) 7→ (u.. f × g is also a diffeomorphism. g1 . g : Y → Y 0 smooth. Exercise 8 (1. Exercise 7 (1. fe = (Id ×f ) ◦ ∆ is smooth.

then the ∼ linear map dfx : Tx (X) → Ty (Y ) is an isomorphism. Exercise 10 (1.2). Addition/multiplication by a constant and (x. (dfx )−1 = d(f −1 )x . g(x) := fR(x − a)f (b − x) is a smooth map.18). Exercise 12 (1. djx : Tx (X) . Obviously. 4 . Tx (U ) = Tx (X) for x ∈ U .2. X. and 0 < h(x) < 1 for x ∈ (a. Lastly. RM ). Y are assumed to be manifolds (of dimension Rk . V ⊂ Rl open. let x ∈ X. h(x) := R ∞ is also smooth with the property that h(x) = 0 for x ≤ a. x −∞ gdx Moreover. The remaining statement follows from [Exercise 17]. Now note that Rk → R. x 7→ kxk is smooth. Note that ψ −1 ◦ j ◦ φ = ψ −1 ◦ φ. Now. Exercise 11 (1. third by lemma). 1. and φ : U → X is a local parametrization with φ(0) = x. Lastly. 1. d(f −1 )y ◦ dfx = Id. Then ∀x ∈ X. and φ = dφu for φ(u) ∈ V . . then (dφ0 )−1 = d(φ−1 )x (∵ Exercise [1. Then ∀x ∈ V .1. and so we have djx = dψ0 ◦ d(ψ −1 ◦ φ)0 ◦ (dφ0 )−1 = dψ0 ◦ d(ψ −1 )y ◦ dφ0 ◦ (dφ0 )−1 = Id (∵ first equality by definition.4). hence Tx (V ) = V .2 Derivatives and Tangents Note: When the context is clear. h(x) = 1 −∞ gdx for x ≥ b. Let X ⊂ Y be a submanifold. y) 7→ xy are smooth maps. 1) otherwise. so g is smooth with desired property. 0 on Rk − Bb . so from the chain rule we have Id = d(f ◦ f −1 )y = dfx ◦ d(f −1 )y . Let V ⊂ RN be a vector subspace. Let f : X → Y is a (local) diffeomorphism and x ∈ X. second by chain rule. and is positive on (a.Exercise 9 (1. x ∈ X.2.2. and likewise. φ(0) = x = ψ(0)). Solution) By choosing basis we have linear isomorphism φ : Rk → V .→ Tx (Y ) is injective—in fact it is an inclusion.3+α).4]).2. so x 7→ 1 − h(kxk) is the desired function H. Let 0 < a < b. . h is smooth with desired property by Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. The function f : R → R defined by −1/x2 e x>0 f (x) = 0 x≤0 is smooth. φ : U → X. Rl residing in RN . If U e is a open subset of a manifold X.→ Y be the inclusion map. ∀i = 0. construct a smooth function H : Rk → R that is 1 on B a . y := f (x). Solution) Let f −1 be the smooth (local) inverse map. . b) (h is also non-decreasing). ψ : V → Y be local parametrizations (U ⊂ Rk .1. b) and zero elsewhere. and (0. if L : V → RM is a linear map. d Id = Id. dLx = L. then apply [Exercise 17] and Tx (V ) = V . Moreover. then for x ∈ V . Tx (V ) = V . extend L to a linear map on the whole RN . e e Solution) Lemma: if X is a manifold.. and j : X . In fact. 2 Solution) f is smooth: for x > 0 the ith derivative of f is of the form (rational polynomial)e−1/x hence limx→0 f (i) (x) = 0.

) follows from the following lemma: Lemma: Let U1 . 0 1 Exercise 14 (1. then [d(g1 )u1 ] 0 dg(u1 . v) 7→ u.Exercise 13 (1. v). then d(f × g)(x. Let π1 : X × Y → X. d(f y )x (v) = ((dφ0 × dψ0 ) ◦ dh0 ◦ dφ−1 0 )(v) = (v. we show d(f × g)(x. note that f × g = j1 ◦ f ◦ π1 + j2 ◦ g ◦ π2 . Finally. So. Now. y) ∈ X × Y and φ × ψ : U × V → X × Y be local parametrization. as desired. and for y ∈ Y let f y : X → X × Y be a smooth injection defined by x → (x.). For (2.0) ◦ d(φ × ψ)−1 0 is easily computed to be the projection.u2 ) = d(g1 )u1 × d(g2 )u2 (∵ [dg(u1 . dπ(x. y 0 ). f is diffeomorphism since (f )−1 is just projection. π : X × Y → X be the projection map. Solution) Let (x. Now for (3. v) 7→ √ u(a + u2 − v 2 )−1/2 −v(a + u2 − v 2 )−1/2 2 2 ( a + u − v .. And so [dφ(√a. f y is diffeomorphism onto its image and d(f y )x : v 7→ (v. g : Y → Y 0 are smooth maps. 5 . and [dφ] = 1 0 . we have a local parametrization φ : Ba (0) → R3 given by (u.y) : Tx (X) × Ty (Y ) → Tx (X) is also a projection (v.9). as desired. v) = (dfx (u). 0). j2 : Y 0 → RN +M be smooth maps x0 7→ (x0 .8).0) ] = 0 1 0 0 1 0.u2 ) ] = ).1. Then 1.y) (u. U2 be open subset of Rn1 . 2. So. Rn2 . What is the tangent space to the hyperboloid defined by x2 + y 2 − z 2 = a at √ ( a. and j1 : X 0 → RN +M . dgy (v)).. 0 [d(g2 )u2 ] π X × Y −−−−→ X x x φ×ψ φ h U × V −−−−→ U we note that the map h := φ−1 ◦ π ◦ (φ × ψ) : U × V → U is also the projection map (u. 3.y) = dfx × dgy . we have d(f × g)(x. and g1 × g2 : U1 × m1 m2 U2 → R × R is smooth. 0) (a > 0)? Solution) As in [1. as expected.0.2.).) and chain rule. So. if f : X → X 0 . x-plane.y) (X × Y ) = Tx (X) × Ty (Y ) 2. w) 7→ v. Y manifolds. Lastly. π2 : X × Y → Y be 0 0 0 0 projections. and thus the tangent space is the y. u. 0).y) = dφ0 ◦ dh(0. and we have the diagram y y fy X −−−−→ X × y ⊂X ×Y x x φ φ×ψ h U −−−−→ U × 0 ⊂ U × V It’s easy to see that dh0 = Idk ×0. Now (1. using (1. T(x. as desired. dπ(x.y) = dfx × dgy . y). Let X. 3.8]. y 0 7→ (0.2. 0). 0.

φ(0) = x. . Suppose Z ⊂ X l-dimensional submanifold.3. . . dfx (v)). fe = (Id ×f ) ◦ ∆. A curve on a manifold X is a smooth map c : I → X. xk } on a neighborhood U of z in X such that Z ∩ U is defined by the equations xl+1 . and hence dfx = dFx |Tx (X) as desired. and plugging this into dfx = dψu ◦ dhu ◦ dφ−1u . . define e c : R → Rk by t 7→ (w1 t. . and hence T(x. . . and WLOG U = R (∵ [Exercise 1.11). . 1. it is obvious that tangent space at a point on an interval is R. . then d∆x (v) = (v. Let f : X → Y be smooth map of manifolds. we have dfx = IdRM ◦dFx ◦ IdTx (X) . h = ψ −1 ◦ F ◦ φ. Note that when X = Rk and c(t) = (c1 (t). where I ⊂ R interval. ck (t0 )). and hence dhu = dψv−1 ◦ dFx ◦ dφu .Exercise 15 (1. and let x ∈ U ⊂ RN open and F : U → RM smooth such that F = f on X ∩ U . Exercise 17 (made-up). we have φ : U e → X ∩ U and ψ : Ve → Y ∩ V local parametrizations (diffeo- morphisms) such that the following commutes (with h := ψ −1 ◦ f ◦ φ. z ∈ Z.12). Solution) First. Solution) Lemma: if ∆ : X → X × X is the diagonal map.2). Then there exists a local coordinate system {x1 . Let φ : U → X be local parametrization around x.2. Now. Now. so the lemma and [Exercise 1. and conversely. . The velocity vector of the curve c at time t0 . . ψ(v) = f (x)) f X ∩ U −−−−→ Y ∩ V x x φ ψ h U e −−−−→ Ve Now since f = F on X ∩ U . . ck (t)).9] implies that fex (v) = (v. . . dFx is a linear extension of the linear map dfx .f (x)) (Γ(f )) is the graph of dfx : Tx (X) → Tf (x) (Y ).2.1. Every vector in Tx (X) is the velocity vector of some curve in X. so dct0 : R → Tx0 (X). dc0 = dφ0 ◦ ec0 and so dc0 (1) = dφ0 (w). xk = 0. dfx (v)). as desired. . t 7→ c(t). . f (x)). then dfex (v) = (v. . . . as desired. and c := φ ◦ e c. v) (∵ h : U → U × U has dh0 = [Ik |Ik ]). In fact.4]). denoted dc dt (t0 ) or ċ(t0 ).3 The Inverse Function Theorem and Immersions Exercise 18 (1. .2. . Exercise 16 (1. . Now. Now fix any x ∈ X and v ∈ Tx (X). x ∈ X. By definition v = dφ0 (w) for some w = (w1 . . wk t). φ(u) = x. . then dc 0 0 dt (t0 ) = (c1 (t0 ). is defined as dct0 (1) ∈ Tx0 (X) where x0 = c(t0 ). wk ) ∈ Rk . Let f : X → Y smooth map of manifolds and define fe : X → X × Y by x → (x. and we thus we have the converse. 6 . Then dfx = dFx |Tx (X) : Tx (X) → Ty (Y ).10. Solution) WLOG.

. αs2 ). then Im(f ) is an open interval and f : R → Im(f ) is a diffeomorphism. so Im(G|L ) cannot be a submanifold. If dim X = dim Y . Then ∃gk+1 . as desired. . and bijective local diffeomorphism admits smooth inverse) . . Moreover. . . then f is in fact a local diffeomorphism. and f |Z are immersions. αs1 ) = G(s2 . Z ⊂ X submanifold. cos 2πt. Let f : X → Y. f |Z = f ◦ j. f is local diffeomorphism by Local Immersion Theorem.3. xk form a local coordinate on a neighborhood V of x ∈ X. Exercise 19 (1.5]: if f is injective local diffeomorphism. Then f × g. This is not true for R2 . . .3. xik form a local coordinate system. t 7→ (cos 2πt. and thus every manifold is locally a graph of a smooth function. α ∈ R − Q. then s1 − s2 ∈ Z and α(s1 − s2 ) ∈ ZZ. . . . Such is not true for h : R2 → R2 local diffeomorphism. Let (x1 . e V −−−−−−→ U commutes. . g ◦ f . let ψ(U e ) := U ⊂ X and ψ −1 = (x1 . . . If f : R → R is a local diffeomorphism. . . and if dim X = dim Y . and X ⊂ RN be a k-dimensional manifold. which implies that s1 = s2 since α is irrational. Define g : R → S 1 . R is connected thus so is Im(f ). Exercise 20 (1. If j : Z . g : Y → Y 0 be immersions.3.→ X is an immersion. by Local Immersion Theorem. gN : U ⊂ Rk → R smooth such that V = Γ(g) where g = (gl+1 . xk ). sin 2πt). sin 2πt) (local diffeomorphism) and G := g × g : R2 → S 1 × S 1 . we have parametrizations around z such that: j Z −−−−→ X x x φ ψ can.→ X is inclusion map. Solution) Lemma[1. sin 2πs. gN ) : U → RN −k . so f |Z is immersion. . sin 2πt) (h is not injective). Exercise 22 (1. . and let L ⊂ R2 a line with irrational slope. with φ(0) = z = ψ(0) and U e = V ×V 0 . Solution) Since the inclusion map j : Z .3. Then any x ∈ X has a neighborhood on which the restrictions of some k coordinate functions xi1 . its image is open in Y . If G(s1 . . xN ) be standard coordinate functions on RN . . . . Now for simplicity assume that x1 . Exercise 21 (1. Then G|L is an injective local diffeomorphism. . we have that Im(G|L ) is dense in S 1 × S 1 . but its image is not a submanifold of S 1 × S 1 . 7 . consider h = g × arctan where g : R → S 1 . xk (v) = 0}.5). Solution) G : (s. t) 7→ (cos 2πs. . then Z ∩ U = {v ∈ U | xl+1 (v) = 0. since {nα}n∈N dense in R/Z.3. hence Im(f ) is an interval.9] and g ◦ f immersion by chain rule.6). Solution) f × g is immersion by [Exercise 1. t 7→ (cos 2πt. and f local diffeomorphism implies that f is an open map and that f 0 (x) 6= 0 (and hence f is injective). .4. .7).2. imm. and it is diffeomorphism onto its image (∵ open: local homeomorphisms are open maps. . . and WLOG let L be defined by t = αs. Now. .3.9).

{bi } such that ai 6= bi but f (ai ) = f (bi ). Now. If f : X → Y is a submersion and U is open in X.10). . so only need show that f is injective on some open set V containing Z (then f is injective local diffeomorphism on V ∩ U . Solution) Fix any y ∈ f (U ). for each x ∈ Z there exists T Ux on which f |Ux is a diffeomorphism. .4. then taking consecutively smaller -neighborhoods Z of Z.2). let π : RN → Rk be projection defined by (x1 . then every submersion f : X → Y is surjective. hence by IVT π|X : X → Rk is a local diffeomorphism. of by previous problem f (X) is open in Y . . .4 Submersions Exercise 24 (1. f (X) is compact in Y since X is compact.1). Generalized IVT: Let f : X → Y be smooth map that is injective on a compact submanifold Z ⊂ X. so it has k linearly independent rows. . . and hence the result as desired. vk ∈ RN of Tx (X). {Ux } is a cover of X. hence we choose a finite subcover U = Ui ⊃ Z (X is compact). ai → a and bi → b (both converge) since WLOG they all belong to some Z for which Z is compact. ik . . assume i1 . . Exercise 25 (1. then the matrix [v1 · · · vk ] has rank k. Contradiction. Now. hence a diffeomorphism). 8 . IFT is when Z is a single point.4. . and suppose ∀x ∈ Z. . then by local submersion theorem we have the following commutative diagram f X −−−−→ Y x x φ ψ π Ve × U e −−−−→ Ve with φ(Ve × U e ) ⊂ U and ψ(U e ) := V .3. . if f : X → Rm is a submersion then f is surjective. dfx : Tx (X) → Tf (x) (Y ) is isomorphism. and V is as desired. . Suppose V does not exist. we obtain a sequence {ai }. 1. and the smooth inverse π e−1 : U → V is of form Id ×g. On U . Exercise 23 (1. Solution) Choose a basis v1 . . . . k and let π e := π|X . Pick x ∈ f −1 (y). maps an open neighborhood of Z in X diffeomorphically onto an open neighborhood of f (Z) in Y . xN ) 7→ (xi1 . hence. ik = 1. then dπx |Tx (X) : Tx (X) → Rk is an isomorphism by construction. . Moreover. Solution) Clearly. then f (U ) is open in Y . . which is contradiction to Rm not being compact. Then f maps Z diffeomorphically on f (Z). we need show ∃V ∈ y open in Y such that V ⊂ f (U ). . xik ). Y = f (X) t (Y − f (X)). . say i1 . . However. X is open in X. . there exist no submersions of compact manifolds into Euclidean spaces. Passing through subsequences. hence f (X) is closed in Y . Let X compact and Y connected. f is a local diffeomorphism. by construction the limit point is on Z and hence a = b = ze since f is injective on Z. Now. . . this implies that f cannot be a local diffeomorphism at ze. Solution) Since dfx is an isomorphism for all x ∈ Z. π e : X → Rk is a diffeomorphism on x ∈ V ⊂ X. . so it suffices to show that Y − f (X) is both open and closed in Y . and in fact.

The group SL(n) is a (sub)manifold of M (n) and is moreover a Lie group. . −1)} in R3 : transversal 9 .4. xn . . xn } (finite). n). the xy plane and the plane spanned by {(3. TI (O(n)) = ker dfI . we can construct desired U and Vi ’s by taking finite intersections. .10. So. k ∂p X Solution) Lemma: p(x1 . say x0 ∈ f −1 (y). 2. and the tangent space to SL(n) at at the identity I is {H ∈ M (n) : Tr(H) = 0} Solution) Recall O(n) = f −1 (I) where f : M (n) → S(n). (0. (skip: this is linear algebra) 1. and there exists U ∈ y open in Y such that f −1 (U ) = V1 t· · ·tVn where Vi is open neighborhood of xi and f |Vi : Vi → U is a diffeomorphism (∀i = 1. Examples of transversal & non-transversal intersection of linear spaces: a. 0). . .5. . we will not distinguish X as a whole manifold and the open neighborhood of x in X since the tangent space at x turns out same (will write X for both). let p be any homogeneous polynomial in k − variables. and a > 0 ones are all diffeomorphic. 4.5.4. . matrix multiplication and inversion is a smooth map (Cramer’s rule). a. Exercise 29 (1. . as are a < 0 ones. X compact. z) 7→ x2 + y 2 − z 2 . .2).6). and f −1 (a).13). . H 7→ det H. Tangent space to O(n) at identity I is the space of skew symmetric ma- trices. Now since f is local diffeomorphism at x1 .4. More generally. and since dfI : M (n) → S(n). SL(n) = det−1 (1) where det : M (n) → R. Moreover.6]. The lemma xi ∂xi i=1 implies that 0 is the only critical value of p.4. y. Exercise 28 (1.4. A 7→ AAt . so SL(n) is a Lie group. Exercise 30 (1. If f −1 (y) is not finite. . then = m · p.5 Transversality Note: When the context is clear given x on X a manifold. we compute d detI : M (n) → R: O(t2 ) + ni=0 (tH)ii + 1 − 1 P det(I + tH) − det(I) lim = lim = Tr(H) t→0 t t→0 t and hence the desired result about tangent space to SL(n) at I.11). Suppose y is a regular value of f : X → Y . TI (O(n)) = {H ∈ M (n) : H = −H t }. it contains a limit point (∵ X compact). Example: Let f : R3 → R. . xk ) homogeneous of order m. .Exercise 26 (1. (x. . Solution) Note that y regular and dim X = dim Y implies that f is local diffeomorphism at any x ∈ f −1 (y). Diffeomorphisms are made by scaling (note how m being odd or even makes a small difference). as desired. . f −1 (b) are diffeomorphic. then p−1 (a) (a = 6 0) is a k − 1-dimensional submanifold of Rk .7).1. b both positive or negative. but f cannot be local diffeomorphism at x0 (not injective). Then 0 is the only critical value of f . Then f −1 (y) = {x1 . Exercise 27 (1. H 7→ IH t + HI t = H t + H. and 1 is a regular value of det by [Exercise 1. and dim X = dim Y . the xy plane and the z-axis in R3 : transversal b. Finally.

Ty (X ∩ Z) = Ty (X) ∩ Ty (Z) Solution) We have V ⊂ Y open such that X ∩ V = g −1 (0). 0)} and the y axis in R3 : not transversal d. f −1 (Z) ∩ U = (g ◦ f )−1 (0). v ∈ Tz (W ) such that dgy (u) + v = w. Finally. dgy (dfx (u) − w) e ∈ Tz (W ) is guaranteed by (g ◦ f )t̄W . X → Y → Z smooth maps of manifolds.5.5]).7). then for y ∈ X ∩ Z.B. . e.5. v2 + Av2 = v if and only if (A − I) is invertible.5. i. 10 . Fix an arbitrary (u. hl ) : V → Rl . 0).→ Y and dix is just inclusion).5). gk ) : V → Rk . A : V → V linear map. e and moreover. we have open neighborhoods U. then if we can always find (v1 . Let w e ∈ Tz (Z) be given. g t̄W implies ∃u ∈ Ty (Y ). Then (X ∩ Z) ∩ V = f −1 (0) where f = (g × h) ◦ ∆ : V → Rk+l (N. so Ty (Y ) = Im(dfx ) + Ty (g −1 (W )) = Im(dfx ) + dgy−1 (Tz (W )) (∵ [Exercise 1. V × {0} and the diagonal in V × V : transversal f. . . symmetric and skew symmetric matrices in M (n): transveral Solution) All of the above are easy to check with the following lemma: Lemma: if V and W are linear subspace of Rn . (This implies [Exercise 1. for g = (g1 . c. we have Tx (Z) = ker d(g ◦ f )x = ker(dgf (x) ◦ dfx ) = {v ∈ Tx (X) : dfx (v) ∈ ker dgf (x) } = dfx−1 (Tf (x) (Z)). e Moreover. Exercise 31 (1. z := g(y). dfy : Ty (Y ) → Rk+l .5. . Av2 ) ∈ W such that v1 + v2 = u.3]). Then f t̄g −1 (W ) if and only if (g ◦ f )t̄W . 0. Then W t̄∆ if and only if 1 is not an eigenvalue of A. as desired. then V t̄W means V + W = Rn (∵ [Exercise 1. Let X and Z be transversal submanifolds of Y . Z ⊂ Y submanifold. . Exercise 34 (1. Z ∩ V = h−1 (0).e. Solution) Since ∆ and W are both vector subspaces of V × V . Again. f g Exercise 33 (1. Note the existence of u ∈ Tx (X) such that (dgy ◦ dfx )(u) + w = dgy (w).9. e as desired. and W := f −1 (Z). Y around x. Tx (f −1 (Z)) = dfx−1 (Tf (x) (Z)) Solution) As in the proof. Let V be a vector space. .4). . and y := f (x). Moreover.2. f t̄g −1 (W ) ⇒ (g ◦ f )t̄W : we need show Im(dgy ◦ dfx ) + Tz (W ) = Tz (Z). h = (h1 . f (x) such that f g U → V → Rl and Z ∩ V = g −1 (0). . fix a w e ∈ Ty (Y ).4] f = i : X . V in X. Solution) Fix any x ∈ (g◦f )−1 (W ). Now. Let f : X → Y . Then Tx (W ) is the preimage of Tf (x) (Z) under dfx : Tx (X) → Tf (x) (Y ). v1 ) ∈ ∆. Note that since g t̄W . 1. and W = Γ(A). ∆ the diagonal of V × V . dhy (v)) (∵ [Exercise 1. we see that then (dgy ◦ dfx )(e 0 u) + dgy (v ) + v = w. v) ∈ V × V . f t̄g −1 (W ). W t̄∆ is equivalent to W + ∆ = V × V .10]).9). the plane spanned by {(1. Exercise 32 (1.2. hence there exists ue ∈ Tx (X) and v 0 ∈ dgy−1 (Tz (W )) such that dfx (e u) + v 0 = u. (2. f t̄Z. dgy (Ty (Y ))+ Tz (W ) = Ty (Z). Rk × {0} and {0} × Rl in Rn : transversal if n ≤ k + l. we have Ty (X ∩ Z) = ker dfy = ker dgy ∩ ker dhy = Ty (X) ∩ Ty (Z). as desired. 0 is regular value for f by transversality). W ⊂ Z submanifold such that g t̄W . noting Tf (x) (Z) = ker dgf (x) . (v2 .5. v 7→ (dgy (v). (g ◦ f )t̄W ⇒ f t̄g −1 (W ): we need show Im(dfx ) + dgy−1 (Tz (W )) = Ty (Y ).5. And since ker dfy = ker dgy ∩ ker dhy .

then ∆X ∩ Γ(f ) ⊂ X × X is a submanifold of dimension 0. 2 2 that for any fixed θ ∈ R.7). ∀x0 . y)k2 = kL(x. Now we show ∆X t̄Γ(f ).1.6. t) = f0 (x) ∀t ∈ [0. t) = f1 (x) ∀t ∈ [3/4.Exercise 35 (1. set Fe = F ◦ (Id ×h).9] we have T(x. and let ∆V be the diagonal of Tx (X) × Tx (X). x → −x is homotopic to the identity if k is odd. homotopy is an equivalence relation. Now.x) (Γ(f )) = ∆V + Γ(dfx ) = Tx (X) × Tx (X) = Tx (X × X) (first equality by [Exercise 1. Let f : X → X be a smooth map with fixed point x (i. Solution) We first note that arcwise connectedness (x0 ∼ x1 ) is a equivalence condition since x0 ∼ x1 ⇔ f0 ∼ f1 where f0 : {∗} → X. 1]. f1 : {∗} → X. f (1) = x1 . Now we show equivalence relation. t) = e t − 3/4) t ∈ [3/4. The antipodal map α : S k → S k . If it is so.5. and hence if X is connected it is arcwise connected. ∗ 7→ x1 .6.5. e := H(x. for S 2k−1 ⊂ R2k . 1] H(x. respectively. Then define H : X × [0.2. f1 .3). then x is called a Lefschetz fixed point of f. if F is the homotopy between f0 .6.10]). then f has only finitely many fixed points. and f is Lefschetz map if all its fixed points are Lefschetz. By going through the local parametrizations. since dim ∆X = dim Γ(f ) = dim X (∵[Exercise 1. ∗ 7→ x0 . Every connected manifold X is arcwise connected. and H 7 Exercise 37 (1. the map sin θ cos θ L := Lπt × · · · × Lπt : R2k × I → R2k is the smooth homotopy.10. G be homotopies for f ∼ g. t) t ∈ [0. Solution) By [Exercise 1. and homotopy is a equivalence relation. i. y)k2 .17]).1. Now. X × X is compact so its 0-dimensional submanifold is finite (if not then it has a limit point. Let F. Fix any x ∈ ∆X ∩ Γ(f ). 7/4] → Y by ( Fe(x.1. 4 t) is the desired homotopy for f ∼ h. x1 ∈ X. Claim: it suffices to show ∆X t̄Γ(f ). 7/4] G(x. it is easy to show that arcwise connected components are clopen in X. Then by [Exercise 1. We wish to show that ∆X ∩ Γ(f ) is finite. g ∼ h. Hence. then ∃Fe : X × I → Y homotopy such that Fe(x. ∃f : I → X smooth with f (0) = x0 . k(x. 1/4] and Fe(x. Suppose f0 ∼ f1 (homotopic).e. If 1 is not an eigenvalue of dfx : Tx (X) → Tx (X). there exists a function h : R → R such that h(x) = 0 on x ≤ 1/4 and h(x) = 1 on x ≥ 3/4. So. k times 11 .16. which does not admit a neighborhood diffeomorphic to a point). Solution) Let ∆X be the diagonal of X × X.2). If X is compact and f is Lefschetz. the map Lθ : R → R given by multiplying the matrix Solution) Note cos θ − sin θ preserves the norm: i.x) (∆X ) + T(x. Then H is smooth.10).e.e. 1. f (x) = x).18]. Exercise 38 (1.6 Homotopy and Stability Exercise 36 (1.

And for |x| > 2/|t|. ρ(s) = 0 if |s| > 2. Now. Now under S k − {p} ' Rk . define gi : R → R by gi (x) = qi g(x − i). hence f0 is a diffeomorphism and any submanifold of R is transversal to identity. . Solution) Since dim S 1 < dim S k (k > 1). We are done if ft (X) = Y . 1 and with Rk being contractible.}. Exercise 40 (1.8). then any homotopy it of its inclusion map is a deformation for small t. and also Y connected.7 Sard’s Theorem and Morse Functions Exercise 42 (1. hence ∃p ∈ / f (S ).18]. y) = x2 − 2xy + y 2 12 . .10).1.7. Now define f := i gi . Hence. We need produce > 0 such that ft is diffeomorphism for all t < . This is a counterexample to all the parts of the stability theorem when X is not compact. f (x.Exercise 39 (1. Diffeomorphisms of compact manifolds constitute a stable class. so clearly. there is a function g : R → R such that g(x) = 1 if |x| ≤ 1/4 and g(x) = 0 if |x| ≥ 1/2. Analyze the critical behavior at the origin in the following functions: a. Solution) Let f0 : X → Y be diffeomorphism. embedding is stable class. Exhibit a smooth map f : R → R whose set of critical values is dense. Solution) From [Exercise 1. X. for any t > 0. Exercise 44 (1. q2 . but ft (X) is open in Y since ft is local diffeomorphism. ft (x) = 0. f (x. Exercise 43 (1. . so we can find for each and take the minimum). If Z is compact. ft homotopy of f0 . Zt = it (Z) is a smoothly varying submanifold of Y with Z0 = Z).9). then all the rationals are critical values for f and dense in R.6. That is. Local diffeomorphism and embedding is stable. {0} is not transversal to ft . Now. 1.6. WLOG. (X is compact. y) = x2 + 4y 3 b. so it has finitely many connected components. but the converse is false.5). ft is a local diffeo- morphism and an embedding. Y connected implies ft (X) = Y . and it is closed since it is image of compact set in Y also compact. Exercise 41 (1. Sard’s 1 k Theorem implies that f (S ) is measure zero in S . Solution) We simply need verify. Let ρ : R → R be a function with ρ(s) = 1 if |s| < 1. The sphere S k is simply connected if k > 1. Y compact. Remark: Measure zero implies empty interior. note that |tx| > 2 for all |x| > 2/|t|. so ∃ > 0 such that∀t < .8). f (S 1 ) is homotopic to a constant map. Solution) Since Z is compact. p ∈ S k is a regular value iff p ∈ / f (S 1 ). and define ft : R → R by ft (x) = xρ(tx).6.6). and then for i ∈ N.7.7. so ft cannot be local diffeomorphism/immersion/submersion/embedding/diffeomorphism. Fix any t < . write P Q = {q1 . we assume that X is connected. A deformation of a submanifold Z ⊂ Y is a smooth homotopy it : Z → Y where i0 is the inclusion map and each it is an embedding (and thus. f0 (x) = xρ(0) = x.

. yn ) 7→ ( |λ1 |y1 . . d. . . x 7→ x × ± 1 − kxk2 are local parametrizations of N.11. . . . x00n ) : Rn → Rn around a t such that f = f (a) + x~00 H x~00 . . . Morse Lemma gives us local coordinates x~00 := (x001 . we have −I (hence max). and ~x := (x1 . Then n X f = f (a) + i x2i . e. . xn )(a) = 0 the second derivative test immediately follows. . xn ) around a such that n X f = f (a) + i x2i . . Then x~0 := (x01 . xn ) := g ◦ x~0 be the new local coordinates around a. dfx : Tx (S k−1 ) → R is the restriction of dπx = π. xk ) 7→ xk on the sphere S k−1 is a Morse function with two critical points. . . . x0n ) := P t x~00 is a new local coordinates around a t t such that f = f (a) + x~00 P P t HP P t x~00 = f (a) + x~0 (P t HP )x~0 . . . y) = x2 + 11xy + y 2 /2 + x6 e. b. f (x. f (x. Thus. Let H be Hessian matrix of f at a. λi ’s are eigenvalues of H i=1 p p Finally. . 1) := N or (0. and since (x1 . y) = 10xy + y 2 + 75y 3 Solution) In the order of nondegenerate?/isolated?/local min or max?(non strict)?. Check that the ”height function” (x1 . . Ta (S k−1 ) = ker(x 7→ 2at x). |λn |yn ). Now. c. . . . one min). and P be the orthogonal matrix that diagonalizes H. 0. . n X f = f (a) + λi x02 i . −1) := S. N/Y/Y(min). Exercise 46 (1. . Y/Y/N. . let φ : Rn → Rn be defined by (y1 . . f : U → R smooth. N/N/Y(min). . (x1 . Y/Y/N Exercise 45 (1.12). c. S. . . . . φ± : Rk−1 ⊃ B1 (0) → R. Exercise 47 (1. and for the − case we have I. i = ±1 i=1 as desired. x ∈ S k−1 is a critical value iff Tx (S k−1 ) = Rk−1 × {0}. Then for x ∈ S k−1 . . .7. we have: a. xk ) 7→ xk . . . the poles (one max. . . and H(x) be the Hessian of f for x ∈ U . f (x. Let U ⊂ Rk open. Then f is Morse if and only if k ∂f 2 X 2 det(H) + > 0 on U ∂xi i=1 13 .7. . . Since. y) = x2 + y 4 d.14). If a ∈ Rn is a non degenerate critical point of f : Rn → R. there exists a local coordinate system (x1 . . N/N/N. . Solution) Let f : S k−1 → R be the restriction of the projection π : Rk → R. S k−1 = g −1 (1) where g : x → kxk2 . i = ±1 i=1 And hence derive the usual second derivative test. And calculating H(f ◦ φ+ )0 . . Ta (S k−1 ) = Rk−1 × {0} exactly p when a = (0. So. . 0. Solution) Note that Hessian matrix is always real symmetric and hence diagonalizable by or- thogonal matrix P .7. .16).

Now let X be a compact manifold. v) 7→ (x.3. Suppose for any x ∈SX. Solution) (Just definitions) 14 . Clearly.e. 1. And thus. (Stability of Morse Functions) Suppose ft is a homotopic family of func- tions on Rk .4).5. h ≥ 2δ for some δ > 0. Exercise 48 (1. f0 : X → R Morse. Now. and define h : Rk × I → R by (x. we have that ft is Morse on X for any t ∈ [0. we know that h > 0 on U × {0}. and by [Exercise 1. and x > 0 such that ft is Morse on Ux for t ∈ [0. as desired. ∆ : RN → RN × RN diagonal map. Existence of Ux and x is given by [Exercise 1. Solution) Let U ⊂ Rk be open containing K such that f0 : U → R is Morse.7.5. there exists Ux . ]. . By Tube Lemma. xn )].17]: for φ : Vx → X local parametrization around x with φ(0) = x. h is smooth. Exercise 51 (1. t) 7→ det(Hft |x )2 + ki=1 ∂x i .17. min(x1 . kvk) is a diffeomorphism of T (S k ) and S 1 × R.6). Then the map f : T (X) → T (X) given by (x. ] there exists open V ⊃ K such that h > 0 on V × {t}. and ft homotopic family of functions. so choosing a finite sub cover Ux1 ∪ · · · ∪ Uxn . everywhere-positive. x ]. Using continuity of h again. Let g : X → R be smooth. hence on K × {0}. . .7. Morse function is stable class. The rest is follows immediately from definition of Morse. and hence iff i=1 ∂xi = 0. there exists an open set U 0 ⊃ K × {0} such that h > δ on U 0 .y) (X × Y ) = Tx (X) × Ty (Y ). A vector field ~v on a manifold X in RN is a smooth map ~v : X → RN such that ~v (x) ∈ Tx (X). . Since K × {0} is compact. Solution) If m : R × RN → RN is scalar multiplication. denote the P ∂ft 2 Hessian of ft at x by Hft |x . Solution) First statement is immediate from T(x. Pk 2 ∂f Solution) x ∈ U is a critical point of f iff ∇f = 0. x ∈ X is zero of a vector field ~v if ~v (x) = 0. ∃ > 0 such that h > δ on K × [0. v) 7→ (x.8 Embedding Manifolds in Euclidean Space A few practice with tangent bundles: Exercise 49 (1. Lastly. Show that if f0 is Morse in some neighborhood f a compact set K. for any fixed t ∈ [0. a smooth map ~v : X → T (X) such that p ◦ ~v is identity on X. T (X × Y ) is diffeomorphic to T (X) × T (Y ). then so is every ft for t sufficiently small. Exercise 50 (1. g(x)v) is smooth. The map (x. then f is just restriction of (Id ×m) ◦ (Id ×g × Id) ◦ (∆ × Id). set Ux = φ(Br (0)) where Br (0) ⊂ Vx .7. T (S 1 ) is diffeomorphic to S 1 × R. then x Ux form an open over of X.2).18). neighborhood of x.16].5. a vector field ~v on X is a cross section of T (X)—i. By continuity of h. Equivalently.

a nonvanishing vector field on S k .7. If k is odd. . then the map (x1 . . and WLOG k~v (x)k = 1.8). . i. −x4 . there exists a nonvanishing vector field ~v on S k . x3 . xk+1 ) 7→ (−x2 . . . Now.5.e. xk ) is a (linear) smooth map. 15 . If S k has a nonvanishing vector field ~v . let ~v is a nonvanishing vector field on S k . . . ∀x ∈ S k (define new vector field by x 7→ ~v (x)/k~v (x)k). . then its antipodal map is homotopic to the identity. Solution) If k is odd. t) 7→ x cos πt + ~v (x) sin πt is a homotopy between the identity and antipodal map.Exercise 52 (1. Now. H : S k × I → S k defined by (x. and thus ~v : S k → S k smooth and x⊥~v (x). x1 . −xk+1 .

Let X be a manifold with boundary. f Id Solution) A diffeomorphism X → Y is locally equivalent to U → U where U ⊂ H k . We define the upper half space Hx (X) in Tx (X) by Hx (X) := dφ0 (H k ).1. Hx (X) is independent of the choice of parametrization.4). 1] is a not a manifold with boundary.3). φ : U → X local parametrization with φ(0) = x (so dφ0 : Rk → Tx (X) is isomorphism). and define g := f |Z . Solution) Exercise 58 (2. it is easily checked that 0 is regular value of π. Z ⊂ X a submanifold with boundary. dFs (e2 ) ∈ R × {0} 2 and thus not linearly dependent. then s = (0.2). Exercise 55 (2. 0) ∈ S has a neighborhood U ⊂ I 2 diffeomorphic to V ⊂ H k . Since a > 0.1 Manifolds with Boundary Exercise 53 (Made-up). y) for any (x. Solution) 2. Exercise 57 (2. F2 ) then F2 (x.2 Transversality 16 .1. Solution) The proof reads exactly like [Exercise 17]. Then for x ∈ Z. The solid hyperboloid defined by x2 + y 2 − z 2 ≤ a is a manifold with boundary. So. Exercise 56 (2. 0) = 0 = F2 (0. note that ∂U maps to ∂H k .1. π −1 ([0. dgx : Tx (Z) → Tf (x) (Y ) is equal to dfx |Tx (Z) . But this implies that dFs (e1 ). ∂F ∂F2 ∂x (s) = 0 an ∂y (s) = 0. Solution) Suppose S is a manifold with boundary. Thus. Let f : U → V be the diffeomorphism. Then dFs is an open isomorphism.1. Exercise 54 (2.7). S := [0. 1] × [0. it follows that ∂f (x) ∈ ∂Y if and only if x ∈ ∂X. Let f : X → Y be a smooth map of manifolds with boundary.2 Chapter 2. y. Now. Hence. z) 7→ a − (x2 + y 2 − z 2 ).8). Let f : X → Y be a diffeomorphism of manifolds with boundary. so if F = (F1 . y) ∈ U . x ∈ ∂X. 0). (0.1. let F : U e ⊂ R2 . Then ∂f maps ∂X diffeomorphically onto ∂Y . and shrinking if U open open e → R2 be the smooth extension of f where U ⊂ U if necessary. Solution) Define π : R3 → R by (x. Transversality and Intersection 2. ∞)) is a manifold with boundary.

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