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The role of the power utility is not just limited to provide the power supply to the customer but
also to ensure a good quality of power supply with minimum disruptions in terms of over
voltages, under voltages, imbalance, noise and harmonics. These disturbances are definitely
undesirable to most industrial and commercial end users. Several methods have been suggested
and applied as the solution of these problems. One of the methods is by employing an on-load
power transformer with tap changing, where the output voltage of the power transformer remains
constant irrespectively to the input voltage or variation of the load. There are two types of
transformers with taps changers; on load and off load. The on load is preferable, as there is no
disconnection of transformer when changing the tap setting. Thus, the operation of supplying the
load demand is remained uninterrupted.

The main problem of existing or conventional tap changer is mainly due to its mechanical parts,
comprising of complicated gear mechanisms of selectors, diverters and switches. They are slow
and susceptible to contact wear condition and deterioration of insulating oil. Thus, requires
regular maintenance. It is also sluggish to impact loading and sudden load rejections. With the
use of high power semiconductor devices such as triac, IGBTs, Thyristor, problems related
with the mechanical on load tap changing power transformer have been eliminated. In order
to overcome these limitations and drawbacks, new circuits and configurations for tap-
changers have been introduced.

These may be classified into two groups. 1) Electronically assisted under load tap changers (or
hybrid on load tap changer) and, 2) fully electronic (or solid state) tap changer. The first circuit
for the hybrid tap changer was presented in 1996. This structure reduces the arcing considerably.
However, its major disadvantage is that although two thyristors are ON over short periods during
the tap changing process, it is permanently connected to the circuit of the deviation switches and
it probably gets burnt. This may therefore reduce the reliability of the system. To remove this
drawback, an alternative configuration has been introduced (solid state tap changer).
The main idea in this project is that by connecting thyrestors only during the tap changing time
which improves the reliability of the system. So far, the suggested structures could reduce the
arcing while using a tap changer and provide quick operation of the tap-changer.

On designing of this full electronic tap changer transformer we have to use a microcontroller for
controlling of the power electronic switching circuit. The microcontroller controls the power
switches by taking the variations of the voltage and current on the secondary side of the

At this time in our country there is a problem of voltage regulation that minimizes the power
quality in the grid. One of the methods for the voltage regulation is the on load tap changer
transformer. Most of the transformer tap changer we are using now is the mechanical tap
changers which have different problems of operation that need a regular maintenance. Since we
are using the mechanical tap changer we are not using our transformers efficiently. This has an
adverse economic effect in the country’s growth. But the electronic on load tap changer
transformer have a better solution of voltage regulation than the mechanical one. Therefore we
can have a better transformer efficiency and power quality that have a constructive effect on the
country’s development.

General objective

The general objective of this project is to design and simulate a Microcontroller based
electronic on-load tap-changer for small power transformer.

Specific objectives

The specific objectives of this semester project are:-

• To design of a full electronic on load tap changing transformer including its controlling
circuit that consists of a power electronic switching devices controlled by a

• To model the designed full electronic tap changing transformer.

• To simulate the overall system for investigation of its behavior under various operating
conditions using proteus.


Voltage fluctuation in the distribution network

2.1 Causes for voltage fluctuation
2.1.1 The scenario in the past
Voltage variation is a repetitive phenomenon in the distribution network. In the past, the major
source of this variation was on the account of time-varying loads from industrial and domestic
consumers. Conventionally power grids consider a downstream flow of power from the
distribution transformer to the load as shown in Fig. 2.1. This will cause a gradual fall in voltage
magnitude as we move along the line towards the load. The voltage at the transformer is
maintained above the nominal voltage to compensate for the voltage drop along the line. Thus
the maximum voltage in the line is seen at the transformer and it decreases along the line and
minimum is seen at the load end. In reality, the situation is much more complex than what is
shown in the figure, owing to the non-uniform load distribution along the feeder.

Figure 1: Conventional downstream power flow with minimum voltage at the end of lineGiving
rise to under voltage.
Generally the loading on the grid reaches a maximum during the morning and evening hours and
a minimum during the afternoon and night. If a fixed voltage is maintained at the distribution
transformer, it can be expected that the voltage at end of the line to be time varying, depending
on the load. This is because the line has finite impedance and hence a finite load dependent
voltage drop occurs across the line. In this case the fluctuations are typically under voltage i.e.
voltage is lower than its rated value, if it is assumed that the majority are inductive loads. For the
Ethiopia grid which operates nominally at 220V rms, under voltage means that the load voltage
is lower than 220V rms.
Figure 1:shows a lumped element representation of distribution side with the source being the
distribution transformer and the load drawing a lagging current at a certain power factor
pf. This current causes a voltage drop ΔV along the line due to the effective impedance of the line
represented by (Rs+jXs). Load voltage V in hence lower than the supply voltage E. It is
important to realize that voltage difference due to drawing reactive current has a more adverse
effect than due to real component of current.
This under voltage depends mainly on the following factors:
1. Distance between distribution transformer and the load/ Impedance of the line
2. Load current & distribution of loads along feeder
3. Proximity to voltage regulating equipment
4. Power factor of the connected load
5. Reactive power sources present in the vicinity.
In order to manage the under voltage, utility operators typically use transformers with on-load or
off-load tap changing feature using mechanical switches. MV to LV transformers typically have
off-load tap change feature while HV to MV transformers change taps on-load. The voltage at
the transformer is usually set above the rated voltage in order to compensate for the line drops.
The tap position is set based on the load and varied to ensure nominal load voltage.

Fig 2: Occurrence of under voltage due to lagging current drawn by the load.
2.1.2 The scenario in the present and for the future
Compared to the past, the present scenario of the distribution network has seen a rapid increase
in the integration of renewables in the recent years and it is envisaged that this number will only
go up in the future. The best example is that of Photovoltaic (PV) panels connected through
inverters to the distribution network. In it has been estimated that the major cause for voltage
fluctuation in low voltage grid is due to residential photovoltaic systems which are in the power
range of 1kVA to 50 kVA. High concentration of Distributed Generation (DG) will lead to
unpredictable variations in power production and line voltages, owing to short-term and long
term variations in weather. The long-term variations can be seasonal variations in wind and
sunshine between summer and winter while short term variations include phenomenon like wind
speed variations within a single day or variation of solar irradiance due a passing cloud.

Figure 3: Present and future scenario with downstream and upstream power flow giving rise to
both under voltage and overvoltage.
The power produced from DG will lead to a reduction in the power drawn from the mains. This
means that the load voltage will be dependent on DG power output. More importantly DG may
result in reverse power flow i.e. power will flow from the load end of the line in an upstream
direction towards the distribution transformer during times of high power output. This reverse
flow of power will cause the voltage at the end of the line to be higher than at the transformer as
shown in Fig 3:This situation is further worsened if the set voltage at the transformer is by itself
at a value higher than the nominal in order to compensate for line drops. This results in an
overvoltage, when the load voltage is greater than rated value. It was listed earlier that five major
factors are responsible for under voltage; the same factors affect overvoltage as well. Thus
depending on the power production from DG, the load voltage can vary over a wide range from
values below to above the rated voltage.
A comparison of the two scenarios with and without DG is presented in Table 2.1 below
Table 2.1 – Voltage variation in grid with and without presence of DG
If a rooftop PV system is considered, one extreme situation is when the PV system is switched
off or produces small amount of power, lower than the consumption of the home. Then the house
will draw significant power from the line resulting in under voltage. Alternatively, the PV
production increases on a sunny afternoon and it can provide for most of the house loads thereby
reducing the current drawn from the line. It could also be that the PV production exceeds the
house loads and power is fed back to the grid. The other extreme situation then occurs when the
house load is minimal or zero and all the PV power produced is fed back to the line, giving rise
to an overvoltage. In the future it is expected that connection of high power loads like electric
vehicle charging will only increase and add to the demand on the distribution network. This
coupled with the occurrence of reverse power flow means that load voltages will fluctuate over a
large range thus becoming a formidable problem for both utility operators and consumers. It is
hence vital to look at the effects of such a scenario and discover possible solutions to avert it.
2.2 Magnitude of voltage variation at load end
In this section, an analysis of the varying voltage at the load end is made as a function of load
power assuming a constant sending end voltage. It assumed that the load draws a power
Sload=Pl+jQlat a voltage V when the sending end voltage at the start of the feeder is E, as
shown in Figure 4. The line is assumed to have an impedance of Rs+jXsand carries the load
current Il.
The difference in voltage at the start and end of the feeder is given by:
V = E – V =ZsIlEqn. (1)

The relationship between the load powers and its voltage and current is:
Sload = V (I)* = Pl + jQlEqn. (2)
IlEqn. (3)
Substituting (Eqn.2) & (Eqn.3) in (Eqn.1),

Fig 4: Evaluation of load voltage as a function of load power & line impedance

The voltage drop can be simplified and written as made up of two components, one in phase with
the load voltage ΔVR and another in quadrature to it ΔVX

From the above expression, the voltage drop is dependent on the feeder impedance and
magnitude and phase of the load current. Thus the power factor of the load is an important factor
affecting the load voltage. The load current in turn can be such that active and reactive power are
drawn from the grid i.e. P and Q are positive. The above equations are equally valid when real
and reactive power is fed back to the grid through DG, where P and Q are hence negative.

2.3 Effect of voltage fluctuation on utilities and load

Voltage fluctuations (both under and over) are undesirable for loads and affect their operation
and lifetime. There are two types of voltage issues namely short term and long term voltage
fluctuation. The short term voltage problem is usually caused by voltage sag or swells which is
defined as a drop/rise in voltage over any time frame between one half-cycle and sixty seconds.
It is generally caused by a fault in the power system. In contrast, long term voltage fluctuations
are those that could last for minutes or even hours. Overvoltage and under voltage are considered
as a long term voltage problems and they lead to a more serious problem in power system
operation compared to voltage sags/swells. When the voltage exceeds the tolerance level of
±10% at customer utilization point, it affects the operation of the loads connected to it. Extended
overvoltage can decrease the lifetime of most equipment. In an extreme case, breakdown of the
insulation can occur and permanently damage appliances when voltage reaches very high values.
On the other hand, under voltage can cause malfunctioning of devices in the form of dimming of
lights referred to as ‘brownouts’, heating up of motors and inability to power some devices like
air conditioners. Secondly, the power converters that connect the DG to the grid will de-
synchronize from the grid during periods of high overvoltage effectively bringing the power
production to zero. This can have negative equity effects on customers who own DG that are
connected close to the end of the feeders compared to those connected at the start. In a worst
case scenario, extreme voltage fluctuations can cause all the DG to de-synchronize irrespective
of their location on the feeder; the situation getting further deteriorate during under voltage even
leading to a blackout. Thirdly, the power fluctuations due to DG cause varying currents along the
cables causing excessive thermal expansion and contraction of the copper which affects their
Finally and most importantly, frequent voltage fluctuations will cause the conventional voltage
regulators like on-load tap changing transformers to change taps very frequently. This will
reduce their lifetime and lead to increased maintenance requirements. This calls for new design
of voltage regulators that can work in a future scenario of distribution grid with high levels of
DG penetration. An alternate strategy is to investigate methods to modify existing voltage
regulators to work in this new scenario.

2.3 Effect of voltage fluctuation on utilities and load

Voltage fluctuation in the distribution network is a major problem facing DSO. The problem has
been aggravated by the large scale penetration of DG. Under voltage and overvoltage are
detrimental to devices connected to the grid and there are strict regulations that restrict the
maximum deviation that can occur from the nominal voltage. Conventional tap changers cannot
cope up with the frequent voltage fluctuations due to their use of mechanical switches.
New design of voltage regulators is required to ensure constant load voltage for consumers in the
distributed grid.
2.4Voltage compensation methodologies
Voltage compensation is the method of ensuring that the grid voltage remains within permissible
limits at all times. This must take into the account the variations in customer loads and de-
centralized generation and effectively manage the centralized generation and voltage regulation
mechanism in the utility. The most widely used methods for voltage compensation in the
distribution network can be categorized into two - shunt and series compensation.
1) Shunt compensation where a lagging/leading current is injected into the grid to control the
2) Series compensation where a voltage is injected in series to the existing grid voltage or a
reactive element in connected in series to line to modify the line impedance.
Example of shunt compensation is capacitor/inductor banks or FACTS devices like Thyristor
controlled reactor (TCR) and Thyristor-switched capacitor (TSC). Modern PV inverters are
equipped with the ability to inject/absorb reactive power and hence control the voltage at point of
injection. Series compensator can be realized using tap changing transformer or FACTS devices
like Unity power flow controller (UPFC). The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods
and challenges in their implementation for future distribution networks are discussed in Table 2.1
Table 3.1 - Analysis of the critical aspects of series and shunt compensation
A number of different methods are present to realize these two basic compensation techniques.
These methods are analyzed in the following section.
2.5 On load and off circuit tap changing transformers
On-load (OLTC) and off circuit tap changing transformers provide compensation by using a
transformer with multiple taps. They are widespread in the electricity networks and are likely to
remain in service for many years in the future. They come in the category of series compensating
devices that inject a voltage by inclusion of additional taps. The taps can be present either on the
high voltage or the low voltage side of the transformer. When the tap is moved from one position
to another, the turn ratio of the transformer is changed as shown in Fig3.1. For Fig3.1 (a)when
there is under voltage, the tap is moved to a higher position and vice- versa during an
overvoltage. The OLTC have the advantage over off-circuit tap changers that the taps can be
changed without the interruption of the load.

Figure 5: Tap changing transformer with taps on primary (a) and secondary (b) side
Each tap usually represents a change of 0.625% to 1.25% of voltage on the load side and can
provide up to a total of 10% compensation. Traditional control strategies for voltage regulators
are based on the assumption that power flow occurs in a unidirectional manner and occurs from
HV generation end to LV load end. The Line drop Compensation (LDC) method works on this
assumption and it tries to set a higher voltage at the distribution transformer to compensate for
the voltage drop along the distribution line. It uses a constant voltage set point and does not take
into account the presence of active feeders resulting from DG feeding power. Thus the traditional
LDC method will fail when the partial power of the loads comes from the overhead PV panels
and during times of reserve power flow during excessive PV generation. Thus a dynamic voltage
set point approach is required for their operation so that if the voltage along the line increases
due to DG, the voltage set point will be reduced at the transformer to prevent over voltage.
The tap changing was traditionally done with the use of mechanical switches, with each tap
having a switch. These switches undergo wear and tear due to the arcing that occurs when taps
are changed on load in OLTC, similar to the arc produced in a circuit breaker. Thus frequent tap
changes are not suitable for such a system as it reduces the lifetime of the switches. This is the
reason that these switches are not being favored for current and future use as voltage fluctuations
and requirement for tap changes become more frequent with introduction of DG.
The solution is through the use of power electronic switches the advantage being that they can be
switched a very high number of times with no effect on its lifetime and operation. They have
faster response times and practically need no maintenance compared to the mechanical switches.
However power electronic switches have a serious disadvantage that the switches have higher
losses compared to the mechanical switches; losses stemming from the conduction and switching
losses occurring in the semiconductor. Further they have low overload and short-circuit capacity
compared to mechanical switches.


2.5.1Concept of Tap Changing transformer

Distribution transformer tap is a combination which is taken out from a node located between a
two ends of a winding. This permits changes in voltage, current or turns ratio of the transformers
after it has left the factory. The reasons to have a series of taps in the transformer are as follows:

• To fix the secondary voltage against the primary voltage changes.

• To change the secondary voltage.

• To provide an auxiliary secondary voltage for a specific application such as lighting

• To reduce voltage for starting rotating motors.

• To provide a natural point for earthlings or conducting unbalanced current in three wire
single phase circuits or four wire three phase circuits.

In the transformers used in power systems the main reason for taps application is adjusting and
controlling the voltage. The load fluctuations change the voltage of the power system. It is noted
that sometimes taps in power transformers are used to shift the phase angle.

2.6 Types of tap changing transformer

1. Off load tap changing transformer.

2. On load tap changing transformer

2.6.1 Off load tap changing transformer:

The transformers linking the MV and LV networks have off-loaded tap-changers: If a tap
changer is built as such that its fixing requires its being disconnected from the power line, the tap
changer is called the no load tap changer. Since, the transformers have to be disconnected for the
tap setting to be changed and the changeover has to be done manually and this is not very
practical because disconnecting the transformer means a power cut for the customers connected
to the transformer. Moreover, they are not always easily accessible. The result is that they are
never changed once they have been installed. The only point to that is to set the tap setting before
installing it the first time: if the maximal voltage drop is high it can help maintain the voltage
within the limits.If there is a need to change the turns ratio over along interval (for instance
seasonal), the no load tap changer is used. Normally in the no load tap changers taps are changed
manually by means of a selector outside the transformer tank.

2.6.2 On load Tap Changing Transformer

Large amounts of electrical power are transported and distributed by the electricity grid. In
addition, long distances have to be bridged between the generation and consumption of electrical
power and high voltages are used to reduce the power losses during this transport. Different
voltage levels are used in the grid and these voltages are linked using power transformers. A
power transformer basically has two functions:

• To link different voltage levels in the high-voltage power grid in such a way that
electrical power can be exchanged.

• To keep the voltage at an acceptable level when the load changes.

The second function, voltage regulation, is accomplished by adjusting the transformation ratio of
the power transformer. For that purpose, the transformer winding is equipped with tapped
windings that can be selected by an on-load tap changer. The active and reactive power flow can
be controlled by the tap changer.

The ones between the transmission grid and the distribution grid have an on-load tap-changer
(OLTC): the change of the tap setting happens while the transformer is connected to the
network. This is very interesting because it is possible to decouple the voltages of each side of
the transformer at all time, as much as the tap settings allow it of course. This is
particularly useful for the transformers at this level because the voltage in the transmission
network might vary throughout the day and this feature allows the voltage on the distribution
grid side to be constant. This way, the customers do not experience the effects of problems in the
transmission grid as long as they do not become too serious.
2.7 Mechanical under Load Tap Changers:

In spite of advancement in the structure of mechanical under load tap changers, these tap
changers have some drawbacks: for example,the major factor which causes damage to power
transformers is their tap changer failure. Some drawbacks of mechanical under load tap changers
are as follows:

• Contact Arc in Diverter Switches During Tap Changing Process:

An arc appears in the contacts of diverter switches at the time of divert make and breaks the load
current. This arc causes impurity of the oil surrounding the switches and wearing out of the
moving mechanical parts of the switches.

• High Maintenance and Service Cost

Conditions of oil contacts and mechanical parts of the mechanical under load tap changers must
be inspected regularly. This is required due to arc and wearing out of the moving mechanical
parts of tap changer.

• Low Speed of Tap Changing

The low speed of tap changing originates from mechanical nature of tap changing process and
the required time for storing the desirable energy for ta changing process.

• High Losses of Tap Changer During Tap Changing

This happens for under load resistor tap changer and reason is the use of passing resistors in this
type of tap changer.

In order to remove the above mentioned limitations and drawbacks, the following new circuits
and structures have been suggested for under load tap changers. These are categorized into two
major groups.
• Electronically Assisted Under Load Tap Changers (or Hybrid On Load Tap Changer)

In these tap changers solid state power switches have been used beside the mechanical switches
in order to reduce the arc caused by tap changing. Mechanical parts of the conventional under
load tap changer systems have been still used.

One of the most important problems of mechanical under load tap changer is the arc in the
contacts of diverter switches during the tap changing process. The reason for the appearance of
arc is the mechanical nature of the switches. Of course mechanical switches are interesting in the
connecting of instant due to a very low voltage. However during tap changing it has arc.

The main idea in the use of fully electronic under load tap changer is that during tap changing
process solid state power switches with more controllability compared with the mechanical
switches, come in and reduce the arc. But in a fixed tap, solid state power switches exit the
circuit and mechanical switches pass the load current. The reason is a very low connection
voltage of mechanical switches compared with the solid state power switches.

2.9 Full Electronic Tap Changer

There is no move part in full electronic tap changers and only solid state power switches are
used. The basic advantages of the full electronic tap changers are as follows:

• Very low maintenance cost

There is no move parts in full electronic tap changers and no arc can appear during the tap
changing process as there is basically no contact: therefore the maintenance cost is very low
(almost zero).

• High speed

The very fast switching process of solid of solid state power switches leads to the fast tap
changing in full electronic tap changers , as such that it is possible to the tap at least once in
any half cycle.
• Tap Jumping

There is no passing resistor in the full electronic tap changers and basically the circulation
current between the taps is zero. So, tap jumping becomes possible.

• Better Performance

High speed and controllability of solid state switches and nonexistence of mechanical
limitations in the configuration of these switches enhance the capability and performance of
the full electronic tap changer, some these capabilities are asfollows:

• Obtaining more steps with lower tap numbers and solid state power switches. The
reason is that there is non-limit in the configuration of solid state power switches.

• A full electronic tap changer is a rapid static regulator as such that it can be considered
as a custom power device in power quality. It is capable to compensate the voltage sag,
swell and also flicker.

• Non limit In tap changing time

The reason is that is power switches are correctly switched on there will be slight fatigue in the
switches. Of course, besides of the above mentioned advantages, full electronic tap changers
have some problems and limitations. These limitations are as follows:

• Switch on voltage drop of solid state switch is larger than that of the mechanical
switch. So, an operational loss of the full electronic tap changer is higher than that of
the mechanical tap changer.

• Cost of full electronic tap changer is higher than that of the mechanical tap
changers because there are many solid state power switch in the full electronic tap
• Full electronic tap changers must stand against short circuit faults and large
transient peaks in power system voltage due to the lightning.

Theory of components of the full electronic tap changing transformer

3.1 Transformer

A transformer is a static device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to
another by electromagnetic induction without the change in frequency. The transformer,
which can link circuits with different voltages, has been instrumental in enabling universal use
of the alternating current system for transmission and distribution of electrical energy.
Various components of power system, generators, transmission lines, distribution networks, and
finally the loads can be operated at their most suited voltage levels. As the transmission voltages
are increased to higher levels in some part of the power system, transformers again play a key
role in interconnection of systems at different voltage levels. Transformers occupy prominent
positions in the power system, being the vital links between generating stations and points of

The transformer is an electromagnetic conversion device in which electrical energy received by

primary winding is first converted into magnetic energy which is reconverted back into a useful
electrical energy in other circuits (secondary winding, tertiary winding, etc.). Thus, the primary
and secondary windings are not connected electrically, but coupled magnetically. A transformer
is termed as either a step-up or step-down transformer depending upon whether the secondary
voltage is higher or lower than the primary voltage, respectively. Transformers can be used to
either step-up or step-down voltage depending upon the need and application; hence
theirwindings are referred as high-voltage/low-voltage or high-tension/low-tension windings in
place of primary/secondary windings.
Voltage transformer consists essentially of three parts: the primary coil which carries the
alternating current from the supply lines, the core of magnetic material in which is produced an
alternating magnetic flux, and the secondary coil in which is generated an electromotive force
(emf) by the change of magnetism in the core which it surrounds. Sometimes the
transformer may have only one winding, which will serve the dual purpose of primary and
secondary coils.

The high-tension winding is composed of many turns of relatively fine copper wire, well
insulated to withstand the voltage impressed on it. The low-tension winding is composed
of relatively few turns of heavy copper wire capable of carrying considerable current at a
low voltage.

3.2 Transformer terminology

The primary winding: is the winding of the transformer which is connected to the
source of power. It may be either the high or the low voltage winding, depending upon the
application of the transformer.

Figure 6: The elementary transformer

The secondary winding is the winding of the transformer which delivers power to the load. It
may be either the high or the low-voltage winding, depending upon the application of the
The core: is the magnetic circuit upon which the windings are wound. The high-tension winding
is the one which is rated for the higher voltage. The low-tension winding is the one which
is rated for the lower voltage.

There are three types of transformers depending on the relation between primary and secondary
voltages: the step-up transformer is a voltage transformer so connected that the delivered
voltage is greater than the supplied voltage.

The step-down transformer: is one so connected that the delivered voltage is less than that
supplied; the actual transformer may be the same in one case as in the other, the terms step up
and step-down relating merely to the application of the apparatus.

The safety transformer: is a transformer where the delivered voltage is equal to the
absorbed voltage. This transformer is used to insulate the primary side from the secondary side
for safety purposes.

3.4 Triac

The major drawback of an SCR is that it can conduct current in one direction only. Therefore, an
SCR can only control d.c. power or forward biased half-cycles of a.c. in a load. However, in an
a.c. system, it is often desirable and necessary to exercise control over both positive and negative
half cycles. For this purpose, a semiconductor device called triac is used.

A triac is a three-terminal semiconductor switching device which can control alternating current
in a load. Triac is an abbreviation for triode a.c. switch. ‘Tri’– indicates that the device has three
terminals and ‘ac’ means that the device controls alternating current or can conduct current in
either direction. The key function of a triac may be understood by referring to the simplified Fig
7: The control circuit of triac can be adjusted to pass the desired portions of positive and
negative half cycle of a.c. supply through the load RL

Thus referring to Fig 7: (ii), the triac passes the positive

Figure 7: Function of Triac

Half cycle of the supply from θ1to 180° i.e. the shaded portion of positive half cycle. Similarly,
the shaded portion of negative half-cycle will pass through the load. In this way, the alternating
current and hence a.c. power flowing through the load can be controlled.

Since a triac can control conduction of both positive and negative half-cycles of a.c. supply, it is
sometimes called a bidirectional semi-conductor triode switch. The above action of a triac is
certainly not a rectifying action (as in an SCR) so that the triac makes no mention of rectification
in its name.

3.4.1 Triac Operation

Fig 8: shows the simple triac circuit. The a.c. supply to be controlled is connected across the
main terminals of triac through a load resistance RL. The gate circuit consists of battery, a
current limiting resistor Rand a switch S. The circuit action is as follows:

(i) With switch So pen, there will be no gate current and the triac is cut off. Even with no gate
current, the triac can be turned on provided the supply voltage becomes equal to the break over
voltage of triac. However, the normal way to turn on a triac is by introducing a proper gate

(ii)When switch Sis closed, the gate current starts flowing in the gate circuit. In a similar manner
to SCR, the break over voltage of the triac can be varied by making proper gate current to flow.

With a few mill amperes introduced at the gate, the triac will start conducting whether terminal
MT2 is positive or negative w.r.t. MT1.
Figure 8: Circuit Representation of Triac

(iii) If terminal MT2 is positive w.r.t. MT1, the triac turns on and the conventional current will
flow from MT2 to MT1. If the terminal MT2 is negative w.r.t. MT1, the triac is again turned on
but this time the conventional current flows from MT1 to MT2.

The above action of triac reveals that it can act as an a.c. contactor to switch on or off alternating
current to a load. The additional advantage of triac is that by adjusting the gate current to a
proper value, any portion of both positive and negative half-cycles of a.c. supply can be made to
flow through the load. This permits to adjust the transfer of a.c. power from the source to the

3.4.2 Traic Characteristics

Fig 9: shows the V-I characteristics of a triac. Because the triac essentially consists of two SCRs
of opposite orientation fabricated in the same crystal, its operating characteristics in the first and
third quadrants are the same except for the direction of applied voltage and current flow. The
following points may be noted from the triac characteristics:

(i) The V-I characteristics for triac in the Ist and IIIrd quadrants are essentially identical to those
of an SCR in the Ist quadrant.

(ii)The triac can be operated with either positive or negative gatecontrol voltage but in normal
operation usually the gate voltage is positive in quadrant I and negative in quadrant III.
Figure 9: Characteristics of Ttriac

(iii) The supply voltage at which the triac is turned ON depends upon the gate current. The
greater the gate current, the smaller the supply voltage at which the triac is turned on. This
permits to use a triac to control a.c. power in a load from zero to full power in a smooth and
continuous manner with no loss in the controlling device.

3.4.3 Triac Phase Control Circuit

A triac can be used to control the average a.c. power to a load by passing a portion of positive
and negative half-cycles of input a.c. This is achieved by changing the conduction angle through
the load. Fig 10: shows the basic triac phase control circuit. This circuit uses a capacitor Cand
variable resistance R1 to shift the phase angle of the gate signal. Because of this phase shift, the

gate voltage lags the line voltage by an angle between 0° and 90°. By adjusting the variable
resistance R1 the conduction angle through the load can be changed. Thus any portion of positive
and negative half-cycles of the a.c. can be passed through the load. This action of triac permits it
to be used as a controlled bidirectional switch.

Circuit action: The operation of triac phase control circuit is as under:

(i) During each positive half-cycle of the a.c., the triac is off for a certain interval, called firing
angle α(measured in degrees) and then it is triggered on and conducts current through the load
for the remaining portion of the positive half-cycle, called the conduction angle θ C. The value
of firing angle α(and hence θ C)can be changed by adjusting the variable resistance R1

. If R1 is increased, the capacitor will charge more slowly, resulting in the triac being triggered
later in the cycle i.e. firing angle α is increased while conduction angle θ C is decreased. As a
result, smaller a.c. power is fed to the load. Reverse happens if the resistance R1 is decreased.

Figure 10: Phase control

(ii) During each negative half-cycle of the a.c., a similar action occurs except that now current in
the load is in the opposite direction. Fig. 21.10 shows the waveforms of the line voltage and gate
voltage. Only the shaded portion of the positive and negative half cycles pass through the load.
We can change the phase angle of gate voltage by adjusting the variable resistance R1. Thus a
triac can control the a.c. power fed to a load. This control of a.c. power is useful in many
applications such as industrial heating, lighting etc.
3.4.4 Applications of Triac

As low gate currents and voltages can be used to control large load currents and voltages,
therefore, triac is often used as an electronic on/off switch controlled by a low-current
mechanical switch.

Figure 11: use of triac as a switch Figure 12:use of triac as a tap changer

(i) As a high-power lamp switch: Fig 11: shows the use of a triac as an a.c.on/off
switch. When switch Sis thrown to position 1, the triac is cut off and the output power
of lamp is zero. But as the switch is thrown to position 2, a small gate current (a few
mA) flowing through the gate turns the triac on. Consequently, the lamp is switched
on to give full output of 1000 watts.

(ii) Electronic changeover of transformer taps:

Figure 12:shows the circuit of electronic changeover of power transformer input taps.
Two triacs TR1 and TR2 are used for the purpose. When triac TR1 is turned on and
TR2 is turned off, the line input is connected across the full transformer primary AC.
However, if it is desired to change the tapping so that input appears across part AB of
the primary, then TR2 is turned on and TR1 is turned off. The gate control signals are
so controlled that both triacs are never switched on together. This avoids a dangerous
short circuit on the section BC of the primary.

3.5 Opto coupler

It is an electronic device which is designed to transfer electrical signals by using light waves in
order to provide coupling with electrical isolation between its input and output. The main
purpose of an opt coupler is to prevent rapidly changing voltages or high voltages on one side of
a circuit from distorting transmissions or damaging components on the other side of the circuit.
An opt coupler contains a light source often near an LED which converts electrical input signal
into light, a closed optical channel and a photo sensor, which detects incoming light and either
modulates electric current flowing from an external power supply or generates electric energy
directly, a photo transistor or a triac.

3.6 Full wave bridge rectifier

The dc level obtained from a sinusoidal input can be improved 100% using a process called full-
wave rectification. The most familiar network for performing such a function appears in Fig 13:
with its four diodes in a bridge configuration. During the period t = 0 to T/2 the polarity of the
input is as shown in Fig 14:The resulting polarities across the ideal diodes are also shown in Fig
14: to reveal that D2 and D3 are conducting while D1 and D4 are in the “off” state.

Figure 13: full wave bridge rectifier

Figure 14:For the period 0 → T/2 of the input voltage vi.
For the negative region of the input the conducting diodes are D1 and D4, resulting in the
configuration of Fig 16:The important result is that the polarity across the load resistor R is the
same as in Fig: 14, establishing a second positive pulse, as shown in Fig 16: Over one full cycle
the input and output voltages will appear as shown in Fig 17.

Figure 15:Conduction paths for the negative region of vi.

Figure 16:Input and output waveforms for a full-wave rectifier

Since the area above the axis for one full cycle is now twice that obtained for a half-wave
system, the dc level has also been doubled and
Vdc =2(Vdc = 0.318Vm) = 2(0.318Vm) or
Vdc = 0.636Vm full-wave (1)
If silicon rather than ideal diodes are employed as shown in Fig: 6, an application
of Kirchhoff’s voltage law around the conduction path would result in
vi-VT - vo- VT = 0 and vo=vi -2VT
The peak value of the output voltage vois therefore Vomax = Vm_ 2VT
For situations where Vm>>2VT, Eq. (2) can be applied for the average value with
a relatively high level of accuracy.

Eq. (2)
Then again, if Vmis sufficiently greater than 2VT, then Eq. (1) is often applied as a first
approximation for Vdc.
Atmega32 microcontroller

Analog to Digital Converter

Features • 10-bit Resolution
• 0.5 LSB Integral Non-linearity
• ±2 LSB Absolute Accuracy
• 13 μs - 260 μs Conversion Time
• Up to 15 kSPS at Maximum Resolution
• 8 Multiplexed Single Ended Input Channels
• 7 Differential Input Channels
• 2 Differential Input Channels with Optional Gain of 10x and 200x
• Optional Left adjustment for ADC Result Readout
• 0 - VCC ADC Input Voltage Range
• Selectable 2.56V ADC Reference Voltage
• Free Running or Single Conversion Mode
• ADC Start Conversion by Auto Triggering on Interrupt Sources
• Interrupt on ADC Conversion Complete
• Sleep Mode Noise Canceler
Fig 19: Pin diagram of atmega32

Pin Descriptions
VCC Digital supply voltage.
GND Ground.
Port A (PA7. PA0) Port A serves as the analog inputs to the A/D Converter.
Port A also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port, if the A/D Converter is not used. Port pins
can provide internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port A output buffers have
drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. When pins PA0 to PA7are used
as inputs and are externally pulled low, they will source current if the internal pull-up resistors
are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the
clock is not running.
Port B (PB7..PB0) Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors
(selected for each bit). The
Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
Capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even
if the clock is not running.
Port C (PC7.PC0) Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors
(selected for each bit). The Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with
both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will
source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset
condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. If the JTAG interface is enabled, the
pull-up resistors on pins PC5(TDI), PC3(TMS) and PC2(TCK) will be activated even if a reset
occurs. The TD0 pin is tri-stated unless TAP states that shift out data are entered.
Port D (PD7.PD0) Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors
(selected for each bit). The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with
both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will
source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset
condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
RESET Reset Input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will
generate areset, even if the clock is not running. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a
XTAL1 Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating
XTAL2 Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier.
AVCC AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port A and the A/D Converter. It should be
externally connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be
connected to VCC through a low-pass filter.
AREF AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter.

The ATmega32 features a 10-bit successive approximation ADC. The ADC is connected to an8-
channel Analog Multiplexer which allows 8 single-ended voltage inputs constructed from
thepins of Port A. The single-ended voltage inputs refer to 0V (GND).

The device also supports 16 differential voltage input combinations. Two of the differential
inputs(ADC1, ADC0 and ADC3, ADC2) are equipped with a programmable gain stage,
providing amplification steps of 0 dB (1x), 20 dB (10x), or 46 dB (200x) on the differential input
voltage before the A/D conversion. Seven differential analog input channels share a common
negative terminal (ADC1), while any other ADC input can be selected as the positive input
terminal. If 1x or 10x gain is used, 8-bit resolution can be expected. If 200x gain is used, 7-bit
resolution can be expected.

The ADC contains a Sample and Hold circuit which ensures that the input voltage to the ADC is
held at a constant level during conversion. The ADC has a separate analog supply voltage pin,
AVCC. AVCC must not differ more than ±0.3V from VCC. pin.
Internal reference voltages of nominally 2.56V or AVCC are provided On-chip. The voltage
reference may be externally decoupled at the AREF pin by a capacitor for better noise
Operation The ADC converts an analog input voltage to a 10-bit digital value through
successive approximation.The minimum value represents GND and the maximum value
represents the voltage on the AREF pin minus 1 LSB. Optionally, AVCC or an internal 2.56V
reference voltage may be connected to the AREF pin by writing to the REFSn bits in the
ADMUX Register. The internal voltage reference may thus be decoupled by an external
capacitor at the AREF pin to improve noise immunity.
The analog input channel and differential gain are selected by writing to the MUX bits in
ADMUX. Any of the ADC input pins, as well as GND and a fixedbandgap voltage reference,
can be selected as single ended inputs to the ADC. A selection of ADC input pins can be selected
as positive and negative inputs to the differential gain amplifier. If differential channels are
selected, the differential gain stage amplifies the voltage difference between the selected input
channel pair by the selected gain factor. This amplified value then becomes the analog input to
the ADC. If single ended channels are used, the gain amplifier is bypassed altogether.
The ADC is enabled by setting the ADC Enable bit, ADEN in ADCSRA. Voltage reference and
input channel selections will not go into effect until ADEN is set. The ADC does not consume
power when ADEN is cleared, so it is recommended to switch off the ADC before entering
power saving sleep modes.
The ADC generates a 10-bit result which is presented in the ADC Data Registers, ADCH and
ADCL. By default, the result is presented right adjusted, but can optionally be presented left
adjusted by setting the ADLAR bit in ADMUX.
If the result is left adjusted and no more than 8-bit precision is required, it is sufficient to read
ADCH. Otherwise, ADCL must be read first, then ADCH, to ensure that the content of the Data
Registers belongs to the same conversion. Once ADCL is read, ADC access to Data Registers
is blocked. This means that if ADCL has been read, and a conversion completes before ADCH is
read, neither register is updated and the result from the conversion is lost. When ADCH is read,
ADC access to the ADCH and ADCL Registers is re-enabled.
The ADC has its own interrupt which can be triggered when a conversion completes. When
ADCaccess to the Data Registers is prohibited between reading of ADCH and ADCL, the
interrupt will trigger even if the result is lost.
3.8 ADC ConversionResult
After the conversion is complete (ADIF is high), the conversion result can be found in the ADC
Result Registers (ADCL, ADCH).
For single ended conversion, the result is

ADC = Vin*1024/Vref

Where Vin is the voltage on the selected input pin and Vrefthe selected voltage reference 0x000
represents analog ground, and 0x3FF represents the selected reference voltage minus one LSB.

We have designed and simulated the on load tap changing transformer first by designing the
transformer then we have designed the static switches using triac as a switching device by
triggering it through an opto coupler. After this we have designed the bridge rectifier which
changes the step downed ac voltage from the voltage sensor, a potential transformer, in to a dc
equivalent voltage which suitable for the microcontroller. To control the on load tap changer
automatically we have used the atmega32 microcontroller. All the simulation is done with the
proteus8.0 simulation software. The programming of the microcontroller is done with the atmel
studio 6 which is the studio for writing a program for avr microcontrollers.


3.3 Transformer Design

We have taken the following Considerations for designing the transformer.

S = 500VA

Primary voltage = 220V

Secondary voltage at tap No.1 = 100V

Secondary voltage at tap No.2 = 105V

Secondary voltage at tap No.3 = 110V

Secondary voltage at tap No.4 = 115V

Secondary voltage at tap No.5 = 120V

Current density = 3.5 A/mm2

Shell type single phase

Considering the above specification the design proceeds as follows:

Maximum flux per column

eqn. (1)

Assuming Kn to be 2.55 * 10-2.

Assuming the flux density, B = 1.1wb/m2

The net area of the iron section will be:

Air =/B==2318mm2 eqn. (2)

The column width is approximately:

C = VA= 500= 4.728cm = 5cmeqn. (3)

The net thickness of the iron packages is:

Lp = = 2318/50 = 46.36 cmeqn. (4)

Assuming the packaging coefficient Ks = 0.9

The gross thickness will be:

Lpo = = = 51.5mm eqn. (5)

Taking the thickness of the lamination to be 0.5mm.

The number of lamination will be:

= = = 103 laminations

The Voltage per turn is:

e= 4.44*f*fluxeqn. (6)

= 4.44*50*2.55*10-3= 0.5661V/turn

The number of primary turn is:

N1 = = = 388.6 turns. eqn. (7)

Assuming a voltage drop from no load to load condition of 5%, the number of secondary turn is:

For Tap1 N2 1= = = 186 turns

For Tap2 N2 2 = == 195turns

For Tap3 N23 = ==204 turns

For Tap4 N2 4 = == 214 turns

For Tap5 N2 5 = ==223 turns

Assuming an efficiency of 80% the primary current is:

I1 = = = 2.84 A eqn. (8)

And the secondary current is:

I21 = = = 5A

I2 2 = == 4.76A

I2 3 = = = 4.54A

I2 4 = = = 4.35A

I2 5 = = = 4.16A

3.7 Design of the fullwave bridge rectifier

Vdc = 0.636(Vm - 2Vd) eqn. (1)

Where Vd the diode voltage drops assuming it is 0.7V.

Vm the secondary peak voltage of the step down transformer

since the output of this rectifier circuit is given a micro controller its output should not be greater than
5V so:

Vdc = 0.636(Vm - Vd)

5 = 0.636(Vm – 2*0.7) = 9.26V

Therefore, the 5V corresponding the highest of the tap changing transformer which is 120V. then the
step down transformer turn ratio will be:

= = 12.96

N1:N2 = 12.96:1

The corresponding DC voltage for Tap 5 (120) is %V dc.

For Tap.4 Vdc = 0.636(Vm - 2Vd)

= =12.96

Vm4 = = 8.873V

Vdc =0.636*(8.873 - 104) = 4.753V

The corresponding DC voltage for Tap 4(115V) is 4.753V.

For tap 3: Vdc = 0.636(V – 2Vd)

= = 12.96.

Vm3 = = 8.49V

Vdc = 0.636*(8.49 -1.4) =4.5V

The corresponding DC voltage for tap 3 (110) is 4.5V

For tap 2: Vdc = 0.636*(V – 2Vd)

= = 12.96.

Vm 2 = = 8.1V

Vdc = 0.636* (8.1 – 1.4) =4.26V

The corresponding DC voltage for tap 2 (110) is 4.26V

For tap 2: Vdc = 0.636*(V – 2Vd)

= = 12.96.

Vm 1 = = 7.72V

Vdc = 0.636 *(7.72 – 1.4) =4V

The corresponding DC voltage for tap 1 (110) is 4V.

How the tap selection is done

The output of the bridge rectifier is supplied into the first ADC pin PA0(ADC0).

The internal ADC converts the value of the bridge rectifier into a corresponding value from 0 to 255.

Initially the tap is set into the 110v tap position.

Being the tap at the 110v tap position:

If the voltage supplied to the PA0 is between:-

3.92 And 4.117 select the 120v tap position.

4.176 And 4.353 select the 115 tap position.

4.4117 And 4.6078 select the 100 tap position.

4.647 And 4.843 select the 105 tap position.

4.9019 And 5 select the 100 tap position.

Being the tap at 100v tap position:

If the voltage supplied to the PA0 is between:-

3.92 And 4.117 select the 110v tap position.

4.176 And 4.353 select the 105v tap position.

4.4117 And 4.6078 select the 100v tap position.

4.647 And 4.843 select the 100v tap position.

4.9019 And 5 select the 100v tap position.

Being the tap at 105v tap position:

If the voltage supplied to the PA0 is between:-

3.92 And 4.117 select the 115v tap position.

4.176 And 4.353 select the 110v tap position.

4.4117 And 4.6078 select the 105v tap position.

4.647 And 4.843 select the 100 tap position.

4.9019 And 5 select the 100 tap position.

Being the tap at 115v tap position:

If the voltage supplied to the PA0 is between:

3.92 And 4.117 select the 120v tap position.

4.176 And 4.353 select the 120v tap position.

4.4117 And 4.6078 select the 115v tap position.

4.647 And 4.843 select the 110v tap position.

4.9019 And 5 select the 105v tap position.

Being the tap at 120v tap position:

If the voltage supplied to the PA0 is between:-

3.92 And 4.117 select the 120v tap position.

4.176 And 4.353 select the 120v tap position.

4.4117 And 4.6078 select the 120v tap position.

4.647 And 4.843 select the 115v tap position.

4.9019 And 5 select the 110v tap position.

The overall system of the tap changing transformer can be represented using a block diagram
as shown below:-


A transformer with a tap

Primary side secondary side

A power electronic switching device

Potential transformer

Bridge rectifier

Figure19: Block diagram for the overall system



4.1 Simulation and result of the tap changer

The on load tap changing transformer simulation consists of a simulation of the static power
switch, the bridge rectifier and the overall system.

• The static power switch:- it is done with a triac and an opto-coupler. When a current passes
through the internal light emitting diode of the opto coupler it glows and the light triggers the
internal triac of the opto coupler then the current that comes from the transformer can pass
through the opto coupler and triggers the triac. After all this the current can pass through the
load. The input to the internal light emitting diode of the opto coupler is controlled by the
Figure 20:Triac used as a switching device

• The bridge rectifier:-it is done using a diode rectifier.The bridge rectifier rectifies the voltage
read from the load terminal by a potential transformer to a make it suitable for the
microcontroller. The rectified voltage by the bridge rectifier is filtered by the capacitor to
reduce the ripple.

Figure 21: Full Wave Bridge Rectifier

• The overall design of the tap changer is done by integrating the switches and the
microcontroller. A potentiometer is used to vary the input voltage to the microcontroller.
Figure 22: Simulation of the Tap Changer Transformer in Proteus

When the potentiometer value is varied the microcontroller selects the tap setting according to
the voltage compensation needed for the transformer.

4.2 Result

As shown from the table below we have successfully changed the tap setting as it is needed to
compensate the voltage value of the transformer. When the voltage decreases the tap goes to a
higher position and when the voltage increases the tap goes to a lower position to compensate the
voltage value of the transformer.
At 110v tap position the result obtained is:-

Voltage at the secondary(v) Tap selected

98-102 Tap 5
103-107 Tap 4
108-112 Tap 3
113-117 Tap 2
118-120 Tap 1
Table1:Result of tap selection at tap 3

At 105v tap position the result obtained is:-

Voltage at the secondary(v) Tap selected

98-102 Tap 4
103-107 Tap 3
108-112 Tap 2
113-117 Tap 1
118-120 Tap 1
Table 2: Result of Tap Selection at Tap 2

At 100v tap position the result obtained is:-

Voltage at the secondary(v) Tap selected

98-102 Tap 3
103-107 Tap 2
108-112 Tap 1
113-117 Tap 1
118-120 Tap 1
Table 3: Result of Tap Selection at Tap 1
At 115v tap position the result obtained is:-

Voltage at the secondary(v) Tap selected

98-102 Tap 5
103-107 Tap 5
108-112 Tap 4
113-117 Tap 3
118-120 Tap 2
Table 4: Result of Tap Selection at Tap 4

At 120v tap position the result obtained is:-

Voltage at the secondary(v) Tap selected

98-102 Tap 5
103-107 Tap 5
108-112 Tap 5
113-117 Tap 4
118-120 Tap 3
Table 5. Result of Tap Selection at Tap 5

Where tap 5, tap 4, tap 3, tap 2, tap1 corresponds to the 120v,115v, 110v, 105v, 100v tap
position respectively.




On this semester project, we have designed and simulated on load tap changing transformer on
Proteus software. As it is described in the result we are able to change the tap on load using
atmega32 microcontroller.
It is observed from the simulation, when the load voltage of the transformer varies above a
+2%tolerance the tap changer goes to compensate this voltage variation. When the load voltage
drops the tap setting goes to higher the higher position, and if the load voltage rises above the
tolerable voltage variation the tap setting goes to the lower position. Therefore we have
successfully substituted and amended the mechanical on load tap changing transformer.


The full electronic tap changing transformer is designed and simulated for voltage controlling
purpose. We recommend that if electronic on load tap changing transformer is used for voltage
controlling purpose it reduces the high maintenance cost needed for the electronic tap changing
transformer and efficiency of the power system will be improved due to the fast response of the
tap changer. Generally the implementation of electronic tap changing transformer has a
constructive effect on the power quality of the grid system.


[1]. JawadFaiz, BehzadSiahkolah, ―New Controller for an Electronic Tap Changer—Part II:
Measurement Algorithm and Test Results, IEEE Power delivery, vol. 22, no. 1, January 2007

[2].S.M.Bashi, ―Microcontroller-based fast on-load semiconductor tap changer for small

power transformer,Journal of applied sciences,Jun-2005.

[3]. JawadFaiz, BehzadSiahkolah, ―electronic tap changer for distribution transformer

[4]. Various websites

[5]. J. Faiz and B. Siahkolah, ―Effect of solid-state on-load distribution tap-changer on power
quality enhancement, Int. J. Eng., I.R.Iran, vol. 17, Jul. 2004.


/***program of the on load tap changing transformer in atmega32 microcontroller***/

/***interrupt service routine***/