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PROBLEM 18.

32 (Continued)

Principle of impulse-momentum.

Moments about A: (H A )0 + (−aj′) × ( F Δt )k = H A

(H G )0 + rG/ A × mv0 + aF Δti ′ = H G + rG/ A × mv

Resolve into components.

1 1
i′: 2ma 2ω0 − aF ( Δt ) = − ma 2ω y′ (1)
24 4

1 1 1 1
j′: 2ma 2ω0 = ma 2ω y′ + ma 2ω y ′ ω y ′ = 2ω0
24 12 4 8

1 2 1
k ′: 0 = ma ω z ′ + ma 2ω z ′ ω z′ = 0
6 2

1 1 7
(a) From Eq. (1), F Δt = 2 maω0 + 2 maω0 = 2 maω0
24 32 96

( F Δt )k = 0.1031maω0 k 

1 1
v= aω y k ′ = 2 aω0k ′
2 16

Linear momentum: mv 0 + AΔt + F Δtk = mv

7 1
0 + AΔt + 2maω0 k ′ = 2maω0 k ′
96 16

1
(b) AΔt = − 2maω0 AΔt = −0.01473maω0 k 
96

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2009
PROBLEM 18.33

The coordinate axes shown represent the principal centroidal axes of inertia of a 3000-lb space probe whose radii
of gyration are k x = 1.375 ft, k y = 1.425 ft, and k z = 1.250 ft. The probe has no angular velocity when a 5-oz
meteorite strikes one of its solar panels at Point A with a velocity v 0 = (2400 ft/s)i − (3000 ft/s) j + (3200 ft/s)k
relative to the probe. Knowing that the meteorite emerges on the other side of the panel with no change in the
direction of its velocity, but with a speed reduced by 20 percent, determine the final angular velocity of the
probe.

SOLUTION

3000
Masses: Space probe: m′ = = 93.17 lb ⋅ s 2 /ft
32.2

5
Meteorite: m= = 0.009705 lb ⋅ s 2 /ft
(16)(32.2)

Point of impact: rA = (9 ft)i + (0.75 ft)k

Initial linear momentum of the meteorite, (lb ⋅ s):

mv 0 = (0.009705)(2400i + 3000 j + 3200k ) = 23.292i − 29.115 j + 31.056k

Its moment about the origin, (lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s):

i j k
rA × mv 0 = 9 0 0.75 = 21.836i − 262.04 j − 262.04k
23.292 −29.115 31.056

Final linear momentum of meteorite and its moment about the origin, (lb ⋅ s) and (lb ⋅ s ⋅ ft):

0.8mv 0 = 18.634i − 23.292 j + 24.845k

rA × (0.8mv 0 ) = 17.469i − 209.63j − 209.63k

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2010
PROBLEM 18.33 (Continued)

Let H A be the angular momentum of the probe and m′ be its mass. Conservation of angular momentum
about the origin for a system of particles consisting of the probe plus the meteorite:
rA × mv 0 = H A + rA × (0.8mv 0 )

H A = (4.367 lb ⋅ s ⋅ ft)i − (52.41 lb ⋅ s ⋅ ft) j − (52.41 lb ⋅ s ⋅ ft)k

(H A )x 4.367
I xω x = ( H A ) x ωx = = = 0.02479 rad/s
m′k x
2
(93.17)(1.375) 2

(H A ) y −52.41
I yω y = ( H A ) y ωy = = = −0.2770 rad/s
m′k y2 (93.17)(1.425) 2

(H A )z −52.41
I zωz = ( H A ) z ωz = = = −0.3600 rad/s

m kz2
(93.17)(1.250)2

ω = (0.0248 rad/s)i − (0.277 rad/s) j − (0.360 rad/s)k 

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2011
PROBLEM 18.34

The coordinate axes shown represent the principal centroidal axes of inertia of a 3000-lb space probe whose
radii of gyration are k x = 1.375 ft, k y = 1.425 ft, and k z = 1.250 ft. The probe has no angular velocity when a
5-oz meteorite strikes one of its solar panels at Point A and emerges on the other side of the panel with no
change in the direction of its velocity, but with a speed reduced by 25 percent. Knowing that the final angular
velocity of the probe is ω = (0.05 rad/s)i − (0.12 rad/s) j + ω z k and that the x component of the resulting
change in the velocity of the mass center of the probe is −0.675 in./s, determine (a) the component ω z of the
final angular velocity of the probe, (b) the relative velocity v 0 with which the meteorite strikes the panel.

SOLUTION

3000
Masses: Space probe: m′ = = 93.17 lb ⋅ s 2 /ft
32.2
5
Meteorite: m= = 0.009705 lb ⋅ s 2 /ft
(16)(32.2)
Point of impact: rA = (9 ft)i + (0.75 ft)k
Initial linear momentum of the meteorite, (lb ⋅ s):

mv 0 = (0.009705)(vx i + v y j + vz k )
Its moment about the origin, (lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s):

i j k
(H A )0 = rA × mv 0 = 0.009705 9 0 0.75
vx vy vz

= 0.009705[−0.75v y i + (0.75vx − 9vz ) j + 9v y k ]


Final linear momentum of the meteorite, (lb ⋅ s):
0.75mv 0 = 0.007279(vx i + v y j + vz k )

Its moment about the origin, (lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s):

rA × (0.75mv 0 ) = 0.007279[−0.75v y i + (0.75vx − 9vz ) j + 9v y k ]

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2012
PROBLEM 18.34 (Continued)

Initial linear momentum of the space probe, (lb ⋅ s): m′v′0 = 0

Final linear momentum of the space probe, (lb ⋅ s):

 0.675 
m′(vx′ i + v′y j + vz′ k ) = 93.17  − i + v′y j + vz′ k 
 12 
Final angular momentum of space probe, (lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s):

(
HA = m′ k x2ω x i + k y2ω y j + k z2ω z k )
= 93.17[(1.375) 2 (0.05)i + (1.425) 2 (−0.12) j + (1.250) 2 ω z k ]

= 8.8075i − 22.703j + 145.58ω z k

Conservation of linear momentum of the probe plus the meteorite, (lb ⋅ s):

0.009705(vx i + v y j + vz k ) = 0.007279(vx i + v y j + vz k ) + 93.17(−0.05625i + v′y j + vz′ k )

i: 0.002426vx = −5.2408 vx = −2160 ft/s

j: 0.002426v y = 93.17v′y

k: 0.002426vz = 93.17v′z

Conservation of angular momentum about the origin, (lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s):

(0.009705)[ −0.75v y i + (0.75vx − 9vz ) j + 9v y k ]

= (0.007279)[−0.75v y i + (0.75vx − 9vz ) j + 9v y k ] + 8.8075i − 22.703j + 145.58ω z k

i: − 0.0018195v y = 8.8075 v y = 4840.5 ft/s

j: − 0.021834vz + 0.0018195vx = −22.703 vz = 0.08333vx + 1039.8 = 859.8 ft/s

k: − 0.021834v y = 145.58ω z

(a) ω z = −149.98 × 10−6 v y ω z = −0.726 rad/s 

(b) v 0 = −(2160 ft/s)i − (4840 ft/s) j + (860 ft/s)k 

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2013
PROBLEM 18.35

A 2500-kg probe in orbit about the moon is 2.4 m high and has
octagonal bases of sides 1.2 m. The coordinate axes shown are the
principal centroidal axes of inertia of the probe, and its radii of gyration
are k x = 0.98 m, k y = 1.06 m, and k z = 1.02 m. The probe is equipped
with a main 500-N thruster E and with four 20-N thrusters A, B, C, and
D which can expel fuel in the positive y direction. The probe has an
angular velocity ω = (0.040 rad/s)i + (0.060 rad/s)k when two of the
20-N thrusters are used to reduce the angular velocity to zero.
Determine (a) which of the thrusters should be used, (b) the operating
time of each of these thrusters, (c) for how long the main thruster E
should be activated if the velocity of the mass center of the probe is to
remain unchanged.

SOLUTION

(
H G = I xω x i + I yω y j + I zω z k = m k x2ω x i + k y2ω y2 j + k22ω z k )
= (2500)[(0.98) 2 (0.040)i + (1.06)2 (0) j + (1.02) 2 (0.060)k ]

= (96.04 kg ⋅ m 2 /s)i + (156.06 kg ⋅ m 2 /s)k


Let − Aj, − Bj, − Cj, and − Dj be the impulses provided by the 20 N thrusters at A, B, C, and D, respectively.
Let Ej be that provided by the 500 N main thruster.
Position vectors for intersections of the lines of action of the thruster impulses with the xz plane:
1
a= (1.2) = 0.6 m, b = 0.6 + 0.6 2 = 1.4485 m
2
rA = − ai + bk , rB = ai + bk

rC = ai − bk , rD = − ai − bk
The final linear and angular momenta are zero.
Principle of impulse-momentum. Moments about G:
H G + rA × (− Aj) + rB × (− Bj) + rC × (−Cj) + rD × (− Dj) = 0 

H G + b( A + B − C − D)i + a( A − B − C + D )k = 0 
Resolve into components.
(HG )x 96.04
i: A+ B−C − D = − =− = −66.30 N ⋅ s (1)
b 1.4485
(HG )z 156.06
k: A− B−C + D = − =− = −260.1 N ⋅ s (2)
a 0.6
Of A, B, C, and D, two must be zero or positive, the other two zero.

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2014
PROBLEM 18.35 (Continued)

Set A = 0 and B − D = N . Solve the simultaneous equations (1) and (2).


C = 163.2 N ⋅ s and N = 96.9. Set D = 0 and B = 96.9 N ⋅ s
(a) Use thrusters C and B. 
C 163.2
(b) FC (ΔtC ) = C , ΔtC = = ΔtC = 8.16 s 
FC 20

B 96.9
FB (Δt B ) = B, Δt B = = Δt B = 4.84 s 
FB 20
(c) Linear momentum: Ej − Bj − Cj = 0, E = 30.291 lb ⋅ s

E 260.1
FE (Δt E ) = E Δt E = = Δt E = 0.520 s 
FE 500

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2015
PROBLEM 18.36

Solve Problem 18.35, assuming that the angular velocity of the probe
is ω = (0.060 rad/s)i − (0.040 rad/s)k.

PROBLEM 18.35 A 2500-kg probe in orbit about the moon is 2.4 m


high and has octagonal bases of sides 1.2 m. The coordinate axes
shown are the principal centroidal axes of inertia of the probe, and its
radii of gyration are k x = 0.98 m, k y = 1.06 m, and k z = 1.02 m. The
probe is equipped with a main 500-N thruster E and with four 20-N
thrusters A, B, C, and D which can expel fuel in the positive y direction.
The probe has an angular velocity ω = (0.040 rad/s)i + (0.060 rad/s)k
when two of the 20-N thrusters are used to reduce the angular velocity
to zero. Determine (a) which of the thrusters should be used, (b) the
operating time of each of these thrusters, (c) for how long the main
thruster E should be activated if the velocity of the mass center of the
probe is to remain unchanged.

SOLUTION

H G = I xω x i + I yω y j + I zω z k

(
= m k x2ω x i + k y2ω y2 j + k22ω z k )
= (2500)[(0.98) 2 (0.060) + (1.06) 2 (0) + (1.02)2 (−0.040)k ]

= (144.06 kg ⋅ m 2 /s)i − (104.04 kg ⋅ m 2 /s)k


Let − Aj, − Bj, − Cj, and − Dj be the impulses provided by the 20 N thrusters at A, B, C, and D,
respectively. Let Ej be that provided by the 500 N main thruster.
Position vectors for intersections of the lines of action of the thruster impulses with the xz plane:
1
a= (1.2) = 0.6 m, b = 0.6 + 0.6 2 = 1.4485 m
2
rA = − ai + bk , rB = ai + bk

rC = ai − bk , rD = − ai − bk
The final linear and angular momenta are zero.

Principle of impulse-momentum. Moments about G:

H G + rA × (− Aj) + rB × (− Bj) + rC × (−Cj) + rD × (− Dj) = 0 

H G + b( A + B − C − D)i + a( A − B − C + D )k = 0

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2016
PROBLEM 18.36 (Continued)

Resolve into components.

(HG )x 144.06
i: A+ B−C − D = − =− = −99.455 N ⋅ s (1)
b 1.4485

(HG )z −104.04
k: A− B−C + D = − =− = 173.4 N ⋅ s (2)
a 0.6

Of A, B, C, and D, two must be zero or positive, the other two zero.

Set B = 0 and A − C = N . Solve the simultaneous equations (1) and (2).


D = 136.43 N ⋅ s and N = 36.97 N ⋅ s. Set C = 0 and A = 36.97 N ⋅ s

(a) Use thrusters D and A. 


D 136.43
(b) FD (Δt D ) = D, Δt D = = Δt D = 6.82 s 
FD 20

A 36.97
FA (Δt A ) = A, Δt A = = Δt A = 1.848 s 
FA 20
(c) Linear momentum: Ej − Dj − Aj = 0 E = 173.4 N ⋅ s

E 173.4
FE (Δt E ) = E Δt E = = Δt E = 0.347 s 
FE 500

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2017
PROBLEM 18.37

Denoting, respectively, by ω, H O , and T the angular velocity, the angular momentum, and the kinetic energy
of a rigid body with a fixed Point O, (a) prove that H O ⋅ ω = 2T ; (b) show that the angle θ between ω and
HO will always be acute.

SOLUTION

(a) H 0 = ( I xω x − I xyω y − I xzω z )i + (− I xy ω x + I yω y − I yzω z ) j + (− I xzω x − I yzω y + I zω z )k

ω = ωx i + ω y j + ωz k

H 0 ⋅ ω = I xω x2 − I xyω yω x − I xz ω zω x − I xyω xω y + I yω y2 − I yzω z ω y

− I xzω xω z − I yz ω y ω z + I zω z2

1
(
= (2)   I xω x2 + I yω y2 + I zω z2 − 2 I xyω xω y − 2 I yzω yω z − 2 I xzω xω z
2
)
= 2T
(b) H 0 ⋅ ω = H 0ω cos θ

2T = H 0ω cos θ

2T
cos θ =
H 0ω

But T > 0, H 0 > 0, ω > 0

cos θ > 0 θ < 90°

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2018