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# Contents

## The Nature of Statistics ................................. 2

What is statistics? ..................................... 2
Population and Sample ............................. 2
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics ........ 2
Parameters and Statistics ......................... 2
Statistical data analysis ............................. 2
Variables and organization of the data ......... 3
Variables.................................................... 3
Scales..................................................... 3
Organization of the data ........................... 3
Presentation of Data ............................. 3
Describing data by tables and graphs ........... 4
Qualitative variable ................................... 4
Quantitative variable ................................ 4
Three Popular Data Displays ..................... 5
Stem and Leaf Diagrams ....................... 5
Frequency Histograms .......................... 5
Relative Frequency Histograms ............ 5
Sample and Population Distributions ....... 5
Measures of center ....................................... 6
The Mean .................................................. 6
Sample mean......................................... 6
Population mean ................................... 6
The Median ............................................... 6
The Mode .................................................. 6
Measures of variation ................................... 7
The Range.................................................. 7
The Variance and the Standard Deviation 7
The Nature of Statistics includes the includes methods
construction of like point
What is statistics? graphs, charts, and estimation, interval
- the methodology for collecting, tables, and the estimation and
analyzing, interpreting and drawing calculation of hypothesis testing
conclusions from information various descriptive which are all based
- consists of a body of methods for measures such as on probability
collecting and analyzing data averages, measures theory
- the science of gaining information of variation, and
from numerical and categorical data percentiles
- provides methods for:
o design
o description
Parameters and Statistics
o inference Parameter Statistic
- the science of dealing with uncertain unknown numerical known numerical
phenomenon and events summary of the summary of the
population sample which can
Population and Sample be used to make
Population Sample inference about
the collection of all part of the parameters
individuals or items population from e.g. The proportion e.g. The proportion
under consideration which information p of 18-30 year-olds ˆ p of 18-30 year-
in a statistical study is collected going to movies at olds going to
the set of the set of least once a month movies at least
measurements (or measurements that once a month
record of some are actually calculated from the
qualitative trait) collected in the sample of 18-30
corresponding to course of an year-olds
the entire collection investigation
of units for which
inferences are to be Statistical data analysis
made 1. Formulate the research problem
- finite population, can be physically 2. Deﬁne population and sample
listed 3. Collect the data
- hypothetical population, more 4. Do descriptive data analysis
abstract and may arise from the 5. Use appropriate statistical methods
phenomenon under consideration to solve the research problem
6. Report the results
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
Descriptive Inferential
consist of methods consist of methods
for organizing and for drawing and
summarizing measuring the
information reliability of
population based
on information
obtained from a
sample of the
population
Variables and organization of Organization of the data
data values of the
the data variables for one or
Variables more people or
- characteristics that varies from one things
person or thing to another observation each individual
- quantitative or qualitative piece of data
- quantitative: data set or data the values of
o discrete matrix variables recorded
 has only a countable for a set of
number of distinct sampling units
possible values
 can assume only a
Presentation of Data
ﬁnite numbers of
1. data list
values or as many
a. in list
values as there are
integers
o continuous
 quantities such as
length, weight, or b. in set notation
temperature
 measured arbitrarily 2. data frequency table
accurately o each distinct value x is listed
Scales in the first row
Qualitative Quantitative Variables o frequency, f, which is the
Variables number of times the value x
nominal scale interval scale appears in the data set, is
- no - can compare listed below it in the second
natural diﬀerences row
ordering between
measurements
of the variable
meaningfully,
but not the
ratio of the
measurements
ordinal scale ratio scale
- in order - can compare
both the
diﬀerences
between
measurements
of the variable
and the ratio
of the
measurements
meaningfully
Describing data by tables and Quantitative variable
If the discrete variable can have a lot of
graphs diﬀerent values or the quantitative variable is
Qualitative variable the continuous variable, group into classes:
1. frequency (or count) - number of 1. Find the minimum and the
observations that fall into particular maximum values variable have in the
class (or category) data set
2. frequency distribution - table listing 2. Choose intervals of equal length that
all classes and their frequencies cover the range between the
minimum and the maximum without
overlapping (class intervals, class
limits)
3. Count the number of observations in
the data that belongs to each class
interval. The count in each class is
the class frequency.
4. Calculate the relative frequencies of
each class by dividing the class
frequency by the total number of
3. relative frequency – percentage of a observations in the data
class; dividing the frequency of the
class by the total number of class mark
observations and multiplying the - number in the middle of the class
result by 100 real class limit
- number in the middle of the upper
class limit of one class and the lower
4. relative frequency distribution - class limit of the other class
table listing all classes and their histogram
relative frequencies
5. cumulative frequency (cumulative
relative frequency) – sum of the
frequencies (relative frequencies) of
all classes up to the speciﬁc class
6. pie chart - a disk divided into pie-
shaped pieces proportional to the
relative frequencies of the classes;
multiply the relative frequencies by
360 degrees
7. horizontal bar graph - displays the
classes on the horizontal axis and the
frequencies (or relative frequencies)
of the classes on the vertical axis
8. vertical bar graph - classes are
displayed on the vertical axis and the
frequencies of the classes on the
horizontal axis
Three Popular Data Displays Sample and Population Distributions
Data example:

## Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Frequency Histograms

## Relative Frequency Histograms

Measures of center are on its left and the other 50% on
its right
The Mean - the sample median x^~ of a set of
- should be used when variable is sample data for which there are an
quantitative with symmetric odd number of measurements is the
distribution middle measurement when the data
are arranged in numerical order
Sample mean
- the sample median x^~ of a set of
sample data for which there are an
even number of measurements is the
mean of the two middle
measurements when the data are
arranged in numerical order

The Mode
- the sample mode of a set of sample
data is the most frequently occurring
value
- if the greatest frequency is 1 (i.e. no
value occurs more than once), then
the variable has no mode
- should be used when calculating
Population mean measure of center for the qualitative
variable
- on a relative frequency histogram,
the highest point of the histogram
corresponds to the mode of the data
set
The Median
- should be used when quantitative
variable has skewed distribution

## - a value that divides the observations

in a data set so that 50% of the data
Measures of variation
The Range
- the number R defined by the
formula: R = xmax−xmin

Deviation