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Cryptography and

Network Security

Exercises

1.

of the test is not confidential on the day of the test, it is confidential before the

test day.

b. This is modification (the attack to integrity service). The value of the check is

changed (from $10 to $100).

c. This is denial of service (the attack to availability service). Sending so many e-

mails may crash the server and the service may be interrupted.

3. Double encryption here does not help. Encryption with k1 followed by encryption

with k2 is the same as encryption with k = (k1 + k2) mod 26. The following shows

the proof. P is the plaintext and C is the ciphertext.

C = (P mod 26 + k1 mod 26 + k2) mod 26

C = (P mod 26) mod 26 + (k1 mod 26) mod 26 + k2 mod 26

C = P mod 26 + k1 mod 26 + k2 mod 26 = (P + k1 + k2) mod 26

C = (P + k) mod 26, where k = (k1 + k2) mod 26

5.

c. The original word in Part a and the result of Part b are the same, which shows

that circular left shift and circular right shift operations are inverses of each

other.

1

2

7.

a. (01001101) ⊕ (01001101) = (00000000), which means that if the two input

words are the same, all the bits in the output word becomes 0’s. This property is

used in ciphers.

b. (01001101) ⊕ (10110010) = (11111111), which means that if the two input

words are complement of each other, all the bits in the output word becomes

1’s. This property is also used in ciphers.

9.

a. Using 26 for space, the plaintext is: 19070818260818261914200607

b. For encryption, we create 4-digit blocks:

P2 = 0818 → C2 = 081813 mod 12091 = 7787

P3 = 2608 → C3 = 260813 mod 12091 = 1618

P4 = 1826 → C4 = 182613 mod 12091 = 10717

P5 = 1914 → C5 = 191413 mod 12091 = 4084

P6 = 2006 → C6 = 200613 mod 12091 = 6558

P7 = 07 → C7 = 0713 mod 12091 = 6651

C2 = 7787 → P2 = 77873653 mod 12091 = 0818

C6 = 6558 → P6 = 65583653 mod 12091 = 2006

11. The key which is concatenated with the message in a MAC should be a secret

between Alice and Bob; no one else should know this secret. When Alice sends a

MAC to Bob, the key cannot be the public key of Bob or the private key of Alice.

If the key is the public key of Bob, every one (including Eve) knows this key and

can use it to create a MAC to pretend that she is Alice. If the key is the private key

of Alice, no one (including Bob) knows the key. So Bob cannot verify that a MAC

has truly created by Alice.

3

12. Figure 29.E13 shows one simple, but not very secure solution. It shows the idea,

but it is vulnerable to some attacks. There are some better, but more complicated

solutions.

a. In the first message, Alice sends her identification and her nonce.

b. In the second message, Bob sends his identification, his nonce, and encrypted

Alice’s nonce. Alice’s nonce is encrypted with the shared secret key. When

Alice receives this message and decrypts her nonce, Bob is authenticated for

her because only Bob can encrypt Alice’s nonce with the shared secret key.

c. In the third message, Alice sends encrypted Bob’s nonce. When Bob receives

this message and decrypts his nonce, Alice is authenticated for Bob because

only Alice can encrypt Bob’s nonce with the shared secret key.

Figure 29.E13 Solution to Exercise 13

Alice

RA A nonce sent by Alice RB A nonce sent by Bob

1 Alice, RA

Bob is Bob, RB , RA 2

authenticaed

3 RB Alice is

authenticaed

d.

15. Figure 29.E15 shows one simple, but not very secure solution. It shows the idea,

but it is vulnerable to some attacks. There are some better, but more complicated

solutions.

Figure 29.E15 Solution to Exercise 15

SigB(.....) Signed with Bob private key Bob

Alice RA A nonce sent by Alice RB A nonce sent by Bob

1 Alice, RA

Bob is

authenticaed

Bob, RB , SigB (RA) 2

Alice is

3 SigA (RB) authenticaed

a. In the first message, Alice sends her identification and her nonce.

b. In the second message, Bob sends his identification, his nonce, and signed

Alice’s. Bob uses his private key to sign the message carrying Alice’s nonce.

When Alice receives this message and verifies the signature, Bob is authenti-

4

cated for her because only Bob could have signed Alice’s nonce using his pri-

vate key.

c. In the third message, Alice sends Bob a signed message that include the Bob’s

nonce. Alice signs this message with her private key. When Bob receives this

message, Alice is authenticated for Bob because only Alice can sign a message

with her private key.

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