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Designation: D 3574 – 03

Standard Test Methods for


Flexible Cellular Materials—Slab, Bonded, and Molded
Urethane Foams1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 3574; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope* this document is referenced in the Precision and Bias section.


1.1 These test methods apply to slab, bonded, and molded 3. Terminology
flexible cellular products known as urethane foams. Urethane
foam may be generally defined as an expanded cellular product 3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:
produced by the interaction of active hydrogen compounds, 3.1.1 bonded foam—a product produced by the adhesion of
water, and isocyanates. small pieces of urethane foam to each other with a suitable
1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the bonding agent.
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the 3.1.2 core—the internal portion of a molded part, free of
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- skin.
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- 3.1.3 cored foam—a flexible cellular material containing a
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. multiplicity of holes (usually, but not necessarily, cylindrical in
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as shape), molded or cut into the material in some pattern,
standard. normally perpendicular to the foam rise direction, and extend-
ing part or all the way through the piece
NOTE 1—There is no equivalent ISO standard, however certain test 3.1.4 convoluted foam—a flexible cellular material spe-
methods in this standard have similar or equivalent ISO standards and are cially cut into sheets with “egg carton”-like dimples. The
listed in the Scope of the individual test method sections.
dimple peaks and bases can have varied shapes and dimen-
2. Referenced Documents sions.
3.1.5 flexible cellular product—a cellular organic polymeric
2.1 ASTM Standards:
material that will not rupture when a specimen 200 by 25 by 25
D 412 Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermo-
mm is bent around a 25-mm diameter mandrel at a uniform rate
plastic Elastomers— Tension2
of 1 lap in 5 s at a temperature between 18 and 29°C.
D 624 Test Method for Tear Strength of Conventional
3.1.6 molded foam—a cellular product having the shape of
Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Elastomers2
the enclosed chamber in which it is produced by foaming.
D 726 Test Method for Resistance of Nonporous Paper to
3.1.7 skin—the smooth surface layer of a molded foam
Passage of Air3
product, formed by contact with the mold or surfaces.
D 737 Test Method for Air Permeability of Textile Fabrics4
3.1.8 slab—a section of foam that is cut from the internal
D 3675 Test Method for Surface Flammability of Flexible
portion of a large bun.
Cellular Materials Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source5
3.1.9 urethane foam—a flexible cellular product produced
E 691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to
by the interaction of active hydrogen compounds, water, and
Determine the Precision of a Test Method6
isocyanates.
NOTE 2—The specific dated edition of Practice E 691 that prevails in
4. Summary of Test Methods
1
4.1 Unless specifically stated otherwise between the sup-
These test methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D20 on plier and the purchaser, all tests shall be made in accordance
Plastics and are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D20.22 on Cellular
Materials-Plastics and Elastomers. with the methods specified in Sections 9-124 which include test
Current edition approved July 10, 2003. Published September 2003. Originally procedures for the following:
approved in 1977. Last previous edition approved in 2001 as D 3574 – 01. Tests: Sections
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 09.01. Test A Density Test 9-15
3
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 15.09. Test B1 Indentation Force Deflection Test—Specified
4
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 07.01. Deflection 16-22
5
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 08.02.
6
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.02.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.


Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

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D 3574 – 03
Test B2 Indentation Force Deflection Test—Specified specimen. If a test specimen is die cut, sufficient time should be
Force 23-29 allowed for complete recovery of the thickness across the full
Test C Compression Force Deflection Test 30-36
Test D Constant Deflection Compression Set Test 37-44
width of the specimen.
Test E Tensile Test 45-52 7.3 When the finished molded product does not lend itself to
Test F Tear Resistance Test 53-60 testing or to the taking of specimens because of complicated
Test G Air Flow Test 61-67
Test H Resilience (Ball Rebound) Test 68-75 shape, small size, metal or fabric inserts, adhesion to metal, or
Test I1 Static Force Loss Test at Constant Deflection other reasons, molded test slabs as agreed upon between the
77-85 supplier and the purchaser shall be prepared.
Test I2 Dynamic Fatigue Test by the Roller Shear at
Constant Force, 86-94 7.4 When differences in test results arise due to the difficulty
Test I3 Dynamic Fatigue Test by Constant Force in obtaining suitable specimens from the finished parts, the
Pounding 95-103 supplier and the purchaser may agree upon an acceptable
Test I4 Dynamic Fatigue Test for Carpet Cushion 104-112
Test J Steam Autoclave Aging 113-118 location to take the specimen.
Test K Dry Heat Aging 119-124
Test L Wet Heat Aging 125-130 8. Measurement of Test Specimens
Appendixes: 8.1 Measure the length and width with a scale or tape. Take
X1. Suggested Method for Specifying Flexible Urethane Foams
care not to distort the foam.
X2. Suggested Method of Construction for a Roller Shear Dynamic Flex Fa- 8.2 Measure thickness up to and including 25 mm using a
tigue Apparatus dial-type gage with a minimum foot area of 650 mm2. Hold the
X3. Definitions of Terms Used to Describe the Force-Deflection Curve of
Flexible Urethane Foam
pressure of the dial foot to 170 6 35 Pa (Note 3). Thicknesses
X4. Suggested Tests for Determining Combustibility of Flexible Urethane over 25 mm may be measured with a dial gage, a sliding
Foam. (The combustion tests are given for informational purposes only caliper gage, or as specified in 8.1. When a sliding caliper gage
and are not part of the standard.)
X5. Suggested Method for Verification of an Inclined Oil Manometer
is employed, make the gage setting with the gage out of contact
with the foam. Pass the specimen through the previously set
5. Significance and Use gage: the proper setting shall be the one when the measuring
faces of the gage contact the surfaces of the specimen without
5.1 The test procedures provide a standard method of
compressing it.
obtaining data for research and development, quality control,
acceptance and rejection under specifications, and special NOTE 3—For soft foams having compression force deflection values
purposes. less than 1.65 kPa, the pressure on the dial foot shall not exceed 100 Pa.
5.2 The data obtained by these test methods are applicable 8.3 The scale, tape, or gage shall be graduated so as to
to the material under conditions of the particular test and are permit measurements within 61 % of the dimensions to be
not necessarily the same as obtained in other environments in measured.
use. 8.4 Unless otherwise specified, results shall be the mean of
the measurements.
6. General Test Conditions
TEST A—DENSITY TEST
6.1 Tests shall be conducted under known conditions of
temperature and humidity or as specified in the individual test 9. Scope
procedure. The product shall be conditioned undeflected, and 9.1 This test method covers determination of the density of
undistorted at the temperature and humidity of test for at least uncored foam by calculation from the mass and volume of the
12 h before being tested. In cases of dispute, the tests shall be specimen. The density value thus obtained applies only to the
made at a temperature of 23 6 2°C and in an atmosphere of 50 immediate area from which the specimen has been taken. It
6 5 % relative humidity. does not necessarily relate to the bulk density of the entire
6.2 It is recommended for referee purposes that all tests molded pad.
shall be performed 7 days or more after the foam has been
NOTE 4—ISO 845 is a similar test, but there are technical differences.
manufactured.
10. Test Specimen
7. Sampling 10.1 Core Density—A representative specimen of regular
7.1 When possible, the completed manufactured product shape, circular or square without skins or densification lines,
shall be used for the test specified. Representative samples of not less than 1000 mm3 in volume, shall be cut from a portion
the lot being examined shall be selected at random as required. free of voids and defects and as near as possible to the section
7.2 When it is necessary or advisable to obtain specimens from which the tension and tear specimens were taken.
from the articles, as in those cases where the entire sample is 10.2 Section Density—A representative specimen with skins
not required or adaptable for testing, the method of cutting and on the top and bottom surface measuring at least 0.1 m2 in area
the exact position from which specimens are to be taken shall by full-part thickness shall be cut from an area free of voids
be specified. The density and the state of cure may vary in and defects and as near as possible to the location from which
different parts of the finished product, especially if the article is the tension and tear specimens were taken. When these
of complicated shape or of varying thickness, and these factors dimensions are not possible, the largest representative portion
affect the physical properties of the specimens. Also, the as agreed upon between the supplier and the purchaser shall be
density is affected by the number of cut surfaces on the used.

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D 3574 – 03
11. Number of Specimens 18.2 The IFD values for molded products are dependent on
11.1 One specimen shall be tested, unless otherwise agreed the specimen dimensions. Higher values are generally obtained
upon by the supplier and the purchaser. for specimens that retain all molded surfaces.

12. Procedure 19. Number of Specimens


12.1 Determine the mass of the specimen within 1 %. 19.1 One specimen shall be tested, unless otherwise agreed
12.2 Determine the dimensions of the specimen in accor- upon by the supplier and the purchaser.
dance with Section 8, and calculate the volume. 20. Procedure
13. Calculation 20.1 Place the test specimen in position on the supporting
13.1 Calculate the density in kilograms per cubic metre as plate of the apparatus. If the product has one side cored or
follows: honey-combed, this face shall rest on the perforated plate. The
specimen position shall be such that whenever practicable the
Density 5 M/V 3 106 (1) indentation will be made at the center of all articles, except
where another location is agreed upon by the supplier and the
where:
M = mass of specimen, g, and purchaser.
V = volume of specimen, mm3. 20.2 Preflex the area to be tested by twice lowering the
indentor foot to a total deflection of 75 to 80 % of the full-part
14. Report thickness at a rate of 250 6 25 mm/min. Mark the location of
14.1 Report the following information: the test area with a pen by circumscribing the indentor foot
14.1.1 Density to the nearest 0.1 kg/m3, and while under a 4.5-N force. Allow the specimen to rest 6 6 1
14.1.2 Type of specimen, core or section. min after the preflex.
20.3 Bring the indentor foot into contact with the specimen
15. Precision and Bias and determine the thickness after applying a contact force of
4.5 N (Note 6) to the indentor foot. Indent the specimen at 50
15.1 See Section 131 for Precision and Bias statements.
6 5 mm/min 25 % of this thickness and observe the force in
TEST B1 —INDENTATION FORCE DEFLECTION newtons after 60 6 3 s. Without removing the specimen
TEST—SPECIFIED DEFLECTION increase the deflection to 65 % deflection, allowing the force to
drift while maintaining the 65 % deflection, and again observe
16. Scope the force in newtons after 60 6 3 s.
16.1 This will be known as the indentation force deflection NOTE 6—For super-soft foam, foam with a 25 % IFD less than 40 N, a
test and the results as the IFD values. This test consists of reduction of pressure on the indentor foot shall be allowed. Sufficient
measuring the force necessary to produce designated indenta- contact force to make an accurate initial thickness measurement is
tions in the foam product, for example, 25 and 65 % deflec- required.
tions. (Appendix X3). 21. Report
NOTE 5—ISO 2439 is a similar test, but there are technical differences. 21.1 Report the force in newtons required for 25 and 65 %
indentation or other indentations (Note 7). These figures are
17. Apparatus
known as the 25 % and 65 % IFD values, respectively. Report
17.1 An apparatus having a flat circular indentor foot 203 also length, width, and thickness of the specimen, if non-
mm in diameter connected by means of a swivel joint capable standard and the ratio (support factor Appendix X3) of 65 % to
of accommodating the angle of the sample to a force- 25 % IFD values.
measuring device and mounted in such a manner that the
product or specimen can be deflected at a speed of 50 to 500 NOTE 7—Indentation deflection tests, other than 25 and 65 %, as well as
a 25 % return value (25 % RT), may be specified as agreed upon between
mm/min. The apparatus shall be arranged to support the the supplier and the purchaser.
specimen on a level horizontal plate which is perforated with
approximately 6.5-mm holes on approximately 20-mm centers 22. Precision and Bias
to allow for rapid escape of air during the test. Special support 22.1 See Section 131 for Precision and Bias statements.
for contoured molded pads shall be perforated in the same
manner as the flat plate unless agreed upon between the TEST B2 —INDENTATION RESIDUAL GAGE LOAD
supplier and the purchaser. Pads longer than the base plate shall TEST—SPECIFIED FORCE
be supported from distortion at the 4.5-N contact force.
23. Scope
18. Test Specimen 23.1 Cellular foam products have been traditionally checked
18.1 The test specimen shall consist of the entire product for indentation force deflection by determining the force
sample or a suitable portion of it, except that in no case shall required to effect a 25 % deflection. In seating, on the other
the specimen have dimensions less than 380 by 380 by 100 hand, the interest is in determining how thick the padding is
mm. Specimens less or different than 100 mm in thickness under the average person. Two measurements are called for to
shall have the thickness noted on the test report. meet the requirements of this test method. The force deflection

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D 3574 – 03
is determined by measuring the thickness of the pad under a 28. Report
fixed force of 4.5 N, 110 N, and 220 N, on a 323-cm2 circular 28.1 Report the specimen thickness after 60 6 3 s at 4.5 N,
indentor foot. 110 N, and 220 N. These figures are known as the IRGL values,
23.2 This determination shall be known as the Indentation respectively. Report also the length, width, and thickness of the
Residual Gage Load and the measurements as the IRGL values. specimen.
NOTE 8—ISO 2439 is a similar test, but there are technical differences.
29. Precision and Bias
24. Apparatus 29.1 Round robin testing to determine the precision of this
method is being planned and the data will be available by 2002.
24.1 An apparatus having a flat circular indentor foot 203
mm in diameter connected with a swivel joint for applying TEST C—COMPRESSION FORCE DEFLECTION
forces of 4.5 N, 110 N, 220 N and 330 N shall be mounted over TEST
a level horizontal platform that is perforated with approxi-
mately 6.5-mm holes on approximately 20-mm centers to 30. Scope
allow for rapid escape of air during the test. The distance
between the indentor foot and the platform shall be variable to 30.1 This test consists of measuring the force necessary to
indent the specimen at a speed of 50 to 200 mm/min for produce a 50 % compression over the entire top area of the
thickness measurements. The apparatus shall be equipped with foam specimen.
a device for measuring the distance between plates. NOTE 9—ISO 3386 is a similar test, but there are technical differences.
24.2 Special support for contoured molded pads shall be NOTE 10—Compression deflection tests other than at 50 % may be
perforated and agreed upon between the supplier and the specified as agreed upon between the supplier and the purchaser.
purchaser. Pads longer than the base plate shall be supported
31. Apparatus
from distortion at the 4.5-N contact force.
31.1 An apparatus having a flat compression foot, larger
25. Test Conditions than the specimen to be tested connected to a force-measuring
device and mounted in a manner such that the product or
25.1 When possible the completed manufactured product specimen can be deflected at a speed of 50 to 500 mm/min. The
shall be used. In the case of tapered cushions, the location of apparatus shall be arranged to support the specimen on a level
the area for measurement is to be agreed upon between the horizontal plate that is perforated with approximately 6.5-mm
supplier and the purchaser. In the case a finished part is not holes on approximately 20-mm centers to allow for rapid
feasible for test, 380 by 380-mm specimens of an average escape of air during the test.
thickness are to be cut from the cushion.
25.2 The IRGL values for molded products are dependent 32. Test Specimens
on the specimen dimensions. Difference values are generally 32.1 The slab test specimen shall have parallel top and
obtained for specimens that retain all molded surfaces. bottom surfaces and essentially vertical sides. The thickness
shall be no greater than 75 % of the minimum top dimension.
26. Number of Specimens The standard specimen shall be 50 mm by 50 mm by 25 mm
26.1 One specimen shall be tested, unless otherwise agreed in thickness.
upon by the supplier and the purchaser. 32.2 Specimens from uncored slab stock shall be a mini-
mum of 2000 mm2 in area and have a minimum thickness of 20
27. Procedure mm.
32.3 The test specimen from molded parts shall have
27.1 Test the whole test specimen or a minimum area of 380 parallel top and bottom surfaces and perpendicular sides.
by 380 mm. Preflex the specimen twice with a 330 N force at Preferably the specimen should include both top and bottom
200 6 20 mm/min. Allow to rest 6 6 1 min. Position the molded skins. If a test specimen with parallel top and bottom
specimen in the test apparatus with any cored or convoluted surfaces including both molded skins cannot be obtained
surfaces resting against the perforated bottom plate. because of the shape of the molded part, at least one of the
27.2 Bring the indentor foot into contact and determine the molded skin surfaces should be retained. Both surface skins
thickness of the specimen with the 4.5-N load on the indentor should be removed only in cases where the shape of the
foot. original sample makes this absolutely necessary.
27.3 Apply the 110-N force at 50 6 5 mm/min with the 32.4 Maximum molded specimen thickness shall be no
indentor foot and indent the specimen until the force is carried greater than the minimum top dimensions. Specimens from
by the specimen. Determine the thickness at 110 N after molded parts shall be a minimum of 2000 mm2 in area and
maintaining the force for 60 6 3 s. have a minimum thickness of 20 mm.
27.4 Without removing the specimen apply the 220-N force
at 50 6 5 mm/min with the indentor foot and further indent the 33. Number of Specimens
pad until this load is carried. After 60 6 3 s under load, 33.1 Three specimens per sample shall be tested. The value
determine the thickness of the pad. reported shall be the mean value of those observed.

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D 3574 – 03
34. Procedure 40. Number of Specimens
34.1 Preflex the specimen twice, 75 to 80 % of its original 40.1 Three specimens per sample shall be tested. The value
thickness at 250 6 25 mm/min. Then allow the specimen to reported shall be the mean of those observed.
rest for a period of 6 6 1 min.
34.2 Place the specimen centered in the line of the axial load 41. Procedure
on the supporting plate of the apparatus. If the product has one 41.1 Perform the entire test procedure under the following
side cored or convoluted, rest this face on the perforated plates. conditions: Conduct all measurements, conditioning, and re-
34.3 Bring the compression foot into contact with the covery of the specimen at 23 6 2°C and in an atmosphere of
specimen and determine the thickness after applying a contact 50 6 5 % relative humidity. The oven conditions shall be 70 6
load of 140 Pa to the specimen area (Note 3). Compress the 2°C and 6 % maximum relative humidity.
specimen 50 % of this thickness at 50 6 5mm/min and
determine the final force after 60 6 3 s. NOTE 13—This condition of relative humidity may be achieved by
placing an oven at 70 6 2°C in an atmosphere maintained at 23 6 2°C and
50 6 5 % relative humidity.
35. Report
41.2 Measure the original thickness of the test specimen in
35.1 Report the thickness after contact force, and the 50 %
accordance with the procedure described in Section 8.
compression deflection value in kilopascals and the dimensions
41.3 Place the test specimen in the apparatus and deflect it
of non-standard specimens. Indicate if the sample was cored or
to either 50 6 1, 75 6 1, or 90 6 1 % of its thickness, or any
convoluted.
other deflection agreed upon between the supplier and the
purchaser.
36. Precision and Bias 41.4 Within 15 min, place the deflected specimen and the
36.1 See Section 131 for Precision and Bias statements. apparatus in the mechanically convected air oven for a period
of 22 h; then remove the apparatus.
TEST D—CONSTANT DEFLECTION COMPRESSION 41.5 Remove the specimen immediately from the apparatus
SET TEST and measure the final thickness in accordance with the proce-
dure described in Section 8 after allowing it to recover 30 to 40
37. Scope min at the temperature and humidity conditions specified in
37.1 This test method consists of deflecting the foam 41.1.
specimen to a specified deflection, exposing it to specified NOTE 14—Recovery periods greater than 30 to 40 min may be agreed
conditions of time and temperature and measuring the change upon by the supplier and the purchaser.
in the thickness of the specimen after a specified recovery
period. 42. Calculation
NOTE 11—ISO 1856 is a similar test, but there are technical differences.
42.1 Calculate the compression set value by one of the
following formulas:
38. Apparatus NOTE 15—The Ct calculation is preferred and shall be the calculation
38.1 Compression Device, consisting of two or more flat used when neither Ct and Cd are specified.
plates arranged so the plates are held parallel to each other by 42.1.1 Calculate the constant deflection compression set,
bolts or clamps and the space between the plates is adjustable expressed as a percentage of the original thickness, as follows:
to the required deflection thickness by means of spacers.
Ct 5 @~to 2 tf!/to # 3 100 (2)

39. Test Specimens where:


39.1 The test specimens shall have parallel top and bottom Ct = compression set expressed as a percentage of the
surfaces and essentially perpendicular sides. original thickness,
39.2 Specimens shall be 50 by 50 by 25 mm unless to = original thickness of test specimen, and
tf = final thickness of test specimen.
otherwise specified. Specimens less than 25 mm in thickness
shall be plied up, without the use of cement, to a 25-mm 42.1.2 Calculate the constant deflection compression set,
thickness. expressed as a percentage of the original deflection, as follows:
39.3 Specimens from cored foams shall have a minimum Cd 5 @~to 2 tf!/~to 2 ts!# 3 100 (3)
top surface area of 100 cm2. The thickness shall be no greater
where:
than 75 % of the minimum top dimension.
Cd = compression set expressed as a percent of the origi-
39.4 Specimens from uncored molded products 25 mm or nal deflection,
less in thickness shall be 50 by 50 mm by full-part thickness to = original thickness of test specimen,
and shall contain the top and bottom skin. ts = thickness of spacer bar used, and
39.5 Specimens greater than 50 mm in thickness shall be cut tf = final thickness of test specimen.
to 25 mm thickness from the core. (Note 12)
NOTE 16—Approximate conversion of Ct to Cd can be calculated by
NOTE 12—Specimens from molded products may be tested with one or multiplying the 50 % Ct by 2, the 75 % Ct by 1.33, and the 90 % Ct by
both skins by agreement between the customer and the supplier. 1.11.

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D 3574 – 03
43. Report 47. Test Specimens
43.1 Report compression set as Ct or Cd, and deflection 47.1 The test specimens shall be cut from flat sheet material
used. Also report any non-standard recovery periods or sample 12.5 6 1.5 mm thick. The foam rise shall be in the thickness
sizes and whether the sample was cored, uncored and/or direction, unless otherwise agreed upon by customer and
molded. supplier. The top and bottom surfaces shall be parallel and free
of skin. The cut edges shall be perpendicular to the top surface
44. Precision and Bias and be free of ragged edges. The length of the tabs may be
44.1 See Section 131 for Precision and Bias statements. adjusted to fit machine conditions provided that all other
requirements remain constant.
TEST E—TENSILE TEST
48. Number of Specimens
45. Scope 48.1 Three specimens per sample shall be tested. The value
45.1 This test method determines the effect of the applica- reported shall be the mean value of those observed.
tion of a tensile force to foam. Measurements are made for
tensile stress, tensile strength, and ultimate elongation. 49. Procedure
49.1 Set the grip separation at a minimum of 62.5 mm for
NOTE 17—ISO 1798 is a similar test, but there are technical differences.
the D 3574 Die and at a minimum of 75 mm for the D 412 Die
46. Apparatus A. Place the dumbbell tabs in the grips of the testing machine,
using care to adjust them symmetrically, in order that the
46.1 Specimens—The specimen for tensile tests shall be
tension will be distributed uniformly over the cross section.
stamped out with a die of the shape and dimensions shown in
The test shall be run at a speed of 500 6 50 mm/min, unless
Fig. 1, or Die A of Test Methods D 412. The die shall be sharp
otherwise specified by agreement between customer and sup-
and free of nicks in order to prevent leaving ragged edges on
plier. Start the machine and note continuously the distance
the specimen. The D 412 Die is the preferred die and is
between the two bench marks. Record the stress at the
identical in dimensions to the ISO 1798 Die.
corresponding elongation or if an automatic recording device is
46.2 Bench Marker—The marker shall have two parallel
used, it will record the data continuously. At rupture, measure
marking edges 1 to 3 mm in thickness and spaced 20 or 25 mm
or record elongation to the nearest 10 %.
apart on centers.
46.3 Measurements—The dimensions of the test specimen
50. Calculation
shall be determined with a suitable gage in accordance with
Section 8. 50.1 Calculate the tensile strength by dividing the maximum
46.4 Machine—Tensile tests shall be made on a power- breaking force by the original cross-sectional area of the
driven machine complying with the following requirements: specimen.
46.4.1 The machine shall be equipped with a load cell or 50.2 Calculate the stress by dividing the force at a prede-
force measuring device that can measure the maximum applied termined elongation by the original cross-sectional area of the
force. The test speed shall be 500 6 50 mm/min, and shall be specimen.
uniform at all times. 50.3 Calculate the ultimate elongation, A, by subtracting the
46.4.2 The machine may be equipped with a device gradu- original distance between the bench marks from the total
ated to 2.5 mm for measuring the elongation. The use of distance between the bench marks at the time of rupture and
non-contact extensometers may similarly be used for determin- expressing the difference as a percentage of the original
ing elongation. Extensometers that clip on to the specimen distance, as follows, or use the grip separations in a similar
generally are unsuitable for flexible foam. For testing dumbbell calculation.
specimens, the machine shall have either screw-type flat plate A, % 5 @~df 2 do!/do # 3 100 (4)
grips or a type of grip that tightens automatically and exerts a
uniform pressure across the gripping surfaces, increasing as the where:
tension increases to prevent slipping. do = original distance between bench marks, and
df = distance between bench marks at the break point.
50.4 The value reported shall be the mean value of all
specimens tested.

51. Report
51.1 Report the following information:
51.1.1 Tensile strength in kilopascals,
51.1.2 Stress in kilopascals at a predetermined elongation,
and
51.1.3 Ultimate elongation, in percent, and whether bench
marks, grip separation or extensometers were used to measure
elongation.
FIG. 1 Die for Stamping Tension Specimens 51.1.4 Crosshead speed, if other than 500 mm/min.

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D 3574 – 03
52. Precision and Bias Method D 624. It should be noted that the D 624 test is a tear initiating
measurement as opposed to a tear propagating measurement in this block
52.1 See Section 131 for Precision and Bias statements. tear test.

TEST F—TEAR RESISTANCE TEST 58. Calculation


58.1 Calculate the tear strength from the maximum force
53. Scope registered on the testing machine and the average thickness of
53.1 This test method covers determination of the tear the specimen (direction A-B), as follows:
propagation resistance of foam. The block method, as de-
Tear strength, N/m 5 F/T 3 103 (5)
scribed, measures the tear resistance under the conditions of
this particular test. where:
NOTE 18—ISO 8067 is a similar test, but there are technical differences. F = force, N, and
T = thickness, mm.
54. Apparatus
59. Report
54.1 Tear resistance shall be measured on a power-driven
apparatus which will indicate the force at which rupture of the 59.1 Report the following information:
specimen takes place. An automatic machine may be used 59.1.1 Tear strength in newtons per metre,
which draws the actual curve, or, a style or scale shall be used 59.1.2 Orientation of specimen, and
having an indicator that remains at the point of maximum force 59.1.3 Crosshead speed, if other than 500 mm/min.
after rupture.
60. Precision and Bias
55. Test Specimens 60.1 See Section 131 for Precision and Bias statements.
55.1 The test specimens shall be a block shape free of skin, TEST G—AIR FLOW TEST
voids, and densification lines, as shown in Fig. 2. They may be
cut on a saw or die cut from sheet material so that the sides are 61. Scope
parallel and perpendicular to each other. A nominal 40-mm cut 61.1 The air flow test measures the ease with which air
shall be placed in one side as shown in Fig. 2. Dimension A-B passes through a cellular structure. Air flow values may be used
can be reduced to the pad thickness. The thickness shall be as an indirect measurement of certain cell structure character-
determined in accordance with Section 8. istics. The test consists of placing a flexible foam core
specimen in a cavity over a chamber and creating a specified
56. Number of Specimens constant air-pressure differential. The rate of flow of air
56.1 Three specimens per sample shall be tested. The values required to maintain this pressure differential is the air flow
reported shall be the mean of those tested. value This test is normally for slab foam products or for the
core materials of molded products. Measurements of air flow
57. Procedure through molded skins or extremely high air flow products may
57.1 Clamp the test specimen in the jaws of the testing require alternative methods (Note 21).
machine, taking care that the jaws grip the specimen properly. NOTE 20—ISO 7231 is an identical test.
Spread the block so that each tab is held in the jaw to pull NOTE 21—For measuring air flow of products beyond the range of this
across the specimen. The test shall be run at a speed of 500 6 method some success has been achieved using the equipment specified in
50 mm/min, unless otherwise specified by agreement between Test Method D 737. Some modification of the equipment may be
customer and supplier. Aid the cut in the specimen with a razor necessary.7 For surface porosity of molded foams see Test Method D 726.
blade or knife, so as to keep it in the center of the block (Note
62. Terminology
19). After the rupture of the specimen, or after at least a 50-mm
length is torn, record the maximum force in Newtons and note 62.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:
also the thickness of the specimen (direction A-B). 62.1.1 air flow value—the volume of air per second at
standard temperature and atmospheric pressure required to
NOTE 19—For foams that will not tear by this method side by side tear maintain a constant pressure differential of 125 Pa across a
strength comparisons can be made by testing in accordance with Test
flexible foam specimen approximately 50 by 50 by 25 mm.
62.1.2 air flow parallel to foam rise—the air flow value
obtained when the air enters and leaves the mounted specimen
parallel to foam rise.
62.1.3 air flow perpendicular to foam rise—the air flow
value obtained when the air enters and leaves the specimen
perpendicular to foam rise.

7
Gummaraju, R.V., Pask, R.F., Koller, H.J., Wujcik, S.E., and Reimann, K.A.,
“Evaluation, Modification and Adaptation of an Airflow Test Method for Polyure-
FIG. 2 Tear Resistance Test Specimens thane Foams,” Journal of Cellular Plastics, May/June 2001.

7
D 3574 – 03
63. Apparatus drawn into the chamber. Appendix X5. describes a suggested
63.1 A schematic drawing of the apparatus including the method for the verification of the inclined oil manometer, the
specimen mounting chamber, manometer, air flowmeters, manometer can alternatively be replaced with a 0-250 Pa
blowmeters, blower, and voltage control is shown in Fig. 3.8 magnehelic gage with graduations in 5 Pa.
63.2 Chamber, consisting of a pot approximately 130 mm in 63.4 Flowmeters and Blower—Low-pressure-drop air flow-
diameter and 150 mm high with provision for mounting the meters accurate to 62 % shall be used for air-flow measure-
foam specimen and fittings for the manometer and air exhaust. ments. A given flowmeter should not be used for values less
The specimen mount cavity shall be 50.0 6 0.5 by 50.0 6 0.5 than 10 % of full scale. Air flowmeters with at least 250-mm
by 25.0 6 0.5 mm in size. Four foam support vanes approxi- scales are recommended. Since the flowmeter calibration is
mately 1 mm thick and 12.5 mm high shall be placed under the temperature-and pressure-dependent, the use of the apparatus
opening to prevent the foam from being pulled into the vacuum under ambient conditions can result in erroneous readings. In
chamber. The vanes shall be spaced 12.5 mm on center from cases of dispute, the apparatus should be used under standard
each other and also centered relative to the bottom of the cavity conditions of 23°C and 100 kPa (1 atm pressure) or else a
opening. The manometer fitting shall enter a 1-mm hole suitable calibration correction applied. Flowmeters that range
midway along the side of the chamber. A 25-mm pipe fitting from 0 to 0.01 m3 /s will cover a wide range of foam cell
shall be used as the exhaust outlet from the center of the bottom structures but a lesser range may be used. Actual flow is
of the chamber. adjusted by a combination of valve restriction and blower
63.3 Manometer, calibrated from 0 to 250 Pa and having an speed. The two-way valves shall be mounted on the output side
accuracy of 62 %, is required. An inclined oil manometer with of the flowmeter to maintain the pressure drop across the
graduations of 2 Pa is recommended. A level mounted on the flowmeter constant at any given flow level. A vacuum cleaner
manometer shall be used to ensure that the proper degree of type unit shall be used for an exhaust blower.
inclination from the horizontal is maintained. Traps shall be
63.5 Leak Test—To check the apparatus for leaks, the
provided to prevent indicating fluid from being accidentally
specimen mount cavity shall be sealed with masking tape. With
all valves closed, turn on the exhaust blower to approximately
1⁄3 power and observe any movement of the manometer. The
8
An electronic instrument that has proven to be effective for measuring air flow manometer reading, if any, should not exceed 1 Pa after a 30-s
is available from ONIX Process Analysis, Inc., 1201 N. Velasco, Angleton, TX
77515. waiting period. Next, open the valve very slightly for the

FIG. 3 Air Flow Apparatus Schematic Diagram

8
D 3574 – 03
lowest range flowmeter reading. The flow should be essentially which a 16.03 6 0.2-mm diameter steel ball is released by a
zero as evidenced by less than 3-mm movement of the air magnet or other device. The steel ball must be released so that
flowmeter float from its static position. For the equipment to it falls without rotation. Centering of the ball is assured by a
perform satisfactorily over its entire range the requirements for recess at the base of the magnet. The height of drop shall be
both parts of the leak test must be met. 500 mm. Since it is most convenient to note the position of the
top of the ball on rebound, the top of the ball shall be 516 mm
64. Test Specimens
above the surface of the foam. Thus, “zero” rebound shall be
64.1 The test specimens shall be parallel-piped cut to fit the 16.3 6 0.2 mm (diameter of ball) above the specimen surface.
mount cavity of the apparatus. A cavity 50 by 50 mm requires The scale on the tube shall be scribed directly in percent as
a specimen 51.0 6 0.3 by 51.0 6 0.3 by 25.0 6 0.5 mm in size. follows. Every 5 % a complete circle shall be scribed and every
A band saw with a movable table and a double-bevel knife- 1 % a 120° arc shall be scribed. The complete circles are an
edge blade is recommended for cutting the specimens. essential part of the apparatus, since they are used to eliminate
64.2 Three specimens per sample for each location and parallax error.
orientation to be tested shall be cut. The values reported shall
be the mean of those observed for each location and orienta- 70. Test Specimens
tion. 70.1 The test specimens shall have parallel top and bottom
65. Procedure surfaces.
70.2 The test specimens shall consist of the entire product
65.1 Measure each specimen in accordance with the proce- sample or a suitable portion of it, except that in no case shall
dure described in Section 8 to verify the specimen size. the thickness be less than 30 mm. The standard specimen size
65.2 Insert the specimen into the test cavity. Make sure that shall be 100 mm by 100 mm by 50 mm. For molded products
a good air seal is obtained along all edges. The top of the the top skin shall be removed.
specimen should be flush with the top of the test chamber.
65.3 With all valves closed, adjust the voltage control of the 71. Number of Specimens
apparatus to 30 %. 71.1 Three specimens per sample shall be tested. The three
65.4 Open one flow-control valve slowly until a pressure specimens may be obtained by using separate items or different
differential to 100 to 150 Pa is obtained. Adjust the voltage locations on a given item.
control carefully to obtain a pressure differential of 125 6 1 Pa.
65.5 After this pressure differential has been maintained for 72. Procedure
at least 10 s, read the scale of the flowmeter. 72.1 Center the specimen at the base of the tube and adjust
65.6 If this reading is off-scale or less than 10 % of full the height of the tube so that zero rebound is 16 mm above the
scale, close that flow-control valve and open a more appropri- surface of the foam specimen.
ate one. Repeat this process until the proper manometer 72.2 Mount the steel ball on the release mechanism; then
reading and air flow is achieved. drop it and note the maximum rebound height. If the ball
65.7 The air flow value may be obtained from the flowmeter strikes the tube on the drop or rebound, the value obtained is
scale directly, estimated from a calibration chart, or calculated invalid. This condition is usually due to the tube not being
with a factor depending on the calibration system. vertical or irregularities on the specimen surface. In order to
66. Report minimize parallax error, the circles on the tube in the region
66.1 Report the following information: where the percent rebound is read must appear as lines.
66.1.1 Location and orientation of each specimen with 72.3 Make an additional two drops on the same specimen in
respect to foam rise in the section of foam that was sampled, the same location unless agreed upon by customer and supplier.
66.1.2 Mean air flow value in cubic metres per min for each 73. Calculation
location and orientation,
66.1.3 Dimensions of the specimen, and 73.1 Calculate the mean of the three rebound values.
66.1.4 Dimension of the mount cavity of the apparatus. 74. Report
67. Precision and Bias 74.1 Report the mean of the three specimen mean values as
67.1 See Section 131 for Precision and Bias statements. the ball rebound resilience value of the sample in percent.
74.2 Report if measurements were made at different speci-
TEST H—RESILIENCE (BALL REBOUND) TEST men locations or on different specimens.
68. Scope
75. Precision and Bias
68.1 This test consists of dropping a steel ball on a foam
specimen and noting the height of rebound. 75.1 See Section 131 for Precision and Bias statements.

NOTE 22—ISO 8307 is an identical test. TEST I—FATIGUE TESTS

69. Apparatus 76. Scope


69.1 The ball rebound tester shall consist of a 40 6 4-mm 76.1 The fatigue tests consist of four methods:
inside diameter vertical clear plastic tube, such as acrylic, into 76.1.1 Static Force Loss Test at Constant Deflection,

9
D 3574 – 03
76.1.2 Dynamic Fatigue by Roller Shear at Constant Force, ~to 2 tf !
Ft 5 3 100 (6)
76.1.3 Dynamic Fatigue Test by Constant Force Pounding, ~ to !
and
76.1.4 Dynamic Fatigue Test for Carpet Cushion. where:
Ft = loss in thickness, %,
TEST I1 —STATIC FORCE LOSS TEST AT to = original specimen thickness, and
CONSTANT tf = final specimen thickness.
DEFLECTION 83.3 Calculate the percentage loss of IFD, as follows:
~ Lo 2 Lf !
77. Scope FL 5 3 100 (7)
~Lo !
77.1 The purpose of this static force loss test is to deter-
mine: (1) a loss of IFD, (2) a loss of thickness, and (3)
structural breakdown by visual examination. where:
77.2 This procedure tests the specimen at a 75 % constant FL = loss of indentation force deflection, %,
deflection. Lo = original indentation force deflection value, and
Lf = final indentation force deflection value.
NOTE 23—No similar ISO standard exists.
84. Report
78. Apparatus 84.1 Report the following information:
78.1 The apparatus shall consist of two parallel plates 84.1.1 Percentage loss of thickness and the percentage loss
(wood or metal) which can produce a uniform, constant of 25 and 65 % IFD if the thickness loss is less than 10 %, and
deflection of the specimen. The plates shall be 500 by 500 mm 84.1.2 Results of visual examination.
square, and spacer bars or other appropriate means shall be 84.1.3 Recovery time whether 60 min or 24 h.
employed to maintain a constant 75 % deflection throughout
the test. 85. Precision and Bias
85.1 Round robin testing to determine the precision of this
79. Test Specimen method is being planned and the data will be available by 2002.
79.1 The test specimen shall be 380 by 380 mm by the
desired thickness. One specimen shall be tested. TEST I2 —DYNAMIC FATIGUE TEST BY THE
ROLLER
80. Initial Measurements SHEAR AT CONSTANT FORCE
80.1 Measure the 25 and 65 % IFD of the test specimen in 86. Scope
accordance with Sections 16 to 22. Measure the original
thickness with 4.5-N contact force after preflexing. 86.1 This procedure fatigues the specimen dynamically at a
constant force, deflecting the material both vertically and
81. Procedure laterally.
86.2 The fatigue test may be conducted by either Procedure
81.1 Place the specimen between the plates with the spacer A or Procedure B. Both test procedures are the same and differ
bars to provide a 75 % deflection. Clamp the plates and hold at only in the number of cycles used. Procedure A shall use 8000
75 % deflection for 22 h at 23 6 2°C and 50 6 5 % relative cycles (approximately 5 h) and Procedure B shall use 20 000
humidity. cycles (approximately 12 h).
82. Final Measurements NOTE 24—No similar ISO standard exists.
NOTE 25—The mass of the roller and the number of cycles may be
82.1 Measure the final IFD values 60 6 5 min after the changed as agreed upon between the supplier and the purchaser.
fatigue test is completed in accordance with 80.1 using the
original thickness to determine the deflection for the final IFD 87. Apparatus (Appendix X2)
values. 87.1 Perforated-Base Platen, approximately 500 by 500 by
82.2 If the loss in thickness is above 10 %, the IFD losses 10 mm with a finished ground-top surface and with perforation
shall not be measured and only the thickness loss shall be of approximately 6.5-mm centers covering the center 360 by
reported. 360-mm portion.
82.3 For a measurement of more permanent fatigue, repeat 87.2 Roller, 450-mm minimum length and 76.0 6 1.3
82.1, except allow 24 6 1 h of recovery time rather than 60 mm-diameter made from stainless steel or chrome-plated metal
min. having a minimum surface finish of 1 µm. The roller shall be
mounted in an offset position (15 6 3°) with suitable means of
83. Calculation and Inspection adjustment for a specified loading of the test specimen. The
83.1 Check the specimen for physical breakdown of the force imparted by the roller assembly shall not exceed 110 N.
cellular structure by visual examination and comparison with 87.3 The test is conducted at a frequency of 0.50 6 0.05 Hz.
unflexed specimens. A cycle is a complete forward and reverse stroke. The length of
83.2 Calculate the percentage loss of thickness as follows: the stroke shall be 300 6 10 mm.

10
D 3574 – 03
87.4 Any suitable method for holding the test specimen platen. Set the counter to zero, start the machine, and fatigue
securely on the roller base platen is acceptable as long as the test the sample for either 8000 cycles (Procedure A) or 20 000
test specimen remains stationary during the rolling flex cycles. cycles (Procedure B) or another number of cycles specified by
An acceptable method for retaining the specimen on the base the customer.
platen is described as follows: Four pieces of cotton sheeting or
paper masking tape 50 to 75 mm wide at least 50 mm longer 91. Final Measurements
than each side of the test specimen shall be required. Bond the 91.1 Within 60 6 5 min after the fatigue test is completed,
cotton strips (with a solvent or water-emulsion-type of adhe- measure the final IRGL in accordance with 89.3.
sive) or the masking tape along the edges of the base surface of 91.2 For a measurement of more permanent fatigue repeat
the test specimen. Allow 25 to 50 mm of each strip to extend 91.1, except allow 24 6 1 h of recovery rather than 60 min.
beyond the edges of the test specimen so that the test specimen
can be securely clamped to the base platen through the use of 92. Calculation and Inspection
suitable metal retainer straps. 92.1 Check the specimen for physical breakdown of cellular
structure by visual examination and comparison with unflexed
88. Test Specimen similar specimens.
88.1 A specimen 380 mm long by 300 mm wide by 50 mm 92.2 Calculate and report the percent loss in thickness as
thick is used. The thickness of specimens tested should be at follows:
least 25 mm and no greater than 125 mm. Normally full-part @100~A 2 B!#
thickness is used where the top and bottom surfaces are Thickness loss, % 5 (8)
~A!
essentially parallel and fall within the thickness limits. Where
part thickness exceeds 125 mm or the bottom surface is
contoured so that the surfaces are not essentially parallel, the where:
bottom surface shall be sliced to provide a flat surface A = original thickness under compression forces of 4.5 N,
essentially parallel to the top surfaces (see Section 7). 110 N, and 220 N, and
88.2 The length and width dimensions shall be held to 66.5 B = final thickness under the same indentation forces.
mm and shall be saw cut or die cut; if die cut, sufficient time 92.3 If requested by the customer, calculate the total loss
must be allowed for complete edge recovery (usually 2 h number as follows:
minimum). Total loss number 5 sum of % losses at each load (9)
88.3 One specimen shall be tested, unless otherwise agreed Sample Calculation:
upon by the supplier and the purchaser. Percent thickness loss at 4.5 N = 2.0
Percent thickness loss at 110 N = 18.0
Percent thickness loss at 220 N = 27.0
89. Initial Measurements Total loss number 47.0
89.1 Bond the masking tape or suitable hold-down cloth to
the bottom edges of the specimen so the specimen can be 93. Report
secured to the perforated base platen of the fatigue tester. 93.1 Report the following information:
89.2 Condition the specimen as in Section 6. The test should 93.1.1 Percentage loss of thickness and IRGL values.
also be run under the same conditions. 93.1.2 The number of cycles.
89.3 Determine the IRGL in accordance with Sections 93.1.3 Total loss number, if requested.
23-29. 93.1.4 Results of visual examination.
93.1.5 Recovery time whether 60 min or 24 h.
90. Procedure
90.1 Adjust the roller to obtain a constant force of 130 6 2 94. Precision and Bias
N on the foam specimen (Note 25). This critical measurement 94.1 Round robin testing to determine the precision of this
may be made by fashioning a lightweight fabric sling around method is being planned and the data will be available by 2002.
the roller at its center and measuring the force downward while
holding the weighing scale vertically over the roller and TEST I3 —DYNAMIC FATIGUE TEST BY CONSTANT
maintaining the roller axis in a horizontal plane with the pivot FORCE POUNDING
axis.
90.2 Set the vertical adjustment of the roller or the mounting 95. Scope
base by placing the specimen in position and lowering the 95.1 The purpose of the fatigue test is to determine: (1) the
roller so it is supported by the specimen. Observe the pivot axis loss of force support at 40 % IFD (indentation force deflec-
and roller axis relationship and adjust the vertical height so that tion), (2) a loss in thickness, and (3) structural breakdown as
the axes lie in an essentially horizontal plane at the start of the assessed by visual inspection. Deflections other than 40 % may
test. be used as agreed upon between supplier and purchaser.
90.3 Mount the test specimen on the base platen with the 95.2 This procedure describes tests that evaluate the speci-
long dimension parallel to the stroke of the dynamic fatigue men by repeatedly deflecting the material by a flat-horizontal
machine and secure by means of the tape and metal-retainer indention exerting a vertical force of 750 6 20 N on the test
strips. When mounting cored pieces, coring is to be against the specimen.

11
D 3574 – 03
95.3 This fatigue test may be conducted by either Procedure 101.2 Calculate the percent loss of thickness as follows:
A or Procedure B. The test procedures differ only in the number ~to 2 tf !
of cycles used. Procedure A shall use 8000 cycles (approxi- Ft 5 3 100 (10)
~ to !
mately 2 h) and Procedure B shall use 80 000 cycles (approxi-
mately 19 h).
where:
NOTE 26—The equipment in this standard is identical to ISO 3385, but Ft = loss in thickness, %,
there are technical differences in the two methods. to = original specimen thickness, and
96. Apparatus tf = final specimen thickness.
101.3 Calculate the percent loss of force deflection, as
96.1 Perforated Base Platen, approximately 500 by 500 by follows:
10 mm, with finished ground-top surface and with perforation
of approximately 6.5-mm diameter holes on 20-mm centers, ~ Fo 2 F f !
FL 5 3 100 (11)
over a minimum central area of 350 by 350 mm. F~Lo !
96.2 A flat circular indentor that exerts a force of 750 6 20
N on the test specimen at maximum indentation. The indentor where:
shall have an overall diameter of 250 6 1 mm with a 25 6 FL = loss of 40 % indentation force deflection, %,
1-mm radius at the lower edge, to prevent cutting hard foam. Fo = original 40 % indentation force deflection value, and
96.3 By means of a crank or other suitable mechanism, the Ff = final indentation force deflection value.
machine shall be capable of oscillating either the platen
carrying the test specimen or the indentor support mounting 102. Report
towards each other in a vertical direction at a frequency of 70 102.1 Report the following information:
6 5 cycles per minute. 102.1.1 Percent change in thickness and the percent change
96.4 The indentor shall be free to be lifted in its mounting to in 40 % IFD if the thickness change is less than 10 %, and
prevent overloading of the test specimen.9 102.1.2 Results of visual examination.
102.1.3 Recovery time whether 60 min or 24 h.
97. Test Specimen
97.1 The test specimen shall be 380 by 380 by 50 mm. One 103. Precision and Bias
specimen shall be tested, unless otherwise agreed upon by the 103.1 See Section 131 for Precision and Bias statements.
supplier and the purchaser.
TEST I4 —DYNAMIC FATIGUE TEST FOR CARPET
98. Initial Measurement CUSHION
98.1 The specimen shall be conditioned for at least 12 h and 104. Scope
also fatigued at 23 6 2°C and 50 6 5 % relative humidity.
98.2 Measure the 40 % IFD of the test specimen in accor- 104.1 The purpose of this test is to determine: (1) retention
dance with Sections 16-22. Measure the original thickness with of load bearing (65 % IFD), (2) a loss in thickness, and (3)
4.5-N contact force after preflexing. structural breakdown as addressed by visual inspection.
104.2 This procedure describes tests that evaluate the speci-
99. Procedure men by repeatedly deflecting the carpet cushion by a 152 mm
99.1 Mount the specimen on the base platen. Set the counter diameter and 152 mm wide rubber covered roller exerting a
to zero, start the machine, and fatigue the test specimen for force of 266 6 5N on the test specimens.
either 8000 cycles (Procedure A) or 80 000 cycles (Procedure 104.3 This fatigue test may be conducted by either Proce-
B). dure A or Procedure B. The test procedures differ only in the
number of cycles used. Procedure A shall use 8000 cycles
100. Final Measurement (approximately 5 h) and Procedure B shall use 40 000 cycles
100.1 Within 60 6 5 min after the fatigue test is completed, (approximately 12 h).
repeat 98.2 using the original thickness to determine the NOTE 27—No similar ISO standard exists.
deflection for the final force reading.
100.2 For a measurement of more permanent fatigue repeat 105. Apparatus (Appendix X2)
100.1, except allow 24 6 1 h of recovery rather than 60 min. 105.1 The apparatus is identical to that described in Section
100.3 If the loss in thickness is above 10 %, IFD loss shall 87 with the following changes. The roller described in 104.2
not be measured and only the thickness loss should be reported. replaces the longer roller and is attached perpendicularly. The
101. Calculation and Inspection base platen is replaced or covered with a 19 mm thick plywood
for mounting the sample. The sample is secured with floor
101.1 Check the specimen for physical breakdown of the tacks or staples. (See Fig. 4 for test apparatus.)
cellular structure by visual examination and comparison with
unflexed specimens. 106. Test Specimens
106.1 The specimen is 380 mm long and 230 mm wide and
9
Detailed drawings are available from ASTM Headquarters. Request Adjunct 13 mm thick, unless otherwise agreed upon by supplier and
No. 12-435740-20. purchaser.

12
D 3574 – 03

FIG. 4 Three-station Carpet Cushion Fatigue Tester

107. Initial Measurements to = original specimen thickness, and


107.1 Condition the specimens as in Section 6. The test tf = final specimen thickness.
should be run under the same conditions, if possible. Preflex 110.3 Calculate the percentage IFD retention as follows:
the specimens two times 75 % of the nominal thickness. After ~Fo 2 Ff 3 100!
a 6 6 1 min rest, measure the original thickness, to, in R 5 100 2 (13)
~ Fo !
accordance with Section 8 and determine the original 65 %
IFD, Fo, in accordance with Sections 16-22 using a 102 mm
diameter flat circular indentor foot. where:
R = retain IFD, %,
108. Procedure Lo = original IFD force, and
Lf = final IFD force.
108.1 Secure the sample to the plywood base using staples
or tape, making sure that the roller will not roll over the stapled
areas. Set the counter for zero, start the machine, and fatigue 111. Report
the sample for 40 000 cycles. 111.1 Report the following information:
111.1.1 Percentage loss in thickness and percentage reten-
109. Final Measurements tion of 65 % indentation force deflection, and
109.1 Within 60 6 5 min after the fatigue test is completed 111.1.2 Recovery time whether 60 min or 24 h.
measure the final thickness, tf, in accordance with Section 8
and the final 65 % IFD, Ff, in accordance with 107.1 using the 112. Precision and Bias
original thickness, to, to determine the 65 % IFD deflection. 112.1 Round robin testing to determine the precision of this
109.2 For a measurement of more permanent fatigue repeat method is being planned and the data will be available by 2003.
109.1, except allow 24 6 1h of recovery rather than 60 min.
110. Calculation and Inspection TEST J—STEAM AUTOCLAVE AGING
110.1 Check the specimen for physical breakdown by visual
113. Scope
examination.
110.2 Calculate and report the percentage loss in thickness 113.1 This test consists of treating the foam specimen in a
as follows: low-pressure steam autoclave and observing the effects on the
properties of the foam specimen. Use either of the following
~ to 2 tf !
Fl 5 3 100 (12) procedures, J1 or J2 :
~ to !
113.1.1 Procedure J1, 3 h at 105 6 3°C.
113.1.2 Procedure J2, 5 h at 120 6 5°C.
where:
NOTE 28—ISO 2440 is a similar standard, but there are some technical
Fl = loss in thickness, %, differences.

13
D 3574 – 03
114. Apparatus 120. Apparatus
114.1 Steam Autoclave, or similar vessel, that is thermostati- 120.1 Air-Circulating Oven, capable of maintaining 140 6
cally controlled to 62°C and capable of withstanding gage 2°C for exposing the specimens. A device for sensing and
pressures of up to 140 kPa. recording the temperature of the oven at least every 2 h shall be
attached.
115. Procedure
115.1 Fill the autoclave with fresh-distilled water to a level 121. Procedure
50 mm above the bottom of the autoclave. Set the thermostat 121.1 Expose the specimens for 22 h at 140 6 2°C. Obtain
control at the desired procedures of test, which is between 105 and record the oven temperature near the specimen at least
6 3°C or 120 6 5°C. Allow the autoclave to heat until the every 2 h.
water boils. Place the specimen on edge on a rack in the inside 121.2 Remove the specimens from the oven and condition
container so that one specimen does not touch another or any for not less than 2 h at 23 6 2°C and 50 6 5 % relative
metal except at the supporting surface. Place the container humidity.
inside the autoclave and close and tighten the top. Leave the
safety valve open until all the air is out of the autoclave. This 122. Calculation
is apparent when steam begins blowing out of the ports on the 122.1 Calculate the percent change in physical property as
safety valve. Close the valve 2 min after the appearance of follows:
steam, and take the zero time of the heat at this point.
115.2 After the exposed period, turn off the heat, release the ~~Po 2 Pf!!
Physical property change, % 5 3 100 (15)
steam pressure, and remove the specimens without delay. Dry ~ Po !
the specimens for 3 h for each 25 mm of thickness at 100 6
5°C in a mechanically convected dry-air oven. Allow them to where:
come to temperature equilibrium, after removal from the oven, Po = mean property of the unexposed specimen, and
for at least 2 h at 23 6 2°C and 50 6 5 % relative humidity. Pf = mean property of the exposed specimen.
115.3 Test each specimen for the prescribed property in
accordance with the appropriate test method. 123. Report
NOTE 29—A drying temperature of 70°C may be used where 100°C 123.1 Report the following information:
adversely affects the final properties upon agreement by customer and 123.1.1 Percent change in physical property.
supplier.
124. Precision and Bias
116. Calculation
124.1 The precision of this method is dependent on the
116.1 Calculate the present change in physical property as
material property that is being measured.
follows:
~ Po 2 P f ! TEST L—WET HEAT AGING
Physical property change, % 5 3 100 (14)
~ Po !
125. Scope
where: 125.1 This test consists of exposing foam specimens in an
Po = mean property of the unexposed specimen, and environmental chamber and observing the effect on the prop-
Pf = mean property of the exposed specimen. erties of the foam.

117. Report NOTE 31—There is no similar or equivalent ISO standard.

117.1 Report the following information: 126. Apparatus


117.1.1 Percent change in physical property, 126.1 Environmental Chamber, capable of maintaining 50
117.1.2 Test procedure J1 or J2. 6 2°C and 95 6 5 % RH for exposing the specimens. A device
for sensing and recording the temperature of the oven at least
118. Precision and Bias every 2 h shall be attached.
118.1 The precision of this method is dependent on the
NOTE 32—Other temperature and humidity conditions may be used as
material property that is being measured.
agreed upon by the purchaser and the supplier.
TEST K—DRY HEAT AGING 127. Procedure
119. Scope 127.1 Place the specimens into the environmental chamber
set to the temperature and humidity conditions specified in
119.1 This test consists of exposing foam specimens in an 126.1, making sure they do not touch each other. For tests such
air-circulating oven and observing the effect on the properties as compression set the specimens shall be clamped into the test
of the foam. fixture before putting them into the chamber. Expose the
NOTE 30—ISO 2440 is a similar standard, but there are some technical specimens for 22 h 6 5 min or as agreed upon by the supplier
differences. and purchaser.

14
D 3574 – 03
127.2 After the exposure period remove the specimens from TABLE 3 IFD Test B1, 25 % IFD, N
the oven and from any fixturing and then condition them for (8 Laboratories)
not less than 2 h at 23 6 2°C and 50 6 5 % relative humidity Material Avg. SrA SRB rC RD
or as specified in the test method being evaluated. 1 73.48 0.93 2.09 2.62 5.85
127.3 Perform any measurements and calculations specified 2 136.35 1.10 4.31 3.07 12.06
in the test method being evaluated. 3 249.11 3.16 8.73 8.85 24.44
A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob-
128. Calculation tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from
all of the participating laboratories.
128.1 Calculate the percent change in physical property as B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation.
follows:
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr.
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR.
@~Po 2 Pf!#
Physical property change, % 5 3 100 (16)
~ Po ! TABLE 4 IFD Test B1, 65 % IFD, N
where (8 Laboratories)
Po = mean property of the unexposed specimen, and Material Avg. SrA SRB rC RD
Pf = mean property of the exposed specimen. 1 147.91 2.99 5.68 8.37 15.92
2 253.33 2.34 8.49 6.56 23.77
129. Report 3 491.16 7.18 20.64 20.16 57.81
A
129.1 Report the following information: Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob-
tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from
129.1.1 Percent change in physical property, and all of the participating laboratories.
B
129.1.2 Test method evaluated. SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation.
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr.
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR.
130. Precision and Bias
130.1 The precision of this method is dependent on the TABLE 5 IFD Test B1, 25 % RT IFD, N
material property that is being measured.
(8 Laboratories)

131. Precision and Bias Material Avg. S rA SRB rC RD


1 58.23 0.83 1.26 2.33 3.54
3
2 99.83 0.94 2.14 2.64 5.99
TABLE 1 Density Test A, kg/m 3 145.14 2.53 2.53 4.62 11.12
(8 Laboratories) A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob-
Material Avg. SrA SRB C
r R D tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from
all of the participating laboratories.
1 27.21 0.23 0.31 0.64 0.88 B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation.
2 43.44 0.28 0.34 0.78 0.94 C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr.
3 35.07 0.51 0.61 1.43 1.70 D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR.
A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob-
tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from TABLE 6 CFD Test C, 50 % CFD, kPa
all of the participating laboratories.
B (9 Laboratories)
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation.
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr.
Material Avg. SrA SRB rC RD
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR.
1 2.06 0.05 0.29 0.14 0.81
2 3.04 0.07 0.58 0.18 1.62
TABLE 2 IFD Test B1, Thickness, mm 3 9.36 0.14 0.38 0.40 1.07
(8 Laboratories) A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob-
Material Avg. SrA SRB rC RD tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from
all of the participating laboratories.
1 104.1 0.20 0.31 0.53 1.50 B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation.
2 102.3 0.28 0.34 0.53 1.52 C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr.
3 99.1 0.45 0.61 0.74 2.08 D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR.
A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob-
tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from
all of the participating laboratories.
B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation. specimens were prepared at the labs performing the tests. Each
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr. laboratory obtained six test results for each material. Precision,
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR.
characterized by repeatability (Sr and r) and reproducibility (SR
and R) have been determined as shown in the individual tables.
131.1 Precision and bias for test methods in this standard 131.2 Bias—There are no recognized standards by which to
are based on round robin studies conducted by the Polyure- estimate bias for these test methods.
thane Foam Association from 1998 to 2000 in accordance with
NOTE 33—Caution: The explanation of r and R are only intended to
Practice E 691. For each study, three materials were carefully present a meaningful way of considering the approximate precision of
selected to cover the range of properties expected in commer- these test methods. The data in the tables should not be applied to
cially available products. The number of labs varied from 6 to acceptance or rejection of materials, as these data apply only to the
10. The samples were distributed by one lab, but individual materials tested in the round robins and are unlikely to be rigorously

15
D 3574 – 03
TABLE 7 Compression Set Test D, 90 % Ct, % TABLE 11 Tensile Test E, Elongation by Crosshead Travel, D 412
(9 Laboratories)
Die, %
(10 Laboratories)
Material Avg. SrA SRB rC RD
Material Avg. SrA SR B rC RD
1 3.36 0.62 0.83 1.73 2.34
2 5.78 0.82 0.97 2.30 2.71 1 218.4 16.2 24.2 45.5 67.6
3 8.23 0.83 1.61 2.34 4.51 2 231.8 15.4 24.9 43.0 69.6
A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob- 3 154.5 14.1 27.5 39.4 77.1
tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob-
all of the participating laboratories. tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from
B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation. all of the participating laboratories.
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr. B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation.
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR. C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr.
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR.
TABLE 8 Compression Set Test D, 90 % Cd, %
(9 Laboratories)
TABLE 12 Tensile Test E, Elongation by Crosshead Travel,
D 3574 Die, %
Material Avg. SrA SRB rC RD
(10 Laboratories)
1 3.72 0.68 0.92 1.91 2.58
2 6.45 0.79 1.11 2.22 3.11 Material Avg. SrA SR B rC RD
3 9.07 0.92 1.78 2.59 5.00 1 205.3 13.2 23.6 36.9 66.0
A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob- 2 219.2 15.2 24.0 42.6 67.2
tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from 3 146.4 14.2 26.3 39.7 73.6
all of the participating laboratories. A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob-
B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation. tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr. all of the participating laboratories.
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR. B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation.
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr.
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR.
TABLE 9 Tensile Test E, D 3574 Die, kPa
(10 Laboratories)
TABLE 13 Tensile Test E, Elongation by Benchmarking, D 3574
Material Avg. SrA SRB rC RD Die, %
1 45.84 1.54 2.82 4.33 7.90 (10 Laboratories)
2 74.96 3.02 4.56 8.47 12.78
3 91.62 4.02 5.11 11.24 14.32 Material Avg. SrA SR B rC RD
A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob- 1 217.9 12.1 30.2 33.9 84.5
tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from 2 236.6 14.6 30.3 40.7 84.9
all of the participating laboratories. 3 158.9 16.9 31.9 47.3 89.2
B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation. A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob-
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr. tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR. all of the participating laboratories.
B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation.
TABLE 10 Tensile Test E, D 412 Die, kPa
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr.
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR.
(10 Laboratories)
Material Avg. SrA SRB rC RD TABLE 14 Tear Test F, N/m
1 46.06 2.67 4.00 7.48 11.19 (6 Laboratories)
2 78.20 3.88 4.81 10.85 13.47
3 89.99 3.26 3.42 9.12 9.56 Material Avg. SrA SRB rC RD
A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob- 1 599.4 41.6 52.1 116.5 145.8
tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from 2 244.0 18.0 35.3 50.4 98.9
all of the participating laboratories. 3 215.2 17.6 28.3 49.2 79.1
B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation. A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob-
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr. tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR. all of the participating laboratories.
B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation.
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr.
representative of other lots, formulations, conditions, materials, or labo- D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR.
ratories. Users of these test methods should apply the principles outlined
in Practice E 691 to generate data specific to their materials and labora-
tory.
NOTE 34—The precision data presented in the tables were obtained 132. Keywords
using the test conditions defined in the test methods. If a material
specification defines other test conditions, these precision data shall be 132.1 bonded; flexible cellular; molded; slab; urethane
assumed not to apply.

16
D 3574 – 03
TABLE 15 Air Flow Test G, m3/min
(7 Laboratories)
Material Avg. SrA SRB rC RD
1 0.056 0.002 0.006 0.006 0.017
2 0.109 0.004 0.013 0.011 0.038
3 0.160 0.009 0.024 0.027 0.068
A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob-
tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from
all of the participating laboratories.
B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation.
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr.
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR.

TABLE 16 Resilience Test H, %


(8 Laboratories)
Material Avg. S rA SRB rC RD
1 46.1 0.82 2.86 2.31 8.00
2 70.8 1.00 3.15 2.79 8.82
3 69.2 0.99 2.89 2.76 8.09
A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob-
tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from
all of the participating laboratories.
B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation.
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr.
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR.

TABLE 17 Pounding Fatigue Test I3 1 h Thickness Loss, %


(7 Laboratories)
Material Avg. S rA SRB rC RD
1 1.69 0.76 0.87 2.14 2.43
2 1.46 0.39 0.42 1.08 1.17
3 2.50 0.24 0.61 0.68 1.70
A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob-
tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from
all of the participating laboratories.
B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation.
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr.
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR.

TABLE 18 Pounding Fatigue Test I3 24 h Thickness Loss, %


(7 Laboratories)
Material Avg. S rA SRB rC RD
1 1.47 0.70 0.97 1.96 2.70
2 1.11 0.32 0.39 0.89 1.10
3 1.81 0.24 0.52 0.68 1.47
A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob-
tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from
all of the participating laboratories.
B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation.
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr.
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR.

17
D 3574 – 03
TABLE 19 Pounding Fatigue Test I3 1 h 40 % IFD Loss, %
(7 Laboratories)
Material Avg. S rA SRB rC RD
1 29.9 1.34 2.93 3.75 8.22
2 20.6 2.11 2.49 5.92 6.96
3 34.1 1.56 2.86 4.36 8.01
A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob-
tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from
all of the participating laboratories.
B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation.
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr.
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR.

TABLE 20 Pounding Fatigue Test I3 24 h 40 % IFD Loss, %


(7 Laboratories)
Material Avg. S rA SRB rC RD
1 24.3 2.46 3.26 6.88 9.14
2 17.2 2.09 2.53 5.86 7.09
3 27.0 1.95 3.56 5.46 9.96
A
Sr = within-laboratory standard deviation for the indicated material. It is ob-
tained by pooling the within-laboratory standard deviations of the test results from
all of the participating laboratories.
B
SR = between-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as standard deviation.
C
r = within-laboratory critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 Sr.
D
R = between-laboratories critical interval between two results = 2.8 3 SR.

APPENDIXES

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1. SUGGESTED METHOD FOR SPECIFYING FLEXIBLE URETHANE FOAMS

X1.1 The suggested practice for specifying flexible ure- after the above to indicate additional requirements. The values
thane foam is: for these suffix tests are to be arranged between the supplier
USU—Urethane Slab Uncored and the purchaser.
USC—Urethane Slab Cored
UMU—Urethane Molded Uncored X1.3 Example: USU 30 IFD F E H
UMC—Urethane Molded Cored The foam is a urethane slab uncored with a 30-lb Indentation
Digits following the number specify the firmness grade and the Force Deflection value at 25 % deflection. Minimum value tear
letters following that specify type of load deflection test.
(F), tension (E), and resilience values (H) have been agreed
X1.2 Suffix letters may be added singly or in combination upon.

X2. SUGGESTED METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION FOR A ROLLER SHEAR


DYNAMIC FLEX FATIGUE APPARATUS

X2.1 The following requirements are established to define X2.2.4 The mass of the roller shall not exceed 11.340 kg.
the equipment and relationship of parts for a constant-load
roller shear machine. See Fig. X2.1 and Fig. X2.2 for reference X2.3 Roller Mounting Bracket Assembly 2, 3, 4, 11—The
to part numbers. assembly consists of metal members designed to attach the
roller to a pivot point, to provide bearing surfaces for minimum
X2.2 Roller, 1: friction for turning, and to serve as a platform to add required
X2.2.1 Dimensions—457-mm minimum length, and 76.20 mass to the roller.
6 1.27-mm diameter. X2.3.1 Bearings, 2 and 4—The proper bearings are required
X2.2.2 Material—Corrosion and wear-resistant metal, ei- on each end or roller axis (A-A) and also on the pivot axis
ther (1) chrome-plated material, or (2) stainless steel. (B-B). The bearing should be equivalent to the following
X2.2.3 Surface Finish—Finish surface on roller is to be example:
ground and equivalent to at least 0.001 mm. Bearing No. 4—Nice No. 1635, DC Ball Bearing 19 by 32 by

18
D 3574 – 03

FIG. X2.1 Roller Shear Machine—Top View

FIG. X2.2 Roller Shear Machine—Side View

13 mm. X2.3.3 Roller Bracket Connector, 3, connects the right and


Bearing No. 2—Nice No. 6906, flange mounted radial bearing. left bearing brackets across the top of the roller. The connection
NOTE X2.1—Roller axis bearings may be mounted in the bracket with
must also provide a flat horizontal surface with means (pin) to
the axle attached to the roller or, if the roller is a hollow cylinder, the attach the weights. The weights must be centered directly
bearing may be press fit into the cylinder end with the bracket furnishing above the axis of the roller.
the axle. X2.3.4 Axis Relationship—The roller axis (A-A) and pivot
X2.3.2 Pivot Arm, 11—The distance between the pivot axis axis (B-B) must be parallel and lie in the same horizontal plane
and the roller axis shall be 203.20 6 6.35 mm. parallel to the specimen mounting base.

19
D 3574 – 03
X2.3.5 Alignment and Clearance—Brackets and axles must X2.4.6 Vertical Adjustment and Level, 10—If mounting
be aligned so that no binding occurs to obstruct free turning on base is not driven to provide stroke movement, provision
either axis. Brackets and other support members (5) must give should be made for vertical adjustment of at least 75 mm. This
free clearance so that specimen is not touched during test other adjustment must be able to provide vertical movement in not
than by roller surface. less than 12.5-mm increments and maintain a horizontal level
X2.3.6 Weight, 6—The total vertical force exerted by the condition of the mounting base.
assembly plus the roller should not exceed 111 N as measured
at a point directly above or below the roller axis when both X2.5 Mechanical Requirements:
roller and pivot axes are in the same horizontal plane (X2.3.4).
Additional weights to be added as shown. X2.5.1 Stroke Length—The length of stroke shall be 330 6
X2.3.7 Vertical Adjustment, 7—If the roller is not driven to 12 mm.
provide stroke movement, provision should be made so that X2.5.2 Stroke Speed, Stroke Drive—The rate of stroke
attachment of the pivot axis to the support can be raised or speed should produce 0.47 6 0.03 Hz. A cycle is a complete
lowered at least 75 mm [3 in.]. This adjustment must be able to forward and reverse stroke. Either the roller or the mounting
be made in not less than 12.5-mm increments. base may be driven to produce stroke travel. In either case, the
drive mechanism must produce travel in a horizontal plane.
X2.4 Specimen Mounting Base, 8:
X2.5.3 Angular Offset—The axis of the roller should be
X2.4.1 Dimensions—500-mm minimum length. 500-mm level and mounted at a 15 6 3° offset from perpendicular to the
minimum width, and 9.5-mm minimum thickness. direction of the stroke.
X2.4.2 Material—Structural-grade carbon steel.
X2.4.3 Perforation—6-mm diameter holes on 20-mm cen- X2.5.4 Mounting Base Location—The length of the mount-
ters, over a minimum area covering 350 mm in length by 350 ing base should be parallel to the direction of the stroke and
mm in width. centered under the midpoint of the stroke and the center of the
X2.4.4 Surface Finish—Top surface shall be a finish grind. roller. The distance of the base surface from the roller axis
X2.4.5 Hold-Down Plates, 9—Provision to attach metal or (X2.3.4) should be 45 mm when vertical adjustment provides
wood hold-down plates for clamping cotton sheeting retaining a minimum clearance.
strips to base. Four plates are required to cover perimeter of X2.5.5 Cycle Counter—Means to record the number of
specimen size. cycles should be provided.

X3. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED TO DESCRIBE THE FORCE-DEFLECTION CURVE


OF FLEXIBLE URETHANE FOAM

X3.1 support factor—the ratio of the 65 % indentation hardness ratio defines the surface feel of a flexible urethane
force deflection to the 25 % indentation force deflection foam. Supple or soft surface foam will have a high value, while
determined after 1 min of rest. Most specifications are based on boardy or stiff surface foams will have a low value (Note
the 25 % IFD value of a 100-mm foam. The support factor thus X3.1).
indicates what 65 % IFD value would be acceptable for a Initial hardness factor ~IHF! 5 ~25 % IFD/5 % IFD! (X3.3)
particular application. The 65 % IFD measures the support
region of the stress-strain curve. Seating foams with low Synonym— Comfort factor.
support factors will usually bottom out and give inferior
performance. NOTE X3.1—Standard IFD curves can be used to generate the IHF, IM,
and MIF data.
Support factor ~SF! 5 ~65 % IFD/25 % IFD! (X3.1)
X3.4 hardness index—the term used in some specifications
Synonyms—Sag factor, hardness ratio, comfort factor. These for the 50 % IFD value. The chair designer will often design
terms should be removed from the vocabulary. Support factor furniture for a maximum 50 % indentation. Bar stools on the
is the term of choice. other hand may be designed for only a 20 % deflection.
X3.2 guide factor—the ratio of the 25 % indentation force X3.5 indentation modulus—the force required to produce
deflection to the density after a 1-min rest. Most specifications an indentation of an additional 1 % between the limits of 20 %
do not have a density requirement; therefore the product with indentation force deflection and 40 % indentation force deflec-
the highest guide factor has the cost advantage but not tion determined without the 1-min rest. The slope of this line
necessarily the performance advantage. depends upon the resistance of the cells struts to post buckling
Guide factor ~GF! 5 ~25 % IFD/density! (X3.2) (Note X3.1).
Indentation modulus ~IM! 5 ~40 % IFD 2 20 % IFD/20 % IFD!
(X3.4)
X3.3 initial hardness factor—the ratio of the 25 % inden-
tation force deflection force to the 5 % indentation force
deflection determined without the 1-min rest. The initial X3.6 modulus irregularity factor—the intercept produced

20
D 3574 – 03
on the stress axis by extrapolation of the linear portion of the
stress-strain curve. The indentation modulus, that is, the slope
of the line, may be substantially constant up to and beyond the
40 % indentation level. In this event, the indentation stress-
strain curve is linear and passes through the origin Fig. X3.1.
The indentation modulus usually varies at low levels of strain
before reaching a constant value at above approximately 10 per
strain. The stress-strain curve may exhibit a marked step in that
region which may result in some discomfort in seating appli-
cations, Fig. X3.2 and Fig. X3.3. The MIF value is calculated
from the same data necessary to derive the modulus of the
foam as a seating material (Note X3.1).
Modulus irregularity factor ~MIF! 5 2 3 20 % IFD 2 40 % IFD FIG. X3.2 Indentation Stress-Strain Curve (MIF is positive)
(X3.5)

FIG. X3.1 Indentation Stress-Strain Curve (MIF is Zero)

21
D 3574 – 03

FIG. X3.3 Indentation Stress-Strain Curve (MIF is negative)

X4. SUGGESTED TESTS FOR DETERMINING COMBUSTIBILITY OF FLEXIBLE URETHANE FOAM

X4.1 This appendix lists for informational purposes only Various governmental bodies have issued regulations based
the test methods commonly used for determining the combus- on Test Method E 162. The regulations are not the same for all
tion properties of flexible urethane foams. These tests have bodies issuing them. Hence, the regulation of the government
been found useful in ascertaining the effectiveness of additives having jurisdiction should be consulted.
and reactants to modify the combustion characteristics of these X4.2.1 Sources:
materials. See 1.3. Government Documents Superintendent of Documents, US Gov-
ernment Printing Office, Washington,
DC 20402
X4.2 Some Applicable Codes and Regulations for Specified California California Bureau of Home Furnishings,
Applications: 3485 Orange Grove Ave., North High-
lands, CA 95660
Application Regulation National Fire Protection Association 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101,
Automotive DOT MVSS 302 Quincy, MA 02269
Mattress and cushion DOC FF 4-72 British Standard British Standards Institute, 2 Park Street,
Mattress and cushion CAL TB 117 London, England W1A 2B5
Mattress and cushion CAL TB 133A
Mattress and cushion NFPA 260A These standards should be used to measure and describe the
Mattress and cushion NFPA 261A response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame
Mattress and cushion BSI 5852A
Aviation FAA Part 25.853 Par (b) App F under controlled conditions and should not be used to describe
Aviation FAA Oil Burner Test or appraise the fire hazard or fire risk of materials, products, or
Carpet cushion ASTM E84 assemblies under actual fire conditions. However, results of
Carpet cushion DOC FFI-70 (Pill Test)
Miscellaneous ASTM D3675 this test may be used as elements of a fire hazard assessment or
_______________ a fire risk assessment which takes into account all of the factors
A
Composite test. Foam, fabric, and other components may have a synergistic which are pertinent to an assessment of the fire hazard or fire
effect on each other. risk of a particular end use.

22
D 3574 – 03

X5. SUGGESTED METHOD FOR THE VERIFICATION OF AN INCLINED OIL MANOMETER

X5.1 Adjust the feet to level the manometer. With a height X5.2 Change in pressure is calculated by:
gage resting on a level and flat surface measure the distance to Pm 2 Pn 5 wy ~sin u 1 a/A! (X5.2)
the top of the glass tube at each major mark. Determine the
area of the tube by direct measurement. The area of the
reservoir is calculated by adding a measured amount of fluid where:
with both ends of the manometer at atmospheric pressure. The Pm = the low reading,
calculation for the area of the reservoir (A): Pn = the high reading,
w = the specific gravity of the indicating fluid,
A 5 ~v 2 ay!/h (X5.1) y = the distance between readings,
u = the angle of the tube to normal,
where: a = the area of the inside of the tube, and
v = the volume added, A = the area of the reservoir.
a = the area of the inside of the tube,
y = the distance between readings, and X5.3 The error is the difference between the calculated and
h = the change in height. the indicated value.

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

This section identifies the location of selected changes to these test methods. For the convenience of the user,
Committee D20 has highlighted those changes that may impact the use of these test methods. This section may
also include descriptions of the changes or reasons for the changes, or both.

D 3574 – 03: (4) Changed reporting of median values to mean values.


(1) Paragraph 96.1 was revised to show that the platen size was (5) Changed preflexing requirement in fatigue tests from 6 to 2
corrected. preflexes.
D 3574 – 01: (6) Standardized all recovery times in fatigue tests.
(1) Added ISO equivalency statements for all tests. (7) Added definitions for cored and convoluted foams.
(2) Added Precision and Bias statements for most tests. (8) Changed carpet cushion fatigue test considerably; removed
(3) Added wet heat aging test. carpet, increased cycles, changed from CFD to IFD test.

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