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You are on page 1of 10

32 (Continued)

Principle of impulse-momentum.

1 1

i′: 2ma 2ω0 − aF ( Δt ) = − ma 2ω y′ (1)

24 4

1 1 1 1

j′: 2ma 2ω0 = ma 2ω y′ + ma 2ω y ′ ω y ′ = 2ω0

24 12 4 8

1 2 1

k ′: 0 = ma ω z ′ + ma 2ω z ′ ω z′ = 0

6 2

1 1 7

(a) From Eq. (1), F Δt = 2 maω0 + 2 maω0 = 2 maω0

24 32 96

( F Δt )k = 0.1031maω0 k

1 1

v= aω y k ′ = 2 aω0k ′

2 16

7 1

0 + AΔt + 2maω0 k ′ = 2maω0 k ′

96 16

1

(b) AΔt = − 2maω0 AΔt = −0.01473maω0 k

96

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed,

reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited

distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual,

you are using it without permission.

2009

PROBLEM 18.33

The coordinate axes shown represent the principal centroidal axes of inertia of a 3000-lb space probe whose radii

of gyration are k x = 1.375 ft, k y = 1.425 ft, and k z = 1.250 ft. The probe has no angular velocity when a 5-oz

meteorite strikes one of its solar panels at Point A with a velocity v 0 = (2400 ft/s)i − (3000 ft/s) j + (3200 ft/s)k

relative to the probe. Knowing that the meteorite emerges on the other side of the panel with no change in the

direction of its velocity, but with a speed reduced by 20 percent, determine the final angular velocity of the

probe.

SOLUTION

3000

Masses: Space probe: m′ = = 93.17 lb ⋅ s 2 /ft

32.2

5

Meteorite: m= = 0.009705 lb ⋅ s 2 /ft

(16)(32.2)

i j k

rA × mv 0 = 9 0 0.75 = 21.836i − 262.04 j − 262.04k

23.292 −29.115 31.056

Final linear momentum of meteorite and its moment about the origin, (lb ⋅ s) and (lb ⋅ s ⋅ ft):

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed,

reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited

distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual,

you are using it without permission.

2010

PROBLEM 18.33 (Continued)

Let H A be the angular momentum of the probe and m′ be its mass. Conservation of angular momentum

about the origin for a system of particles consisting of the probe plus the meteorite:

rA × mv 0 = H A + rA × (0.8mv 0 )

(H A )x 4.367

I xω x = ( H A ) x ωx = = = 0.02479 rad/s

m′k x

2

(93.17)(1.375) 2

(H A ) y −52.41

I yω y = ( H A ) y ωy = = = −0.2770 rad/s

m′k y2 (93.17)(1.425) 2

(H A )z −52.41

I zωz = ( H A ) z ωz = = = −0.3600 rad/s

′

m kz2

(93.17)(1.250)2

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed,

reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited

distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual,

you are using it without permission.

2011

PROBLEM 18.34

The coordinate axes shown represent the principal centroidal axes of inertia of a 3000-lb space probe whose

radii of gyration are k x = 1.375 ft, k y = 1.425 ft, and k z = 1.250 ft. The probe has no angular velocity when a

5-oz meteorite strikes one of its solar panels at Point A and emerges on the other side of the panel with no

change in the direction of its velocity, but with a speed reduced by 25 percent. Knowing that the final angular

velocity of the probe is ω = (0.05 rad/s)i − (0.12 rad/s) j + ω z k and that the x component of the resulting

change in the velocity of the mass center of the probe is −0.675 in./s, determine (a) the component ω z of the

final angular velocity of the probe, (b) the relative velocity v 0 with which the meteorite strikes the panel.

SOLUTION

3000

Masses: Space probe: m′ = = 93.17 lb ⋅ s 2 /ft

32.2

5

Meteorite: m= = 0.009705 lb ⋅ s 2 /ft

(16)(32.2)

Point of impact: rA = (9 ft)i + (0.75 ft)k

Initial linear momentum of the meteorite, (lb ⋅ s):

mv 0 = (0.009705)(vx i + v y j + vz k )

Its moment about the origin, (lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s):

i j k

(H A )0 = rA × mv 0 = 0.009705 9 0 0.75

vx vy vz

Final linear momentum of the meteorite, (lb ⋅ s):

0.75mv 0 = 0.007279(vx i + v y j + vz k )

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you are using it without permission.

2012

PROBLEM 18.34 (Continued)

0.675

m′(vx′ i + v′y j + vz′ k ) = 93.17 − i + v′y j + vz′ k

12

Final angular momentum of space probe, (lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s):

(

HA = m′ k x2ω x i + k y2ω y j + k z2ω z k )

= 93.17[(1.375) 2 (0.05)i + (1.425) 2 (−0.12) j + (1.250) 2 ω z k ]

Conservation of linear momentum of the probe plus the meteorite, (lb ⋅ s):

j: 0.002426v y = 93.17v′y

k: 0.002426vz = 93.17v′z

k: − 0.021834v y = 145.58ω z

reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited

distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual,

you are using it without permission.

2013

PROBLEM 18.35

A 2500-kg probe in orbit about the moon is 2.4 m high and has

octagonal bases of sides 1.2 m. The coordinate axes shown are the

principal centroidal axes of inertia of the probe, and its radii of gyration

are k x = 0.98 m, k y = 1.06 m, and k z = 1.02 m. The probe is equipped

with a main 500-N thruster E and with four 20-N thrusters A, B, C, and

D which can expel fuel in the positive y direction. The probe has an

angular velocity ω = (0.040 rad/s)i + (0.060 rad/s)k when two of the

20-N thrusters are used to reduce the angular velocity to zero.

Determine (a) which of the thrusters should be used, (b) the operating

time of each of these thrusters, (c) for how long the main thruster E

should be activated if the velocity of the mass center of the probe is to

remain unchanged.

SOLUTION

(

H G = I xω x i + I yω y j + I zω z k = m k x2ω x i + k y2ω y2 j + k22ω z k )

= (2500)[(0.98) 2 (0.040)i + (1.06)2 (0) j + (1.02) 2 (0.060)k ]

Let − Aj, − Bj, − Cj, and − Dj be the impulses provided by the 20 N thrusters at A, B, C, and D, respectively.

Let Ej be that provided by the 500 N main thruster.

Position vectors for intersections of the lines of action of the thruster impulses with the xz plane:

1

a= (1.2) = 0.6 m, b = 0.6 + 0.6 2 = 1.4485 m

2

rA = − ai + bk , rB = ai + bk

rC = ai − bk , rD = − ai − bk

The final linear and angular momenta are zero.

Principle of impulse-momentum. Moments about G:

H G + rA × (− Aj) + rB × (− Bj) + rC × (−Cj) + rD × (− Dj) = 0

H G + b( A + B − C − D)i + a( A − B − C + D )k = 0

Resolve into components.

(HG )x 96.04

i: A+ B−C − D = − =− = −66.30 N ⋅ s (1)

b 1.4485

(HG )z 156.06

k: A− B−C + D = − =− = −260.1 N ⋅ s (2)

a 0.6

Of A, B, C, and D, two must be zero or positive, the other two zero.

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you are using it without permission.

2014

PROBLEM 18.35 (Continued)

C = 163.2 N ⋅ s and N = 96.9. Set D = 0 and B = 96.9 N ⋅ s

(a) Use thrusters C and B.

C 163.2

(b) FC (ΔtC ) = C , ΔtC = = ΔtC = 8.16 s

FC 20

B 96.9

FB (Δt B ) = B, Δt B = = Δt B = 4.84 s

FB 20

(c) Linear momentum: Ej − Bj − Cj = 0, E = 30.291 lb ⋅ s

E 260.1

FE (Δt E ) = E Δt E = = Δt E = 0.520 s

FE 500

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you are using it without permission.

2015

PROBLEM 18.36

Solve Problem 18.35, assuming that the angular velocity of the probe

is ω = (0.060 rad/s)i − (0.040 rad/s)k.

high and has octagonal bases of sides 1.2 m. The coordinate axes

shown are the principal centroidal axes of inertia of the probe, and its

radii of gyration are k x = 0.98 m, k y = 1.06 m, and k z = 1.02 m. The

probe is equipped with a main 500-N thruster E and with four 20-N

thrusters A, B, C, and D which can expel fuel in the positive y direction.

The probe has an angular velocity ω = (0.040 rad/s)i + (0.060 rad/s)k

when two of the 20-N thrusters are used to reduce the angular velocity

to zero. Determine (a) which of the thrusters should be used, (b) the

operating time of each of these thrusters, (c) for how long the main

thruster E should be activated if the velocity of the mass center of the

probe is to remain unchanged.

SOLUTION

H G = I xω x i + I yω y j + I zω z k

(

= m k x2ω x i + k y2ω y2 j + k22ω z k )

= (2500)[(0.98) 2 (0.060) + (1.06) 2 (0) + (1.02)2 (−0.040)k ]

Let − Aj, − Bj, − Cj, and − Dj be the impulses provided by the 20 N thrusters at A, B, C, and D,

respectively. Let Ej be that provided by the 500 N main thruster.

Position vectors for intersections of the lines of action of the thruster impulses with the xz plane:

1

a= (1.2) = 0.6 m, b = 0.6 + 0.6 2 = 1.4485 m

2

rA = − ai + bk , rB = ai + bk

rC = ai − bk , rD = − ai − bk

The final linear and angular momenta are zero.

H G + b( A + B − C − D)i + a( A − B − C + D )k = 0

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you are using it without permission.

2016

PROBLEM 18.36 (Continued)

(HG )x 144.06

i: A+ B−C − D = − =− = −99.455 N ⋅ s (1)

b 1.4485

(HG )z −104.04

k: A− B−C + D = − =− = 173.4 N ⋅ s (2)

a 0.6

D = 136.43 N ⋅ s and N = 36.97 N ⋅ s. Set C = 0 and A = 36.97 N ⋅ s

D 136.43

(b) FD (Δt D ) = D, Δt D = = Δt D = 6.82 s

FD 20

A 36.97

FA (Δt A ) = A, Δt A = = Δt A = 1.848 s

FA 20

(c) Linear momentum: Ej − Dj − Aj = 0 E = 173.4 N ⋅ s

E 173.4

FE (Δt E ) = E Δt E = = Δt E = 0.347 s

FE 500

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2017

PROBLEM 18.37

Denoting, respectively, by ω, H O , and T the angular velocity, the angular momentum, and the kinetic energy

of a rigid body with a fixed Point O, (a) prove that H O ⋅ ω = 2T ; (b) show that the angle θ between ω and

HO will always be acute.

SOLUTION

ω = ωx i + ω y j + ωz k

− I xzω xω z − I yz ω y ω z + I zω z2

1

(

= (2) I xω x2 + I yω y2 + I zω z2 − 2 I xyω xω y − 2 I yzω yω z − 2 I xzω xω z

2

)

= 2T

(b) H 0 ⋅ ω = H 0ω cos θ

2T = H 0ω cos θ

2T

cos θ =

H 0ω

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