I. l

Learning Outcome Introduction Significant Concepts: Public and Policy Nat~~rePublic Policy of



Policy-Making and Decision-Making Policies and Goals Policy-Making and Planning Policy Analysis and Policy Advocacy Policy Analysis and Policy Management

1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4


Public Policy: Scope Typologies of Policies Policy Inputs, Policy Outputs, and Policy Outcomes Significanceof Public Policy Conclusion Key Concepts Activities

1 .8 '

1.9 1.11

1 .10 References and Further Reading

After studying this Unit, you should be able to: o Understarid public policy, and its significance; and Describe the nature, ty~jes, scope of public policy; 0 Discuss and distinguish between policy, decision, plan, goals, policy analysis, and policy advocacy; and

Explain the terms policy input, policy output, and policy outcome.

'Public Policy', as an academic pursuit emerged in the early 1950s and since then it has been acquiring new dimensions, and is now attempting to acquire the status of a discipline. As a shldy of products of government,policy forms a significantcomponent in several social science disciplines like political science, public administration,economics, and management. So rapid is the academic growth of public policy that many researchers, teachers, and public administrators now feel that it is becoining increasingly complex.The disciplines associated with public policy cut right across the old academic lines of demarcation. Indeed, it is this interdisciplinmy quality, which rnakes the field of public policy interesting and thought-provoking.

a leading scholar of policy analysis. It is an area." He further notes that today the focus of political science is shifting to public policy. use such terms as 'public interest'. although it is generally contended that the experience of policy implementation feeds back into the furtherance of the policy-making pl-ocess.They broadly concentsatedon the institutional stmcture and philosophical justifications of the government. This concept of policy science was first formulated by Harold Lasswell in 1951. In thc past. most students of public administration would acknowledge that the public servants the~nselves intimately involved in the shaping of thepolicies. to tlie description and explanation of the causes and consequences of government activity. past studies onp~tblicpolicy mainly doiiiinated by scholars of political science and public administration and have tended to andimplementation.foreign ~x~licy so on. Baber . It has altended to the organisation of public a~~thorities. W. The study of public administration are has hitherto tended to concentrate on the machinery for the implementation of given policies. where we often ic ~nake references to national health policy. we will discuss the meaning. Yet. 'p~~blic 'The starting point is that 'public policy' has to do with those spheres. bel~aviour public servants and increasingly. which such orgallisations played towards the formation of policy as one of its main concerns. and so on.' The public sector colnprises that domain of Iluma~z activity. types and significance of public policy. The public dimension is generally referred to 'public ownership' or control for 'public purpose. Butunfortunately. the linkages between important institutional arrangements and the content of public policy were largely unexplored. which is regarded as requiring governmental intervention or comlnon action. which had to do with those spheres that are labelled as public. education policy.agricultural policy. The focus was rarely on the policies themselves.16 Public Policy and Analysis In this Unit. i) The Idea of Public 3 lt is first important to understand the concept of 'public' for a discussion of public policy. Tn brief."Traditional (political science) studies clescribed tlie institutions in which public policy was forrnr~lated. but has concerns with processes have been which are within the t?eldof public administration. While the concern of political science about the processes by which public policy is determined has increased. Political science was to some cxtent preoccupied with the activities of the various politjcal institutions and g r o ~ ~in s p relation to theil-success in the pursuit of political powec It hardly secognised the sole. concentrate more on the content of policy and the process of its fo~~ilulation The slctdy of public policy has evolved into what is virtually a new branch of the social science. but common. attempt will bemade to explain the changing conceptualisationof 'public' and 'private' an clomains in the study of public policy. wage policy. that is. it is difficult to cletennine much about the way policy is formulated. administration and review. studies on public policy were dominated by researchers and students of political science. tlie of the methods of resource allocation.B.scope. 'p~lblic health'. there has always been aconflict between what is public and what is private. observes. It is an effort to apply political science to public affairs. In ~lddition. nature. which are so labelled as 'pu biic' as opposed to spheres involving the 'private'. i t is called policy science. policy is an important ele~nent the political process. SIGNIFICANT CONCEPTS: PUBLIC AND POLICY P ~ ~ b lpolicy is afrequently used term in our daily life and in academic literature. We often sector'. The and concept of public policy presupposes that there is a domain of life that is not private or purely individual. 'public opinion'. of " I I i 1 I Tlio~nas Dye. I-lowever. With such an approach.

It has more problems in implementing its decisions. It has a greater opportunity to respond to issues of fairness. In this connection. guidance for action. specific proposals. "The last quarter of this century is witnessing the virtual disappearance of the Weberian distinction between the roles of the politician and the bureaucrat. Aberbach observes. which have been ad\ w e d by scholars in this field.1993) argues that the public sector has ten key differences from the private sector.and in a lesser degree to define public policy as more or less inter-dependent policies dealing with differknt activities. It einploys more people with a wider range of motivations. ii) The Concept of Policy Like the idea of 'public'. among other elements. a programme. different to that which exists in the private sector because the former is motivated to serve the public interest. Hogwood and Gunn specify ten uses of the term 'policy'. It is held to strict standards of commitment and legality. The civil servant is arational functionary whose main task is to carry out the will of those elected by the people. an outcome. To Herbert Simon. e e e e e e e Public administration emerged as an instrumentof the state for securing 'public' interest rather than 'pi-ivate' interests. producing what may be labelled a pure hyblid. the growth of bureaucricy was due to the process of rationalisation in industrial society. in his work on a comparative study of bureaucracy. that is policy as a label foi afield of activity. that is: e e It faces more complex and ainbiguoustasks. and a process. It is more concerned with securing opportunities or improving capacities. he rational public interest argulnent started eroding after the Second World War. only markets could balance private and public interests. a declaration of general purpose. therefore. a declaration of course of action. bureaucrats do not always function in the public'interest and display an inclination to have distinct goals of their own. It may take the form of: e e e e a declaration of goals. on the of contrary. a theory or model.the policy itself is something. It must operate or appear to operate in the public interest. There'is thzust to designate policy as the 'outputs' of the political system. apioneer among . an expression of desired state of affairs.Utzcl~l. which takes different forms.stn~zding Public Policy 17 (as quoted in Massey. For Max Weber. have tended to focus on the evali~ation policy decisions in terms of specified values a rational rather than apolitical analysis. . fortnal authorisation. rather than as well-defined categories. Y Dror. Unfortunately. According to MuelIer. Policy denotes. Public bureaucracy is. the concept of 'policy' I s not aprecise term. decisions of government. the new liberalism is based upon a belief that public administration is a more rational ineans of promoting the public interest. 'he magnitude of this problem can be recognised from the other definitions. bureaucracies exhibit a large measure of 'bounded rationality'. It lnust maintain minimal levels of public support." The public and private sectors reveal themselves as overlapping and interacting. Studies of public policy. It is more concerned with compensating for market failure. andlor an authoritative decision. an output.Whereas for the political economists. It engages in activities with greater symbolic significance.

Robest Linebeny says. such as prevention of child Iabour or it may be broad. policies are ". what Easton calls the"authorities"in apolitical syste~fi. or govelnment wi lhin a given envirollmentproviding obstacles and opportunities which the policy was proposed to 11ti I ise and overcome in an eKoli to reach a goal or realise an objective or-apurpose". . Taken as a whole. monarchs. and ljzir~l. a government rarely has a set of guiding principles for all its activities. judges. From the viewpcjint of public policy. First. policy may be of dcfined as a purposive course of action taken or adopted by those in power in pursuit of certain goals o r objectives. these are the persons who "engage in the daily affairs of apolitical system". and involve tHe establishmentof overall goals to serve as 1 guidelinesfor the larger sets of concrete and specificpolicies.18 Public Policy and A~zalysis scholars of the policy sciences. David Easton (1 957) defines public policy as "the authoritative allocntion of values for the whole society"..sc:L actors i n dealing wjth aproblemor matter of concern". are recognised by no st members of the system as having responsibilityforthese matters and take actions that are "accepted as binding most of the time by most of the members so long as they act within the limits of their roles". 'megapolicies' fonn a kind of master policy. aproposedcourse of action of aperson. Peter Self opines policies as changing directives as to how tasks should be interpreted and performed.Here the emphasis is on public policy. that is. NATURE OF PUBLIC POLICY A policy may be general or specific. However. what a governmentchooses as guidaiice for gction. through its decisions. writteh or unwritten. . Carl Friedrich regards policy as. Then there are '~negapolicies' General guidelines to be followed by all specific policies . and the like".discretionary or detailed and qualitative or. give new intel-pretations to some of the articles of the Constitution. or liberty or self-reliance or similar broad principles of guidance for action may be adopted as a developmental policy or basic framework of goals. as women's empowerment.quantitative. Socio-economicdevelopment. each level of government ."elders. equality. A public policy may cover a major portion of its activities. cohelence and continuity to the courses of action for which the decision making body is responsible". To Sir Geoffrey Vickers. the activities of government can be put into three categories. administrators. According toEaston ( 1965). simple or complex. Similarly. ". Policies have outcomes that may or not have been anticipated.u-eteimed as 'megapolicy'. Besides. in practice. state and local -may have its specific or general policies. Similarly. . It should be added here that public policies are the policies adopted and iirlplernented by govenilnent bodies and officials. Thornas Dye'sdefinition states. chiefs. A public policy may be applied to a limited section of people of a country or to all its people. which may amount to a new policy. activities that are attached to specific policies.. broad or narrow. "it is what governments do and fail to do for their citizens". activities that are based on vague an'd ambiguous policies. activities that are general in nature. According to Dror. James Antlerson suggests that policy be regarded as "a purposive course of action followed by an actor o~. Public policies are fosm~llated by namely. group. secoizd. In these definitions there is divergence between what governments decide to do and what they acluaIIy do. defines policies as general directives on the main lines of action to bc followed. public or private. Icgislators. ~ 1policies generally contain definite goals or objectives it1 more implicit or explicit terms. A public policy may be narrow. decisions giving direction. covering a specific activity. The Supreme Court of Indiamay. explicit or implicit. . councillors. as distilict from concrete discrete policies. which are consistent with the development policy of the country.central. . paramo~~nt executives. "Public policy is whatever governments choose to do or not to do".

3 Policy-Making Policy-making must be clii action for attaining definit- . 1. In its positive form. "Policy decisions are decisions made by public officials that authorise or give ciirection and cbntent to public policy actions". Policy-making does involve decision-making.oriented statements. Decision-making often involves an identification of a problem. Such an approach. but every decision does not necessarily collstitute a policy. including judges of the apex courts. it is not the same as decision~-nal~. i.3. On the other hand. 1s research or cost-benefit analysis. goals and objectives dependon the values of the policy-makers. Decision-makers.)plied to a limited number of problems. h. it may involve some f'onn of overt government action to deal with a particular problem.(. The actions can take the form of directives to do or refrain from certain actions. In this sense. Thus. Policies involve adeliberate choice of actions designed to attain those goals and objectives. Again. It is reasonable to expect apolicy to indicate the direction t o m % swhich action is sought. in its negative fostn. Public policy is about means and ends. only 1. aplan is aprogramrne of Specific 1 1 . it involves a decision by public servants not to take action on some matter on which a governlnental order is sought.2 Policies and Goals C Policies are distinct from goals and can be distinguishedfroin the latter as means from ends. thus. To say that policy-making involves a choice of goals or objectives is to argue that i t deals with values.'~~~es I r b Many students of policy sciences would like to apply science orreason (making use of the rationality inodel) for the deteimination of policy ohiectives and goals.3. beliefs or perceptions of the public interest concerning what is aproper or inorally cal-sect public policy.Il~irle~vtc. which have LO have a relationship to each other.These may include decisions to issue executive orders.8. The nature of policy as a purposive course of action can be better or more fully understood if it is compared with related concepts. one rneans the ends towards which actions are directed. taxes must be paid unless one wants to mn the risk of severe penalties or imprisonment.3. Anc!erson says.ing. They try to solve problems mainly by using such objective methods as operat. for example. This could be explained in the following manner : v~i Goals and 1 k(+-]-bI prR.1 Policy-Making and Decision-Making Pol icy-making is closely related to decision-making. be . By goals or objectives. Broadlj speaking. 3 GS. based on a rationality model can.. promulgate administrative rules. aplan is a policy statement.uzding Puhlic Policy 19 L ' Public policies in modern political systems are purposive or goal.il~ning. a' ~>ublic policy may be either positive or negative in fom. acasehl analysis ol'possible alternatives and the selection of one alternative for action. Generally. provide a sense of direction to the co~lrse administrative of action. 1. Public policy has a legally coercive qualily that citizens accept as legitimate. or make important judicial interpretationsof laws. decisions are taken by the adlninislrators in their day-to-day work within the existing framewo k of policy. The choice of policies as well as objectives are often influenced by values. often act on the basis oftheir values. The legitilnacy of coercion behind public policies makes public organisatiollsdistinct from the private organisations. However. The policy decisions eventually taken.

policy analysis can be both scientific as well as relevant to the problems of society.3. It is a technique to measure organisational effectiveness through an examination andevaluation of the effect of aprogramme. First. Policy analysis has'three basic concerns. persuasion. some of which are quantitative in character. policy analysis is concerned with the examination of the impact of policy using the tools of systematic inquiry. According to Dror. The role of policy analysis is not to replace but to supplement political advocacy. Despite such distinctions between policy analysis and policy management. national development A plan. Therefore. i t involves a rigorous search for the causes and consequences of public policies through the use of the tools of systematic inquiiy. is a collection of targets or individual projects which.it involves an effort to develop and test general propositions about the causes and consequences of public policies.4 Policy Analysis and Policy Advocacy A distinction may be drawn between policy analysis and policy advocacy. However. Thomas Dye labels "policy analysis" as the "thinking man's response" to demands. with the help of appropriate policy management... Policy management deals with the management of policy making and policy preparation process. The interdependence of policy analysis and policy management can be seen in the rlecessity of assuring. though in practice these two related processes overlap to some extent. it has been aptly stated that a plan needs aproper policy framework. including methods like social experimentation. or bringing about changes in what they do through discussion'. and their implementation. in part with the help of systematic approaches and explicit methods. by reinforcing innovativeness. that adequate policy analysis is undertaken as an integral part of management systems and.or may sometimes be internally inconsistent or contradicto~y. when put together. They may be stated only in very general or vtlgue terms . They have to be drawn within the framework of pol icjes. The end result. Policy advocacy is concerned with what Soveroment ought to do." 1. hopefully. Targets cannot be achieved . Successful policies make for successful plans. Policy analysis covers several methods and concepts.3. Thus. As WiIdavsky has argued.Policy analysis is not the same as prescribing what policies government ought to pursue.its primary concern is with the "explanation"of policy rather than the "prescription"of policy. to assure that it produces high quality policies. 1. would be higher quality debate and perhaps eventually public choice among better known alternatives. Allocation of resourcesfor investments and pinpointing of targets in different sectors of the economy are considered lo be at the core of planning. it is essential that these two processes should be treated jointly. wherever necessary. both are interrelated aspects of policy-making and cover amajor part of the tasks of senior administrators. and for evaluation following implementation. especially in India. Policy analysis is nothing inore than finding out the impact of policy. Secondly.and activism. I /it I ( 1 ..5 Policy Analysis and Policy Management The distinction between policy analysis and policy management needs to be highlighted. 'policy analysis' deals with the substantiveexamination of policy issues and the identification of preferable alternatives. Inny not constitute an integrated scheme. It is used for proble~n assessment and monitoring before the decision.just because investments are provided for.game simulation and contingency planning. Chandler and Plano opine that policy analysis is a systematic and data-based alternative to intuitive judgements about the effects of policy and policy options. Thirdly.20 Public Policy and Analysis policies may stem from plan documents. On the other b d . Often the goals or policies of a plan may not beclearly stipulated in the plan docurnents. organisation. broadly speaking. "The purpose of policy analysis is not to eliminate advocacy but to raise the level of argument among contending interests.

these goods and services are streamlined through redistributivepolicies. The range of public policy is vast. Income tax policiesusually cm-ryelements of redistribution of incomes. These facilitatecomnparison between issues and policies. It can be in the area of grant of subsidies. Some more examples of distributive policies are adult education programme. environment protection.. a Distributive Policy Issues Poliq issues. In rnany developing countries. such as. that is frolnvital to trivial. Redistributive policies are concerned with the rearrangement of policies. etc.Utzderstu~zdingPublic Policy 21 PUBLIC POLICX SCOPE A significant part of the study of ~ u b l i c policy consists of the development of scenarios and extrapolations of contemporary trends in the public domain.co~~cerned the distribution of new resources are distributive policies. there is great pressure on governments to accelerate national development. which are concerned with bringing about basic socio-economic changes.inflation. and the provider of cormnon goods and day-to-day services. loans provision of education. X e 1. and the increasing impact of other trends. governments in the developing countries have significantly increased.ithas. Today. assistance to aged. functions of all. become the principal innovatos. industrialisation and urbanisation. They are now concerned with the more complex functions of nation-building and socio-economic progress. housing. With the increasing recourse to privatisation and outsourcing by public agencies the situation is undergoing rapid changeseven in the developing conntries.5 TYPOLOGIES OF POLICIES Some social scientists and scholars have attempted to discuss the typologies of policy issues. science and technology. Redistributive Policy Issues Redistributive policy issues are concerned with changing the distribution of existing resources. taxation. These trends and developments have therefore enhanced both the size and scope of public policy. and improve the standards of living. increase national production.Michael Teitz wrote this nearly 40 years ago. physically challenged persons. food security. public policies may deal with such substantive areas as defence. medical care and health.ii) regulatoly iii) redistributive. social insurance. I + C I - . the major determinist of social and economic programmes and the main financier as well as the main catalyst for economic enterprise and development. directly or indirectly. the arbiter of disputes. scholarships to students from disadvantaged social backgrounds. Distributive with policies are meant for specific segments of society. Certain public goods and welfare services are disproportionately divided among certain segments of the society.for example. welfare or health services or other public assistance schemes. make use of up-to-date and relevant technological innovations. Public policies touch almost a11stages of the citizen's life cycle.especially in developing countries in response to the growing public needs and demands. the complexity of technology. social organisation. and so on. Today the government is not merely the keeper of peace. make full use of huinan and other resources. At present. adopt and facilitate necessary institutional changes. Lowi. and (iv) constituent policy issues. The scope and shee! size of the public sector has grown enormously. suggests a classification of policy issues in terms of being: i) distributive. education.

who gets more.methodologically huspect. such demands may include a general insistence that . may not be appreciatedby one who is in favour of "the greatest happiness of the greatest number". a contli~t arise between two or more groups over issues relating to the distribution of positions may or I-eshurces. public utilities. and of doubtful testability. observe that Lowi's typology has basic limitations. However. Cobbe andEIder. the National Council o$Teacher Education. Constituent Policy Issues Constit~lent policy issues are concerned with the setting-up or reorganisation of institutions. 1. international conflict. Their focus is on the way in which conflict is created and managed. etc. AND POLICY OUTCOMES Policy inputs are the demands made on the political systems by individualsand groups for action or inaction about some perceived problems. natural disasters. and organisations rendering these xorvices are known as regulatory policies. To them. the Bar Council of India. The policies tilade by the government. and the Central Board of Secondary Education perform both promotional and regulatory activities. the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India. etc. There are S redistribution issues. (heRegistrar. for example.33 P~lblicPolicy qnd Analysis Iiegulatory Policy Issues Reg~ilatory policy issues are concerned with regulation and control of activities. Gormley. which involve bargaining over who gets what. In India. the Controller of Drugs and Pharmaceuticals. Conflict Policy Issues Cobbe and Elder propose an alternative classification of policy issues in terms of conflict rather than content. the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI). The Indian Medical Council. business. pertaining to the relevant services. such typologies involving costs and benefits exclude important climensions of complexity. forms of bargaining and conflict. Securities andExchangeBoard of lnclia (SEBI). the Bureau of Indian Standards. For Wilson. Each o f these policy issues forms a different power arena. manufacture an issue for personal or group gain. They deal with lrgillation of trade. General of India. the Pharmacy Council of India. and the Nursing Council of India are examples of wgulatory agencies intended to protect the standards of the respective professions.POLICY OUTPUTS. and a range of alternatives. and who gets leis. Bargaining Policy Issues Hogwood and Wilson use the criteria of costs and benefits from the point of view of the possibilities o different outcomes. the Reserve Bank of India. and the occurrence of unanticipated human events. war and technological changes. An issue. are engaged in regulatory activities.These may be created by such means and devices as presentation of an alternative policy by a contending party which perceives unfairness or bias in the distribution of positions or resources. Such issues then constitute Ihe agenda for policy or decision-making and are known as the conflict policy issues. which ]nay have vesy concentrated benefits to a small section of society but whose costs are widely dispersed. suggests that the degree and kind of technical complexity will give rise to different forms of conflict. and technical or expert knowledge. Organisationslike theuniversity Grants Commission. It does not provide a framework for understanding change as the categories suggested become less clear and more diffuse. However. it may be mentionqd here that a Lowi's view of politics as afunction of policies h been criticised as over-simplistic. safety measures. This type of regulation is done Ry independent organisations that work on behalf of the government. for instance.6 POLICY'INPuTS. the All-IndiaCouncil of Technical Education. criteria of costs and benefits may be concentratedor dispersed. ( .

In this sense. Examples of policy outputs relate to such matters as the education institutions built. outputs are regarded either as effects on the environment or as ' reedback' to the political supporters of the system. Although one can measure welfare policy outputs. b 7 In the political system model. why and to what effect the government pursue particular courses of action or inaction. i) ii) Policy is purposive and deliberately formulated. prior to the passing of the Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act of 1987.. whether intended or unintended. iv) Policy also delineates a time frame in which its goals have to be achieved. etc. as Thomas Dye puts it. are the other unintended effects. the state has come to be perceived as an active agent in v) . or if they produce unintended coasequences.it is difficult to measure the consequences of the policies for ~ndustrial productivity. They are what a government does. Policy follows adefinedcourse of action in a sequential order viz. and evaluation. or rewards for support given. why they do it. coinpensation paid. iii) A policy is what is actually done and not whai is intended or desired. weakening of organisational authority. a statenlent of goals does not constitute apolicy. how they are placed on the political and policy agenda.and mo~~itoring. however. since the middle of the twentieth century. monitoring. or by socialisation into the poIitica1 norms of the society. Before going into the question it would be of importance that is attached to policy fonnulation. The concept of outcolnes lays stress on what actually happens to the tasget groups intended to be affected by the policy. the emergence of other power centres in the organisation. "what governments do." It is clear from the above sections of the Unit that policy is a purposive course of action in dealing with a problem or amatter of concern within aspecific timeframe. implementation. something is wsong. either ' a by threats of sanctions. as distinguished from what it says it is going to do.~tr~/zcli~zg Public Policy 23 (rovernmentshould do something about aproposal for specific action on thematter. or. For example. are Pol icy outputs are. some organisations voiced a general desire for enactment of law on the 'sati-pratha issue. Actually the scope of public policy is deteimined by the kind of role that the state adopts for itself in a society. and what difference it makes. the amount of benefitspaid. 1. Policy must have a purpose or a goal. the safety net provided and the like . Here our intenti011 is to evaluate the outcome of the policies or undertake an assessment as to whether the policies in question actually achieve what they are intended to achieve. formulation. However.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF PUBLIC POLICY The focus in public policy is on the public and its problems. better to recapitulatethe components of public policy. It does not emerge at random or by chance. the number of persons helped. Once a goal is decided the policy is devised in such a way that it determines the course of action needed to achieve that goal. different from policy outcomes. In the nineteenth century. policy outputs are the @a1 decisions of the iinplementers. A policy is well thought-out and is not aseries of discrete decisions. It is concerned with l ~ o w issues and problems come to be defined and constructed a n d . implementation. If the intended changes on target groups do not occur. Outco~nes real results. Easton(1957 ) says that outputs are said to constit~lte body or specific inducements for the inembers of a political system to support it. But it is also a study of how. Labour welfare policies in Indiamay be used to illustrate this point.UnrIer. orcurbs on trade eliminated. the state was assigned a limited role and it was expected that it would merely act as a regulator of social and economic activity and not its promoter. indiscipline.

It came to be accepted that both were interactive processes and had to be seen jil an integrated way. for which the country would follow. Policy formulation was regarded as apolitical activity. as and policy implementation as an administrative one. The 'highs' and the 'lows' in the role of the state provide learning experiences to the policy analyst.. etc. the activist role of the state meant the assumption of I-esponsibility the formulation of long-term development plans and policies to set the direction. the government undertook a major responsibility in the social sphere too. it has ~h incorporated many refinements in the conceptual and methodological apparatus.onsequdncesof gdvernment activity. execution. they represent . KEY CONCEPTS Policy sciences : Policy sciencesis the discipline concerned with explaining the policymaking and policy-executingprdcesses. Empowerment of women. A number of policies aimed at national integration.24 Pitblic Policy and Anul-ysis promoting and shaping societies in its various dimensions. and the type of goods to be produced have been specified. This distinction categorised policy formulation and irnple~nentation two distinct activities. In India. . it can be slated that the field of public policy has assumed considerable importgnce. The enactment of the Anti-Dowry Act. but also with the development of scientific kpowledge about the forces shaping public policy. From time to ti me. This trend is observable all over the world.policy analysis is acquiring a lot of importance in the realm of the study of public administration. For instance. In Inany developing countries like India. The degree of effectiveness in policy fotormuIation. controls have been introduced or liberalised. . lndian experience with public poiicy indicates that curren(po1icies need not reflect pre-existing lotions or perspectives about the role of the state. as Indian realised. and decentralisation and devolution of authority to local bodies have been adopted as major constitutional policies. . ~ u tat any given point of time. public policies expanded their scope from merely one of regulation to that of promoter development and enterprise. These days. But this distinction got increasingly blurred and it was not an easy task to determine where policy formulation ended. With the onset of liberalisation.policies of deregulation were introduced. . 2". So. 9 CONCLUSION On the basis of discussion in this Unit.protection to disadvantaged groups have come into force. are examples of this. With this change in the conceptual and analytical arena. the means of governance. As a consequence. Wide-ranging policies were fohulated in the area of inclustrjal and agricultural development.and with locating data and providingexplanationsthat are relevant to policy analysis. regulation and control of the private sector. The policy analyst should also be open to new conceptualisations and frameworks for analysis. the first major goal of public policies in our count~y been has in the area of socio-economic development. Divorce Act. . It is not only concerned with the description and explanation of the causes abd c. Policies may also go haywire. the spheres of the state and non-state sectors. theorists of public administration found it difficult to sustain the classical concept of separation of politics and administration. and where policy iinplementation began. in the aftermath of the foreign exchange crisis of 1990-91. scholars of public administration began to devote greater attention to the deficiencies in policy formulation as also to matters relevant to the influence of policy design pn implementation. and monitoring ultimately would depend to a large extent upon the rigour in policy analysis. thereby enabling it to meet the requirements of theoretical depth and analytical rigour. ~ l t h b u the subject is of recent origin. As a concomitantto changing policies.

prevalence of operations research in the Nation's economy reflects the growing complexity of managing large organisatjons. andB.to coordinate these elements by applying analytical methods from mathematics. A Syster7zsAnalysis of Political Lge. R.).. 4. New York. 1965. London. Policy Analysis for the Real World. B.D. 1975. The Politics of Public Utility Regulation.. equipment. Oxford University Press. 1984.T. Hogwood. Th:' Policy Sciences: Recent Developnzent in Scope and Method. science. Public Administrative Review. The. 1951. Baltimore: Dror.Harvard University Press. Bureaucrats avldPoliticiansin Western. and L. Robin. . The Public Ad~nirzistratiorzDictionary. 1 989. 9. Scranton.A.. University of pittiburg Press. London. Elder. Daniel Lerner andHarold D.Ut~derstanclirzg Public Policy Operation Research 25 : It is used to describe the discipline of applying advanced analytical techniques to help make better decisions to solve problems. 1981. Fro711 Crises to Comnplacency: Shaping Public Policy in Britain. Putnam. Cobbe. Johns Hopkins University Press. Participation in Anzerican Politics: The Dynamics of AgcR~la-Building.. J. Cambridge. 1982. Pittsb~urgh. No.D. American Public Policy. and people. 1968. Canlbridge. 1983. Wiley.. Englewood Cliffs. Elri?)pe. R. Lasswell. Encyclopedia of PublicAdministration and Public Policy. k Friedrich. which require the effective use of money.ANDFURTHER READING Aberbach.. Oxford University Press. "An approach to the analysis of political systems".). Ralph C. Urzderstandi~zg Easton. Pennsylvania. Lineberry. 1978. l Easton. New York. Lasswell (Eds. 2005.10 REFERENCES . CUP. "Four Systems of policy. 1972. What Government Does and What Diflererzce It Makes. Anderson. Rockman. Plano. ' 1. 1972. Public Policy. Praeger. B. No. ~ Muel ler. David. and engineering.W. Aldershot. Gunn. 1963. Prentice Hall. A ~ r i 1957. Harold.. Harper & Row. Standford University Press. Dye. politics and choice". 32. David. Robert L.W. Managing the Public Seetoc Edward Elgar. Public Policy-Making. materials. Vol. . and Jack C. London. 1987. 1977. Gonnley. Carl J.J. W. Thomas R. Public Choice. ~ a s s eA. Chandler. and C. Standford. Vol. John Wiley.D. Y. New York. Lowi. Public Policy Making Re-exnminecl. Taylor & Frtincis. T. 1.1993. James E.W.McGraw-Hill.. Ilogwood. Jack (Ed. "ThePolicy orientation". D.. New York.2ka1zand His Goverpnzent. New York. Operations research analysts help to determine better ways ..A. Wnyld Politics.

Little.TlzeArt o Judgement . 1965. Viclters.26 Public Policy and Analysis Self. London. Discuss. Sir Geoffrey.~f Modern Government. Papers of the Regional Science Association. Speaking Truth to Power: The Art and Craft o Policy Analysis. "Towards a theory of urban public facility location". f Wi I davsky. A. Peter. o 'Tei tz. 1972. 1979. 21. George Allen & Unwin. and policy outcomes. Administrative Theories and Politics: An Inquiry into the Structure and Processi. On the basis of typologies of policies. ' . f B sown & Company. "Public policy is the authoritative allocation of values" (Easton). No. Michael. explain any three categories of policy issues with examples.. policy outputs. London.Describe briefly with suitableexamples.Chapman &Hall. I) 2) 3) Distinguish between policy inputs. 1968. Boston.

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