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You are on page 1of 13

Dr. M. Turner

Spring Semester

Aims of Lecture

Part 1

2. To introduce lift and drag coefficients

3. To derive simple expressions for aircraft speed in straight-level flight

Part 2

Before anything else: some crucial equations

Lift on a wing (body) Drag on a wing (body)

1 1

L= ρSCL V 2 D= ρSCD V 2

2 2

V (True) Airspeed m/s

S wing area m2

Lift

◮ Lift makes aircraft fly

◮ Primarily generated by the wings

◮ We consider a “lumped” lift model: L = Lwing + Lbody + Ltail + . . .

◮ In principle can calculate lift using wing geometry etc....

◮ ...Often convenient to characterize lift in a simpler, experimental

way, using lift coefficient, CL

L 1 2

CL = 1 2 L= ρV SCL

2 ρV S 2

L Lift (Newtons)

ρ air density (kg /m3 )

V (true) velocity of aircraft (m/s)

S total wing area (m2 )

Lift coefficient CL

◮ CL depends on several different factors (Mach number) but one of

the most important is the angle of attack, α

◮ α is the angle of incidence to the on-coming airstream.

CL CL

STALL

lift coefficient

decreases

Increase in incidence after critical Increase in incidence STALL

gives increase in lift angle reached gives increase in lift Stall point

coefficient in coefficient in higher than

linear region linear region

on symmetric

wing

α α

zero lift postive lift

◮ At stall point, lift coefficient is maximum: CL = CL,max

◮ For small α (in linear region):

∂CL

CL = CL0 + α

∂α

Lift coefficient CL

Comparison of CL,max at take off for different aircraft

◮ CL,max typically corresponds to ≈ 16◦ α

SAAB Viggen Delta-Canard ≈ 1.2

F16 ≈ 1.3

P51-Mustang WW2 Fighter-Bomber ≈ 1.4

Boeing 747 ≈ 2.5

Drag

◮ Drag impedes motion of aircraft

◮ Contributed by wings, body, tailplane, engines...

◮ We consider a “lumped” drag model:

D = Dwing + Dbody + Dtail + . . .

D 1 2

CD = 1 2 D= ρV SCD

2 ρV S 2

CL2

CD = CD0 + (e efficiency factor = constant)

πeA

= CD0 + ǫCL2

◮ ǫCL2 responsible for lift induced (or simply induced) drag

Drag variation with speed

“Lumped” model of drag is given by

1 2

D= ρV SCD

2

Approximately:

CD = CD0 + ǫCL2 CD0 , ǫ const

Thus

1 2 1 1

D = ρV S(CD0 + ǫCL2 ) = ρV 2 SCD0 + ρV 2 SǫCL2

2 2 2

Using expression for CL then gives

!2

1 2 1 L

D = ρV CD0 S + ρV 2 Sǫ 1

2 2 2

2 ρV S

1 2 ǫL2

= ρV CD0 S + 1

|2 {z }

2

2 ρV S

| {z }

no lift drag

lift dependent drag

Drag variation with speed

AIRCRAFT

DRAG

TOTAL DRAG

NO−LIFT

DRAG

AIRSPEED

VS VMD

Plot is shown for a height corresponding to a certain air density ρ

Drag polar

◮ Drag coefficient is a function of lift coefficient

CD = CD0 + ǫCL2

◮ Lift coeeficient is a function of α

CL = CL0 + CLα α

◮ “Drag polar” plots lift and drag coefficient as functions of α

Point-mass approximation of aircraft performance

Straight and level flight

L

V

D T

mg

T thrust

dV

m = T −D D drag

dt m aircraft mass

d 2z L lift

m 2 = L − mg

dt

T = D (1)

L = mg (2)

Velocity in straight-and-level flight

Lift is given by

1 2

L= ρV SCL

2

Using equation (2), this means

1

CL ρV 2 S = mg

2

2mg

V2 =

ρCL S

s

2mg

V =

ρCL S

−1/2

V ∝ CL

Stall speed

◮ Maximum value of CL is therefore

−1/2

◮ Because V ∝ CL , this defines a minimum airspeed....

◮ Stall speed: the lowest speed at which the aircraft can maintain

steady flight r

mg

Vs =

ρCL,max S

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