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HARD-SOFT SKILLING-CHARTING YOUR CAREER PATH

OUTPUT 4 –TEACHING TOOLKIT


AUTHORS:

OLIVIA NICOLAE AND CORINA IONESCU

LICEUL “CHARLES LAUGIER”, Craiova, Romania

AYŞE MUSAOĞLU,ÖZLEM AŞAM,AYÇIN ÇİLKİN,DUYGU ŞENOĞLU

GÜMÜŞPALA MESLEKİ VE TEKNİK ANADOLU LİSESİ, Istanbul, Turkey

LUÍS NUNES, FÁTIMA CORREDOURA

AGRUPAMENTO DE ESCOLAS DO FUNDÃO, Portugal

CARLA SBARBATI, GIULIA CHESI, DANIELE LAURENTE DI BIASIO AND FELICE SANTILLI

IISS “CHARLES DARWIN”, Rome, Italy

NADYA MILUSHEVA, LYUBIMA KONSTANTINOVA, YANA STOYANOVA, BOGDANA KOSTADINOVA AND


ILIYA VALCHEV

PROFESSIONAL HIGH SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS “IVAN ILIEV”, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria

PILAR BELLOC, JORDI ALSINA AND BLANCA GÓMEZ

INSTITUT EUROPE, Barcelona, Spain

CHRISTIAN ALTMANN

FACH- UND BERUFSOBERSCHULE, Erlangen, Germany

DANIEL MATKOVIC AND BERNARD RUSSO

LYCÉE CLOS MAIRE, Beaune, France

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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
About the teaching toolkit
The teaching Toolkit is based on the educational research conducted in 8 European countries
developing the Erasmus+ project Hard Soft Skilling-Charting your career Path and it is meant to be
used as resource material to support the optional course syllabus created during the
implementation of the project.

The materials included in the teaching toolkit are based on the attempt to develop
employability through basic high transferable skills acquisition, mainly by creating innovative tools
to support continuous development of learners' high transferable skills, increasing the students
‘motivation and encouraging collaboration and experience sharing.

It provides useful examples of activities and exercises as well as links to further resources to
improve the students’ transferable skills as a common strategy to include practical topics, widening
the subjects taught in school. The teaching toolkit currently covers 8 major topics, 4 labor market
and career oriented and 4 oriented towards skill development.

Considered a basic starting point in gathering material for the implementation of the
optional course in any type of school, either vocational or general, the teaching toolkit may be
updated on a regular basis. Moreover additional topics may be added to increase its value.

The toolkit represents the result of the endeavor of 8 teams of teachers, from eight different
European countries, coming from different types of schools (general or vocational) and bringing
different domains of expertise and various expertise. Each team has produced teaching materials
corresponding to a one of the 8 modules.

`
This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Using the teaching toolkit
The teaching toolkit will be used as resource material to be used in the classroom in order
to help teachers implement employability related skill either during their regular classes or as an
optional course. Since it is part of a “teaching pack” containing the optional course syllabus, the
teaching resources and the teachers’ guide, it is recommended to be used as support for the
optional course as the modules are built in such a way to facilitate and generate continuous skills
development. However, the materials may also be used separately for regular class instruction.

`
This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Contents
MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT ........................................................................................................... 1
SECTIONS ..................................................................................................................................................... 2
ASSESSMENT STANDARDS ........................................................................................................................... 2
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER ....................................................................................................................... 3
Pre/post-test: Job advertisements(general knowledge) ............................................................................. 4
Personal objective sheet for students ......................................................................................................... 6
Ice-breakers/warm-up activities.................................................................................................................. 7
Course and feedback activities .................................................................................................................... 8
Tips for “What employers want” ............................................................................................................... 24
Recommended websites for the topic....................................................................................................... 25
Glossary of terms ...................................................................................................................................... 26
MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF ....................................................................................... 27
SECTIONS ................................................................................................................................................... 28
ASSESSMENT STANDARDS ......................................................................................................................... 28
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER....................................................................................................................... 29
PRE/POST-TEST: ............................................................................................................................................. 30
PERSONAL OBJECTIVE SHEET FOR STUDENTS.......................................................................................................... 31
ICE-BREAKERS/WARM-UP ACTIVITIES................................................................................................................... 32
COURSE AND FEEDBACK ACTIVITIES ..................................................................................................................... 37
TIPS FOR “PERSONAL SKILL ASSESSMENT” ........................................................................................................... 50
RECOMMENDED WEBSITES FOR THE TOPIC .......................................................................................................... 51
MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH ............................................. 52
SECTIONS ................................................................................................................................................... 53
ASSESSMENT STANDARDS ......................................................................................................................... 54
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER ..................................................................................................................... 55
Pre/post-test: What do you know about hidden skills and career plan? .................................................. 56
Personal objective sheet for students ....................................................................................................... 57
Ice-breakers/warm-up activities................................................................................................................ 58
Tips for “discover your hidden skills and plan your career path” .............................................................. 70
Recommended websites for the topic....................................................................................................... 71

`
This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER ................................................................................................ 72
SECTIONS ................................................................................................................................................... 73
ASSESSMENT STANDARDS ......................................................................................................................... 73
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER ..................................................................................................................... 74
Pre/post-test: USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER ........................................................................................ 75
Personal objective sheet for students ....................................................................................................... 76
Ice-breakers/warm-up activities................................................................................................................ 77
Course and feedback activities .................................................................................................................. 78
Tips for “Useful tips for your career”......................................................................................................... 96
Recommended websites for the topic....................................................................................................... 97
MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING ........................................................................................................................ 98
SECTIONS ................................................................................................................................................... 99
ASSESSMENT STANDARDS ......................................................................................................................... 99
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER ................................................................................................................... 100
Pre/post-test: ARE YOU A GOOD TEAM WORKER? ................................................................................. 101
Personal objective sheet for students ..................................................................................................... 105
Ice-breakers/warm-up activities.............................................................................................................. 106
COURSE (MODULE) AND FEEDBACK ACTIVITIES ...................................................................................... 124
Tips for “Personal Skill Assessment” ....................................................................................................... 125
Recommended websites for the topic..................................................................................................... 126
MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION .................................................................................................................. 127
SECTIONS ................................................................................................................................................. 128
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER ................................................................................................................... 129
Pre/post-test: Communication ................................................................................................................ 130
Ice-breakers/warm-up activities.............................................................................................................. 132
Course and feedback activities ................................................................................................................ 139
Tips for “Personal Skill Assessment” ....................................................................................................... 162
Recommended websites for the topic..................................................................................................... 166
MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 167
SECTIONS ................................................................................................................................................. 168
ASSESSMENT STANDARDS ....................................................................................................................... 168
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER ................................................................................................................... 169

`
This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Pre/post-test: presentations ................................................................................................................... 170
Personal objective sheet for students ..................................................................................................... 171
Preparation of the Presentation .............................................................................................................. 178
Preparation of the Presentation .............................................................................................................. 179
Body language ......................................................................................................................................... 181
Body language-Key .................................................................................................................................. 182
Mimic ...................................................................................................................................................... 183
Mimic-Key ............................................................................................................................................... 184
Gestures .................................................................................................................................................. 185
Gestures-Possible answers ...................................................................................................................... 186
Effective Speaking ................................................................................................................................... 187
Rhetorical devices ................................................................................................................................... 190
Tips and tricks for “Presentations” .......................................................................................................... 191
Recommended websites for the topic..................................................................................................... 192
MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING .......................................................................... 193
SECTIONS ................................................................................................................................................. 194
ASSESSMENT STANDARDS ....................................................................................................................... 194
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER ................................................................................................................... 195
Pre/post-test: How good are you at problem solving? ............................................................................ 196
Personal objective sheet for students ..................................................................................................... 199
Ice-breakers/warm-up activities.............................................................................................................. 200
Tips for “Problem solving and decision making” ..................................................................................... 230
Recommended websites for the topic..................................................................................................... 231

`
This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT

AUTHORS: OLIVIA NICOLAE AND CORINA IONESCU

SCHOOL: LICEUL “CHARLES LAUGIER”, CRAIOVA, ROMANIA

`
This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Module 1 – What employers want

The module intends to help students learn to decode essential information available on the
labour market which may help them improve their chances in finding a job. To learn how to
decode the message sent in job advertisements, to analyse it and to become able to respond
to it accordingly using it to their advantage.

SECTIONS

1. What parts can you identify in a job description?


2. What skills are requested?
3. What skills should be associated with that type of job?

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


ASSESSMENT STANDARDS

Students should be able to understand labour market requirements. They should:


1. Understand job advertisement structure
2. Identify employers requirements
3. Synthetize relevant information to meet the employers’ requirements
4. Present the information logically
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER

Title of the activity Brief description

Pre/post test General knowledge test on job advertising

Identify the type of job advertisement Multiple choice exercise

Identify the type of job advertisement-possible answers Exercise key

Personal objective sheet for students Self-assessment

Ice-breakers/warm-up activities Ice-breakers

Where is the job advertisement taken from? Multiple matching

Where is the job advertisement taken from?-possible Exercise key


answers
Decomposing job advertisements Understanding job advertisement
structure
More advantages or disadvantages? Debate

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


What are employers really looking for? Identifying requirements accurately

What are employers really looking for? -Possible answers Exercise key

Best for men or for women? Understanding job marketing

Best for men or for women? - Possible answers Exercise key

What is the best option to increase your chances Analyzing information

What is the best option to increase your chances?-Answer Exercise key


key

Important things to keep in mind about job adverts Reinforcing knowledge

Tips for “what employers want” Tips on how to deal with job
advertisements
Recommended websites Further guidance

Abbreviations in job advertisements Glossary of terms


3 Page

`
This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
PRE/POST-TEST: JOB ADVERTISEMENTS(GENERAL KNOWLEDGE)

Choose the best option:

1. What is a job advertisement?


a. A paid announcement in a newspaper or any other medium
b. A warning to get a job sooner
c. A TV commercial
2. Who are the job advertisements created by?
a. Human resources or external recruitment agencies
b. The owner of the company
c. The secretary of the company
3. What is the purpose of the job advertisement?
a. To show it is a big company/firm
b. To attract suitable candidates for the position
c. To announce someone left the company
4. Any job advertisement includes:
a. Questions about your hobbies
b. Knowledge, experience and skills
c. Information about the payment
5. An efficient job advertisement must contain :

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


a. Capital letters and over-designed graphics in order to catch attention
b. Clear and relevant information
c. Long and detailed descriptions of the ideal candidates
6. A job advertisement should be no more than:
a. A full page
b. Half a page
c. A quarter of a page
7. The first paragraph:
a. Should include detailed information about your work experience
b. Should grab the reader’s attention
c. Should include information about benefits
8. An advertisement can reduce the number of jobseekers having the right profile simply stating :
a. The title of the job,
b. The education and experience requirements
c. The salary
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Test key- Job advertisements(general knowledge)

1. a
2. a
3. b
4. b
5. b
6. c
7. b
8. b

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
PERSONAL OBJECTIVE SHEET FOR STUDENTS
(to be filled in after the pre and post-test)

1. What I know about job advertisements………………….

2. What I want to know job advertisements …………….

3. What I improved …………………………….

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


4. What I need to improve further…………….

6 Page

`
This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
ICE-BREAKERS/WARM-UP ACTIVITIES

1) Title: Past/present and future jobs

Purpose: to facilitate familiarisation with the topic

Needed materials: sheets pf paper

Instructions/short description of the activity: The teacher asks the students to think of jobs that used to be
in the past, jobs which are fashionable now and jobs which might be available in the future and divide them
in the 3 columns. Then, in groups, the students must identify reasons for certain jobs being fashionable in
certain periods of time and how people applied/apply or will apply for them.

2) Title: The perfect job

Purpose: To check students ‘personal and cultural perception on certain types of jobs

Needed materials: sheets of papers

Instructions/short description of the activity: the teacher provides students with a set of “incentives” and
asks students to name a job which matches the mentioned criteria.

Worksheet/exercise:

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


Good salary Flexible working Bonuses Job satisfaction Travelling Growth
hours opportunities

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`
This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
COURSE AND FEEDBACK ACTIVITIES

1) Title: Where is the job advertisement taken from?

Purpose: stimulate students’ interest and teach them discriminate information, by identifying different
sources of information

Needed materials: slips of paper containing job ads, worksheets, websites

Instructions/short description of the activity: the teacher presents different job ads taken from different
sources and asks the students to identify the correct source

Worksheet/exercise:
Read the characteristics of the following job ads and match them to what type of media they are taken from:

Job description characteristics Where are they posted?


1. No limit for their size, having a list of keywords at a. Newspapers/magazines
the bottom, easily refreshed, these job ads contain
detailed information about the company, the
benefits and the perks offered.

2. Placed in schools, stores and various public b. Internet job boards

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


places, these ads address low-skilled people for
part-time or temporary jobs. They include mainly
the salary and the contact details.

3. Using networking, they are short and simple job c. Flier


ads under the form of a “note” in the profile, or an
announcement addressing tour friends.

4. Having 4-5 lines and abbreviated words, these d. Social media


ads are usually placed in the appropriate section of
highly circulated editions.
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Where is the job advertisement taken from?-Answers:

1. b
2. c
3. d
4. a

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


9 Page

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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
2) Title: Decomposing job advertisements

Purpose: stimulate students’ interest and gauge students’ understanding

Needed materials: slips of paper containing job ads, worksheets, websites

Instructions/short description of the activity: the teacher divides the class into groups, gives each group a
job ad and asks the students to read the ad and fill in the information required.

Worksheet/exercise:

Look at the following job advertisement and fill in the form:


http://www.staffnurse.com/nursing-job-
vacancies/staff-nurse-
sale_J3H1RH6WPCTBGN3DR1Q.html?siteid=INT
_SF_Spons_CareerjetPD

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.careerbuilder.eu/jobs/eu/london/d
ata-
analyst/j3f5vn62bftzqz6x25v/?IPath=QHCV&APa
th=2.21.0.0.0

http://www.totaljobs.com/Jo
bSearch/JobDetails.aspx?Job
Id=62340295

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT

More job ads to choose at:


http://www.hardsoftskilling.eu/job_gates_Tourism_Hospitality%20.html
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
The title of the job

Location of the job

Position

Experience requirements

Qualifications needed

Skills needed

Duties and responsibilities

Days of work

Part time/full time

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


Salary

Where do you apply

Deadline

Missing information
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
3) Title: More advantages or disadvantages?

Purpose: to generate ideas and to make students compare and contrast

Needed materials: websites(http://www.hardsoftskilling.eu/index.html)

Instructions/short description of the activity: the teacher presents various types of jobs and students have
to find out as many advantages and disadvantages they can for each job

Worksheet/exercise:

Advantages Disadvantages

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
4) Title: What are employers really looking for?

Purpose: to make predictions and to broaden understanding of employers requirements

Needed materials: worksheets

Instructions/short description of the activity: the teacher provides students with words taken from various
job advertisements and asks students to guess what they mean, giving definitions for each word/phrase

Worksheet/exercise:

Look at the following words taken from various advertisements and try to guess what they mean giving
definitions for each word/phrase:

Organized

Dynamic

Proven track record

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


Internship

FT/PT job

Flexible
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Competitive salary

P/A

Bonus

Team player

Entry level

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


Experienced

Desirable skills

Essential skills

Working knowledge
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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Proficient

Good command of

Quick/fast learner

Core competences

Fixed term contract

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


Closing date

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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
What are employers really looking for? -Possible answers

Organized you will have a lot of work to do, so you have to be able to prioritize

Dynamic ready to be involved in new tasks and work without breaks (usually young
people wanted)

Proven track record You have to bring evidence of your experience (documents, portfolio, etc.)

Internship a job done to gain experience, rather than earn money(less or no payment)

FT/PT job full time/part time job

Flexible able to work over schedule (during weekends, extra hours) and in different
locations ( travel and work in different offices)

Competitive salary not decided yet, depending on your skills and also similar to other salaries
offered by companies working in the same domain

P/A per annum (salary for the entire year)

Bonus The job implies very low base salary and according to the amount of work you
might receive extra payment or other incentives (products, holidays, etc.)

Team player no leader, able to do different tasks within the team

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


Entry-level recently graduate (up to 2 years), performing basic jobs in a company

Experienced three or more years’ experience in one specific job

Desirable skills skills it would be better for you to have but they are not obligatory

Essential skills skills you must have for this type of job

Working knowledge be familiar with

Proficient experienced user of

Good command of fully experienced

Quick/fast learner you receive no training

Core competences the main skills you need

Fixed term contract temporary job

Closing date deadline


17 Page

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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
5) Title: Best for men or for women?

Purpose: to select various items and to provide opportunity for analysis and reasoning

Needed materials: worksheets

Instructions/short description of the activity: the teacher provides students with a series of words taken
from various job advertisements. The students have to decide if they are more suitable to attract men or
women candidates and then motivate their choice.

Worksheet/exercise:

Decide which of the following words in job advertisements would be more suitable to attract men and which
to attract woman, then motivate your choice:

active, careful, ambitious, analytical, supportive, competitive, dominate, challenging, loyal, responsible
confident, decisive, team player, determined, independent, leader, objective, committed, connected,
cooperative, dependable, interpersonal, trustworthy, punctual

Men Women

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


18 Page

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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Best for men or for women? - Possible answers

Men Women

active, ambitious, analytical, competitive, loyal, responsible, committed, connected,


dominate, challenging, confident, decisive, cooperative, dependable, , trustworthy,
determined, independent, leader, objective, punctual, careful, supportive, team player,
interpersonal

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


19 Page

`
This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
6) Title: What is the best option to increase your chances?

Purpose: to analyse information and to improve self-assessment

Needed materials: worksheets

Worksheet/exercise:
Read the following sentences carefully and decide what the best option is when trying to find a job:

1. You need a part-time job in a local restaurant during your summer vacation. Look for job
advertisements:
a. in the street
b. on the internet
2. You need a full time job as a baby sitter. Look for the job
a. in the street
b. in the local newspaper
3. You have seen an advertisement but you are not sure if training is offered. You:
a. call the employer directly and ask before applying
b. you ask your friends if they know
4. You have experience in working with children as a volunteer in different kindergartens but no formal
qualifications. Would you apply for the nursery school teacher vacancy?
a. Yes, I would.

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


b. No, I wouldn’t.
5. Should you read job advertisements that interest you even if you are not currently looking for a job?
a. Yes, I should. It may be helpful.
b. No, I shouldn’t. It is a waste of time.
6. If you have a degree required, you will certainly get the job advertised.
a. True, you are the best for the job.
b. False, you need to “present” more than the degree in order to get the job.
7. Apart from your degree, most employers would like to see:
a. You have a lot of courses and qualifications.
b. You have relevant real work experience.
8. In order to look professional, the e-mail address you use in your application form should contain:
a. Your nickname and the year of birth ( jonny1985@....)
b. Your first and family name (jonathansmith@.......)
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
What is the best option to increase your chances?-Answer key

1. a
2. b
3. a
4. b
5. a
6. b
7. b
8. b

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


21 Page

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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
7) Title: Important things to keep in mind about job adverts

Purpose: to generate ideas, to check and revise information and to improve self-assessment

Needed materials: paper, worksheets

Instructions/short description of the activity: Students are required to write down things to keep in mind
regarding job advertisements on slips of paper. The teacher provides the worksheet and students compare
what they have written with the things written on the worksheet received. As a result they extend the
worksheet.

Worksheet:

IMPORTANT THINGS TO KEEP IN MIND ABOUT JOB ADVERTS

 Advertisements are written by the human resource department or by external


recruitment agencies in collaboration with the manager

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


 The purpose of job ads is to attract possible candidates.

 Advertisements contain information not explicitly written that you have to


understand

 When asking for experience employers mean any king of experience, not only
work experience: volunteering, internship, extracurricular activities as a
student, etc.
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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
 You can find job advertise4ments on company postings, newspapers, email
alerts, internet boards, social media, etc.

 Beware of very generous job adds!

 Skills are usually presented as being individual personality traits( not learnt
skills)

 The most common skills required are computer skills.

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


 Job ads are more general for simple jobs and more detailed for specific
positions in the company

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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
TIPS FOR “WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT”

 Look for a job also on the companies’ websites!

 Learn to analyse the job ad!

 Look for key words to help you understand the exact


requirements!

 Make sure you understand the hidden meaning of words that


sound good!

 Try to find a connection between the job offer and your needs!

 Compare your skills to the ones required in the job


advertisement!

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


 Don’t bother reading further if your studies do not match the
requirements!

 Pay attention to acronyms and make sure you understand their


meaning!

 Be careful with the false job ads!

 Keep record of the jobs you have applied for!


24 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
RECOMMENDED WEBSITES FOR THE TOPIC

http://www.efinancialcareers.com/

http://www.careerjet.com/search/jobs?s=banking&l=Europe

http://www.jobsinhubs.com/jobsinhubs/?sector=it

http://www.jobs.ch/en/suche/Information-Technology-Telecom/53/0

https://www.eurojobs.com/search-results-
jobs/?action=search&listing_type[equal]=Job&keywords[all_words]=Engineer
ing&Location[location][value]=&Location[location][radius]=10

http://searcheuropeanjobs.com/search-results-
jobs/?action=search&listing_type[equal]=Job&keywords[all_words]=&JobCat
egory[multi_like][]=354&City[like]=&Country[multi_like]

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


More at:

http://www.hardsoftskilling.eu/job_gates.html 25 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Abbreviations in job advertisements

 PA=per annum( annual salary)


 PW=per week(wages)
 OTE=on target earnings( partly salary, party target based payment)
 Pro Rata+ proportionately (usually for annual salary in part-time jobs)
 FT= full time( 40 hours per week)
 PT=part timeless than 40 hours per week)
 OT=overtime(more than 40 hours per week)
 M-F=Monday through Friday
 ASAP=as soon as possible
 Refs=references

MODULE 1- WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT


 Sal=salary
 Wk=week
 Mo=month
 Yr=year
 No esp req=no experience required
 ACAD=academic
 WKR=worker
 Appt=appointment
 Neg=negotiable
26 Page

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MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS
YOURSELF

AUTHORS: AYŞE MUSAOĞLU, ÖZLEM AŞAM, AYÇIN ÇİLKİN, DUYGU ŞENOĞLU

SCHOOL: GÜMÜŞPALA MESLEKİ VE TEKNİK ANADOLU LİSESİ

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Module 2 – Personal skill assessment

The module will guide students towards gaining insight on the most used transversal skills
and personal skill self-assessment. The learning aim is to assess personal information, select
and self-reflect on it.

SECTIONS

4. What are the most common required transversal skills?


5. What skills are necessary for a specific job?
6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of having your own business?

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


7. What are your job expectations?
8. What is your employee profile?

ASSESSMENT STANDARDS

Students should realistically evaluate their own skills


1. Understand the importance of transferable skills
2. Recognize the set of skills possessed
3. Select from the skills possessed the ones matching the desired career
4. Create personal employee profile
28 Page

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SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER

Title of the activity Brief description

The interview (e.g. role play to practice interviews)

Personal Interests, Personal Traits, Sentence Completion

Self Confidence, Personal Skills -offering plausible interpretations

My Skills, Personal Qualities Matching skills to jobs

My Employee Profile Creating a template

Creating an employee job profile template

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


ARE YOU THE TYPE OF PERSON WHO CAN RUN A QUESTIONNAIRE
BUSINESS?
-clarifying issues, conclusions

What Are My Transferable Skills? Identifying the transversal skills

the circle of viewpoints

Analyzing Transferable Skills Sentence Completion

-transferring knowledge into new contexts

My Profile Chart Completion

Evaluating yourself in all aspects

29 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
PRE/POST-TEST:

1. What can you say about your strengths?

2. What are your weaknesses?

3. What do you know about your skills?

4. Which jobs do your skills correspond to?

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


5. What do you know about the most common transversal skills that employers want?

6. What are your competences in transversal skills?

7. How can you assess/evaluate yourself?

8. What are the advantages/disadvantages of having your own business?


30 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
PERSONAL OBJECTIVE SHEET FOR STUDENTS
(to be filled in after the pre and post-test)

5. What I know about myself……………………………….

6. What I have learned about job skills………………………………..

7. I have lack of information about ……………………………………..

8. What I know about my distinctive strengths …………………………

9. I realize that ……………………………

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


10. What I haven’t been aware of so far ………………………………..

11. I have to focus on ……………………….

12. I have found out that there are some aspects how I will describe myself such as

………………………………………………………….

31 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
ICE-BREAKERS/WARM-UP ACTIVITIES

1) Title: Personal Interests, Personal Traits, Self Confidence, Personal Skills

Purpose: Gaining insight to describe oneself

Needed materials: Paper sheets (to take notes)

Instructions/short description of the activity: The students will be guided to write about their personal
interests and personal traits. They will be activated by brainstorming. Then they will have an insight to
describe themselves and will write down all they have on the activity sheets.

Worksheet/exercise: Activities 1-2-3-4

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


32 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 1 - PERSONAL INTERESTS

I am strongly interested in:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

My work-related interests are:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Whatever my job is, I always enjoy:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

As a new hobby, I’d like to take up:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
33 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 2 - PERSONAL TRAITS

What I like most about myself is that:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

I think, what my boss will most likely like about my personality is that:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

When I think about my personal weaknesses, I would like to be more:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

34 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 3 - SELF CONFIDENCE

Write your good points using the expressions below.

I can:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

It`s very easy for me to:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


I have a natural talent for:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

I am good at:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

People always tell me that I am:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

I need more practice in:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
35

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 4 - PERSONAL SKILLS

I have great skills in


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

I have good abilities in


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


I would like to improve in
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

I think the skills most relevant to my career interests are


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The most suitable jobs to my profile are


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

The least suitable jobs to my profile are


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
36 Page

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COURSE AND FEEDBACK ACTIVITIES
ACTIVITY 5 - MY SKILLS

Tick the sentences which describe you.

FORM 1

1. I can create new ideas.


2. I can analyze and comment on events.
3. I can persuade people easily.
4. I can write good articles.
5. I like having time with children.
6. I am good at listening to people.
7. I like helping people.
8. I like dealing with colors.
9. I like dealing with musical instruments.
10. I like meeting new people.
11. I like dealing with animals.
12. I like calculating and numbers.

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


13. I like managing people.
14. I like researching.
15. I can work with disabled people.
16. I am keen on history and politics.
17. I am interested in social events.
18. I can find reasonable connections between events.
19. I like dealing with words.
20. I can affect people when I talk.
21. I am interested in art.
22. I can create hand craft materials.
23. I like translating texts from one language to another language.
24. I like solving mathematical problems.
25. I like learning new words in a foreign language.
26. I like reading economy books.
27. I am interested in innovations about health.
28. I am interested in inventions.
29. I like collecting information about health.
30. I like visiting science museums.
31. I like dealing with practical ways of learning a language.
37 Page

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FORM 2

Examine the properties of jobs and compare your answers with Form 1.

Translator, journalist, linguist, language teacher, writer

Creating new ideas

Writing good articles

Dealing with words

Translating texts from one language to another

Learning new words in a foreign language

Learning practical ways of learning a foreign language

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


Sociologist, judge, anthropologist

Analyzing and commenting on events

Interested in history and politics

Interested in social events

Finding reasonable connections between events

Teacher, social service specialist, rehabilitation counsellor

Likes having time with children

Good at listening to people

Likes helping people

Able to work with disabled people

Public relations expert, marketing expert, manager, politician, lawyer

Persuading people easily

Managing people
38

Able to affect people when talking


Page

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Artist, musician, architect, decorator

Dealing with colors

Interested in art

Creating hand craft materials

Likes visiting art galleries, museums

Accountant, finance officer, economist

Likes dealing with numbers

Likes solving mathematical problems

Interested in reading economy books

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


Vet, doctor, nurse, biologist, medicine technician, geneticist, scientist

Researching

Dealing with animals

Interested in innovations about health

Collecting information about health

Visiting science museums

39 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 6 - PERSONAL QUALITIES

Choose the one you think you own

1. to stand up 35. to move to somewhere new

2. to use hands 36. to talk

3. to read books 37. to work at night

4. to think 38. to sleep irregularly

5. to create new ideas 39. to buy and sell

6. to apply instructions 40. to direct people

7. to make the same action continuously 41. to use the creativity

8. to analyze, synthesize and comment 42. to deal with the money

9. to criticise 43. to survey

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


10. to convince people 44. to make an experiment

11. to write 45. to work with the old and disabled

12. to be regular 46. to work alone

13. to resist in bad odour 47. to dream

14. to be able to work in a noisy atmosphere 48. to be interested in history

15. to work in the open air 49. to deal with the machinary

16. to work at indoor places 50. to follow the social events

17. to be in dirty and greasy atmospheres 51. to be interested in politics

18. to wear chick 52. to use his/her voice

19. to wear some specific clothes 53. to decorate a place

20. to help 54. to make a rational conection between


events
21. to deal with the children
55. to play with the words
22. to listen to others
56. to be understanding
23. to work with electronical tools
57. to be stable
24. to deal with colours
40

58. to be patient
25. to deal with musical instruments
Page

59. to take responsibility

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26. to paint 60. to deal with numbers

27. to make a form, schema and drawings 61. to deal with mathematics

28. to meet new people 62. to solve physics problems

29. to deal with animals 63. to focus on some points

30. to deal with sports and use the body 64. to be fond of aesthetics

31. to calculate 65. to do something required hand-eye


coordination
32. to be at a high point
66. to work with others
33. to like the sea

34. to travel

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


Match the chosen qualities and the job suits them the most

ECONOMIST ARCHEOLOGIST:

1. to deal with numbers 1. to be interested in history


2. to follow social events 2. to work in the open air
3. to work with others 3. to cooperate
4. to think creatively 4. to survey
5. to analyze, synthesize and comment 5. to analyze, synthesize and comment
6. to calculate 6. to read
7. to read
MACHINE ENGINEER DENTIST

1. to be creative 1.Think creatively


2. to deal with numbers 2.to make a form, schema and drawings
3. to deal with the machinery 3.to use hands
4. to use hands 4.to be interested in Physics, Chemistry and
5. to be in dirty and greasy atmospheres Biology
6. to be interested in Maths 5. to be fond of aesthetics
41

7. to be interested in Physics 6. to resist in bad odour


PILOT CIVIL ENGINEER
Page

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1. to deal with machinery 1. to think creatively
2. be cold-blooded and concentrate on 2. to make a form, schema and drawings
a specific point 3. to deal with numbers
3. eye-hand coordination 4. to be interested in mathematics
4. to apply the instructions 5. to be interested in Physics
5. to be at a high point 6. to be responsible and cautious
6. noisy atmosphere 7. to travel
7. to cooperate 8. to cooperate
9. to work in the open air
PSYCHOLOGIST CLASSROOM TEACHER

1. to make rational connection between 1. to stand up for a long time


events
2. to read books
2. to play with words
3. to create new ideas
3. to create ideas
4. to write
4. to think

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


5. to be regular
5. to talk
6. to like being with children
6. to be consistent
7. to listen
7. to be patient
8. to work with other people
8. to be tolerant
9. to use his/her voice well
9. to take responsibility
10. to be tolerant
10. to use the creativity

11. to cooperate

12. to help

13. to listen to other people

14. to follow the social events

15. to work at indoor places


42 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 7 - MY EMPLOYEE PROFILE

Imagine that you are nurse looking for a hospital to work. Think about your employee profile and write
a job description.

Education:

Job experience:

Competency at language:

Competency at computer:

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


Work hours (flexible, shifts):

Personal Qualities:

Personal Skills:

Expectations:

The students’ output is evaluated and how to write a job description is explained to the students.
43 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 8 - ARE YOU THE TYPE OF PERSON WHO CAN RUN A BUSINESS?

Answer Yes or No

yes no

1. The feeling of security is crucial for me. No bosses can manage me.

2. I have the courage to take risks about economic problems.

3. Earning a lot of money is more important than a regular salary

4. I can overcome negative feelings after I fire someone

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


5. I am always interested in details of running a business like bookkeeping, inventory
control, advertising and market research.

6. I can be more creative when I run my own business

7. I do not care about working long hours if I run my own business.

8. I can gain more knowledge and experience when I run my own business

9. I can say no to everyone easily.

10. I can motivate myself easily after a business failure.

11. I often make people do what I want

12. I prefer the flexibility to apply my ideas to a future which is limited by others
44

Evaluate yourself.
Page

If you say Yes more than No, then you can run your own business.

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 9 - WHAT ARE MY TRANSFERABLE SKILLS?

Using the following chart, tick () the skills in which you believe you are competent, draw a star()
next to the skills in which you consider yourself as being competent and put a question mark(?) that
you are unsure about or need to develop further

A B C D
-Flexibility -Self-awareness -Planning -Talking naturally to the
audience
-Cooperation -Controlling -Setting and achieving goals
emotions -Scheduling -Varying the tone, pitch
-Problem solving and volume of your voice
-Motivating -Prioritizing ‘to do list’ while explaining the issue
-Supporting others yourself
-Sharing responsibilities -Making eye contact with
-Open-mindedness -Setting goals the audience
-Setting time limitations

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


-Arriving at a -Sensitive to other’s -Using visual aids where
consensus feelings -Integrating similar appropriate
assignments
-Effectiveness in -Empathy -Rehearsing your talk and
group interaction -Doing hard works first checking your timings
-Conflict solving thing
-Sharing -Preparing and structuring
responsibilities -Leadership -Finding out how to read the issue carefully
fast
-Consistency -Being assertive -Staying focused
-Communicating -Predicting the crisis throughout the issue
constructively -Elimination of
-Showing prejudice and -Answering any questions
commitment to the stereo types honestly and concisely
team’s purpose
and goals
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E F G
-Expressing ideas, feelings, -Identifying the problem Discovering the feelings of your
opinions, judgements own and others
-Structuring the problem
-Communicating orally in large -Entitling the feelings
or small groups -Looking for possible solutions
-Expressing your own emotions
-Giving and receiving feedback -Deciding what the problem is frankly
about -Controlling anger
-Ability to move to closure
-Asking for help -Reacting appropriately
-Active listening
-Consulting with others -Thinking before acting
-Questioning
-Selecting the best solution -Consulting with somebody
-Reflecting

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


-Clarifying -Implementation -Communication

-Non-verbal communication -Monitoring and seeking -Evaluating the situation in all


feedback aspects
-Fluency

-Presenting information and


ideas in effective written form
appropriate to the purpose and
to the reader

Match the transversal skills to their corresponding

Problem
Conflict Teamworking Communication Emotional Time Presentation Solving
Solving Skills Skills Intelligence Management Skills and
Skills Skills Decision
Making
Skills

Evaluation: If you have less than 5 ticks and stars on a column, this is your problem area.
46 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 10 - ANALYZING TRANSFERABLE SKILLS

Complete the sentences according to you

1. I have a high opinion of my strengths and weaknesses. These are

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. I can keep up with the changes because

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. I can prioritize my assignments which have been limited by time in the order of

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


4. To communicate effectively, I try these strategies;

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

5. To make a presentation, I follow a set of steps such as

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

6. When I have a work to do in a group, I act on

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

7. In a group, an effective communication serves the purpose of

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

8. When a confliction occurs between me and someone else,

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
47 Page

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9. I know how to communicate well by using

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

10. To be successful, I can

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

11. Before the presentation, I make use of the most common supporting data varieties such as

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

12. When a problem occurs, I analyze it in a few steps such as

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

13. I decide what to do after

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

14. When I have a dilemma, here are my course of actions

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

15. In a teamwork, I behave as a

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
48 Page

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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 11 - MY PROFILE CHART

Title: My Profile

Purpose: To assess personal information, select and self-reflect on it.

Needed materials: Smart board with an internet connection, paper sheets

Instructions/short description of the activity: This activity sheet will be delivered to get all the
information students generate during the class session. Students will be guided to express themselves in
a creative way. How they will present themselves is the key question here.

Worksheet/exercise: Fill in this chart to evaluate yourself in all aspects

Individual’s physical characteristics


(Physical appearance, gender, age, height, weight,
general health condition, disabilities, whether sense
organs work sufficiently or not)

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


Personal traits
(Personality structure, character, temperament,
emotional maturity level, social and personal
consistency)

Academic Proficiency

Personal Skills
(Art, music, sport etc……)

Interests
(Activities and fields that you are involved in)

Experiences in or out of school


(Fields that you are successful or unsuccessful at
school, participating in social activities, personal
skills, whether you have part time job experiences
or not)

Family status
(Socio-economic ,cultural and educational level of
your family, whether your parents have good jobs
or not, parents’ expectations from you, family
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values
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
TIPS FOR “PERSONAL SKILL ASSESSMENT”

 Use as many words as you can to describe yourself.

 Think about the different parts of your life, family, qualifications,


hobbies, interests, voluntary work and social life.

 Think about yourself in all aspects and take some notes to state
them well.

 Rearrange your notes and try to explain each aspect frankly.

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


 Figure out your weaknesses and put forward what you can do to
overcome them.

 Search for the most common required transversal skills and


compare their competencies with yours.

 It is useful to match your skills with what employers are looking


for, to help you in writing CVs, completing application forms or
responding to interview questions.

 Make a list of your skills.

 Use the internet to get more information.


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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
RECOMMENDED WEBSITES FOR THE TOPIC

http://spot.pcc.edu/~rjacobs/career/career_self-assessments5.htm

http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/skillstest.html

http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/skills-and-personal-qualities-
that-employers-want.html

http://www.skillsyouneed.com/general/transferable-skills.html

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_05_1.htm

MODULE 2 –WHAT YOU WANT/ASSESS YOURSELF


https://targetjobs.co.uk/careers-advice/skills-and-competencies

http://www.iconbusinesssolutions.com/latest-news/blog/the-advantages-
and-disadvantages-of-owning-your-own-business

http://lifehacker.com/how-can-i-look-for-a-new-job-when-my-company-
is-checkin-1568775902

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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS
AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH

AUTHORS: LUÍS NUNES, FÁTIMA CORREDOURA

SCHOOL: AGRUPAMENTO DE ESCOLAS DO FUNDÃO, PORTUGAL

`
This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Module 3 – Discover your hidden skills and plan your career path

The module will guide students towards gaining insight on the most used transversal

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
skills and personal skill self-assessment. The learning aim is to assess personal
information, select and self-reflect on it. Students should learn how to evaluate their
own character and act according to it and the situations they have to face when applying
for a job. Knowing their weaknesses and strengths will make them be better prepared
for a job interview, where their possible employers will be willing to know how good
they are and what they can contribute positively for the success of their enterprise.
Students should analyse their specific situation in terms of what they have to do to reach
their goals. They organize the plan of activities/strategies to get ready for the world of
work.

SECTIONS

Section 1 – Students discover their hidden skills


Students evaluate themselves by answering some ice-breakers.
Students complete a grid to self-assess their personality traits.
Students find out which strategies best correspond to a valid alternative to the
problems they have diagnosed.
Matching exercise followed by group discussion.

Section 2 - Preparing their career path


Students define their personal goals crossing the right column according to their
opinion.
Students identify the most adequate strategies to achieve those goals;
Students organize their career model plan, completing a grid.
Students put the various steps, necessary for a good job application, in order.
53 Page

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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
ASSESSMENT STANDARDS

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
Students evaluate themselves and reflect upon their inner characteristics.
Students try to find solutions for their problems through a matching exercise.
Teacher supervises students’ involvement in the discussions raised while doing the exercises.
Students might fill in a grid to assess themselves and their peers in what concerns their
attitude of commitment to the activity.
Students discuss with peers and teacher the possible answers.

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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER

Title of the activity Brief description

Discovering hidden skills Students do several exercises matching


character traits to adjectives or

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
definitions.

Students assess themselves through a grid


about their inner characteristics adequate
for the world of work.

Then, they choose a good alternative to


those hidden negative / less positive skills
they might possess.

Students guess how they can develop their


hidden skills through a matching exercise.

Students define their personal goals


crossing the right column according to
their opinion.

Preparing your career path Students identify the most adequate


strategies to achieve those goals;

Students organize their career model plan,


completing a grid.

Students put the various steps, necessary


for a good job application, in order.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
PRE/POST-TEST:
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT HIDDEN SKILLS AND CAREER PLAN?

1. What do you want to know about this topic?

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
____________________________________________________________
2. How can you improve some of your skills?
___________________________________________________________
3. Where can you get information to improve your skills?
___________________________________________________________
4. What hidden skills can be a problem in the future?
___________________________________________________________
5. What hidden skills can contribute to having success in your future career?
____________________________________________________________
6. What strategies do you have to follow to organize a successful job application?
____________________________________________________________
7. What do you need to change and/or adjust in your career plan?
____________________________________________________________

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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
PERSONAL OBJECTIVE SHEET FOR STUDENTS
(to be filled in after the pre and post-test)

1. What are hidden skills?

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
____________________________________________________________
2. How can I discover my hidden skills?
____________________________________________________________
3. What priorities should I set to prepare myself for my desired career?
____________________________________________________________
4. Where can I gain valuable experience that will enhance my employability?
____________________________________________________________

57 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
ICE-BREAKERS/WARM-UP ACTIVITIES
1) Title: Traits Link
Purpose: to identify character traits and their definitions
Needed materials: a list of traits and their definition
Instructions/short description of the activity: (Pair work) Students are divided in pairs. The teacher
hands out to each pair a sheet of paper with a list of personal traits and their jumbled definitions.

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
Students must correspond the adjective to its match.
Worksheet/exercise:

Match the character traits to their possible definition KEY

1. Argumentative a. unconcerned 1.
2. Articulate b. accountable 2.
3. Outgoing c. skeptical 3.
4. Sociable d. faithful 4.
5. Persistent e. controlled 5.
6. Indifferent f. selfish 6.
7. Adventurous g. using new ideas 7.
8. Cautious h. Show up on time 8.
9. Suspicious i. self-assured 9.
10. Reliable j. impartial 10.
11. Flexible k. relaxed 11.
12. Trustful l. energetic 12.
13. Disciplined m. expressing divergent views 13.
14. Hardworking n. obstinate 14.
15. Accountable o. tough 15.
16. Stubborn p. fierce 16.
17. Sociable q. fluent 17.
18. Easy-going r. diligent 18.
19. Energetic s. careful 19.
20. Lazy t. able to change 20.
21. Confident u. socially confident 21.
22. Organized v. enthusiastic 22.
23. Independent w. brave 23.
24. Innovative x. unwilling to work 24.
25. Neutral y. autonomous 25.
26. Resilient z. friendly 26.
27. Competitive aa. gregarious 27.
28. Dynamic bb. obstinate 28.
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29. Self-centered cc. a careful planner 29.


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30. Punctual dd. responsible 30.

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Match the character traits to their possible definition -Answers:
Match the character traits to their possible definition KEY

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
1. Argumentative a. unconcerned 1. M
2. Articulate b. accountable 2. Q
3. Outgoing c. skeptical 3. U
4. Sociable d. faithful 4. Z
5. Persistent e. controlled 5. N
6. Indifferent f. selfish 6. A
7. Adventurous g. using new ideas 7. W
8. Cautious h. Show up on time 8. S
9. Suspicious i. self-assured 9. C
10. Reliable j. impartial 10. B
11. Flexible k. relaxed 11. T
12. Trustful l. energetic 12. D
13. Disciplined m. expressing divergent views 13. E
14. Hardworking n. obstinate 14. R
15. Accountable o. tough 15. DD
16. Stubborn p. fierce 16. BB
17. Sociable q. fluent 17. AA
18. Easygoing r. diligent 18. K
19. Energetic s. careful 19. V
20. Lazy t. able to change 20. X
21. Confident u. socially confident 21. I
22. Organized v. enthusiastic 22. CC
23. Independent w. brave 23. Y
24. Innovative x. unwilling to work 24. G
25. Neutral y. autonomous 25. J
26. Resilient z. friendly 26. O
27. Competitive aa. gregarious 27. P
28. Dynamic bb. obstinate 28. L
29. Self-centered cc. a careful planner 29. F
30. Punctual dd. responsible 30. H
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
2) Title: How to spot the ideal workmate?
Purpose: to identify character traits and their definitions
Needed materials: a set of ten fictional people’s profiles.
Instructions/short description of the activity:

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
Students work individually. The teacher gives them a handout with the character traits of a group of
people who work together.
Step 1 – Based on the profiles given, students must guess what the dominant trait in each character is.
Step 2 - Students must pick two people they would like to team up with and justify their choice.

Character Traits:
1. Sarah does not let adversity define her. She comes from a very poor working family. She was a
working student and climbed step by step the ladder to success. When she sets goals, she transcends pain
and grief to meet them. She is perceived as capable and competent by the others but also ruthless and
disrespectful of other people’s feelings.

Suggested trait: resilient


2. Tim doesn’t like to be disturbed by the others. He is able to spend an entire day on his own,
without taking part in the other people’s conversations. He hardly ever asks for help and he doesn’t try to
be helpful to the others either. He never takes sides at work and no one would notice if he missed work.

Suggested trait: neutral


3. Peter has a PhD in entrepreneurship and everyday he comes to work with a new idea. The others
feel that he brings a breath of fresh air into the company but he makes them feel unstable and always
working on the razor´s edge.

Suggested trait: innovative


4. Carol believes in her own abilities and so does not feel nervous or frightened about anything.
Sometimes she engages in projects that prove to be too demanding for her own skills.

Suggested trait: confident


5. Paul is not willing to change his ideas or to consider anyone else's reasons or arguments. It’s hard
to work with him in a team, but he succeeds in most of the things he does.

Suggested trait: stubborn


6. Ann is the oldest in the office. She isn’t willing to work or do any activity that needs effort but she
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gets on well with the others and knows all the corners in the office.
Page

Suggested trait: lazy

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
7. Sophia is someone who you can trust to behave well. She works hard and does what you expect
her to do, but she has two twin babies and skips too many working days.

Suggested trait: reliable


8. Melanie is very active and takes all jobs in the office by storm. She criticizes the others if they
cannot catch up with her.

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
Suggested trait: energetic
9. Victoria does not depend on other people for help. She prefers to do things by herself but the
outcome of her work is not always perfect because of the lack of assistance.

Suggested trait: independent


10. Michael is very good with words. He is always chosen to be the face of the company in meetings
and showcases. Often he reaps to himself the benefits of the team’s work.

Suggested trait: articulate

61 Page

`
This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Section 1: Discovering your hidden skills
Activity 1
Instructions/short description of the activity:
Individual work – The teacher shows a bunch of cards to each student with the written side down. Prior

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
to this the teacher must have written one character trait on each card. There should be as many cards as
students. Each student picks a card. He/She must then say if the trait on the cards applies to him/ her or
not and why.

PERSISTENT ARGUMENTATIVE CONFIDENT

ARTICULATE GULLIBLE SENSITIVE

LAZY HARDWORKING INDIFFERENT

ADVENTUROUS CAUTIOUS SUSPICIOUS

FLEXIBLE RELIABLE TRUSTFUL

DISCIPLINED PATIENT STUBBORN

SOCIABLE EASYGOING ENERGETIC

ORGANIZED NEUTRAL RESILIENT

DYNAMIC COMPETITIVE SELF-CENTRED

PUNCTUAL DILIGENT INDEPENDENT


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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Activity 2 – Tick yes or no and match the numbers with the letters to discover what you can say to an
employer in face of trouble with your own characteristics.

If you think you are ..... Y N Then say this to an employer ...
1 Too compulsive: Your friends think A I can work with short deadlines and under

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
you‘re nuts because everything in pressure.
your locker is in alphabetical order.
2 Too argumentative: You always tell B I‘m enthusiastic and outgoing. I interact
people exactly what you think and easily with groups.
feel – even if it‘s about them?
3 Too lazy: You always start essays the C I have strong organization skills and an
night before they‘re due. If there‘s a ability to plan ahead. I always do a thorough
reason not to do something you‘ll job.
find it.
4 Too loud: When you talk, people D I‘m very confident and deal with issues
can‘t help but hear you – you love directly. I enjoy taking on a challenge.
being the center of attention.
5 Too stubborn: You hate to back E I‘m adaptable and can be counted on to stay
down and don‘t like to admit when calm in stressful situations
you‘re wrong.
6 Too talkative: No one can get a word F I‘m a caring, perceptive person with strong
in when you‘re in the conversation people skills and a desire to please others.
– you are the conversation!
7 Too weird: You dance to a different G I‘m persistent. I always carry a project
beat and do things your own way. through to the end.
8 Too indifferent: You never seem to H I‘m innovative and can always offer a fresh
have a strong opinion and just can‘t perspective. I enjoy taking the initiative.
get excited about anything.
9 Too sensitive: You take everything I I‘m imaginative. My creativity leads to good
to heart. ideas.
10 Too serious: Everything is J I‘m self-motivated. I work well
important. You never seem to relax. independently and need little supervision.
11 Too extreme: You always overreact K I‘m articulate and enjoy public speaking. I‘m
– every event in your life seems to persuasive and present my ideas well.
be out of a soap opera.
12 Too shy: Meeting new people L I‘m a careful and reliable person. I‘m good at
makes you really nervous – you end considering all the options.
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up doing most things alone.


Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Activity 3

What to do to discover your hidden skills? What is the description you think fits each piece of advice?
Write the number before the description.
1.Open your mind to all paths The things that make you happy can also reveal your
talents. Do people ever give you compliments on it?

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
Do they ever ask for your help with it?
2.Look back on your past If you spend all day on the couch after school or work
or you spend all of your waking weekend hours at
parties, then you're going to have very little time for
self-discovery. Your talents will often lie in activities
that you've not tried yet and if you don't make time
for those things, then you'll never expand beyond
what you are now.
3.Think about what you enjoy Keep in mind that talents extend beyond just playing
the guitar or dancing like a pro. Talents come in all
shapes and sizes and extend into many areas of life.
4.Evaluate what you're good at Look at the things that you've done. Look at the things
you've enjoyed. Look at the times when you really
excelled. Ask yourself questions like "What am I most
proud of that I've done?" or "When was I so proud
that I didn't care what anyone thought?"
5.Think about times you were successful This exercise can help you reveal not only the talents
that you have but also talents that you should
consider developing. Write about what you were like
as a kid, what you liked to do before and after school,
what your favorite subjects were. Write about
growing up.
6.Write the story of your life Having an outside perspective, other people may find
it easier to see what you're good at. Ask around and
people will usually be happy to tell you what they see
as your strengths.
7.Ask around Think about things that come naturally to you. Things
you don't struggle with. Do you ever find yourself
telling someone, "Never mind, it's easier if I do it" or
"Here, let me help you with that"? Do you find
yourself correcting people?
8.Open up time for new things Look back on your life and think about times where
you really succeeded, times where you felt about to
64

burst with the pride of your success. This can indicate


a talent you possess.
Page

`
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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
9.Make "you" time You probably already have some basic skills. Any skill
that you possess can be turned into a real talent, but
you need to take the time to develop it and really
work on experiencing all of the different activities
that go in to that talent.
10.Build on your existing skills It's also important to take some time that's just for
you. Self-discovery does require a lot of self-

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
reflection. Take some quiet days that are just for you
and spend them doing new activities.
11. Try things you would never have tried Traveling is one of the most impactful experiences
before you can have. It will challenge you and teach you
more about yourself than you thought possible.
However, you can't just take the easy route and go on
a cruise or guided trip. Go on your own. Go
somewhere different from anywhere you've ever
been.
12.Take classes in subjects that interest When we have to struggle, when we're removed from
you our usual comfortable environment, is when we learn
the most about ourselves. When you shut yourself off
to challenges by just sticking to a quiet life and never
leaving the house, or even backing out when times
get tough or running from your problems, you deny
yourself the chance to shine.
13.Travel to expand your experiences When you help others in significant and impactful
ways, you'll find that you see yourself in a new light.
Your priorities will change. You might even get the
chance to shine in a talent you didn't even know you
had, or build a new talent through the work you do.
14.Take on challenges Getting more information and finding out what the
experience would really be like can tell you if it's really
something you could have a talent for. It also will help
you get the basic skills needed to start developing
your talent if you decide it's something that you want
to do.
15.Volunteer to help shift your Most often we see ourselves as "not that kind of
perspective person". You have to give life a chance to surprise
you. You're much more incredible and interesting
than you give yourself credit for. Take a risk and try
something totally different than anything you've ever
tried before.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Section 2: Preparing your career path

1. Students define their personal goals:

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
Questions students should ask themselves Y N Alternative

1 Do I want to start working after high school?

2 Do I want to graduate and find a job related to my degree?

3 Do I want to work only after I finish my masters?

4 Do I want to work indoors?

5 Do I want to work outdoors?

6 Do I want to work only in my country?

7 Will working abroad be an option?

8 Do I look for a high paying salary?

9 Do I prefer job satisfaction to a good salary?

10 What skills do I still need to develop to achieve my goals?

11 Do I need to redefine my goals according to the job market


available?
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
2. Students identify the most adequate strategies to achieve those goals;

There are some personal barriers you should avoid or overcome:


1. lack of motivation,
2. apathy,
3. laziness,

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
4. procrastination,
5. family pressure,
6. avoidance of careers that are below your desired status
7. peer pressure.

Career planning is an ever-changing and evolving process, so take it slowly and easily. Start by doing
these exercises so you really know where you stand.

Career Planning Exercises:

1. Analyze your current and future desired lifestyle. Are you happy with your current lifestyle? Do you
want to maintain it or change it? Be sure to identify the key characteristics of your ideal lifestyle. Does
your current career path allow you the lifestyle you seek?

2. Analyze your likes/dislikes. What kinds of activities -- both at work and at play -- do you enjoy? What
kind of activities do you avoid? Make a list of both types of activities.

3. Analyze your passions. Reflect on the times and situations in which you feel most passionate, most
energetic, most engaged - and see if you can develop a common profile of these situations. Develop a list
of your passions.

4. Analyze your strengths and weaknesses. Step back and look at yourself from an employer's perspective.
What are your strengths? What are your weaknesses? Think in terms of work experience,
education/training, skill development, talents and abilities, technical knowledge, and personal
characteristics.

5. Analyze your definition of success. Spend some time thinking about how you define success. What is
success to you: wealth, power, control, contentment...

6. Analyze your personality. Are you an extravert or an introvert? Do you like thinking or doing? Do you
like routines or change? Do you like sitting behind the desk or being on the move?

7. Analyze your dream job. Remember those papers you had to write as a kid about what you wanted to
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be when you grew up? Take the time to revert back to those idyllic times and brainstorm about your
current dream job; be sure not to let any negative thoughts cloud your thinking. Look for ideas internally,
Page

but also make the effort to explore/research other careers/occupations that interest you.

`
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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
3. Students organize their career model plan.

Students follow these hints and organize their personal file with information corresponding to each item.
With that they will then be prepared when the time comes to process an application.
Self-knowledge Notes
1.My strengths and my weaknesses
1.1. What am I really good at?

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
1.2. What can I do at ease?
1.3. What causes me no stress to accomplish?
1.4. What can’t I put up with?
Intentions for the future
2.My intentions towards the future
2.1. Am I interested in working indoors?
2.2. Am I interested in working outdoors?
2.3. Do I look for a high paying salary?
2.4. Do I prefer job satisfaction to a good salary?
CV / Portfolio
3.My CV
3.1.Europass
3.2. Portfolio
3.3.Cover letter
References
4. My referees
Continuous learning
5. My continuous learning activities
The world of work
6. What areas of work will I keep an eye on?
6.1. What job sites do I know?
6.2. What are employers always looking for?
Internationalization
7. What countries have a better job market and a better standard of living?
7.1. What do I know about those countries?
Competencies/skills
7.2. What languages do I speak?
7.3. IT skills
Job market
8.Looking for a job
Opportunities
9.Creating opportunities
9.1. Part-time jobs
9.2. Working holidays
9.3. Volunteering
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9.4. Community service


9.5. Involvement in extracurricular activities
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9.6. Involvement in associations with interest for the youth

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
1. Organizing a career plan and job application.

When planning your career, there are certain steps you have to follow and some should come before the
others. Can you figure out which is the best order to perform these tasks when preparing your career
path?

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
Steps Order

1 Taking a degree

2 Writing an application letter

3 Going for an interview

4 Asking for reference letters

5 Looking for a job in the internet or the press

6 Writing a thank you letter 12

7 Doing some professional training

8 Organizing a dossier with all the documents together

9 Taking a master’s degree in a specific area

10 Doing volunteer work

11 Organizing your CV/Resume

12 Gaining experience with summer jobs 1

69 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
TIPS FOR “DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH”

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
 Discover your hidden skills as accurately as possible!

 Reflect on your hidden skills!

 Define your personal goals!

 Select a suitable strategy for you!

 Organise your career path plan!

 Revise your plan periodically!

70 Page

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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
RECOMMENDED WEBSITES FOR THE TOPIC

MODULE 3 –DISCOVER YOUR HIDDEN SKILLS AND PLAN YOUR CAREER PATH
http://www.ceswoodstock.org/job_search/resumeskillshidden.shtml

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q46nRbDO9dM
http://www.quintcareers.com/career_plan.html

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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER

AUTHORS: SBARBATI CARLA, CHESI GIULIA, DANIELE LAURENTE DI BIASIO, FELICE SANTILLI

SCHOOL: IISS “CHARLES DARWIN”, ITALY

`
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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Module 4 – Useful tips for your career

Useful tips for your career the module will help students revise and acknowledge information
regarding vital tools for getting a job: revising different types of CV templates; differences
application letter/cover letter/resume; tips before/during the interview; tips for writing good
application letters)

SECTIONS

1. CV templates
2. Cover letter
3. Interview tips

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


4. Application letter tips

ASSESSMENT STANDARDS

Tips and tools

Students apply and use tools and tips

 Research appropriate tools for their purpose


 Compare and contrast different sources of information
 Identify alternative tools and tips
 Use of the different tools available
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER

Title of the activity Brief description

CV templates Answering questions, filling in cv


template, creating your own CV
Cover letter Understanding questions and answers,
writing your own cover letter
Interview tips Role play to practice interviews

Application letter tips Understanding questions and answers,


writing your own application letter

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


74 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
PRE/POST-TEST: USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER

1. What types of CV templates do you know?

2. What are the differences among application letter/cover letter/resume?

3. What should you do before/during the interview?

4. What does a good application letter mean?

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


5. What are the differences among application letter/cover letter/resume?

6. What should you do before/during the interview?

7. What does a good application letter mean?

75 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
PERSONAL OBJECTIVE SHEET FOR STUDENTS
(to be filled in after the pre and post-test)

1. What I know about the topic………………….

2. What I want to know about the topic…………….

3. What I improved…………………………….

4. What I need to improve further…………….

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


76 Page

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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
ICE-BREAKERS/WARM-UP ACTIVITIES

1) Title: CV-s

Purpose: Understanding the use and the importance of a CV?

Needed materials: Sheets of paper

Instructions/short description of the activity: Divide the students in groups and give them a sheet of
paper with the questions below. Make them compare their answers with the responses of the other
groups.
Worksheet/exercise:

You are going to write a CV.

What is a CV?

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


Brainstorm with your group and write your answers below:
Where does the word CV come from?
What does it mean?
What is it used for?
What does a CV say about a person?
Which information goes on a CV?
Compare your answers with the responses of the other groups.

77 Page

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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
COURSE AND FEEDBACK ACTIVITIES
Title: CV Categories, What to write in the personal profile heading, understanding different types of a CV

Purpose: Understanding the different parts of a CV and what to write inside them, writing a CV

Needed materials: Sheets of paper

Instructions/short description of the activity: Divide the students in groups and make them discuss about
these topics

Worksheet/exercise:

Exercise 1: Discuss with your group this list of CV categories.

What do you have to write in each part?

John Smith has collected the relevant details for his CV and now he must organize them.
Under which heading should he put each of the following?

Excellent presentation skills


Degree in Architecture

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


CAD use
Fluent English
Good skills in French, English
Able to take decision under pressure
Painting and sailing
Assistant in a project department of a famous builder

Personal Details

Profile

Education

Additional Skills

Professional Experience

Interests
78

References
Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Exercise 2: Personal Profile writing

Brainstorm with your group the definition and the purpose of a personal profile.

Who you are


hardworking
confident a degree in
A qualified …………………………. with years of experience in ……………………..
creative a high school diploma in
reliable

What you can do (skills and experience)

Excellent……………………………………………………… skills

Responsible for……………………………………………………

Expertise in ………………………………………………………..

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


What you want

Seeking an opportunity in………………………………………………………

79 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Exercise 3: Qualification, skill, quality or other?

Draw a line to connect a term in the left hand column with one in the right.

National Diploma Qualification

Flexible

Software programming Skill

Time Management

First Aid at Work Quality

Honest

Master’s Degree Other

Team working

Body building

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


In the table list two more qualifications, skills and qualities that might be relevant to a job application.

Qualifications Skills Qualities

80 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Exercise 4: What skills should be included in a CV?

Examine these four case studies. Decide what skills each person has.

Case Study 1:

S B is 18 and has recently finished high school after studying to become an accountant. She is thinking
about a position as a secretary in order to gain some work experience. In her spare time she likes acting
and regularly attends an amateur drama group.

Case Study 2:

Dean Bean, 45, has recently been laid off from his job as an engineer with a major communications
company. He is currently applying for a position within a similar industry. In his spare time he likes sailing
and he is a good basketball player.

Case Study 3:

Barbara Allison, 35, has two children. She left work at age 25 to raise a family. Now that the children are
grown, she would love return to work. Barbara thinks she would like to go into nursing. She has a degree
in Health and Social Care. In her spare time she enjoys cooking and sewing.

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


Case Study 4:

Richard Jones, 30, is currently employed by a major sports franchise. He has been with them since he was
18 and has worked his way from being an assistant in the sport fishing department to being a full time
supervisor. Richard is thinking about advancing within the company by applying for the position of
Assistant Store Manager, an opening that has come up in the neighbouring town. Richard has a degree in
Business. In his spare time Richard he’s active in sports (fishing, tennis, football).

Case Study 1:

Case Study 2:

Case Study 3:

Case Study 4:
81 Page

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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Exercise 5: Writing a CV:

Instructions/short description of the activity: After distributing them a template of a CV each student
write a CV of a famous character. After reading it, the class have to guess the character.

Exercise 6: Main types of curriculum


There are different kinds of CV, each of which highlights different aspects of the candidates
They are not only aesthetic changes but also to put in evidence some aspects instead of others.
Depending on the profile, the experience you have, your skills, your education it is better you use a type
of CV or another.

Chronological Curriculum
This Type of CV is the most widely used and the easiest to understand.
You have to write your professional experience in Chronological order (from the most recent to the oldest
or the opposite)

Functional CV
The information inside the CV are ordered by topics, in order to put in evidence the skills, so that the
recruiters could have the right idea of the skills of the writer.

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


Europass: European curriculum
It is used a lot in Europe and allows any candidate, using a simple model, to highlight clearly and concisely
the information the skills, the qualifications and any other information important for an employer.
Internet address:
http://europass.cedefop.ue.int/img/dynamic/c1346/type.FileContent.file/_it_IT.pdf
Exercise: change this Chronological CV into a Functional one and using the address of Europass CV
rewrite this CV.

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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
This is the job advert.

Eclypse Recruitment is searching for a committed graduated Nurse to join a friendly team in a small elderly
nursing home in Mansfield, Nottinghamshire. This lovely elderly nursing home is well established and has
a great reputation within the local community.

The home provides quality nursing care and support to under 30 residents with physical frailty and
palliative care to a small number of residents within the home. There is a strong and stable team in place
within the home who work together to ensure that the highest standards of care are delivered throughout
the home.

The ideal candidate will be a Registered Nurse who has experience working within elderly nursing homes.
We are looking for a care focused and motivated Registered Nurse who has a genuine care and
commitment towards the elderly to work closely with the team. Good clinical and communication skills
are essential to this role. The successful candidate will benefit from a competitive hourly rate along with
a solid support structure. Please apply through the website or send us your application letter.

Curriculum Vitae

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


Name Maria Medeiros
Nationality Portuguese
Address Rua da Torrinha, 228
9600-455 Buc
Age 24
Education
– Degree in Nursing, School of Nursing, Lisbon, Portugal
– Secondary School Diploma, Ribeira Grande, Portugal
Skills
r, 2005-2006).
-18 and currently studying).

Access tables.
Work experience
-2010 – Clinical experience in a community centre.
-2007 – Nursing home care for elderly patients in summer holidays.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Title: Differences between CV, Cover Letter and Resume
Purpose: Understanding the differences between CV, Cover Letter and Resume
Needed materials: Sheets of paper
Instructions/short description of the activity: give the students the copy of the paper in which it is
explained the differences and make them make the exercise under it. Then have a class discussion on the
answers given. After that taking the CV written before, write a cover letter and a resume after that CV.

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


84 Page

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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Worksheet/exercise:

CURRICULUM VITAE COVER LETTER RESUME


Commonly written as: CV Commonly written as: Cover Commonly written as: Resume
letter
Length Length Length
Two pages or a little more. Less than one page. Concise One page, sometimes two
Detailed pages
Contents Contents Contents

Detailed information about a Brief information about the Name, contact information,
person's educational background person, work experience, job education, work experience and
and work experience. Name, profile looking for, career goal. relevant work-related skills.
contact information, education, Generally divided into a header, Focus is on work experience. A
work experience and relevant introduction, body, and closing. resume is more focused on
work-related skills. Summary of It’s an introduction to yourself previous relevant work
academic background as well as expressing interest in the job experience - employment
teaching and research experience, being applied to. A cover letter history and key achievements in
publications, presentations, includes general details about a prior jobs. Both CV and resume
awards, honors, etc. It may person like name, contact include the person's name,

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


contain a cover letter along with information, educational and contact information, education,
other details which are important professional qualification, work work experience, references
when applying for international experience and career goal or and relevant work-related skills.
jobs, fellowships, grants, research, what a person is looking for in CV and resume are typically
scientific and academic positions. terms of a job profile. A cover used to screen applicants, often
Both CV and resume include the letter should not be confused followed by an interview, when
person's name, contact with a resume as it does not seeking employment. A resume
information, education, work include all the details of a resume. contains a summary of a
experience and relevant work- The cover letter should have person's relevant job
related skills, references. The CV is enough details so that it experience and education. A
used to screen job applicants and complements the Curriculum resume is typically shorter than
is often followed by an interview. Vitae and also interests the a CV. For most jobs, a resume is
CVs longer than two pages are person reading it. the convention.
generally frowned upon.

Purpose Purpose Purpose

In Europe, the Middle East, Africa To complement the CV or resume, Job applications. Used in the US
and Asia, employers expect a CV. briefly introduce yourself and
In the U.S., a CV is used primarily explain your interest and
when applying for academic, qualifications for the job.
education, scientific or research
85

positions.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Exercise 1: True/false sentences

a) Detailed references are always included in your 1st presentation of a CV.


 True
 False
b) A standard cover letter is good for every job you apply for.
 True
 False
c) A cover letter should follow a very simple layout.
 True
 False
d) A resume must be focused on work experience.
 True
 False
e) In a cover letter it’s fundamental to detail your academic background and publications.
 True
 False
f) A cover letter should be personalized, explaining how you fit the job description.
 True

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


 False
g) In a CV it’s possible to include some information about your personal interests and
hobbies.
 True
 False
h) Before emailing it, it’s important to make sure the format of your CV is easy to open for
all computers – or at least most of them.
 True
 False
i) A cover letter should be impressive and enthusiastic in order to get maximum impact
with as few words as possible.
 True
 False
j) Your CV should have your name, in bold and clearly laid out, at the bottom of the
document.
 True
 False
k) A good and interesting resume is often followed by an interview.
 True
 False
l) A cover letter could be confused with a resume as it includes all the details of a resume.
 True
86

 False
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
KEYS a b c d e f g h i j k l

Task 5 false false true true false true true true true false true false

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


87 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Exercise 2: Select the right choice to complete the sentences
1) A typical resume is a general and concise introduction of your:
a) Cultural interests
b) Experiences and skills
c) Academic background
d) Publications

2) A cover letter should be structured like a professional letter, emphasizing that:


a) Your qualifications perfectly match the job you apply for
b) You have held a similar office or position in another organization
c) You’ve got good references
d) You have received several grants, honours and awards

3) A classical CV may include your interests, especially if:


a) They refer to generic actions such as “going to the cinema” or “shopping”
b) They are always detailed
c) Allude to sport activities
d) They will enhance the skills required for the job

4) When no vacancy has been advertised and you are applying “speculatively” to potential
employers, you preferably send:
a) A cover letter

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


b) A resume containing a CV
c) A CV containing a cover letter
d) A formal CV

5) In a CV, it’s very important to detail date, type and level of your:
a) Previous jobs
b) Qualifications
c) Skills
d) Publications

6) If you are concise and interesting, you are probably writing:


a) A CV
b) A resume
c) A CV or a resume
d) A cover letter

7) To catch the reader’s attention, in a CV or cover letter or resume you should:


a) Use passive verbs
b) Develop more points
c) Write short sentences and paragraphs
d) State the key information in the last sentence

8) In a CV or resume, the right personal details must include specific information about your
a) Gender
88

b) Age
c) Skills
Page

d) Handicaps

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Task 8) KEYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

b a d d b d c c

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


89 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Chapter four

Title: Application letter tips

Purpose: Understanding the importance of writing a good application letter

Needed materials: Sheets of paper

Instructions/short description of the activity: give the students the copy of the paper in which it is
explained the application letter or explain it your own and let them make the exercises under it. You can
divide the students in group to have a better discussion on it. Make compare the answers given by each
group.

A letter for a job application is a very important letter. The way you present the letter is your first
introduction to the person who could be your new employer. There is a standard format for this kind of
letter. Below is an example of a letter of application: the format of the letter should always be similar to
the one in the letter.

Prepare a letter of application every time you submit your CV. This kind of letter requires planning and
organizing. Prepare answers to each of these questions:

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


Why am I writing this letter? (Focus statement)

I am writing this letter to…..

What do I want to happen as a result of this letter? (Outcome statement)

I want….

Whom am I writing this letter to?

Look at the letter from the point of view of the reader.

Prepare a personalized letter for each job. Target the letter to ensure that the needs of the employer
are met.

It must be free of grammatical, spelling or typing errors. Never cross out, white our or leave in errors. Do
not make use of abbreviations. Remember to include your return address, your telephone number, the
date and the employer’s address.
90 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Example of a letter of Application

Our client is a major construction contractor in the UK and they are seeking civil Engineers at all levels to
work on several contracts, including motorway construction and port construction. The requirement is
for degree qualified engineers. Each candidate must possess the following attributes:

1. Must be degree qualified;

2. Must have excellent communication skills. Fluency in English is required.

Letter of application

Daniel Fustero-Rubio
Rua das Doze Casas, 257
9500-195 Ponta Delgada
January 25, 2010

Dear Sir,

I read on your website of your client’s need for degree qualified Civil Engineers to work in the UK.

I am 23 years old, Spanish, and I have a degree in Civil Engineering from Madrid University. I believe that

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


I have the necessary credentials for the position you are offering. I speak English fluently as I studied
English for eight years at school. Besides, I also have the CAE (Cambridge Certificate of Advanced English),
grade B.

This is the first time I am applying for this kind of job, but I have worked at various levels in the construction
industry every summer since the 9th grade. I worked several summers as a general labourer, gradually
moved up to a carpenter, and last summer I worked as an assistant construction manager.

As a person, I am hard-working, punctual, and responsible and I think I am able to communicate effectively
with people. I am confident that my Civil Engineering degree, along with my years of construction industry
experience, make me an excellent candidate for your job.

My aspiration is to work for a company in the UK. I will be in the London area during the week of February
3rd and I would welcome the opportunity to attend for interview.

Thank you for your consideration.

Yours faithfully,

Daniel Fustero Rubio

Enclosures: CV and a letter of recommendation


91

The letter of application is a reflection of you. Make a positive first impression.


Page

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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Exercises
1- A Letter of Application Writing Exercise

A Write the phrases from the box into the most appropriate section below.

As you can see from my CV,...

I have five year experience in this sector.

Currently, I am working as a...

I look forward to hearing from you.

I am in charge of...

I will be available for interview from...

I am particularly interested in this position...

I would be more than happy to discuss...

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


I am very keen on using my English...

Please do not hesitate to contact me for...

I am writing in reply to your advertisement...

With reference to your advertisement in...

OPENING
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................

E X P E R I E N C E AN D Q U AL I F I C AT I O N S
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................

R E AS O N S F O R AP P L Y I N G
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................

C L O S I N G T H E L E T TE R
...................................................................................................................................................
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...................................................................................................................................................
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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Keys:

O P E N I N G; I am writing in reply to your advertisement ... ; With reference to your advertisement


in ... ;

E X P E R I E N CE AN D Q U AL I F I C AT I O N S; Currently, I am working as a ... ; I have five year


experience in this sector. I am in charge of ... ;As you can see from my CV, ...

R E AS O N S F O R AP P L Y I N G: I am particularly interested in this position ... ;I am very keen on


using my English ...

C L O S I N G T H E L E T TE R : I look forward to hearing from you. ;I will be available for interview


from ... ;I would be more than happy to discuss ... ;Please do not hesitate to contact me for ...

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


93 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
2: Fill in the blanks with one of the following:

John Donaldson In The Times Union Magazine


I am writing to apply Dear Mr.
The opportunity presented The key strengths
I also have experience I have a degree in computer programming
Yours faithfully I provide exceptional contributions
87 Delaware Road Please see my resume
I am enclosing I look forward

John Donaldson
8 Sue Circle
Smithtown, CA 08067
909-555-5555
john.donaldson@emailexample.com

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


05/04/2015
George Gilhooley
XYZ Company
_____________
Hatfield, CA 08065
___________. Gilhooley,
________________for the programmer position advertised_________________________. As requested,
_____________a completed job application, my certification, my resume, and three references.
_______________________in this listing is very interesting, and I believe that my strong technical
experience and education will make me a very competitive candidate for this position.
_________________that I possess for success in this position include:
- I have successfully designed, developed, and supported live use applications
- I strive for continued excellence
- _________________________to customer service for all customers
___________________________and a full understanding of the full life cycle of a software development
project. __________________in learning and excelling at new technologies as needed.
______________________for additional information on my experience.
_________________________via email at john.donaldson@emailexample.com or my cell phone, 909-
555-5555.
Thank you for your time and consideration. ______________to speaking with you about this employment
opportunity.
94

___________________________,
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Keys

87 Delaware Road; Dear Mr.; I am writing to apply; in The Times Union Magazine; I am enclosing; The
opportunity presented; The key strengths; I provide exceptional contributions; I have a degree in
Computer Programming; I also have experience; Please see my resume; I can be reached anytime; I look
forward; Yours faithfully

3.Think of a job vacancy that would interest you and write a letter of application.
..........................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


...........................................................................................................................................................

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4. Be creative!

Today it is possible to send the CV and the application also using the Web. The tips and the structure are
the same of the application letter, but you can write the information or film them in a different way. The
result is far more creative and if the video or the multimedia material is well mad, the result could be
more interesting for the employer. Try to make your own creative job application.

Find inspiration at this link: http://www.simplyzesty.com/Blog/Article/September-2012/The-Most-


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Creative-Job-Applications-In-Social-Media-And-Tech
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
TIPS FOR “USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER”

To write a CV cover some common sections: personal and contact information;


education and qualifications; work history and/or experience; relevant skills to
the job in question; own interests, achievements or hobbies; and some
references .A good CV is clear, concise. You don't need pages and pages of
paper; stick to a maximum of two pages of A4 paper. The upper middle area of
the first page is where the recruiter's eye will naturally fall, so make sure you
include your most important information there Understand the job description:
The clues are in the job application, so read the details from start to finish.
Highlighting everything you can satisfy and all the bits you can't. With the areas
where you're lacking, fill in the blanks by adapting the skills you do have.
Demonstrate the skills you have and show how they're transferable. Tailor the
CV to the role: create a CV specifically for that role. Create a unique CV for
every job you apply for: You don't have to re-write the whole thing, just adapt
the details so they're relevant. Making the most of skills: Under the skills section
of your CV don't forget to mention key skills that can help you to stand out from

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


the crowd. These could include: communication skills; computer skills; team
working; problem solving or even speaking a foreign language. Making the
most of interests: Highlight the things that show off skills you've gained and
employers look for. Describe any examples of positions of responsibility,
working in a team or anything that shows you can use your own initiative.
Including references. Keep your CV updated.

Before Your Job Interview

Research the Company.

Learn About the Job.

Watch a Job Interview Video.

Practice Interviewing.

Dress Appropriately.
96 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
RECOMMENDED WEBSITES FOR THE TOPIC

http://www.hardsoftskilling.eu/CV_letter.html
http://www.hardsoftskilling.eu/job_interview.html

MODULE 4- USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAREER


97 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING

AUTHORS: YANA STOYANOVA, LYUBIMA KONSTANTINOVA, NADYA MILUSHEVA, ILIYA VALCHEV, BOGDANA KOSTADINOVA

SCHOOL: PROFESSIONAL HIGH SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS “IVAN ILIEV”, BLAGOEVGRAD, BULGARIA

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Module 5 – Team building

This Module is a structured collection of original and revised resources, exercises and course
activities for testing, developing, delivering, and evaluating training on Team building topics and
skills. The Team Building Skills-module aims to:

•promote the importance of working closely together at school and future workplace
•establish a positive team culture, the beliefs, values and norms of behavior
•understand the role of the leader
•develop communication and trust among team members
•encourage experience sharing and generating new ideas
•improve commitment and work efficiency.

SECTIONS

1. What is a team?
2. What is team building and its importance?
3. What are the team building basics?
4. What are the reasons for team building?

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


ASSESSMENT STANDARDS

Students should aware of the meaning of team building.

They should:

1. Know how to work together


2. Be able to identify their team building-skills
3. Understand the importance of team building
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER

Title of the activity Brief description

Pre/Post Test Are You a Good Team Worker?

Personal objective sheet for students Self-assessment


Ice-breakers/warm-up activities Ice-breakers/warm-up games

SWAT analysis SWAT analysis of your team/organization.


Test Test - Am I a Team Player?
Individual work/exercise Personal Team Player improvement planning

Test My Skills as a Listener

Test Leadership Self-Assessment

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


Feedback activity Evaluation game
Tips Tips for team building
Recommended websites Further guidance

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
PRE/POST-TEST: ARE YOU A GOOD TEAM WORKER?
All participants complete the test. Their answers should be arranged, according to which view is
completely true, mostly true, mostly false or completely false using the table at the end of the test.

1.

a) each team must have one person to control the work, being responsible for its implementation and results.

b) for the team’s members is more important to have clearly defined areas of activity and responsibility
than to have one person who controls everything.

c) good leaders succeed in creating the necessary working atmosphere that motivates and encourages all
team members.

d) good managers and organizers have the skills necessary to motivate the others.

2.

a) the team is the strongest when its objectives consistent with the wishes and needs of each member

b) the team is the strongest when it works well alone.

c) the team is the strongest when the goals are clearly specified.

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


d) the team is the strongest when at the beginning its goals seem difficult to be achieved.

3.

a) I will mobilize all my energy for my team’s needs and objectives.

b) I'm ambitious and I’ll harness all my strengths to become a team leader.

c) the best organizer is the one who accepts challenges.

d) I want to be a leader.

4.

a) best leaders possess the ability to help others discover their strengths.
101

b) most effective leaders are those who stand aside and watch if everything goes well in the team and
intervene only when something goes wrong.
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c) a good leader should encourage a positive team spirit.

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d) a good leader is a catalyst of motivation

5.

a) the team and its members are motivated through giving them responsibilities.

b) team members should be aware of the consequences of their errors.

c) a team should not be afraid of changes.

d) team members should continuously analyze and evaluate mutually.

6.

a) I believe that the team will be better with my participation.

b) team members should be equally competent in all its activity.

c) it is important to be in support of each member of the team at any time.

d) regular team meetings are necessary in order to discuss objectives and assess what has been done.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING: Please arrange each answer for each of 6 groups of questions in the
table below:

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


Group of Completely true Mostly true Mostly false Completely Total
questions 1 false
А 3p. 2p. 1p. 0p.
B 0p. 1p. 2p. 3p.
C 2p. 3p. 1p. 0p.
D 0p. 1p. 3p. 2p.

Group of Completely true Mostly true Mostly false Completely Total


questions 2 false
А 3p. 2p. 1p. 0p.
B 0p. 1p. 2p. 3p.
C 2p. 3p. 1p. 0p.
D 0p. 1p. 3p. 2p.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Group of Completely true Mostly true Mostly false Completely Total
questions 3 false
А 3p. 2p. 1p. 0p.
B 0p. 1p. 2p. 3p.
C 2p. 3p. 1p. 0p.
D 0p. 1p. 3p. 2p.

Group of Completely true Mostly true Mostly false Completely Total


questions 4 false
А 3p. 2p. 1p. 0p.
B 0p. 1p. 2p. 3p.
C 2p. 3p. 1p. 0p.
D 0p. 1p. 3p. 2p.

Group of Completely true Mostly true Mostly false Completely Total


questions 5 false
А 3p. 2p. 1p. 0p.
B 0p. 1p. 2p. 3p.
C 2p. 3p. 1p. 0p.
D 0p. 1p. 3p. 2p.

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


Group of Completely true Mostly true Mostly false Completely Total
questions 6 false
А 3p. 2p. 1p. 0p.
B 0p. 1p. 2p. 3p.
C 2p. 3p. 1p. 0p.
D 0p. 1p. 3p. 2p.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
RESULTS:

48-72 POINTS
You are not only a good team worker, but a person who clearly aware of what is necessary to work in a
team and how to make it function best. As a result, you could become a great leader. A good organizer
should understand the importance of the goals and challenges of the team, but also need to maintain
good collegial relationships, responsibility and development. Good organizers manage to create the right
working atmosphere to motivate the team. If you are a member of a team, but have not yet taken
leadership position you have the potential and perhaps should develop your aspirations, of course, only
if you really want it.

24-47 POINTS
You can be a good team worker with leadership qualities.
The team as well as the individual member is encouraged by the responsibility and you most likely have the
quality to take these responsibilities seriously and to realize the need that all team members must work
together to achieve the common goals. It is true that a team is composed of individuals, but only when they
work together on a common goal the team can be really effective.

23 POINTS /OR LESS/


It seems you are rather individualist and as such you prefer tasks for independent work and not as a team.
You simply do not like the involvement of other people or to work under the rule of others.
Your results show that you are suitable for independent work in a profession in which you can work alone,
with the least possible interference. But you should not forget, however, that life is a team game in which

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


the collaboration is more productive than the isolation. The development of a team means also an
individual development where all members are moving forward by learning new ideas, improving skills,
expanding horizons and keeping motivated.

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
PERSONAL OBJECTIVE SHEET FOR STUDENTS
(to be filled in after the pre and post-test)

1. What I know about Team building? …………………………………………………………...

2. What I want to know about Team building? …………………………………………………..

3. What I improved? ……………………………………………………………………………...

4. What I need to improve further? ………………………………………………………………

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


105Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
ICE-BREAKERS/WARM-UP ACTIVITIES

1) Title: "Win, give"

Description: There are 2 notice boards in the room titled “Give” and “Win”. The participants write briefly
what they want to gain from the meeting on “Win” board and what they want to give on the “Give” board.
Built "Wall of expectations" is left hanging until the end of the session in order to be reviewed again later.
The facilitator summarizes the main themes and makes comments if it is possible or unlikely to be achieved.
The aim is to see all expectations of the ongoing training, as well as to show that each opinion matters.

2) Title: “Game with a ball”

Purpose: Game for introducing, stimulating and motivating the group to work
Needed materials: a ball
Participants: Small 4 groups
Instructions/short description of the activity: Each participant to whom the leader of the group
throws a ball must present themselves (his/her name and country). Then a representative of each
group presents people from his team to the others.

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


3) Title: “Drop the ball“

Time: 10–12 minutes


Purpose: Cooperation and healthy competition
Participants: Small groups
Materials needed: golf balls, straws, tape
Instructions:
• Each small group receives 12 straws and 18 inches of masking tape. They get ten minutes to build a
container that will catch a golf ball dropped from about ten feet.
• Each group selects a ‘ball dropper’ — that person stands on a chair, holds a golf ball at eye level. That
group places its container on the floor under where it thinks the ball will land. Each group gets three attempts.
• The group that gets a ball to go in and stay in its container wins.
Desired outcome: Teams can use their experiences in the game to overcome work problems and relational
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issues.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
SWAT analysis of your team/organization

Strengths Weaknesses

The internal

Describe the positive attributes within your Identify the weaknesses within your
team/organization: team/organization. These are factors that detract
What your team does well? from your team‘s abilities to obtain or maintain a
What human resources do you have in your team? good and successful team work.
What advantages does your team have? Etc…
Etc…

Opportunities Threats

The external

Assess the factors that represent the reason for What are potential threats and risks to your

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


your team to exist and prosper. What team/organization?
opportunities exist in your environment, from
which your team hopes to benefit?

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Test: Am I a team player?
(http://sandiegocorporatetraining.com/images/AM_I_A_TEAM_PLAYER_San_Diego_Corporate_Training.pdf )

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Self-Assessment
Step 1:
Answer each self-assessment question 1 – 30.

Step 2:
Calculate your ‘mean scores’ for each category, and overall team player mean score. Plot on the Team
Player Impact Chart. Read the analysis and interpretation guidelines.

Step 3:
Follow the Personal Improvement Plan algorithm to set goals for improving as a team player.

It is recognized that one behaves differently within different teams


depending upon each team’s unique set of dynamics. For purposes
of this self-assessment it is important to think of your relationship
with only one specific team while answering the questions.

Rate the following questions to the extent they are true for your
own behavior on a specific team or workgroup. The scale runs from
1 (lowest or least) to 10 (highest or most).

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


Self

1) I consistently perform my roles and responsibilities on this team.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

2) I optimize my performance for the benefit of the team.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

3) I am continually self-improving.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
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4) I manage my own personal behavior for the benefit of this team.


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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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5) I support my team members.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Add together scores for each of the 5 questions above and divide by 5 for the category mean________

Others

6) Others like working with me.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

7) I have a synergistic influence on the team.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

8) My participation on the team helps team members to be productive.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

9) I bring organizational skills to the team.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

10) I bring planning skills to the team.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Add together scores for each of the 5 questions above and divide by 5 for the category

mean________

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


Work Process

11) I come up with ideas that improve the team’s work processes.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

12) I apply process improvement methods.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

13) I help the team stay focused on its goals.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

14) I help the team prioritize.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

15) I use data to measure team performance.


110

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
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Add together scores for each of the 5 questions above and divide by 5 for the category

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mean________

Efficiency and Effectiveness

16) My team members see me as productive.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

17) My participation adds to the efficiency of the team.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

18) My contributions to the team are error free and on time.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

19) I help the team stay focused on it’s critical events.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

20) I am always looking for a better way of doing things.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Add together scores for each of the 5 questions above and divide by 5 for the category

mean________

Collaboration

21) I make efforts to create synergy on the team.

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

22) I manage my personal behavior and conduct to work well with others.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

23) I create a positive team atmosphere.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

24) Team synergy helps me do my best.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

25) I can align my personal work with the needs of the team.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Add together scores for each of the 5 questions above and divide by 5 for the category
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mean________
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Goals and Strategy

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26) I am personally committed to the goals and strategy of the team.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

27) I support the goals and strategy of the team.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

28) I am committed to helping others achieve excellence.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

29) I am committed to continually developing my personal skills, knowledge and abilities to support
achievement of the team’s goals.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

30) I know how to organize the team to get things done.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Add together scores for each of the 5 questions above and divide by 5 for the category

mean________

Add together the mean scores for each category and divide by 6 for the overall team player main
________

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


112Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
TEAM PLAYER IMPACT CHART

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


Make a vertical mark for your mean score from each category on the bar chart above. Put a dark vertical
line through all of the bars corresponding to your overall mean score.

Overall Mean Score Analysis


THE SURVIVING TEAM PLAYER Overall Mean Scores of 5.00 or less.
It should come as no surprise that you are having trouble with teamwork. You are costing your team
energy and resources. As a Team Player you are functioning with significant handicaps as well as serious
stress related symptoms. Mean scores of less than 5.00 indicate serious problems in several areas
simultaneously, if not across the board in every area. Conflicts, lack of communication, unclear direction,
untenable climate, low morale and low satisfaction are just a few of the negatives you might be
experiencing. Consideration should be given as to whether or not you should try to continue on the team
you have used as the basis for this self-assessment. Perhaps a fresh start with some other team would be
more positive. Check your scores to see which categories are impacting most negatively and prepare to
get down to work immediately. A vigorous interventional process and personal growth plan is called for
if you are to survive as a contributing team member.
113

THE MEDIOCRE TEAM PLAYER Overall Mean Scores of 5.01 - 6.50.


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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Mediocre performance and just getting by are the hallmarks of this Team Player score. Although some
basic goals and objectives are being achieved, you are capable of much more. A few low scoring categories,
as well as categories which are more positive, but not positive enough to drive overall mean scores higher
combine for a mediocre effect. Your contribution as a team player will get you by for the near future, but
low performing areas will eventually atrophy into critical problems if no corrective action is taken. An
examination of your level of commitment, or the external factors blocking your path or both should be
undertaken as soon as possible. There are many opportunities for improvement to be found. Look for
stress related symptoms (absenteeism, lack of initiative, lack of commitment, inconsistent follow through,
low morale) as personal warning signs. Your contribution to the team is questionable and lacks the
resiliency for the unexpected loads of additional responsibility or crisis management. You are an ideal
candidate for personal coaching and support.

THE DEVELOPING TEAM PLAYER Overall Mean Scores of 6.51 – 7.50


High Performance is within range for you as a team player. In fact, things are going well in several areas
for you. A few areas of concern are bringing your scores down overall, but these low areas are balanced
to a degree by some positives. Building on strengths and working on one or two targeted opportunities
for improvement is the name of the game for you. You can do more of what you already do well by
optimizing positives while focusing on making one or two significant changes in your lowest scoring areas.
This is the most common Team Player Score.

THE EVOLVING TEAM PLAYER Overall Mean Scores of 7.51 – 8.50

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


You are a contributing Team Player with some obvious strengths. You carry your load well and bring
positive benefits to your team. You are not a drain on the team’s energy or resources. You are most likely
aware of any shortcoming you may have and are actively working on them to continuously improve your
performance. Renew your commitment towards becoming a High Performing Team Player because you
are almost there. The team can count on you most of the time.

THE HIGH PERFORMING TEAM PLAYER Overall Mean Scores of 8.51 – 10.00
Working in balance and harmony with others, creating synergy, demonstrating world class collaboration
and high degrees of effectiveness and efficiency describe you. Your skills as a team player set the example
for others who depend upon you every day. Others like to work with you, the work processes you interact
with work better because of you, and your personal commitment, discipline and follow through are at the
highest standard. You are an extremely strong asset to your team.

The dynamics on a team are ever changing, whereas at one time or another, individual development
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may be stifled by external circumstances and conditions. At other times, personal development as a
team player may occur very quickly due to new opportunities or conditions. Use this self-assessment
instrument regularly to gauge your personal effectiveness as a team player on the different teams you
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are a member of.

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Team Player Effects:

According to the Team Player Molecule, the polar relationships of Self, Others and Work Process, directly
affect Efficiency and Effectiveness, Collaboration and Goals & Strategy. These relationships, in turn, affect
Personal Follow Through, Personal Behavior and Conduct, Team Synergy, Coordination, Critical Events,
and Team Innovation. Additionally, these effects share a strong relationship with Self Discipline, Climate
and Atmosphere, Team Productivity, Momentum, Measurement, and Individual productivity.
Fundamentally, the Team Player impacts everything in the entire teamwork system of which they are a
member.

CATEGORY OF SELF affects

Personal Follow Through

Self-Discipline

Personal Behavior and Conduct

Climate and Atmosphere

Efficiency and Effectiveness

Collaboration

CATEGORY OF OTHERS affects

Synergy

Team Productivity

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


Coordination

Goals and Strategy Collaboration

CATEGORY OF GOALS AND STRATEGY affects

Work process

Critical Events

Momentum

Coordination

Others

CATEGORY OF COLLABORATION affects

Self
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Personal Behavior and Conduct


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Climate and Atmosphere

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Synergy

Others

CATEGORY OF WORK PROCESS affects

Goals and Strategy

Critical Events

Measurement

Innovation

Efficiency and Effectiveness

CATEGORY OF EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS affects

Personal Follow Through

Innovation

Work process

Individual Productivity

Self

Personal follow through means that you accomplish what you commit to with others. You make yourself
more attractive as a team player by being dependable and effective at accomplishing what you say you
will do.

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


Personal Behavior & Conduct - Means that you do not bring negativity, moods, personal agendas or
other negativity to your relationship with other team members. You conduct yourself in such a way as to
enable rather than disable interactions with others.

Self-Discipline - Means that you maintain a commitment to yourself to follow through with what needs
doing, or doing what you know to be right, despite the difficulty or discomfort it might cause you
personally. Self-discipline also means performing these events with regularity and the necessary intensity
for successful accomplishment and to maintain a high level of performance as an individual.

Synergy - Means the magical effect of producing more than the sum of the parts when people work
harmoniously together. Synergy can be recognized by harmonious interaction, higher energy level,
increased levels of productivity, and higher individual satisfaction during teamwork processes.

Climate and Atmosphere - Means the environment which is created by people working together.
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Morale, satisfaction, comfort, and participation are all influenced by climate and atmosphere.
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Coordination - Means the ability to organize the efforts of two or more people so that goals and
strategies are accomplished.

Team Productivity – Means the collective amount and quality of work that is accomplished by the team.

Critical Events - Means the things that are most important and necessary for the accomplishment of
team goals and strategies.

Momentum - Means the collective forward moving energy and positive progress of the team.

Innovation - Means the extent to which new approaches, ideas, and processes are developed by the team.

Measurement - Means insights from significant data that accurately reflect current position and progress.

Individual Productivity - Means the amount of personal accomplishment of individual goals and
objectives.

Personal Team Player Improvement Planning


List Your Highest Scoring Category _________________
These are strength areas you enjoy now. List 5 things you can do to increase your application of these
strengths as a team player:

1. ______________________________________
2. ______________________________________
3. ______________________________________

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


4. ______________________________________
5. ______________________________________
List Your Lowest Scoring Category ___________________

These are strength areas you enjoy now. List 5 things you can do to positively impact these areas as a
team player:

1._____________________________
2._____________________________
3._____________________________
4._____________________________
5._____________________________

Examine the rest of your Team Player Molecule Scores to target additional areas of improvement.
117

Re-examine yourself periodically to see how quickly you are improving. Ask others you can confide in on
the team to give you periodic feedback and to share their own perspectives and suggestions for your
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development.

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Test: My skills as a listener
This test lists 12 statements that are related to one of the listening abilities to the other people. Answer
to each question with putting a tick into the selected box. Try to be honest and to answer as accurately
as it’s possible. When you are finished, join the marked signs. This will be the profile of your skills as a
listener. Obviously, you are better listener as more as your answers tend to the right.

Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always

1 2 3 4 5

1. I listen carefully for feelings, attitudes,


perceptions and accept them as facts (without
assessing them)

2. I try to listen to what is talking about, but not


to what wasn’t said (I don’t make my own
interpretations)

3. I try not to interrupt the person who is talking


to me

4. I really pay attention to the speaking person


and I don’t imitate attention

5. I make efforts not to set myself against the


person who is speaking (for example, just

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


because I don’t like him/her, I disagree with
him/her, I find him strange, etc.)

6. I try consciously to not impose my expectations


and they do not affect my listening (i.e. I do not
expect to hear what I want to hear)

7. I try to read nonverbal messages of the


speaking person - intonation, gestures, mood,
posture, eye contact, facial expression, etc..

8. I strive to overcome any distractions when I talk


- sounds, voices, movements, external views etc.
that can prevent good listening

9. I strive to “stay” with the speaking person even


when it’s difficult (for example, he/she speaks
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very slowly, confused and unclear, tends to


repeat, etc.)
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
10. I use nonverbal communication( eye contact,
smile, nod, etc.) to show that I want to listen
more

11. I strive to repeat or paraphrase the speaker’s


statements when it’s necessary to make sure that
I understand him/her

12.If I don’t understand, I admit frankly and ask


for repetition

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


119Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Test: Leadership Self-Assessment
Below is a list of statements about leadership behavior. Read each one carefully, then, using the following
scale, decide the extent to which it actually applies to you. For best results, answer as truthfully as possible.

never sometimes always


0 1 2 3 4 5

1. _______ I encourage my team to participate when it comes decision-making time and I try to implement
their ideas and suggestions.

2. _______ Nothing is more important than accomplishing a goal or task.

3. _______ I closely monitor the schedule to ensure a task or project will be completed in time.

4. _______ I enjoy coaching people on new tasks and procedures.

5. _______ The more challenging a task is, the more I enjoy it.

6. _______ I encourage my employees to be creative about their job.

7. _______ When seeing a complex task through to completion, I ensure that every detail is accounted

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


for.

8. _______ I find it easy to carry out several complicated tasks at the same time.

9. _______ I enjoy reading articles, books, and journals about training, leadership, and psychology; and
then putting what I have read into action.

10. _______ When correcting mistakes, I do not worry about jeopardizing relationships.

11. _______ I manage my time very efficiently.

12. _______ I enjoy explaining the intricacies and details of a complex task or project to my employees.

13. _______ Breaking large projects into small manageable tasks is second nature to me.

14. _______ Nothing is more important than building a great team.


120

15. _______ I enjoy analyzing problems.


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which may be made of the information contained therein.
16. _______ I honor other people's boundaries.

17. _______ Counseling my employees to improve their performance or behavior is second nature to me.

18. _______ I enjoy reading articles, books, and trade journals about my profession; and then
implementing the new procedures I have learned.

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


121Page

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Transfer your answers to the space below:

People Task
Question Question
1.______ 2.______
4.______ 3.______
6.______ 5.______
9.______ 7.______
10.______ 8.______
12.______ 11.______
14.______ 13.______
16.______ 15.______
17.______ 18.______
TOTAL ________ TOTAL ________
X 0.2 = ________ X 0.2 =________
(Multiply the Total by 0.2 to get your final score) (Multiply the Total by 0.2 to get your final score)

Matrix Section: Plot your final scores on the graph below by drawing a horizontal line from the
approximate people score (vertical axis) to the right of the matrix, and drawing a vertical line from the
approximate task score on the horizontal axis to the top of the matrix. Then, draw two lines from each
dot until they intersect. The area of intersection is the leadership dimension that you operate out of.

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


122Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Results:

Authoritarian Leader (high task, low relationship) People who get this rating are very much task oriented
and are hard on their workers. There is little or no allowance for cooperation or collaboration. Heavily
task oriented people display these characteristics: they are very strong on schedules; they expect people
to do what they are told without debate; when something goes wrong they tend to focus on who is to
blame rather than concentrate on exactly what is wrong and how to prevent it; they are intolerant of what
they see as dissent, so it is difficult for their subordinates to contribute or develop.

Team Leader (high task, high relationship) This type of person leads by positive example and endeavors
to foster a team environment in which all team members can reach their highest potential, both as team
members and as people. They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively as possible, while
also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the various members. They normally form and lead
some of the most productive teams.

Country Club Leader (low task, high relationship) This person uses predominantly reward power to
maintain discipline and to encourage the team to accomplish its goals. Conversely, they are almost
incapable of employing the more punitive coercive and legitimate powers. This inability results from fear
that using such powers could jeopardize relationships with the other team members.

Impoverished Leader (low task, low relationship) A leader who uses a "delegate and disappear"
management style. Since they are not committed to either task accomplishment or maintenance; they
essentially allow their team to do whatever it wishes and prefer to detach themselves from the team
process by allowing the team to suffer from a series of power struggles.

The most desirable place for a leader to be along the two axes at most times would be a 9 on task and a 9

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


on people -- the Team Leader. However, do not entirely dismiss the other three. Certain situations might
call for one of the other three to be used at times. For example, by playing the Impoverished Leader, you
allow your team to gain self-reliance.

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
COURSE (MODULE) AND FEEDBACK ACTIVITIES

Module: Feedback

Title: Evaluation game

Purpose: Game of the completion of activities and final evaluation

Instructions/short description of the activity: The participants stand in a circle. One of them stretched
his/her hand towards the middle of the circle and says what were her/his difficulties in the tasks and what
he/she liked. She/he formulates it by saying: "I did not like it when ...." and "I liked when ...". The next one
put her/his hand on the hand of the former participant until all participants have their opinion said and
their hands gather in the middle of the circle. Facilitator concludes by saying that what the collected arms
suggests is the power of the participants as a group.

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


Goal: The final assessment has incredible value for anyone interested in participating in the meeting. It
allows making feedback and gives to the organizers clarity what could be improved next time. The final
evaluation allows each participant to reveal his/her views. It confirms the idea that the participants are
not just audience in the theater but the actors who play on a stage.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
TIPS FOR “PERSONAL SKILL ASSESSMENT”

Team building is the use of different types of team interventions that are aimed
at enhancing social relations and clarifying team members’ roles, as well as
solving tasks and interpersonal problems that affect team functionality. Team
building generally sits within the theory and practice of organizational
development, but can also be applied to sports teams, school groups, armies,
flight crews and other contexts. There have been many issues in past literature
about the conceptual definition of team building. However, now there is
consensus and conceptual clarity about what team building constitutes. Its four
components are:

 Goal setting: aligning around goals


 Interpersonal-relationship management: building effective working
relationships
 Role clarification: reducing team members’ role ambiguity
 Problem solving: finding solutions to team problems

The most effective team building efforts occur when members of the team are
highly interdependent in performing the task, highly knowledgeable and
experienced in the task to be accomplished, and when organizational leadership
actively establishes and supports the team. Effective team building must also

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


incorporate an awareness of the ultimate objective of the task. They must work
to develop goals, roles and procedures to achieve it successfully. In addition to
task-oriented team building efforts, team-building efforts must also be
relationship oriented. To ensure effectiveness, team building should work
towards the establishment of policies and procedures and working with the
environment, including support systems.
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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
RECOMMENDED WEBSITES FOR THE TOPIC

http://managementhelp.org/groups/team-
building.htm

https://www.huddle.com/blog/team-building-
activities/

http://www.businessballs.com/teambuilding.htm

http://en.catalystteambuilding.bg/

http://www.ultimatecampresource.com/site/camp-
activities/team-building-games-and-initiatives.page-
1.html

MODULE 5 –TEAM BUILDING


http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-a-team-
leader-description-role-responsibilities.html

http://smallbusiness.chron.com/10-effective-
qualities-team-leader-23281.html

http://www.careerprofiles.info/leadership-interview-
questions-answers.html

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM
_52.htm
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION

AUTHORS: JORDI ALSINA, BLANCA GÓMEZ, PILAR BELLOC

SCHOOL: INSTITUT EUROPE, BARCELONA, SPAIN

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Module 6 – Communication

Being able to communicate effectively is the most important of all life skills and one of the most
required in the labour market and it means the ability to speak, read listen and write effectively,
with clarity and conciseness. In order to help our students succeed in communication, we have
prepared a lot of activities, using an active methodology which entails students’ interaction with
their classmates in pairs, small or large groups, and help them develop the capacity to understand
and produce oral and written messages in English in communicative situations related to their
career, with different communicative intentions, with a clearly and structured treatment of
contents, acquiring fluency and accuracy, analysing the audience, being aware of the importance
of the body language to convey messages, simulating situations in real life related with their future
career interviews and taking into account the cultural differences in order to avoid
misunderstandings.
We hope that these materials will help students improve their communicative competence and
at the end of the project the students will be able to communicate effectively in an autonomous
way, in oral and written form, in typical communicative situations through specific tasks related
to their career.

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
SECTIONS

1. What is meant by effective communication?


2. What is meant by verbal and non-verbal communication?
3. What cultural differences may influence communication?

ASSESSMENT STANDARDS

- To evaluate the communication context.


- To create awareness of the existence of different types of communication.
- To understand what effective communication means.
- To compare and contrast cultural differences in communication.
- To identify the right means of communication according to the target audience.
128

- To select the desired action to convey meaning.


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which may be made of the information contained therein.
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER

Title of the activity Brief description

AM I A GOOD COMMUNICATOR? Individual quiz to see what you should improve.

Act out expressing feelings, without words


ACTING OUT WITHOUT WORDS Discussion: Importance of body language
YOUR MOOD Say a sentence expressing a different mood.

READING ALOUD Read aloud in front of a big audience in order to be a good


reader getting feedback from the peers
BODY LANGUAGE AT A JOB INTERVIEW To be familiar with the positive body language

Role-play to practice oral communication (student A) and


VERBAL/NON-VERBAL LANGUAGE body language (student B).
CATCHING PEOPLE’S ATTENTION Group work: To convey the message correctly using proper
verbal and body language.
LEARNING FROM YOUR MATES To Know other classmates’ cultures.
Group work:
AN ENTHUSIASTIC STUDENT How to communicate properly
Peer’s observation
Role play: simulation of a basic situation.
Tips to convince people

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
Group work: analyze the body language shown in 3
MUTE VIDEO videos( interviews to famous people)
CROSS CULTURAL MISUNDERSTANDINGS Small talk given by a foreign student
SMALL DISCUSSIONS Group work: For/against the importance of first impression
at an interview. Oral discussion with peers’ feedback.
A for and against essay
CLASSMATES’ INTERVIEWS Pair work and write a report.

GETTING FEEDBACK FROM THE MATES Pair work performance and peers’ evaluation.

CROSS CULTURAL DIFFERENCES Group work based on a memo exercise and winning
competition
A REAL INTERVIEW Pair work and getting feedback from the peers
VOLUNTEERING WORK Photo prediction
Jigsaw reading activity.
Further activity:
A for/against essay
129

A jigsaw reading
UNEMPLOYEMENT PROBLEM Take notes and write a report
Page

Formal letter to the Mayor of your Council.

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
PRE/POST-TEST: COMMUNICATION

Oral Communication Self-Assessment


Oral communication is the ability to use speech to share thoughts and information.
Complete this self-assessment to help you understand your oral communication strengths and areas for
improvement

Never Rarely Sometimes Frequently Most


often
I prepare for all communications and think
things before I speak.
I express my opinions and ideas clearly
and concisely.
I use appropriate body language (e.g.
smiling, nodding, making eye contact)
while having a conversation
I consider cultural barriers when planning
my communications
I try to anticipate possible causes of
confusion and I deal with them up front
Before I communicate, I think about what

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
the person needs to know, and how best to
convey it.
Listen to others without interrupting
Persuade others to consider different
options
I give support
and positive feedback to the others
I write and rewrite a draft and then I revise
it, before writing the final version.

Self-assessment: students should improve all these points and answer “most often” at the end of the
year.
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PERSONAL OBJECTIVE SHEET FOR STUDENTS
(to be filled in after the pre and post-test)

1. What I know about the topic………………….

2. What I want to know about the topic…………….

3. What I improved…………………………….

4. What I need to improve further…………….

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
131Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
ICE-BREAKERS/WARM-UP ACTIVITIES
Title: ARE YOU A GOOD COMMUNICATOR?

Purpose: To know you better and to improve the weak points related to communication

Materials: www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newCS_99.htm#Explanation

Instructions:
1. Say 3 adjectives that describe you as a communicator.
2. Discuss in groups of 3, the important skills that a good communicator is supposed to have.
3. Students enter in the following site and discover how good communicators they are:
www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newCS_99.htm#Explanation
4. See your scores and comment them with the rest of the class.

Worksheet
www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newCS_99.htm#Explanation

COMMUNICATION QUIZZ

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
INSTRUCTIONS
Please answer questions as you actually are (rather than how you think you should be), and don't
worry if some questions seem to score in the 'wrong direction'. When you finish, calculate your
total

STATEMENTS TO ANSWER NOT AT ALL RARELY OFTEN SOMETIMES VERY OFTEN

1 I try to anticipate and predict


possible causes of confusion, and I
deal with them up front.

2. When I write a memo, email, or


132

other document, I give all of the


background information and detail I
can to make sure that my message is
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understood.

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3. If I don't understand something, I
tend to keep this to myself and figure
it out later.

4 I'm sometimes surprised to find that


people haven't understood what I've
said.

5 I can tend to say what I think,


without worrying about how the other
person perceives it. I assume that
we'll be able to work it out later.

6. When people talk to me, I try to see


their perspectives.

7. I use email to communicate


complex issues with people. It's quick
and efficient.

8. When I finish writing a report,


memo, or email, I scan it quickly for
typos and so forth, and then send it
off right away.

9 When talking to people, I pay


attention to their body language.

10 I use diagrams and charts to help


express my ideas.

11 Before I communicate, I think

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
about what the person needs to
know, and how best to convey it.

12 When someone's talking to me, I


think about what I'm going to say next
to make sure I get my point across
correctly.

13 Before I send a message, I think


about the best way to communicate it
(in person, over the phone, in a
newsletter, via memo, and so on)

14 I try to help people understand the


underlying concepts behind the point
I am discussing. This reduces
misconceptions and increases
understanding

15 I consider cultural barriers when


planning my communications.
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SCORE INTERPRETATION

SCORE COMMENT

You need to keep working on your communication skills. You are not expressing
yourself clearly, and you may not be receiving messages correctly either. The
good news is that, by paying attention to communication, you can be much more
effective at work, and enjoy much better working relationships!
15-35

You're a capable communicator, but you sometimes experience communication


problems. Take the time to think about your approach to communication, and
36-55 focus on receiving messages effectively, as much as sending them. This will help
you improve.

Excellent! You understand your role as a communicator, both when you send
messages, and when you receive them. You anticipate problems, and you
choose the right ways of communicating. People respect you for your ability to
communicate clearly, and they appreciate your listening skills.
56-75

2. ACTING OUT WITHOUT WORDS

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
Purpose: To be aware of the importance of the body language to avoid confusion

Materials: Cards with the words.

Instructions:

1. Write adjectives describing a feeling and explain it acting out.


2. Comment the difficulties in guessing the feeling, because sometimes the student doesn’t
use the correct gesture.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Worksheet

Task:

Write adjectives describing a feeling on a piece of paper and put them into a box.
Possible adjectives: afraid, nervous, frustrated, bored, exhausted, happy, embarrassed,
disappointed, relied, and so on.
Take one and act out without using words.
Students guess the meaning and write how noticed it (behaviour) and write it down
on the table below:

FEELING BEHAVIOUR

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
Comment the difficulties in guessing the feeling, because sometimes the student
doesn’t use the correct gesture.

Discussion: Importance of body language to convey a message properly. Why do we


sometimes get a wrong message?

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
3. YOUR MOOD

Purpose: Be aware of the importance of your mood

when you communicate with people.

Materials:

 Cards with an adjective written on them.


 Write the sentence on the board.

Instructions:

Memorize the sentence and repeat it expressing the mood written on the card.

Worksheet

7 students take a card with a written word: guilty, insecure, happy, irritated, worried,
relaxed and depressed.

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
Guilty Insecure Happy Worried

Relaxed Depressed Irritated

 They have to memorize the sentence and repeat it expressing the mood written on
their card.
We all have to finish this
exercise now and go to the
headmaster’s office.
136Page

 The rest of the class has to guess the reader’s mood

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4. READING ALOUD

Purpose:

 To develop effective reading skills.


 To be confident acting in front of an audience

Materials: Texts about familiar topics for the students

Instructions:

 Read a text aloud taking into account the tips for effective reading.
 Tips: slow down and don’t read fast. Keep your head up, hold the document higher and
project your voice. Pause occasionally, pauses can be useful for emphasis.
 Get feedback from your peers.

Worksheet

 Read a text about a topic you know.


 First, read it silently, and then read it aloud in your normal speaking voice.
 Finally, read it in front of the class.

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
 Tips: slow down and don’t read fast. Keep your head up, hold the document higher and
project your voice. Pause occasionally, pauses can be useful for emphasis.
 Peers’ observation: In groups of 4, take notes about the reader’s communicative skills,
compare the notes and draw up the conclusions.
 Report them.

5. BODY LANGUAGE AT A JOB INTERVIEW

Purpose:

 To be familiar with vocabulary related to body language.


 To be aware of the importance of body language when communicating in a job.
137

Materials: Photocopy of the worksheet.


Page

Instructions:

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 Students are required to think about positive and negative attitudes at an interview and
put the following sentences in the correct column.

Worksheet
Task:

 In groups of 4 think about positive and negative attitudes at an interview.


 Read the following words and in groups try to guess their meaning.

Tapping your foot or fingers, shaking hands firmly,


smiling, yawning, staring, hiding your hands and
palms, relaxed posture, paying attention,
slouching in your seat, looking at your watch,
rubbing your nose, keeping hands out of your
pockets, sitting with both feet on the floor,
making eye contact, fiddling with hair, jewellery,
jacket, or glasses, sitting up straight, avoiding the
interviewer’s gaze, leaning towards the door,

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
nodding in agreement.

 In groups of 4 put the following sentences in the correct column.


 Add more and comment.
Positive body language to adopt Negative body language to avoid
138

- Whole class discussion about it.


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COURSE AND FEEDBACK ACTIVITIES
7. VERBAL/NON-VERBAL LANGUAGE

Purpose:

To be aware of the importance of non-verbal language when communicating.

To understand how much information we send to the audience with non-verbal
messages.
Materials: Photocopy of the dialogue.
Instructions: Pair work.
 Students are requested to read the following dialogue using verbal and non-verbal
communication.
WORKSHEET:
Student A reads his/her lines out loud, and student B communicates in a nonverbal way,
expressing a secret emotional distraction (to be in a rush, angry or maybe guilty).

 Dialogue:
 A: Have you seen my t-shirt? I can’t find it.
 B: Which one?
 A: The white one. The one you gave me for my birthday.
 B: Where did you leave it?
 A: It was on my bed and somebody has taken it.

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
 B. I did not! Maybe it’s under your bed.
 A: I have looked everywhere and I need it now.
 B: Really? Why don’t you tidy up your bedroom and I’m sure you will find it.
 A: Mum, you’re always complaining. I’m really fed up!
 B: I’m very busy with the cleaning. Take another one, you have hundreds in the wardrobe.
 B: Look—I found it!

After the dialogue, each A student will have to say what emotion was affecting student B.

7. CATCHING PEOPLE’S ATTENTION

Purpose: To catch people’s attention and to convey the message correctly

Materials: Photocopy
139

Instructions:

One student speaks about something important that happened to him/her and the others have to
Page

evaluate his/her performance

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CATCHING PEOPLE’S ATTENTION

Guide
2
1 Communication process
5 Conclusion
Eye How often? Avoided?
Sender Channel Messsage Audience contact

Speaker Speech Experience Class


Facial Inexpressive? Emotionally involved? Interested?
express
Smiling? Terrified?
ion
Tone of Does their voice project warmth, confidence, and
voice
interest, or is it strained and blocked?

Posture t or stiff and immobile? Sit properly? Tensed and


Relaxed
and
raised shoulders, or slightly sloped? What about hand
gesture
and arm movements?
0 Instructions Intensit Flat, cool, and disinterested, or over-the-top and
y
melodramatic?
Timing Is there an easy flow of information back and forth?
and
Quickly or too slow nonverbal responses?
pace
- One student speaks about something important that happened to
Sounds Do you hear sounds that indicate caring or concern?
him/her(he/she has 15 minutes to prepare his/her speech).
- Divide the class into two groups: Group A body language observers
- and group B speech observers.
- Take notes, compare them with the ones taken by your group members and complete the table.
- Members of “A” group discuss if the body language seemed positive or negative, and
give their conclusions to the class. Group “b” does the same.
- Monitor effectiveness: the speaker gets feedback.
- Repeat the same activity with another student and about
- another familiar topic, a trip, a book, a film) . 3

O bser ving body language

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
Eye contact?

Facial expression
4 Verbal language
Tone of voice
Is the information well organised?
Are there few key points?
Posture and gesture
Too long? Short? So many details?

Intensity
Clear ideas
Examples: interesting? Boring?
Timing and pace

Finished sentences
Sounds
Others
Strong start and end to catch
audience’s attention
Others
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
8. LEARNING FROM OUR MATES

Purpose: To know about other cultures explained by our foreigner classmates. Materials: Paper, pens and
a camera

Instructions:

A classmate from another country makes a speech about the cultural differences between his/her country
and our country. The students have prepared the topics and given them to him/her.(possible topic:
relationship between parents and kids, discipline at school, introducing yourself, lifestyle, etc.).After the
speech the students can make questions.

Then write a report about similarities and differences between your culture and the one of the person
interviewed

9. AN ENTHUSIASTIC STUDENT

Purpose: To be able to convince the others

Materials: Worksheet.

Instructions: Role play

One student prepares a speech to convince the sports teachers of the school
that he is a suitable person to train the 12 year-old students and 2 students are

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
the sports teachers of the school.

The rest of the class split into two groups:

Group “A” takes notes about his body language and “B”: notes about his verbal skills and the speaker gets
feedback from their mates

Worksheet

Task:

Prepare a speech to convince the sports teachers of the school that you are a suitable person
to train the 12 year-old students and 2 students are the sports teachers of the school.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
David is a student of 2nd Baccalaureate and wants to
train 12 year-old students on Wednesday afternoon,
but the school sports teachers don’t trust on him as
he is a new student in their school. He tells them
several stories about his past training experience in
the other school as a football coach and in a summer
camp last year and explains why he would like this
job. He adds personal information about where he
grew up, his hobbies, qualities, experience and why
he is so interested in the job and tries to convince
them that he is the suitable coach for this group of
students.

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
- The rest of the class split into two groups:
- Group “A” takes notes about his body language and “B”: notes about his verbal
skills.
- Comment the notes.
- David takes notes about the comments in order to improve his communication
skills.
Use your body language to create
interest. Use personal experiences to
captivate your audience. Speak
slowly, pronunciation, intonation,
pauses, control your nerves

TIPS
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
10. MUTE VIDEO

Purpose: To raise awareness of the importance of the body language in communication.


Materials:
Video 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I3xW0ZFos0I
Video 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0FVYCktUQqM
Video 3: www.npr.org/2015/04/07/397933577/transcript-president-obamas-full-npr-
interview-on-iran-nuclear-deal or in youtube:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_T8rSmgMWQ#t=397

Instructions:

The teacher asks the students to watch the videos and to take notes about the body language.

Worksheet
Task:
 Students in groups of 4 watch the videos and take notes about the body language used
in the interviews.
 First, read the observation guide.
Guide

Eye contact Yes? How often? Intense?

Facial Expressive or inexpressive? Or emotionally present and filled with interest?

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
expression Smiling?

Dress Formal, informal?

Posture and Relaxed or stiff and immobile? Tensed and raised shoulders, or slightly
gesture sloped? Arms folded, arms by the sides, arms waving?

Touch Is there any physical contact? Is it appropriate to the situation?

Intensity Do they seem flat, cool, and disinterested, or melodramatic?

Timing and pace Quickly or too slow nonverbal responses?

Location Where does it take place? How the environment can affect their
communication?
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Video 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I3xW0ZFos0I
Video 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0FVYCktUQqM
Video 3: www.npr.org/2015/04/07/397933577/transcript-president-obamas-full-npr-
interview-on-iran-nuclear-deal or in youtube:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_T8rSmgMWQ#t=397
 Watch 3 videos with sound mute and observe the body language and write notes on the
table below.

Compare your notes with the ones taken by the members of your group and complete the table
together.
Video 1 a singer Video2 footballer Video 3 a President

Eye contact

Facial
expression

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
Dress

Posture and
gesture

Touch

Intensity

Timing and
pace

Location

 Open a discussion if the body language is positive or negative.


 Predict the topic and the mood.
 Watch the video again but with the sound on.
 Check your observations and comment them.
144

 Summarize the key body language points and check how they show the mood of the
speakers’ mood and language.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
11. CROSS-CULTURAL MISUNDERSTANDING

Purpose: To be aware of the importance of using the proper communication skills

When you work with people from other cultures.

Materials: Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BrJTf97Ev8o


Instructions:

Revise the tips for a good communication

Watch the following video and analyse the reasons of misunderstanding and how they could have been
avoided.

Worksheet

Task:

 Revise the tips for a good communication

 Watch the following video and analyze the reasons of misunderstanding.


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BrJTf97Ev8o

 Intercultural interaction difficulties.

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
 Cultural values.

 Non-verbal communication: eye contact, facial expressions, posture and gesture,


touch, intensity, timing and place.

 How could this confusion have been avoided?

 Further activity: A foreign student from a very different country like India, Pakistan,
China explains his/her personal experiences related to misunderstanding and how the
problem was solved or should have been solved.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
12. SMALL DISCUSSIONS

Purpose: Be aware of the importance of the first appearance in a job interview.


Materials: Daily newspaper article.

Source taken http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2661474/First-


from:
impressions-really-DO-count-Employers-make-decisions-job-applicants-seven-
minutes.html

Instructions:

Students are required to read an article and discuss

about the topic.

Worksheet

Task:
- Warming-up: What is the most important thing to get a job?

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
“First impressions are very important at a job interview”

- Read the following article from the Daily newspaper:

First impressions really DO count: Employers make decisions about job applicants in under
seven minutes

The research, carried out by Monster.co.uk, after interviewing 273 managers and
3,286 employees about their interview experiences states:
 Around 70 per cent said a candidate's make-up creates a first impression.
 More than two thirds of employers are immediately put off by tattoos.
 Half of interviewers said they judge a candidate based on a handshake.
 The most important attribute is a candidate’s work experience (36 per cent).
 Bosses (62 per cent) say an interviewee’s dress sense has a big impact on their
employability.
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 The most important attribute is a candidate’s work experience (36 per cent),
followed by first impressions (24 per cent) and their education (12 per cent).
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Source taken from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2661474/First-impressions-really-DO-count-Employers-make-decisions-
job-applicants-seven-minutes.html

PUBLISHED: 23:01 GMT, 18 June 2014 | UPDATED: 09:34 GMT, 19 June 2015.

- Group work activity. Group A agrees with the statement and gives arguments
encouraging people to dress and behave properly in a job interview. Group B disagrees
and gives arguments stating that appearance is not the most important thing; there are
others more important like personal skills, experience or qualifications.

I think

In my opinion

I agree/disagree
- Write your arguments on flipcharts. That’s true, but

- Group C: The observers (the rest of the class).

- A volunteer chairs the discussion.

- One person of each group presents the final conclusions giving as much support as
possible. And the discussion begins.

- The chairman controls the discussion between the groups and encouraging participation,

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
creativity and compromise.

- The observers write down notes:

 Half paying attention to the body language: eye-contact, pauses, gesture, tone of voice,
movements of the hands, etc.
 The other half to the verbal communication: clear ideas, polite ways of interaction,
finished sentences, listening to the others and letting the others speak, solid arguments.

Interesting if the discussion can be filmed in order to take feedback of the activity.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Worksheet: further activity

Further activity: WRITING: An Opinion essay: Do you agree that the first impression is
one of the main things considered by employers?

PLAN
Express your own opinion on something and convince the reader that your
opinion is valid´
Paragraph1 : Introduction: introduce the topic and state your opinion very
briefly using clear and precise ideas.
Paragraph 2: Give examples and reasons for your opinion. Use a different
paragraph for each reason.
Paragraph 3: Summarize your opinions.

USEFUL LANGUAGE
In my opinion, I think/feel/believe that Connectors: What is
more, Besides

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
As I see it, I agree/(strongly)disagree In
addition, Moreover

It seems to me that, As far as I am concerned Furthermore,

It is clear that, Connectors of


contrast: although,
From my point of view, in spite of,
however, nevertheless

13: CLASSMATES’ INTERVIEWS

Purpose: To prepare students for real interviews


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Materials: worksheet
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Instructions: Mock interview: students are requested to prepare a mock interview in pairs and then write
a report to be read to the class.

Worksheet

Interview a classmate
- Pair work activity: first step for a real interview.
- Prepare the questions: Possible ones:

 Tell me about yourself


 What are your strengths and weakness?
 Tell me about your future plans
 What things are most important to you in a work situation?
 If you had a choice, would you prefer to work alone or in a
team? Why?
 What are your hobbies and interests?
 What salary are you expecting?

- After the interview, the interviewer writes a report with all the information collected
and reads the report to the class.

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
14. GETTING FEEDBACK FROM THE MATES

Purpose: To accept comments and to be able to use it for further communication.

Materials: Worksheet

Instructions:

In groups of 5, students are requested to perform a small dialogue,


trying to persuade, convince, agree, disagree, negotiate…. And at the end,
they are going to get feedback from their peers.
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Worksheet
Page

In groups of 5, the students perform a small task.

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
- Read the text.

One student is the employer and the other the employee who tries to convince his/her
boss to allow him/her to begin work at 8.30 instead of 8.00 because he/she has to take
his/her little son to school. He suggests beginning 30 minutes later and finishing work
at 3.30 instead of 3.00.

- Remember the communication rules and body language.


- Student A: the employer
- Student B: the employee
- Student C: the camera boy.
- Students D and E: Observers: take notes about the performance, the message (clear,
concrete, concise, etc.), the space, the language, tone of voice, etc., but they cannot
interfere.
- The rest of the class: add comments and evaluate the positive and negative things.
- The employer and employee get feedback from their peers.

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
PREPARE, PRACTISE AND PERFORM

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
15. Cross-cultural communication

Purpose: To be aware of the cross-cultural differences that can cause misunderstandings when you
convey a message.

Materials: Worksheets, laptop, website

http://www.crosscultured.com/documents/Gesture%20answers.pdf
http://www.crosscultured.com/documents/Gestures.pdf
Instructions:

Teacher asks the students to analyse the different meaning of the most common gestures according to
the cultures.

Worksheet

- Explain the meaning of the following gestures in your culture and in other cultures if you know.
.
- Click here:

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION

http://www.crosscultured.com/documents/Gesture%20answers.pdf

Try to memorize in 15 minutes as much as possible about the different meaning of gestures around
the word.
- 3 students have the photocopy with the answers and in turns, they make questions to
the whole class and students in pairs try to answer. Possible examples: “What does
“head toss” mean in Italy?
151

- The first ones, who answer properly, get one point.


- And the winner is the group with more cards.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
16. A REAL INTERVIEW

Purpose: To prepare the students for a real interview

Materials:

Worksheet, a camera and laptops:

http://shop.mango.com/iframe.faces?state=she_006_IN .
Instructions: The class is divided into 3 groups, the candidates, the interviewers and the observers( body
language and verbal communication observers) and the teacher asks them to perform an interview .

Worksheet

Task:
Assumptions: The students are supposed to have written their CV at home last week. CVs previously
corrected by the teacher.

 Form 3 groups:
o Group A: the candidates for a job as a secretary in the sales department.
o Group B: the interviewers
o Group C: the observers.

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
- Check the tips for a good interview and enter in the web page of the company to get
information about it (30 minutes), take notes and prepare the questions.

http://shop.mango.com/iframe.faces?state=she_006_IN

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
 Group A (3 applicants) task:
o to get information about the company
o Information about the working conditions
o Information about training and promotions
o Types of contract, etc.

TIPS:

• Be punctual, and properly dressed.


• Good handshake.
• Good posture while sitting. Control your gestures, tone of voice and pauses.
• Come prepared with a resume and references.
• Don’t be the first to talk.
• Be yourself.
• Smiled and be friendly. Eye contact.
• Highlight that you love being around people and like to learn new things
• Listen well.
• Search information of the firm (shows some research) and indicate you will be proud
to work there.
• Have a good question on training.
• Thank the interviewer and shake hands.

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
 Group B( 2 recruiters) task:
 Prepare the questions.
 Personal information, skills, weakness and strengths, goals, experience, qualifications,
background, family, hobbies, interest for the company, team working, salary, etc.

 Group C formed by the rest of the class split into two groups: Take notes:
o Group C1: observe the body language
o Group C2: the verbal communication.

 The recruiters: choose the best candidate for the job and give reasons.
 At the end, the observers comment the interview, focussing on the positive and negative
things in order to give a positive feedback.

It would be better if you had the opportunity to film the interviews


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which may be made of the information contained therein.
17. VOLUNTEERING WORK

Purpose: To make students aware of the importance of volunteering work

Materials: photo and article of the newspaper New YorkTimes

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/31/your-money/31shortcuts.html?_r=0
Instructions:

Brainstorming: Look at the photo below and answer the questions.

Task: Jigsaw reading: each student has a letter (A,B,C,D) and has to read his/her text and then explain it
to the members of his/her group who have to answer a questionnaire individually and the winner is the
group with more correct answers.

Further activity:

A for and against essay: “Volunteering work should be compulsory at schools”


Worksheet
Task:

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
- Look at the photo below and answer the questions:
1. Who are these people?
2. Where are they?
3. How are they feeling?

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
- What are they doing? Why?
- What are they wearing?
- What kind of organization do they belong to?
- What do you know about these organizations?
- Can you tell us the name of the most famous ones in your country?
- Have you ever joined or worked in one?
- What are the benefits of volunteering work?

TASK: Jigsaw reading

- Make groups of 4 and each student has a letter A, B, C, D, according to the text he/she has
to read.
- Explain your text to the members of your group who can take notes if they want.
- Answer ten questions individually in 15 minutes

The winner is the group with more correct answers.

A Nowadays, some sort of volunteerism is given in many places. Through schools, churches,
synagogues, Girl and Boy Scouts and countless other organizations, children and teenagers are

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
expected to do something, whether it be fund-raising for charities, working at soup kitchens or
assisting at animal shelters.
In the most positive light, such service teaches children and teenagers to look beyond themselves
and understand the role they can play in their community and country. In the most negative light,
it is one more activity to tick off en route to college.
“There is some cynicism among people that some portion of community service is prompted by
students interested more in résumé-building,” said Richard G. Niemi, professor of political
science at the University of Rochester.
But does it really matter why it’s done? Isn’t it enough to volunteer, no matter the motive?
Well, yes and no. Studies have shown that generally, community service for whatever reason is
a good thing. But how it’s done and whether it also involves service learning — that is, lessons
that discuss homelessness, say, or hunger in a larger context — make a difference.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
B. Joseph E. Kahne, a professor of education at Mills College, and his colleagues just completed
a survey of more than 500 teenagers in the 11th and 12th grades from a diverse set of 19 high
schools in California. The researchers followed the students for up to three years after graduation.
The students who were engaged in some sort of community service in high school —whether
mandatory or voluntary — were more likely to volunteer or be involved in some civic activity.
Most, but not all, of the volunteer work had classroom learning attached to it.
Participants get much more out of the work they do, Professor Niemi said, if there is a forum to
talk about and question the larger issues involved.
Otherwise, he said, students may believe that all problems are solved through individual efforts
and government doesn’t have a role. „They’ll see that the homeless don’t have food and that
individuals help, but they won’t understand the connection between public policy and the
homeless,” he said.
Professor Kahne also found this to be true in his research, noting that “most service programs do
not examine causes of social problems or possible solutions” and, therefore, play down the need
for political engagement.

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
C In looking at what volunteering offers, Professor Kahne distinguishes among three types of citizens:
“personally responsible” — that is they help people they know and donate blood; participatory citizens,
who are active in community projects; and justice-oriented citizens, who examine causes and possible
solutions for society’s ills.

“We believe that all three dimensions of citizenship are important, but found that most programs do
not address all three and generally pay least attention to the last,” Professor Kahne said.

In fact, if teenagers — and adults for that matter — are thrust in a volunteer situation they don’t
understand or feel that they are simply being assigned made-up work, it can actually have a detrimental
effect.

James E. Youniss, a research professor of psychology at the Catholic University of America, said an
unpublished study of New York students discovered that they were actually turned off to community
service when they were told they were going to help people and ended up doing menial jobs that
seemed unrelated.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
D. Of course, volunteering may involve mundane or repetitive work, but those participating need to
understand the connection between their work and the overall issue, Professor Youniss said.
“It’s not that service is bad, but that programs can be bad,” he said.
Professor Youniss studied students in one Massachusetts high school that was about to introduce
mandatory community service.
He looked at a sample group of teenagers, including those who did no volunteering, those who did so on
their own and those require to complete a certain number of hours by their senior year.
The students were asked at the beginning and end of their high school career if they were likely to vote
when they became eligible and do some sort of community service. Those who weren’t volunteering, or
weren’t required to, usually said they were unlikely to vote or do community service in the future. Those
who volunteered without being required generally said they were likely to vote and would volunteer. But
the big switch to being much more inclined to volunteer and vote was apparent among those students who
had been assigned service in the community, Professor Youniss said.

Text taken from: New YorkTimes

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/31/your-money/31shortcuts.html?_r=0

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
Questions:

1. Who promotes voluntarism?

2. What is the positive part of this kind of work?

3. What does the writer criticize?

4. Can you explain the results got by Mr.Kahne?

5. What does he say about service programs?

6. What three kinds of citizens does he mention?

7. What happened in the school where voluntarism was implemented?

8. What happens when voluntaries are assigned to a work that they don’t understand?
157

9. According to the author, what is the main problem of these organizations?


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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Further activity:

Worksheet

Option 1: A for and against essay: “Volunteering work should be compulsory at


schools”

PLANNING:

It is about a controversial topic. The writer presents both sides of the issue and gives
his/her opinion at the end of the essay.

Paragraph1: State the issue.


Paragraph 2: Provide arguments in favour and give examples.
Provide arguments against and give examples.
Paragraph 3: Summarize the topic and state your opinion.
USEFUL LANGUAGE
Many people say I think It is true
There are many reasons for It is not an easy question
We must look at both sides of the question

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
Connectors:
On the one hand/ on the other hand.
However/ But/What’s more…./In addition…../Furthermore,…../Moreover,……/
Ending:
In my opinion, …. /In conclusion,…./ To sum up,…./In conclusion,…. 158Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
18. UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEM

Purpose: To make students aware of the problem and look for solutions

Materials: Article from a newspaper

Instructions: Jigsaw reading and then write a report about the topic

Worksheet

Task:

Read the following article:

Spanish youth in crisis


Since the financial crisis hit, young Spaniards’ lives have been put on hold. Youth
unemployment stands at 55 per cent – second in the EU only to Greece – and almost half
of under-30s still live with their parents.

A It is not the job Maria trained to do, or the one she dreamt of as a child. She doesn’t even know

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
the salary on offer. But she knows it is a job, and a job is precious if you are 24 years old,
unemployed and live in Spain.

Maria spent six years studying to be a doctor but hospital jobs are few and far between right now.
She lost her part-time post at a dental clinic last year and her unemployment benefits will only
last so long. She wants a job – any job – that will help her get a little closer to the life she wants
to lead, to have a flat of her own and start a family with her boyfriend. Her dreams are not wildly
ambitious; she just wants a “traditional life” and, if possible, to live in Barcelona, where she was
born and still lives with her parents.

This time, the odds are far from bad. Maria knows that only five candidates were interviewed,
and the two jobs as sales representatives for a pharmaceutical company are still on offer. But she
worries that most of her rivals are better placed, with previous experience in sales.

“I don’t even know what the conditions are but whatever they are I would take the job. It would
sort out my life,” she says.

In her close circle of friends, seven out of 10 are without a job.


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which may be made of the information contained therein.
B In Spain the early years of the crisis cut through their ranks brutally and indiscriminately: in
the services sector, between 2007 and 2011, one in four young workers lost their job; in industry,
every second worker aged 20-29 was sacked; in construction, it was two out of three. Those who
entered the job market during those years faced even tougher odds.

Youth unemployment now stands at 55 per cent, the second-highest in the European Union
behind Greece. One in four Spaniards between 18 and 29 is not in education, training or
employment, one of the highest rates in the developed world. Close to 1.7m Spaniards under the
age of 30 are out of work, with almost 900,000 already classified as long-term unemployed, or
without a job for more than a year.

No one, not even the government in Madrid, expects the scourge of mass unemployment to lift
any time soon. The Spanish economy may no longer be in recession, and jobless numbers are
down from their peak last year. But those who had the bad fortune to leave a Spanish school or
university in the past few years – or who are starting their working life – face a bleak future. With
jobs still in desperately short supply, many are likely to be afflicted by what economists call the
“scarring effect”, a well-known pattern associated with young workers who fail to find work early
on: even if they do eventually join the labour market, their earnings and career prospects will
never be what they could have been.

Their loss, however, is not just about money and economic advancement. Shut out of the housing
market and forced to live with their parents or other relatives, countless young Spaniards are in
effect barred from starting their own families. For some, locked in perpetual financial

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
dependence and economic insecurity, that moment may never come.

C The anger and disillusionment that have gripped so many of Spain’s young have spread to their
parents, who watch the struggles of their offspring with pity, alarm, frustration and – occasionally
– exasperation. The country’s baby-boomer generation knows only too well that it was lucky to
enter the crisis with its mortgages paid off and its pensions still funded. Indeed, official data show
that the financial hit suffered by Spaniards aged 45-64 was less than half that suffered by young
Spaniards below the age of 30. Pensioners, meanwhile, actually grew richer between 2007 and
2011.

Far from enjoying their good fortune, however, countless Spanish parents and grandparents have
been forced to provide a roof and financial safety net for their grown-up children. Even those who
like to keep them close admit that it is tough watching sons and daughters in their twenties or
thirties disappear into the same bedroom they inhabited a couple of decades earlier.
160

Adapted from: THE FINANCIAL TIMES LTD 2015May 23, 2014 1:04 pm
http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/5908da36-db09-11e3-8273-00144feabdc0.html#slide0
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Task: Jigsaw reading
- In groups of 3, each student has a letter A, B, C.
- Read the text according to your letter.
- The other members of their group take notes.
- Then write a report using your notes.
- Read it to the members of your group and pay attention to their comments and
corrections (if necessary).

Further activity: A formal letter or formal mail:


Write a formal letter or mail to the Mayor of your city complaining about the difficulties that young people
have to find a job.
Plan

- Put your address in the top right hand corner and write the date under your address
- Put the name and the address of the person you’re writing to on the left, above the
greeting.
- Don’t use contractions.
- Use formal language and phrases.
- Use the passive whenever possible.
- Give a clear reason for writing.
- Organize your material into paragraphs.

USEFUL LANGUAGE

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
Greetings:
o If you don’t know the name: Dear Sir/Madam and finish with: Yours
faithfully
o If you know the name: Dear Mr/Ms/Mrs and finish with: Yours sincerely.
Reasons for writing: I am writing to apply for……/ request some
information about…./ask about……/ complain about…../ I saw your
advertisement in…./I read about…./ regarding……
Formal language: I would like to point out that…./I would be very grateful if……
SEQUENCING
Firstly,……/Secondly,……/Finally,…../In conclusion,…

Ending: I look forward to hearing from you.


Yours faithfully( with Dear Sir or Madam)/ Yours sincerely (with Dear
161

Mr/Ms X).
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
TIPS FOR “PERSONAL SKILL ASSESSMENT”

 All of us communicate every day. The better we communicate, the more


credibility we'll have with our clients, our boss, and our colleagues.
 Take into account the communication process if you want to be a good
communicator:

 Source: You must know what you want to communicate, the receiver,
when, why, how, where.

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
 Message: Information you want to convey. The 7 Cs Communication Tips:
the message should be: clear, concise, concrete, correct, coherent,
complete and courteous.
 Remember that the message has 3 parts:
 Introduction: you have to catch your audience’s attention.
 Body: 3 to 5 key points supported with examples and personal anecdotes.
Use an outline to guide the audience.
 Conclusion.

Tips: Use a strong start and end.


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which may be made of the information contained therein.
In oral communication: Speak slowly, clearly and audibly. Vary your vocal tone,
raise and lower your pitch to express active emotion, pronounce words completely
and correctly, pause. Use personal experiences to captivate your audience. Control
your nerves

In written write and rewrite the draft.

Decide the channel: verbal (face to face meetings, telephone calls, video
conferences) or written (letters, mails, reports SMS. the Internet (including
Facebook and Twitter) and so on). Choose the right channel to convey your
message.
Know your audience:
What do you know about your target audience?
Who are they?
What are their backgrounds?
What does their day consist of?
What are their needs?
How much detail would they want?

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
What is the easiest way to communicate with them?
What do they care about most?
What is the regular channel for reaching this audience?
Tips: avoid cross-cultural barriers.

Feedback: provided by the audience when they get the message. It will help you to
understand if the audience has understood it. If not, you can clarify, and in written
messages you can rewrite and send it again.

Context : it means the situation in which your message is delivered. This may
include the surrounding environment or broader culture. It can be formal or
informal. Formal context requires fixed constrains.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Interpersonal encounters tips
 Opening communication.
o First impressions are very important. Be on time, appropriate
greetings, dress properly, handshake, eye contact, smiling, an
introduction of yourself, discussion around a neutral subject.
 Reinforcement:
- Use encouraging words and non-verbal gestures such as head nods, a warm facial
expression, eye contact, in order to:

o Encourage others to participate in discussion.


o Keep interest in what other people are saying.
o Facilitate the interaction.
o Stop fears and give reassurance.
o Show warmth and openness.
o Reduce shyness or nervous.
 Effective listening
o Arrange a comfortable environment.
o Be prepared to listen.
o Keep an open mind and concentrate on the main direction of the

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
speaker’s message.
o Avoid distractions.
o Delay judgment until you have heard everything.
o Be objective.
o Don’t think of your next question while the other is giving
information.
o Do not dwell on one or two points at the expense of others.
o Don’t stereotype.
 Questioning
o Obtain information.
o Start a conversation.
o Test understanding.
o Draw someone into a conversation.
o Show interest in a person.
o Seek support or agreement.
 Closed an open questions
o They mean control of the communication and can be useful for
164

focusing discussion.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Tips for an interview

 Be punctual and properly dressed.


 Good handshake.
 Good posture while sitting.
 Control your gestures, tone of voice and pauses.
 Come prepared with a resume or references.
 Don’t be the first to talk.
 Be yourself.
 Smile and be friendly. Eye contact.
 Highlight that you love working with people and learning new things.
 Be a good listener.
 Search information of the firm and indicate you will be proud to work there.

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
Have a good question on training.
 Thank the interviewer and shake hands.

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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
RECOMMENDED WEBSITES FOR THE TOPIC

http://consejos-empleo.monster.es/entrevista/como-vestirse-
para-las-entrevistas/como-hacer-una-entrevista-
perfecta/article.aspx?HPS=GN_CA_HowtoDressforAnInterview
http://consejos-empleo.monster.es/Entrevista/Preguntas-en-
las-Entrevistas/Aprender-a-prever-las-preguntas-con-
trampa/article.aspx
http://consejos-empleo.monster.es/Curriculos-y-
Cartas/Consejos-para-la-Carta-de-Presentacion/5-consejos-
para-redactar-una-carta-de-presentacion-que-suscite-
interes/article.aspx
http://www.laboris.net/static/em_reclutar_lenguaje-
corporal.aspx
http://www.laboris.net/static/em_reclutar_entrevistas-
eficaces.aspx

MODULE 6 –COMMUNICATION
http://www.laboris.net/static/em_reclutar_imagen-vale.aspx
http://www.laboris.net/static/candidato-entrevista-que-dice-
tu-cuerpo.aspx
http://www.laboris.net/static/ca_entrevista_preguntas-
comprometidas.aspx
http://www.laboris.net/static/page_personnel_10_consejos_p
ara_triunfar_en_entrevista_de_trabajo.aspx
http://www.entrevistadetrabajo.org/tipos-de-preguntas-en-la-
entrevista-de-trabajo.html
http://www.teinteresa.es/empleo/100-preguntas-entrevista-de-
trabajo_0_1070894651.html
http://www.ccelpa.org/la-entrevista-de-trabajo-i-tipos-y-claves-
para-prepararla/
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS

AUTHORS: CHRISTIAN ALTMANN

SCHOOL: FACH- UND BERUFSOBERSCHULE ERLANGEN, GERMANY

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Module 7 – Presentations

Presentations skills and public speaking skills are very useful in many aspects of work and
life. Effective presentations and public speaking skills are important in business, sales and
selling, training, teaching, lecturing, and generally feeling comfortable speaking to a group
of people.
Developing the confidence and capability to give good presentations, and to stand up in
front of an audience and speak well, are also extremely helpful competencies for self-
development and social situations. The following module shall help students to improve
their delivery and to convince their audience in any kind of presentation.

SECTIONS

1. What are the main types of presentations?


2. What purpose may a presentation have?
3. What is the layout of a presentation?
4. What advanced features may be introduced in presentations?
5. What skills are necessary for a presentation?
6. What presentation openers do you know?

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
7. Step- by- step presentation model.

ASSESSMENT STANDARDS

Presentation knowledge and skills

Students create and use varied presentations. They:


- analyse target audience and presentation context,
- select appropriate presentation formats for different purpose
- and they create and deliver presentations in a concise and effective manner.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER

Title of the activity Brief description

Tools Laptop, Flipchart, Pinboard

PowerPoint Typefaces, line distances, ...

The six steps to start a Presentation Greetings, compliments, …

Preparation of the Presentation Objective, subject, audience


Body language

Mimic

Gestures

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
Effective Speaking Finding your voice, Vocal production, …

Rhetorical devices Anaphora, Antithesis, …

Tips and Tricks Surprise, question, provocation, …

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
PRE/POST-TEST: PRESENTATIONS

1. You have been asked to speak to a group of people. What is the first thing
you should ask yourself?
2. _____________________________________________________________
3.
4. Why it is worth to know the place of the speaking event?
5. _____________________________________________________________
6.
7. How should you start your speech?
8. _____________________________________________________________
9.
10. What kind of Rhetorical devices can you use?
11. _____________________________________________________________

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
12.
13. Which mannerism should you avoid during a speech?
14. _____________________________________________________________
15.
16. What characteristics should the facial expression have?
17. _____________________________________________________________
18. What for are pauses useful for?
19. _____________________________________________________________
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
PERSONAL OBJECTIVE SHEET FOR STUDENTS
(to be filled in after the pre and post-test)

1. What do I know about the topic “Tools”? What do I want to know about it? What do I need
to improve?

2. What do I know about the topic “PowerPoint”? What do I want to know about it? What do
I need to improve?
____________________________________________________________________________

3. What do I know about the topic “Starting a presentation”? What do I want to know about
it? What do I need to improve?
____________________________________________________________________________

4. What do I know about the topic “Preparation of the presentation” What do I want to know
about it? What do I need to improve?
____________________________________________________________________________

5. What do I know about the topic “Body language”? What do I want to know about it? What
do I need to improve?
____________________________________________________________________________

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
6. What do I know about the topic “Mimic”? What do I want to know about it? What do I need
to improve?
____________________________________________________________________________

7. What do I know about the topic “Gestures”? What do I want to know about it? What do I
need to improve?
____________________________________________________________________________

8. What do I know about the topic “Effective Speaking”? What do I want to know about it?
What do I need to improve?
____________________________________________________________________________

9. What do I know about the topic Rhetorical devices? What do I want to know about it? What
do I need to improve?
____________________________________________________________________________
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1. Tools

a) Laptop (PowerPoint, Keynote, Prezi), Beamer

Attention should be paid to

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

b) Flipchart

Attention should be paid to

_____________________________________________________________________________________

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
_____________________________________________________________________________________

c) Pinboard

Attention should be paid to

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Tools-key

a) Laptop (Powerpoint, Keynote, Prezi), Beamer

Attention should be paid to

- only key notes,


- not too much information on every folder
- information has to be displayed at the right time of the speech not beforehand and not
afterwards

b) Flipchart

Attention should be paid to

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
- You have to turn your back to the auditory (don’t talk to the flipchart!)
- Speaker with illegible handwriting can seem to be incompetent
- Writing on the flipchart the speed at which the speech is delivered is much slower

c) Pinboard

Attention should be paid to

- First speaking than attaching the information on the board


- Never just read out the information on the paper. Arguments and conclusions have to be
developed beforehand.
173

2: PowerPoint
Page

1 Which typeface is suitable for a presentation?

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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
ABC (Arial) ABC (Comic Sans MS) ABC(Haettenschweiler)

  

2 Which type size you should use:

Headline:
A–A A–A A –A
16-22pt 24-36pt 36-48
  

Running text: A –A A –A A –A
12-18pt 20-28pt 30-38pt
  

3 Which highlighting you should use:


PowerPoint PowerPoint

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
Bold Italic
 

4 The line distance


is depending on the type size should always be the is depending on the number of
same signs
  

5 How should the information be presented?


in whole sentences only in key words
 
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
2: PowerPoint -Key

1 Which typeface is suitable for a presentation?


ABC (Arial) ABC (Comic Sans MS) ABC(Haettenschweiler)

x  

2 Which type size you should use:

Headline:
A–A A–A A –A
16-22pt 24-36pt 36-48
 x 

Running text: A –A A –A A –A
12-18pt 20-28pt 30-38pt
 x 

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
3 Which highlighting you should use:
PowerPoint PowerPoint
Bold Italic
x 

4 The line distance


is depending on the type size should always be the is depending on the number of
same signs
x  x

5 How should the information be presented?


in whole sentences only in key words
175

 x
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
3: The six steps to start a Presentation

Instruction:

a) Inform yourself by watching the following video about what is necessary for a good
PowerPoint Presentation and fill in the worksheet.
b) After that compare your results with the following solution

Link:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w8KjtN3sSo&index=2&list=PL9060FE7B23B0B20B
Step 1 _____________________________________________

Example
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Step 2 _____________________________________________

Example
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Step 3 _____________________________________________

Example
_____________________________________________________________________________________

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
Step 4 _____________________________________________

Example
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Step 5 _____________________________________________

Example
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Step 6 _____________________________________________

Example
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_____________________________________________________________________________________
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
3: The six steps to start a Presentation

Instruction:

a) Inform yourself by watching the following video about what is necessary for a good
PowerPoint Presentation and fill in the worksheet.
b) After that compare your results with the following solution

Link:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w8KjtN3sSo&index=2&list=PL9060FE7B23B0B20B

Step 1 Greetings

Example For example: Good morning, good evening

Step 2 Compliments

Example Thank you for coming today, it’s great to see you all here

Step 3 Name

Example My name is ...

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
Step 4 Position

Example I’m the Project Manager of ...

Step 5 Purpose

Example Today we are going to look at ...

Step 6 Structure

Example First we will look at the proposed schedule, next we will look at ....
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PREPARATION OF THE PRESENTATION

Preparation is the single most important part of making a successful presentation. Read the text
carefully and answer the questions.

The Objective

You have been asked to speak to a group of people. Firstly, ask yourself 'why?' What is the purpose of
the presentation, what is the objective, what outcomes do you and the audience expect? It is useful to
write down the reason you have to present so you can use this as a constant reminder while you prepare
the presentation.

The Subject

The subject of what you are going to talk about comes from the objective but they are not necessarily one
and the same thing. The subject may be given to you by an inviting organisation and you maybe have
knowledge only in a particular field. Therefore find out what is the real subject you have to talk about.

The Audience

Before preparing material for a presentation, it is worth considering your prospective audience. Tailoring
your talk to the audience is important and it should be considered the size of the group, the age range , is

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
it a captive audience or will they be there without any interest, do they know something about your
subject already or will it be totally new to them, are you there to inform, teach, stimulate, or provoke?

The Place

It is important to have as much advance information as possible about the place where you are going to
speak.

Ideally, try to arrange to see the venue before the speaking event, as it can be of great benefit to be
familiar with the surroundings. It helps to reduce fear if you can visualize the place while you are
preparing your talk. Additionally, it would also give you the opportunity to try out your voice. If at all
possible, you need to know the size of the room, the availability of equipment, e.g., microphone, overhead
projector, flip chart, computer equipment, check if you need someone to help when you are using
audio/visual equipment and need to turn off the lights.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
PREPARATION OF THE PRESENTATION

The Objective
What is the first thing you should ask yourself?
_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

The Subject

What is most important to find out about?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
The Audience

What is most important for you to know about the audience?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

The Place

Why it is worth to know the place of the speaking event?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________
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_____________________________________________________________________________________
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4: Preparation of the Presentation-Key

The Objective

What is the first thing you should ask yourself?

What the purpose of the presentation is, what the objective is, what outcomes you and the audience
expect.

The Subject

What is most important to find out about?

You have to find out what is the real subject you have to talk about.

The Audience

What is most important for you to know about the audience?

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
The size of the group, the age range, if it is a captive audience, if they know anything about your topic.

The Place

Why it is worth to know the place of the speaking event?

You can try out your voice, you see the availability of equipment, e.g., microphone, overhead projector,
flip chart, computer equipment.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
BODY LANGUAGE
1. What is the right sitting position during a job interview?

  

2. What is the right position during a speech or presentation?

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
  

3. What is the correct way to show results?


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 
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
BODY LANGUAGE-KEY
1. What is the right sitting position during a job interview?

  x

2. What is the right position during a speech or presentation?

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
 x 

3. What is the correct way to show results?


182

 x
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
MIMIC
The facial expression during a presentation should be

friendly ecstatic unfriendly


  

What other characteristics should the facial expression have?

a) calm excited impassioned

  

b) bored unconcerned interested

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
  

c) conceited arrogant balanced

  

d) averted with eye contact fixated on the auditory

  

e) restless nervous considerate

  

f) negative indifferent positive


183

  
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
MIMIC-KEY
The facial expression during a presentation should be

friendly ecstatic unfriendly


x  

What other characteristics should the facial expression have?

1) calm excited impassioned

x  

2) bored unconcerned interested

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
  x

3) conceited arrogant balanced

  x

4) averted with eye contact fixated on the auditory

 x 

5) restless nervous considerate

  x

6) negative indifferent positive


184

  x
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GESTURES

Several mannerism can interfere a good communication. So during a presentation you should avoid

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
- Going permanently up and down,
- Biting on your glasses, pencil, ....

What else you should avoid?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

What can help you to avoid your wrong gestures?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________
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GESTURES-POSSIBLE ANSWERS

Several mannerism can interfere a good communication. So during a presentation you should avoid

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
- Going permanently up and down,
- Biting on your glasses, pencil, ....

What else you should avoid?

- Flexing with your feet


- Fixing a special point over a longer time

What can help you to avoid your wrong gestures?

- Recording your speech and analysing your gestures


- Asking friends about your gestures during your speech
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
EFFECTIVE SPEAKING
Our voice can reveal as much about your personal history as your appearance.
The sound of a voice and the content of speech can provide clues to an individual's emotional state. The
voice is unique to the person to whom it belongs. For instance, if self-esteem is low, it may be reflected
by hesitancy in the voice, a shy person may have a quiet voice, but someone who is confident will be more
likely to have command of their voice and clarity of speech.

1) Finding your voice. Often people don’t like the sound of their own recorded voice - in the same
way that some people don't like photographs of themselves - they can feel embarrassed. Most of
us are not used to hearing our own voices and these feelings are totally normal. When relaxed
you will feel more confident, therefore by listening to your voice at home you will have an idea of
how you sound to other people. Although you cannot hear your voice in the same way that others
hear you, you can develop an awareness of its impact on others. Understanding the physical
nature of your voice will give you more control over the way that you use it. Individuals are all
used to using language in an informal way in their everyday lives, but as soon as a hint of formality
is suggested, they can become self-conscious and seize up. This becomes especially obvious when
speaking in front of strangers in a public setting. The more you get used to the sound of your voice
functioning in a slightly more formal way, the easier it is when doing it 'for real'. In conversational
mode, individuals tend to speak in short phrases, a few at a time. To improve the sound of your
voice and the way you speak you should first find a document to read, something about two pages
in length - the first few pages of a book would work well. Then read your document through
silently first. Then read it aloud in your normal speaking voice. Don't worry if you stumble or falter,
just pick up and continue to the end. Now read it a third time, recording your voice if possible and

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
2) remember:

Slow down:
It is a natural reaction to want to get it over as fast as possible and this often causes people to stumble
over their words. Speeding up also occurs when you are nervous and usually makes you more difficult
to understand.

Keep your head up:


Try not to tuck your chin into the book as your voice is then addressing the floor. Hold your book higher
and project your voice.

Pause occasionally:
Let the end of a sentence or the end of a paragraph give you a chance of a small, two or three second
rest. Pauses can be useful for emphasis.
187

Exercise:
Find a document to read, read it silently first, then aloud in your normal speaking voice. Then read it a
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third time recording your voice if possible.

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2. The Effect of Breath on Voice and Speech

The voice is responsive to emotions and sometimes gets 'blocked', which can prevent or hinder the
expression of a range of feelings. However, it is possible to use physical exercise to help produce a more
flexible voice, in the same way that people who use vocal sounds professionally take lessons, to ensure
that their voices are kept in a versatile condition and ready to vocalize a range of sounds.

When under stress an individual's breathing pattern will change. When your muscles are tense you
cannot use your lungs to their full capacity, when a person is frightened or nervous, a common symptom
is tension in the neck and shoulders. This occurs because, when under pressure, over-breathing tends to
occur. Plenty of air is inhaled, but with fast breathing there is not enough time to exhale and relax.

Good breathing is essential for two reasons:

 By using full lung capacity the breath will support the voice and the voice will become
richer, fuller and stronger. This will benefit individuals who have a small voice and who
worry that they cannot be heard when speaking to a group of people. Volume is
controlled in the abdomen not in the throat, so breathing to full strength will allow for
greater control of the voice.
 Breathing deeply and rhythmically has a calming and therapeutic effect as it releases
tension and promotes relaxation. Individuals who are relaxed are more balanced,
receptive and confident. It is no coincidence that several religions use rhythmic breathing
techniques such as meditation, yoga and silent contemplation, and vocal release in the
form of chants, mantras or hymn singing as aids to their devotions. By easing physical

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
tension, mental stress decreases and the mind is effectively freed to follow creative
pursuits.

Breathing Exercise

1. Stand in an easy position with your feet one pace apart, with the knees ‘unlocked’ and
not rigidly pushed back. Keep spine straight, head balanced and face muscles relaxed.
2. Breathe in to a slow count of three, then out to a slow count of three.
3. Try not to raise your shoulders as you breathe. Breathe in through your nose and out
through your mouth. Consciously think of your breath 'filling down' to the bottom of your
lungs.
4. Put the palm of your hand flat against your abdomen and feel the movement. Push
slightly against your hand as you breathe in and out.
5. Repeat this exercise ten times.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
3. Vocal Production

The following three core elements of vocal production need to be understood for anyone wishing to
become an effective speaker:

Volume - to be heard. Clarity - to be understood. Variety - to add interest.

Volume
Some people have naturally soft voices and physically cannot bellow. Additionally, if the voice is raised
too much, tonal quality is lost. Instead of raising the voice it should be 'projected out'. Support the voice
with lots of breath - the further you want to project the voice out, the more breath you need. When
talking to a group or meeting, it is important to never aim your talk to the front row or just to the people
nearest you, but to consciously project what you have to say to those furthest away. By developing a
strong voice, as opposed to a loud voice, you will be seen as someone positive.

Clarity
Some people tend to speak through clenched teeth and with little movement of their lips. It is this inability
to open mouths and failure to make speech sounds with precision that is the root cause of
inaudibility. The sound is locked into the mouth and not let out. To have good articulation it is important
to unclench the jaw, open the mouth and give full benefit to each sound you make, paying particular
attention to the ends of words.

Variety
To make speech effective and interesting, certain techniques can be applied. However, it is important not

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
to sound false or as if you are giving a performance. Whilst words convey meaning, how they are said
reflects feelings and emotions. Vocal variety can be achieved by variations in:

• Pace: This is the speed at which you talk. If the speech is too fast then the listeners will not have time
to assimilate what is being said. Nevertheless, it is a good idea to vary the pace - quickening up
at times and then slowing down – this will help to maintain interest.
• Volume: By raising or lowering volume, you can create emphasis. If you drop your voice to almost a
whisper (as long as it is projected) for a sentence or two, it will make your audience suddenly alert,
be careful not to overuse this technique.
• Pitch - Inflection - Emphasis: When speaking in public, try to convey the information with as much
vocal energy and enthusiasm as possible. This does not mean your voice has to swoop and dive
all over the place in an uncontrolled manner. Try to make the talk interesting and remember that
when you are nervous or even excited, vocal chords tense and shorten causing the voice to get
higher. Emphasise certain words and phrases within the talk to convey their importance and help
to add variety.
• Pause: Pauses are powerful. They can be used as effects to highlight the preceding statement or to
189

gain attention before an important message. Pauses mean silence for a few seconds. Listeners
interpret meaning during pauses so have the courage to stay silent for up to five seconds –
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dramatic pauses like this convey authority and confidence.

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
RHETORICAL DEVICES
In order to provide your speech with a little more variety and to make it less boring you can use some
rhetorical devices

1) Anaphora consists of repeating a sequence of words at the beginnings of neighbouring clauses,


thereby lending them emphasis.

Example:
With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right,
„Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address“

2) Antithesis is used in writing or speech either as a proposition that contrasts with or reverses
some previously mentioned proposition, or when two opposites are introduced
together for contrasting effect.

Example:
When there is need of silence, you speak, and when there is need of speech, you are dumb;
when you are present, you wish to be absent, and when absent, you desire to be present;
in peace you are for war, and in war you long for peace;
in council you descant on bravery, and in the battle you tremble.

3) Hyperbole is the use of exaggeration as a rhetorical device or figure of speech. It is used in


poems to create emphasis on a situation. It may be used to evoke strong feelings

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
or to create a strong impression, but is not meant to be taken literally.

Example:
I'm so hungry I could eat a horse! This cat weighs a ton! She's as big as a house.

4) Climax is a figure of speech in which words, phrases, or clauses are arranged in order of
increasing importance.

Example:
There are three things that will endure: faith, hope, and love. But the greatest of
these is love." 1 Corinthians 13:13

Give an example for every rhetorical device:

_____________________________________________________________________________________
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_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
TIPS AND TRICKS FOR “PRESENTATIONS”

 The surprise
Start your speech with something unexpected, relating to the topic. This
way you will get the whole attention from your auditory just at the
beginning.

 Question
Invite your auditory to get into the speech by a question. It can be a
leading question (Are you not tired too, spending hours in the internet
without learning anything?) or can just surround your speech by asking it
at the beginning and at the end.

 Provocation
Use an exaggeration of your arguments. This will maybe cause
contradiction, but will also create attention.

 Comparison
Passively listening to speeches often gets boring. By using comparisons,
parables, metaphors, you force the listeners to think about the topic.
Discovering the hidden message on their own is much more inspiring
than just to follow the words and arguments of the presenter passively.

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
 Story
People are usually unable to remember more than 5% of the dates and
facts of a speech, but they remember more than 60% of interesting
stories especially when they are presented in an ironic and humorous
way. Therefore try to embed your speech if somehow possible at least
part time in an interesting story.

Try to find an example for every tip

__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
RECOMMENDED WEBSITES FOR THE TOPIC

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w8KjtN3sSo&index=2&list=PL9060FE7B23B0B20B

http://www.skillsyouneed.com/ips/effective-speaking.html#ixzz3YIsuFCQ2

http://time.com/2903011/tips-perfect-presentation/

http://www.karrierebibel.de

MODULE 7 –PRESENTATIONS
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND
DECISION MAKING

AUTHORS: DANIEL MATKOVIC, BERNARD RUSSO

SCHOOL: LYCÉE CLOS MAIRE 21200 BEAUNE, FRANCE

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
Module 8–Problem solving and decision making

The module is meant to develop students’ abilities to solve difficult problems and/or make
complex decisions.

SECTIONS

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


1. What are the main parts/key components of the problem solving process?
2. What various alternatives can you identify to solve a problem?
3. What skills do you need to solve the problem?
4. What steps can you take to solve a problem?
5. What are the steps in decision making?
6. What positive and negative consequences a certain decision may have?
7. How to make the best decision?

ASSESSMENT STANDARDS

Students know, understand, and apply problem solving strategies. They:


- Adapt and use a variety of strategies to solve problems.
- Apply the information acquired in new contexts.
- Reflect on the process of problem solving.
- Apply problem solving skills in new contexts.
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which may be made of the information contained therein.
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER

Title of the activity Brief description

ACTIVITY 1: TEST: How good are you at problem solving? Pre/post-test on the topic

Personal objective sheet for students

ACTIVITY 2: The game of the six glasses Ice-Breaker 1

ACTIVITY 3: How to solve the Water Jug Riddle from Die Ice-Breaker 2:
Hard 3?

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


ACTIVITY 4: Getting to know problems/conflicts Game

ACTIVITY 5: Theoretical facts about problems/conflicts. Lecture n°1

ACTIVITY 6: Types of problem and problem solving strategy Lecture n°2

ACTIVITY 7: Practice How to solve a problem Single/Group Activity

ACTIVITY 8: Deciding When to Problem-Solve Mini lecture + role playing

ACTIVITY 9: Solving problems/conflicts role playing Role playing

ACTIVITY 10: Switcheroo Group Activity

ACTIVITY 11: stereotype Group Activity / Role playing

ACTIVITY 12: moody problem solving Group Activity / Role playing

ACTIVITY 13: Tower of Air Group game

ACTIVITY 14: Role-playing Problem-Solving with Group role playing


Toothpicks, Dots, and Coins
Tips for… Problem solving

Recommended links
195 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
PRE/POST-TEST: HOW GOOD ARE YOU AT PROBLEM SOLVING?

Title: How good are you at problem solving?

Purpose:

This test might be used as:

 A pre/post-test on the topic: by comparing the answers, the students would be able to
evaluate what they have learned during this course. In that case the teacher should
reduce the number of questions and keep only 10 of them.
 A normal activity to introduce the module, after collecting the answers, the teacher will
have to make a “global analysis” and introduce the plan of the module.

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


Needed materials:

A room with chairs, pencils, one printed worksheet for each student.

Instructions/short description of the activity:

Ask students to answer the questions as honestly as possible.

 If the activity is used as a pre/post-test, the teacher should keep the sheets and give them
back by the end of the module and ask the students to answer again and analyse the
changes.
 If the test is used as a regular activity, the teacher will collect the answers and make a
global analysis. An interesting interpretation would be to use that analysis to build, with
the students, the plan of the module.

196 Page

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Worksheet/exercise:

Some Very
Not at all Rarely Often
times Often
1 point 2 points 3 points 4 points 5 points
1 Once I’ve chosen a solution, I develop an
implementation plan with the sequence of     
events necessary for completion.
2 After a solution has been implemented, I
immediately look for ways to improve the idea     
and avoid future problems.
3 To avoid asking the wrong question, I take care
to define each problem carefully before trying     

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


to solve it.
4 I strive to look at problems from different
    
perspectives and generate multiple solutions.
5 I try to address the political issues and other
consequences of the change I’m proposing so
    
that others will understand and support my
solution.
6 I evaluate potential solutions carefully and
thoroughly against a predefined standard.     

7 I systematically search for issues that may


    
become problems in the future.
8 When I decide on a solution, I make it happen –
    
no matter what opposition I may face.
9.I find that small problems often become much
    
bigger in scope, and thus very difficult to solve.
10 I ask myself lots of different questions about
    
the nature of the problem.
11 After my solution is implemented, I relax and
focus again on my regular duties.     

12 I focus on keeping current operations running


smoothly and hope that problems don’t     
appear.
13 I evaluate potential solutions as I think of
    
them.
14 When I need to find a solution to a problem, I
usually have all of the information I need to     
solve it.
15 When evaluating solutions, I take time to think
    
about how I should choose between options.
197

16 Making a decision is the end of my problem-


    
solving process
Page

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Score Interpretation

Score Comment
You probably tend to view problems as negative, instead of seeing them as opportunities
to make exciting and necessary changes. Your approach to problem solving is more
16-36 intuitive than systematic, and this may have led to some poor experiences in the past. With
more practice, and by following a more structured approach, you’ll be able to develop this
important skill and start solving problems more effectively right away.
Your approach to problem solving is a little “hit-and-miss.” Sometimes your solutions work
really well, and other times they don’t. You understand what you should do, and you
37-58 recognize that having a structured problem-solving process is important. However, you

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


don’t always follow that process. By working on your consistency and committing to the
process, you’ll see significant improvements.
You are a confident problem solver. You take time to understand the problem, understand
the criteria for a good decision, and generate some good options. Because you approach
problems systematically, you cover the essentials each time – and your decisions are well
59-80
thought out, well planned, and well executed. You can continue to perfect your problem-
solving skills and use them for continuous improvement initiatives within your
organization.

198 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
PERSONAL OBJECTIVE SHEET FOR STUDENTS
(to be filled in after the pre and post-test)

1. What is my approach to problem solving?


___________________________________________________________________

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


2. What's my opinion on problems? Do I think it's necessarily negative?
___________________________________________________________________

3. Do I feel confident when a problem occurs?


___________________________________________________________________

4. Do I know how to solve a problem?


___________________________________________________________________

5. What did I improve with this lesson?


___________________________________________________________________

6. What do I need to improve further?


___________________________________________________________________
199 Page

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which may be made of the information contained therein.
ICE-BREAKERS/WARM-UP ACTIVITIES
ACTIVITY 2: ICE-BREAKER 1: THE GAME OF THE SIX GLASSES

Title: THE GAME OF THE SIX GLASSES

Purpose:
This first activity is based on an easy problem to solve, although some students may have
problems going through it… By the end of the activity the teacher will explain that it is
necessary to analyze the problem and to set up a problem solving process in order to solve it
quickly and efficiently.
This activity might be used as an ice breaker or a regular activity to introduce problem solving.

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


Needed materials:
6 glasses: 3 will remain empty and 3 will be filled with a colored liquid.

Instructions/short description of the activity:


Split the class into groups of 3-4 students.
As the solution is quite easy, the teacher shouldn’t provide any help to the students even if
they’re quite interrogative… In that case the feedback will be important to make.

Worksheet/exercise:

1. Ask each group to solve this problem:

Six drinking glasses stand in a row, with the first three full of juice and the next three empty. By
moving only one glass can you arrange them so empty and full glasses alternate?

2. Afterwork:
 Ask students to describe the process they followed to solve this problem.
 Ask them to think why some of them had trouble finding the solution.
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Possible answers:

1. The solution is easy: Hold the second full glass and pour its contents into the fifth glass
and replace the glass in place 2
2. Unconsciously, people create a rule that does not exist: one cannot move the glasses’
content. This is a very common kind of mental block generating assumptions in our minds
about how things should be. This is particularly relevant in problem solving.

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


201 Page

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ACTIVITY 3:

ICE-BREAKER 2: How to Solve the Water Jug Riddle from Die Hard 3.

Title: How to Solve the Water Jug Riddle from Die Hard 3.

Purpose:

Like the previous activity, this one can also be used as an ice breaker or a regular activity. The problem is
a bit tricky to solve, the main objectives are:

 To have students work in groups, see how team working can help them to solve a problem.
 To help students generate as many creative ideas as possible

Needed materials:

Two bottles (one of 3 litters and the second of 5 litters) and an access to tap water.

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


Instructions/short description of the activity:

Split the class into groups of 3-4 students.

Let the students (and encourage them to) experiment as many solutions as possible. The teacher should
ensure that in each group every member gives at least one solution.

Worksheet/exercise:

1. Ask each group to solve this problem:

You have to measure exactly 4 liters of water, but you only have a 3-liter bottle and a 5-liter
bottle. How do you do it?
2. Afterwork:

 Did you try several options before getting to the solution?


 Did one of you behave like a leader?
 Was each member of the group involved in the problem solving process?
 By the end, did you plan your solution or just experiment different ones.
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Possible answers:

1. Fill the 3-liter bottle and pour it into the empty 5-liter bottle.

Fill the 3-liter bottle again, and pour enough to fill 5-liter bottle. This leaves exactly 1 liter in the 3-liter
bottle.

Empty the 5-liter bottle; pour the remaining 1 liter from the 3-liter bottle into the 5-liter bottle.

Fill the 3-liter bottle and pour it into the 5-liter bottle. The 5-liter bottle now has exactly 4 liters.

2. Here is another way to do it*

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


Fill the 5-liter bottle and pour water from it into the 3-liter bottle until it is full. This leaves 2 liters in the
5-liter bottle.

Empty the 3-liter bottle and pour the 2 liters of water from the 5-liter bottle into the 3-liter bottle.

Fill the 5-liter bottle again.

Fill the 3-liter bottle from the 5-liter bottle. Since the 3-liter bottle had 2 liters of water, only one liter is
transferred leaving exactly 4 liters of water in the 5-liter jug.

203 Page

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ACTIVITY 4: Getting to know problems/conflicts

Title: Getting to know problems/conflicts

Purpose:
Before solving a problem or a conflict, one should be aware that this problem exists… During this activity,
students will learn that the perception of a conflict depends on the person who is analyzing the situation,
on its past experience...
Needed materials:
A room split into two parts, if possible draw a line on the floor. On one side of the room, tape a paper with
a YES written on it, on the other a paper with a NO. A list of situations (problem/no Problem)
Instructions/short description of the activity:
The teacher presents some situations, students have to decide if it's a conflict/problem or not. If they

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


aren't sure, they can stay near the central line... The teacher will ask two students to explain their choices
(one for no, one for yes) for each situation.
Worksheet/exercise:
Example of situations: (it might be interesting to ask the students to give some personal examples of
problematic situations). Tick (√) or cross(x) the following:
Problem no Problem
Daniel has bifocal glasses.
Bernard is always picking on
him.
Lyubima and Luis are playing
badminton. They don't want
Nadya to play with them.
Christian and Tanja are friends.
Christian is vegetarian. Tanja
buys a hot dog while they are
having a walk downtown.
Pilar and Ayse are boxing. Both
of them are bleeding.
Daniel worked hard and sent his
report to his boss, Olivia. She
wrote him back telling that he
had to overwork it.

Evaluation: The teacher will ask the students:

 Think about why every single person analyses a situation differently (conflict/no conflict)
 What situations were without a doubt identified as a conflict?
204

 What situations were ambiguous? Explain why.


Page

Analysis: The teacher gives some theoretical facts about conflicts. (See activity 5)

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ACTIVITY 5: Lecture N°1- Theoretical facts about problems/conflicts.

Title: Theoretical facts about problems/conflicts:

Purpose:
This short lecture gives some theoretical facts about problems

Needed materials:
A room with tables and chairs.

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


Instructions:
This lecture should take place after the students had a couple of activities on problem solving (for example
activity 2 and an ice breaker). It will help to define what a problem is, what the different types of problems
are and how they arise. That will help to introduce and justify the work which will be done after this lesson.

Lecture:
1. One way of picturing the hidden layers and complexities of problems is through the
metaphor of the iceberg, as depicted in the following chart. You may want to identify
additional layers besides the ones we cite, to reveal what is below the surface for you .

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Exploring Your Iceberg: Each level of the iceberg represents something that does not
appear on the surface, yet adds weight and immobility to our arguments when we are in
conflict. (See "Resolving Conflict at Work", Cloke & Goldsmith)
To solve a problem we have to consider the facts but also what the conflict is based on.

2. Different types of behaviors when a problem arises:


Every person reacts to a problem according to a recurring behavior. This behavior
depends on the education and what the person has experienced during his or her
life.
Those behaviors have been classified into 5 categories, they vary according to two
parameters: assertiveness and cooperativeness. (See Thomas- Kilmann, "Conflict
Mode Instrument", New York, 1974)

Study a situation with students (example: 3 brothers receive an amount of money they have to share). MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING
Ask them to give an example for each of the five behaviors. (Example - Compromising: each brother
receives a third of the money, result: each earns a bit and loses a bit)
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 6: LECTURE n°2 - Types of problem and problem solving strategy

Title: Types of problem and problem solving strategy

Purpose:
In the lecture n°1, the different types of problems have been defined, let's see how to solve a
problem.

Needed materials:
A room with tables and chairs.

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


Instructions/short description of the activity:
The teacher makes this lecture trying, as much as possible, to link the theoretical facts to the
examples that have been studied in the previous activities. This should be a lesson of course,
but also a kind of feedback of what have seen in the beginning of the module.

Lecture:

There is a wide range of different types of problems in life: at school (how to solve a Maths
equation?) or in everyday life (how to pay the bills, how to maintain a relationship?).
To be successful in our life, we need to have the ability to solve different types of problems by
using different solving strategies….

What is problem solving?

It’s the application of ideas, skills, or factual information to achieve the solution to a problem
or to reach a desired outcome.
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
What are the different types of problems?
There are two ways of defining the problems:

1. First way:

 Well defined problems: is one that has a clear goal or solution and problem solving
strategies are easily developed.
 Poorly defined problems: is one that is unclear, abstract or confusing, and that does not
have a clear problem strategy.

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


Examples:

 At school a teacher gives a quiz asking to list all the countries in Europe and give their
capital cities, the instructions and expected outcome are clear and one can use a simple
memory recall strategy to answer. This is a well-defined problem.
 At school a teacher asks you to make a video on history… You don’t know what to do, what
is expected from you. This a poorly defined problem.

2. Second way:

 Routine problems: is one that is typical and has a simple solution


 Non-Routine problems: I more abstract or subjective and requires strategy to solve.

Examples:

 At school: routine problems are simple things we usually do at school: memorizing and
solving problems like spelling words, making an addition…
 At school: non-routine problems require critical thinking skills to be solved. For example if
teachers ask to discuss social or gender issues, hunger in the world or the death penalty…
They require more complicated or creative problem solving strategies.
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
What are the different problem solving strategies?

 Solutions for well-defined or routine problems:


 The most common strategy is the use of algorithms like the strategy you have learnt to
use in your math class to solve simple equations: you follow the strategy step by step and
get to the solution.
 The other way is called heuristics: general strategies used to make quick short-cut
solutions to problems that sometimes lead to solutions, but sometimes lead to errors.
Those mental are often formed by past experiences. They are usually used to solve
everyday life common problems, they usually lead to good decisions.

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


For example, people think that when you’re waiting at the cashier in a store the shortest line is the fastest
one. This heuristic strategy leads to a fast decision but is not necessarily the good one, imagine that the
cashier is a trainee and does not know how to use the register?

 Solutions for poor defined or non - routine problems:

It’s impossible to deal with those problems as it is with simpler ones, you might quickly find a solution but
that solution may lead to another problem and you will go in circles again and again… It’s necessary to
have an advanced solving process, many of them have been described, and the “IDEAL” one is quite simple
and efficient. It is consists of 5 steps:

 IDENTIFY the problem.


 DESCRIBE the possibilities.
 EVALUATE the ideas.
 ACT out a plan.
 LEARN for the future.
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
DESCRIBING the possibilities involve looking at the many ways you can approach a problem, and the many
ways of resolving it. Open yourself to any ideas that come to your mind.

EVALUATE all of these ideas. Be critical in a positive way. Watch out for any ideas that get you off the hook
for being responsible for your own problem. Nobody enjoys accepting responsibility for problems. But if
a problem is yours, you are the only one who can handle it. The only way you can handle it is to totally
accept it.

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


Next, ACT out a specific plan. Look at your list. Some ideas are realistic, some less so. You've weeded
through and picked out the ideas that seem best. Now, carry one of those plans out. If you can't choose
between two or three plans to try, do the following. Imagine yourself doing each one. Note the differences
in how you feel and what you think will result from each plan. Write these on pieces of paper. Now, draw
one piece of paper from the hat. If you're disappointed when you un-crumple it, you'll know that the other
plans deserve more serious attention. Once you decide on a plan, act on it. Sitting on a plan won't do a
thing towards solving a problem.

LEARN for the future. How did your plan turn out? What does this tell you about similar problems you
might have in the future? Is it a good plan to keep on file? If so, note it on a piece of paper. Memory is a
poor file cabinet, especially when you feel hassled or pressured. No plan in life is perfect. But this one is
certainly I.D.E.A.L.

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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 7: Practice How to solve a problem

Title: Practice How to solve a problem

Purpose:

Practice the IDEAL problem solving process.

Needed materials:

A room, some draft paper, printed activity sheets for the “practice”.

Instructions/short description of the activity:

The teacher gives the example of the use of the “IDEAL” strategy to solve a problem, discuss the steps

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


with students. In the second part of the activity students practice the strategy during the practice.

The teacher shouldn’t assist students much during the problem solving process even if they seem stuck.
This point is tricky because you have to help students to solve their problem but not help them solving
the problem!

The typical help might be:

 to ensure if they read the questions well,


 check if they know on what point of the solving process they’re working,
 encourage them to explore their solutions a bit further, find other ones
 Make sure that students are not skipping some steps of the process
 maybe give another example of the solving process to the class if the first one wasn’t clear
enough...

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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Worksheet/exercise:

Example (the teacher studies this example with the students)

Here’s a problem that many of your students have probably faced during a lesson.
 Identify the Problem:

My instructor has just finished explaining how to use a piece of equipment. I was paying attention, but
I’m unsure about one part of a procedure. What do I do?

 Define the Problem:


 By not knowing what to do I could make a mistake and end up damaging the machine.

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


 By telling the instructor that I don’t understand I could end up looking like I’m either slow
or not paying attention.

 Explore Strategies:
 I could just try to use the equipment and hope that everything works out okay. But if it
doesn’t, what would I do then?
 I could ask another student for help. This would save me from looking bad in front of the
instructor. But it might cause me to lose face in front of my classmate. Plus, how do I
know that they know what they’re doing? Maybe they’ll give me wrong information.
 I could simply tell my instructor that I need help. That’s his/her job. I’m sure I’m not the
first person to have difficulty understanding the equipment. And I bet that she/he’d
rather repeat the explanation than have to fix the equipment.

 Apply a Solution:

I’ll ask my instructor. I know most of the steps; it’s just one part that I’m having trouble with.

 Look at the Effects:

If I’m able to operate the equipment safely, then I’ll know that I solved the problem. If I don’t get an
adverse reaction from the instructor, then I’ll know that I chose the right course of action.
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Activity sheet: Practice the IDEAL problem solving strategy

Here’s a problem that many of you may have faced during your career. Your students may
experience this when they enter the workforce. See if you can work through this problem-solving
example.
 Identify the Problem:

You are on a freelance job. You think that things are going along well, everything is pretty much
on schedule and there hasn’t been any major delays or mishaps. Yet the owner of the
residence/business is continually complaining about the quality of work, the noise, the timing,

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


the mess ... just about anything you could think of.
 Define the Problem:



 Explore Strategies:




 Apply a Solution:



 Look at the Effects:




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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 8: Deciding When to Problem-Solve

Title: Deciding When to Problem-Solve

Purpose:
Sometimes people are not aware there is a problem to solve or they're trying to solve a problem that
doesn't really exists! This activity will help students to learn how to use reflective listening to analyze a
situation and decide when to "problem-solve"

Needed materials:
A room

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


Instructions/short description of the activity:

This activity starts with a mini lecture and finishes with some short role playing.

Worksheet:

1. Mini-lecture:

In many cases the students will come to realize that simply reflecting what is being said helps the speaker
discover his/her own solution to a problem. In other cases the reflecting process will calm the situation
so that he/she can move on to other things.

Sometimes there is no problem to be solved, only a very stressful situation that needs some unraveling.
At these times, reflective listening does not need to be followed by a problem-solving strategy. On
newsprint write "you seem" and "because." Have group members reflect for each of the following
situations: (ask them for example if this situation really needs a problem solving strategy)

 David is upset because he received a zero for not doing his math homework.
 Ellen's Popsicle melted when she left it in the sun.
 Tony's girlfriend broke up with him.

In some of these cases, reflective listening is all that is really needed. In other cases, the student will need
a sympathetic ear and a problem-solving strategy to deal with the situation. Reflective listening will be
important to clarify the problem, and a practical problem-solving strategy will be necessary to solve it.

For instance, in David's case, he may be afraid of failing math. He may want some ideas to avoid further
failure.
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
2. Role playing

Have the group split up into pairs. One member will share a problem to be clarified through reflective
listening. The listener will give the idea back to the speaker in order to confirm that the idea (problem)
has been understood correctly. In other words the listener should be able to "reconstruct what the
speaker was thinking". Each group will keep these questions in mind:

a) What is the problem?


b) Has the problem been solved through good listening skills?
c) What is the next step? (Teams may make notes to keep track of these responses)

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


3. Conclusion

After 10 minutes, have the large group reconvene and share some of the problems reflected. List each
problem on a sheet of paper. Decide which problems need the next step in the problem-solving process.
Cross out those that were solved simply through reflecting.

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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 9: Solving problems/conflicts role playing

Title: Solving problems/conflicts role playing

Purpose:
In the beginning of this module, students have been taught what a problem is, how to detect if a problem
exists and how to solve it. Now it's time to practice a bit with some role playing.

Needed materials:
A room, some printed diagrams (see below)

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


Instructions/short description of the activity:
Split the class into groups of 2-4 students or you can start with asking each student to work on his own
for part 1. and then make groups for role playing.

Worksheet/exercise:

1. Conflict scenarios:

On the back of this page, there are several conflict scenarios. Choose FIVE, and answer the following
questions for each of them, you can fill the diagram below.

1. What is the conflict found in the scenario?


2. What are the realistic options to resolving the conflict?
3. What are the consequences to the above options?
4. What is the most appropriate solution to the conflict and why?
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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
5.

Conflict

Option 1 Option 2 Option 3

Consequences Consequences Consequences

Best Option

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


CONFLICT SCENARIOS

1. A student has heard that her friend has called her names in front of a boy she really likes.
2. Two students are pushing and shoving each other outside the school and calling each other names.
3. Someone has written graffiti over your locker. You are sure you know who did it.
4. You confided in a friend something that was very private for you. You asked him not to tell anyone.
Now everyone knows, and you’re angry.
5. Your sister or brother borrowed your favorite sweater. The next time you went to wear it, there was
a grease stain on the front of it.
6. You arrive early to get a good seat at a school game. You leave your jacket in the bleachers to reserve
your seat. When you return, your jacket is on the floor and someone is in your seat.
7. Two students argue over what to do about the cheating they observed in an exam the day before.
8. One boy purposely trips another in class. Everyone laughs, but the teacher does not see the incident.
This kind of thing happens often.
9. Your friend borrowed your library card six months ago. Now you are charged with a 10 € fine for lost
books. Your friend refuses to pay the fine.
10. You and a friend skipped a class. Your friend lies about the reason to the teacher. The teacher asks
you to confirm the story.
11. Your brother has been on the phone for 30 minutes. You need to call a friend to find out what time
practice is in the morning, and you want to go to bed.
12. You hear your best friend was at the movies last night with your boyfriend/girlfriend. They told you
they were at home studying last night.

1. Role playing: Create 2 alternative role playing endings to present for your scenario.
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1) Solve the scenario not using appropriate problem solving techniques- escalating the problem.
2) Solve the scenario using appropriate problem solving techniques- diffusing the situation
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 10: Switcheroo
Title: Switcheroo
Purpose:
Switcheroo is based on the old saying, “You can’t see the forest for the trees.” We sometimes get so close
to our problems that we lose the perspective needed to generate creative ideas. One way to overcome
this obstacle is to shift our focus to something else.

Needed materials:
A room. For each group: markers, two flip charts, and masking tape for posting flip-chart sheets
For each participant: one sheet each of three different colors of sticking dots and one pad of 4x6 Post-it®
Notes

Instructions/short description of the activity:


Split the class into groups of 4-7 students.

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


The students will choose one problem and see that, sometimes, switching to another problem may help
to solve the original one.

Worksheet/exercise:

Procedure
1. Have someone in each group write down a problem challenge on a flip chart.
2. Tell the group to spend 5 to 10 minutes brainstorming ideas and recording them all in
writing, individually on Post-it® Notes.
3. Request that they shift their focus to another problem challenge relevant to each group
and spend 5 to 10 minutes generating ideas for it. This problem should be completely
different from the original one.
4. Call time and have them resume work on the original problem.
5. Tell them to write down any ideas on Post-it® Notes (one idea per note) and place them
on flip charts for evaluation.
Debrief/Discussion

Switching problems in this manner will often allow us to see the original problem differently.
The break from the problem provides a change in perspective. Moreover, working on the new problem
often sparks ideas for the first problem. If switching to another problem doesn’t help, have the groups try
switching to nothing—just take a break and walk around, then return to attack the problem with new
energy. Also consider having participants debrief using the following questions:
• What was most helpful about this exercise?
• What was most challenging?
• What can we apply?
• How would you rate the value of this exercise to helping us with this issue?
• Will this exercise be helpful in the future for other sessions?
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• What did you learn?


• What will we be able to use from this exercise?
• What ideas were generated, and which ones were most interesting?
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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Stereotype Handout

Suppose the challenge is to improve quality control in a manufacturing process and your group selects the
occupation of carpenter. You then might write down the following notes about carpentry:

• A carpenter pounds nails on the tip with a hammer to prevent splitting wood.
• A good carpenter always “measures twice and cuts once.”
• The quality of sanding determines the quality of the final finish.
• It’s easier to saw wood with the grain than against it.
• Always use the right tool for the job (for instance, don’t use a screwdriver as a hammer).

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


These descriptions then might prompt the following ideas:

• “Blunt” the impact of errors by developing a quality program that “hammers” on the theme of
quality improvement.
• Require all manufacturing employees to check their output twice.
• Provide all employees with additional training in quality control activities.
• Conduct regular meetings with employees to make sure they are aligned with management’s
goals and philosophy.
• Make sure all employees use the latest technology to improve job quality.

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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 12: Moody problem solving
Title: Moody problem solving

Purpose:
In this activity, students will learn how their mood or their background impacts the way they
see or solve a problem. This parallel thinking approach forces each of the participants in group
to adopt the particular thinking style and see what is its consequence on the problem solving
process

Needed materials:
A room, some printed versions of the activity sheet.

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


Instructions/short description of the activity:
Split the class into groups of 3-4 students.
Each group will have to deal with a problematic situation assuming different points of view.

Worksheet/exercise:
Procedure
In each group one student will be the scribe and will write down the idea of each participant.
Give all the groups an example of a problematic situation (or ask students for one), it might
be a situation, an image a video… For example «Luis has 4 tests tomorrow, he hasn’t started
to work on his lessons and his friends are calling him to go out for a drink »
Ask the students to think, during 3 minutes, like they are in a negative mood. They should
write down all they think about the situation/image.
After 3 minutes, move around the groups and ask them to give examples of what they wrote.
Do this work again with different moods/point of views (for example: optimistic, pragmatic,
feeling less …)
Debrief/Discussion
Discuss with students on how your mood can bias your point of view.
One possible conclusion could be: to tackle a problem correctly and to have chance to solve
it, it is better to adopt a neutral point of view or to set up different solutions and see which
the best one is.

Going further:
Give some other examples, students will work in groups, each student will assume « ones
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mood » and answer some questions. An example of what can be done is given on the next
page:
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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Activity sheet: moody problem solving
Look at the following image for 2 minutes and answer the following questions, assuming that you’re in a
special mood.

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


1) You’re optimistic, what can you say to the immigrant who as just arrived on a beach in
Greece?
__________________________________________________________________
2) You’re intuitive,
 How does looking at the picture make you feel?
__________________________________________________________________
 Would you like to be in the same situation as those tourists?
__________________________________________________________________
3) You’re creative: list, at least, 3 ways of avoiding immigrants arriving or dying on touristic
beaches.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

4) You’re negative:
 Which of the ways mentioned above are immoral?
__________________________________________________________________

 Which seem the less practical?


__________________________________________________________________
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5) You’re positive: Which of the ways mentioned above seems the best one?
__________________________________________________________________
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 13: Tower of Air

Title: Tower of Air

Purpose:
Again, a "recreative" activity. The main aim is to show how team working may help in a problem
solving process.

Needed materials:
10 Balloons for each team of 3 people
Masking tape (in 1 m long strips)

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


Instructions/short description of the activity:
Split the class into groups of 3-4 students.
Each group will be challenged to build a tower in 10 minutes, the teacher shouldn't take part in
the process.
After the activity, the teacher will lead a discussion in order to show how teamwork is important
in a problem solving process.

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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Worksheet:
Description:
Divide your group into teams of three. Give each team 10 balloons and a strip of masking tape. Explain
that the object of this challenge is to build the tallest free standing tower using both the balloons and the
masking tape that they have been given. The tower must be built on the floor (or table) and may not use
any other objects to lean against or help support it. They will have 10 minutes to build their tower.

Discussion Prompts (in 3 areas):


What happened?
1) How tall did your tower end up being?
2) Did you do any planning before you started building?

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


3) Did the plan change after you started building? How?
4) Did everyone provide input to the plan?
5) What happened in your group as time was running out?
6) Was your end product satisfactory? What would you change next time?

What does it mean?

1) Did you look at what other teams were doing to get ideas? (Mention that this would not be
cheating. You did not tell them they couldn’t look. It is a good practice to use good ideas no matter
where they come from.)
2) What can this activity tell us about working together?
3) What problems can occur when you work in groups?
4) Was a leader chosen in your group? Did one emerge? Who? Why?
5) Describe the roles that each person in your group played. Were some people more involved than
others? Why?

Now what can we do with this information?

1) How does working together help us to solve problems?


2) What behaviors should you exhibit when working as part of a team?
3) How important is communication with your team members?

Variations: While the activity is underway, call out certain instructions that must be followed. For
example, “For the next 60 seconds no one is your group may “talk” or “For the next 60 seconds
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everyone in the group may only use one hand.”


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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
ACTIVITY 14: Role-playing Problem-Solving with Toothpicks, Dots, and Coins
Title: Role-playing Problem-Solving with Toothpicks, Dots, and Coins

Purpose:
The purpose in this activity is not only to solve a problem, but to teach what kind of different
persons could be involved in the process and what their exact role is.

Needed materials:
A. Materials for Large Group Preliminaries
1. One for Facilitator and each Assistant
a. "Problem Solving with Toothpicks, Dots, and Coins" agenda
b. Puzzles

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


2. One per Candidate
a. Blank index card
b. Role Descriptions handout

B. Materials for Small Group Role Play


1. One for Facilitator and each Assistant
a. Puzzle solutions
b. Materials kit for use by Candidates during role play (contains at least 20
toothpicks, 10 dot sheets, and 20 coins)
2. One per Candidate (previously distributed during Large Group Preliminaries): Role
Descriptions handout

Instructions/short description of the activity:


Split the class into groups of 3-4 students. Each student will assume a role. The facilitator might be played
by the teacher if needed.

The activity is divided into 3 main parts: the distribution of the roles, the role play and a debriefing.
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the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Worksheet/exercise:

I. Large Group Preliminaries (10 min.) - Facilitator


A. Introduction and overview of activity

B. Description of roles
1. Distribute Role Descriptions handouts to Candidates
2. Instruct Candidates to read through role descriptions
3. Gauge Candidate understanding of roles by questioning

C. Introduction of puzzles
1. Distribute blank index cards on which Candidates will record their names (Cards will

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


also be used to document known puzzle solutions for each Candidate)
2. Display each puzzle briefly and ask if anyone knows the solution to any of the puzzles
(Candidates expressing knowledge of puzzle solutions will: 1) write puzzle number for
which solution is known on the index card and 2) automatically be excluded from
playing the Problem Solver role for that particular puzzle)

D. Assignment of groups
1. Divide large group into triads; “extras” will be randomly assigned to existing triads as
fourth members
2. Assign an Assistant to coordinate activities of each small group

E. Reminders to Candidates
1. Success in the interview does not depend on one’s ability to successfully complete the
task, as the purpose of this experience is to enable interview personnel to observe
Candidates’ engagement in and interactions during the process
2. Individuals’ success will only be enhanced by the success of the group; in other words
cooperation (as opposed to competition) is desired
3. Monitor volume level during the role play so that one group’s interactions are not
overheard by other groups who might be working on the same puzzle

[Note: Led by an Assistant, each small group reports to the appointed location. During the
remainder of the role play, the Facilitator “floats” to observe, monitor progress, and address
problems and/or concerns that might arise.]
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
II. Small Group Role Play (25 min.) – Assistants
A. Preparation
1. Collect index cards and assign Candidate roles (Problem Solver, Helper, Observer) for
each puzzle

a. Problem Solvers must not know the solution of the puzzle to which they have been assigned
(Refer to index cards)
b. Roles will be rotated for each puzzle; any group having four members will have two Observers
for each puzzle

2. Clarify roles as needed

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


[Note: The Assistant monitors the small group’s progress on each puzzle. It is recommended that
each group complete all three puzzles, but no fewer than two, so that Candidates can be observed
playing more than one role.]

B. Engagement in role plays

1. Direct Problem Solver to leave the area


2. Display puzzle solution to Helpers and the Observer(s) so they can effectively assist the
Problem Solver
3. Configure role play materials
4. Invite Problem Solver back into room with Helpers and Observers
5. Direct Candidates to work on first puzzle until solution is discovered or time is up
6. Rotate roles, and then repeat 1-5 for the second puzzle; role play continues until
solution is discovered or time is up
7. Rotate roles, and then repeat 1-5 for the third puzzle; role play continues until solution
is discovered or time is up
8.

[Note: Led by the Assistant, each small group rejoins the large group.]
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
III. Debriefing (15 min.) - Facilitator
[Note: Order in which questions are posed is important, especially with early questions.]
Instruct Candidates to respond as they desire, but inform them that individuals may be directly questioned
at the discretion of the Facilitator

1. Describe the various helping behaviors you observed when you were an Observer or
experienced as a Problem Solver.
2. Observers, what behaviors seemed to be most helpful? Why? What behaviors seemed
to be least helpful? Why?
3. Problem Solvers, what behaviors were most helpful? Why? What behaviors were least
helpful? Why?

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


4. Describe how you were trying to help the Problem Solver in your group when
you were a Helper. Why did you choose the particular helping behaviors or
strategies you chose to use?
5. As an Observer, what was the perceived effect of each of the various helping
behaviors utilized on the problem solving process?
6. From a Problem Solver’s perspective, were the effects of the various helping
behaviors actually as they appeared to the Observers? Why or why not?
7. How do you like to be helped? Why?
8. How could this experience and the knowledge you have gained from it be
applied a situation in which you are trying to provide assistance to a student?
9. What things would you change about your performance in this situation?
10. What things should we change about this experience when we do it again?
11. How do you think this experience will help us make a decision about prospective
employees?

IV. Conclusion (brief) - Facilitator


A. Ask for final questions or comments
B. Direct Candidates to return any materials to an Assistant
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Problem-Solving with Toothpicks, Dots, and Coins Role Descriptions

Instructions to the Problem Solver:

Just as students in a class might be assigned problems they don't know how to solve, you are asked to
solve a problem. (You need to attempt to arrive at a correct answer, but be aware that your success in the
interview does not depend on your ability to successfully solve this puzzle.)Just as a student might seek
assistance in solving class problems, you are seeking assistance from a helper. Be conscious of how you
feel during the helping process, for you will be asked to discuss your feelings and observations afterwards.

Instructions to the Helper:

You are asked to help the Problem Solver solve the problem that has been presented. Remember that you
are a helper, not the doer. (You need to assist the Problem Solver in arriving at the correct answer, but be

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


aware that your success in the interview does not depend on the Problem Solver’s ability to successfully
solve this puzzle.) How can you help the Problem Solver without actually taking over the problem yourself?
Be conscious of how you feel during the helping process, for you will be asked to discuss those feelings
and your observations afterwards.

Instructions to the Observer:

Observe the interaction between the Problem Solver and the Helper, but do not intervene yourself. In the
discussion that follows this exercise, you will be asked to supply examples as you give feedback to the
Problem Solver and the Helper about their interaction. You may find it helpful to take notes. Consider the
following questions:

 What behaviors did you observe?


 Were there any frustrating times? For whom was it frustrating and why?
 What gestures, if any, did the Helper use? Were they useful?
 What was the Problem Solver's reaction to the Helper?
 Did the task get done in the allotted time? If not, why not?
 What did the Helper do to make this a particularly fruitful session?
 What did the Problem Solver do to make this a particularly useful session?
 What would have made this a more productive interaction?
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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
Problem-Solving with Toothpicks, Dots, and Coins Solutions to Puzzles

Puzzle 1 (Toothpicks): Solution

Directions: Remove eight toothpicks so there are only two squares left.

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


Puzzle 2 (Dots): Solution

Directions: Connect all nine dots with four straight lines without picking up the point of your pencil .

Puzzle 3 (Coins): Solution

Directions: Move three coins to transform Arrangement A into Arrangement B without removing the coins
from the tabletop.

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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
TIPS FOR “PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING”

Problem solving is not something natural and easy but an intellectual process. For
example, one can use a video showing how animals do:
 http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x2r44u1_big-stick-narrow-bridge-

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


adorable-problem-solving_fun (how a dog goes problem solving)

 be creative and involved in activities in order to improve your problem


solving competencies.
 generate as many ideas as possible
 the more involved you are, the more efficient you become
 try Role playing
 personalize the situations, the problems you would like to solve.
 start as observers before being involved in team work.
 minimize negative thinking.
 don’t judge other people’s s ideas criticizing
 objectively evaluate the solutions

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This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.
RECOMMENDED WEBSITES FOR THE TOPIC

A definition of problem solving: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Problem_solving


http://www.forbes.com/sites/glennllopis/2013/11/04/the-4-most-effective-ways-

MODULE 8 –PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


leaders-solve-problems/

Problem solving in Maths:


https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/gmat/problem-solving

Why problem solving is important for your career?


https://targetjobs.co.uk/careers-advice/skills-and-competencies/300766-
problem-solving-the-mark-of-an-independent-employee

A good book to read:


http://www.amazon.com/Problem-Solving-101-Simple-People/dp/1591842425

Some videos:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ftgtzFaHFGE
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKuX-sLqtNk
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_oUSZBgRDM
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`
This project is funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects This project is funded
the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use by the European Union
which may be made of the information contained therein.