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10/20/2015

Modifications of the genital abdomen: the Ovipositor


tergum pleural epiproct segment
membrane # 11
cercus
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 paraproct
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spiracle valve 3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 valve 2 ovipositor
sternum coxite 2 valve 1
coxite 1
subgenital plate

cross-section: coxite = valvifer


valve = valvule or valvula
inner valve (V2, segm. 9) or gonapophysis
dorsal valve [sheath] Greatest development in:
(V3, segment 9
• Orthopteroids
ventral valve • Hemipteroids
(V1, segment 8) • Hymenoptera

Ovipositors: variants on a theme (most common = lost)


Cicadidae (Hemiptera)
Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera)

When lost:
7

& gonopore
migrates from
7
segm. 8 to 9
Ichneumonidae
(Hymenoptera) Apidae (Hymenoptera)

valve 3

valve 2
Thermobia valve 1
(Zygentoma)

Muscidae (Diptera)
(functional
“ovipositor”), but
not homologous)

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10/20/2015

Ovipositors: shovel type of Acrididae (Orthoptera)

Romalea sp.

Ovipositors: sword or saw


of Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera)

Amblycorypha
alexanderi

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10/20/2015

Ovipositors of Hymenoptera
Saws: Tenthredinidae
Dolerus sp. (Symphyta)

Drills: Ichneumonidae Stings: Vespidae


Megarhyssa sp. (parasitoid Vespa sp.
of horntail wasp larvae)

( y p )
Ovipositor in stinging Hymenoptera
6 7 poison gland valve 3
8 9 10
11
ovary
valve 2

valves valve 1

secondary position original genital pore (segment 9)


of gonopore (8)
Cockroach ovipositor
T6 TERGUM
ootheca
T10+11 epiproct
S7

paraproct

S9

ovipositor
S8
(subgenital plate)
sternite 7 (S7)
S6

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10/20/2015

Blattodea (8,9,10) Additional abdominal “appendages:”


styli & median caudal filament
cercus
stylus
median
caudal
filament

† Monura

Ephemeroptera

styli Thysanura (7,8,9)

median caudal filament


(jumping; balance)

Archaeognatha:
segm. 2-9 (tot = 8) styli

Appendage-like segmental gills (limb homologues)


Megaloptera larva (hellgrammite) Ephemeroptera naiads

Coxoplectoptera
(U. Jurassic)

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10/20/2015

Abdominal “legs:” Prolegs


Sawfly larva (Hymenoptera)

Lepidoptera caterpillar
(3, 4, 5, 6; 10 – 5 pairs)

(8 pairs)
Diptera larva

Coleoptera larva
crochets

Blattodea:
Cerci Dermaptera
“giant fibers” & Diplura
(ganglion)
Odonata:
Thysanura zygopteran
& Plecoptera naiad

cerci cerci

MCF

Ephemeroptera adult
Embioptera
Odonata
male
male

cerci
cerci
GONE: in Hemiptera (almost); most of Holometabola
(except Mecoptera & ‘basal’ Hymenoptera)

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Abdominal spiracles

Lepidoptera: Sphingidae
Hymenoptera:
Symphyta

Hymenoptera:
Apocrita propodeum (abd. segm. 1)

Internal anatomy of a generalized insect


(note idea of “polarity reversed” homeotic gene expression – Nubler-Jung ‘99)

“brain” gonads
heart

anus
subesophageal
ganglion
alimentary ventral nerve cord
tract

Internal anatomy of a cricket


crop midgut hindgut

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10/20/2015

Generalized layout of internal organs


(except central nervous system)

hemocoele pharynx
(blood space)
abdominal dorsal thoracic
segment vessel segment
malpighian
tubule
HINDGUT

spermatheca
crop mandible

mouth
salivary
duct
salivary
muscular gland
gizzard FOREGUT
first segment
ovarioles MIDGUT of leg
oviduct
ovipositor

Alimentary tract: ontogeny

anterior midgut rudiment

hemocoele
posterior mesoderm
midgut
ectoderm
rudiment
proctodeum
stomodeum

hemocoele
midgut

head points midgut caeca malpighian


esophageal tubules
this way
diverticulum
hemocoele
mouth
anus
foregut hindgut

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10/20/2015

Alimentary tract: the salivary glands

FOREGUT
stomodeal or cardiac valve
esophagus
hypopharynx crop gizzard midgut caecum
pharynx

mouth
intima midgut
clypeus
labrum labium
salivarium
cibarium
(preoral cavity or salivary gland salivary peritrophic
buccal cavity) (= labial gland) reservoir membrane

MIDGUT

Basic functions of saliva:


1. moistens food
2. lubricates food
3. starts digestion: amylase & invertase; pectinase, lipases, proteases

Salivary glands: ontogeny & specializations


salivary
gland

mesodermal
glandular salivary
tissue reservoir
common or
cuticle median salivary duct
(ectodermal) salivarium
and buccal cavity

labial silk glands

anticoagulants: but not in Cimex,


nor all mosquitoes

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Salivary glands: extra-oral digestion

Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

(Jeff Goldblum)

Diptera:
Muscidae

Hemiptera: Reduviidae

Hymenoptera: Cynipidae
Solidago
(goldenrod)
Salivary
glands:
Gall
Alfred Kinsey,
sex institute formation

Diptera: Tephritidae

Galls on
sweetgum

Oak galls

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10/20/2015

Salivary glands: nuptial gifts in Panorpidae (Mecoptera)

saliva

prey

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