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System storage overview

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Unit objectives
IBM Power Systems

After completing this unit, you should be able to:


• Describe the terminology and the concepts associated with:
– Physical volumes
– Volume groups
– Logical volumes
– Physical partitions
– Logical partitions
• Describe how file systems and logical volumes are related

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Components of AIX storage
IBM Power Systems

Physical storage
Logical storage
File systems
Directories
Files

Managed by
Logical Volume Manager (LVM)
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Traditional UNIX disk storage
IBM Power Systems

Partition 1
Partition 4
Partition 2

Partition 3 Partition 5

• Problems:
– Fixed partitions
– Expanding size of the partition
– Limitation on size of a file system and a file
– Contiguous data requirement
– Time and effort required in planning ahead

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Benefits of the LVM
IBM Power Systems

• Solves noncontiguous space problems.


• Data can span disks.
• Sizes can be dynamically increased.
• Data can be mirrored for availability.
• New disks are easily added to the system.
• Data can be relocated.
• LVM (data) statistics can be collected.

These tasks can be performed dynamically!

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Logical Volume Manager components
IBM Power Systems

Physical Volume group


partitions (PPs) Logical
partitions (LPs)

1
2
3
4
5
write(data);
6
x
y
z
Application

Logical
volume (LVs)
Physical
volumes (PVs)

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Physical storage
IBM Power Systems

PP1
Volume PV1 PP2
group A PP3
PP4 Physical
PP5 volume
PP6 /dev/hdiskn
Volume PV2 PV3 PV4 PV5
group B
PPn

Original volume groups Big volume groups


-t factor Disks (PVs) PPs per PV Disks (PVs) -t factor
1 32 1016 128 1
2 16 2032 64 2
4 8 4064 32 4
8 4 8128 16 8
16 2 16256 8 16
N/A N/A 32512 4 32
N/A N/A 65024 2 64
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Volume groups
IBM Power Systems

• Volume group types:


Volume Group Max Max LVs Max PPs per Max PP
– Original Type PVs VG Size
– Big
Original 32 256 32512 1 GB
– Scalable (1016 * 32)

Big 128 512 130048 1 GB


(1016 * 128)
• Limits Scalable 1024 4096 2097152 128 GB

• AIX contains one mandatory volumes group: rootvg


– rootvg created on system install
– Contains the AIX operating system
• Why create new volume groups?
– Separate user data from operating system files rootvg datavg
– Disaster recovery
PV1 PV2 PV3
– Data portability
– Data integrity and security
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Volume group descriptor area
IBM Power Systems

Three-disk or more
One-disk VG Two-disk VG VG

VGDA VGDA VGDA


VGDA VGDA VGDA VGDA

VGDA VGDA

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Logical storage
IBM Power Systems

Physical volumes

1 4 1 4
7 2 3 7 2 3
10 10
8 9 8 9
13 16 13 16
14 15 19 14 15
19 22 22
20 21 25 20 21
25 28 28
26 27 31 26 27
31 34 34
32 33 32 33
35 38 35 38
36 37 41 36 37
41 44 44
42 43 42 43
47 50 47 50
48 49 48 49

Logical Volume Manager

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Logical
partitions
Logical Logical
volume volume
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Uses of logical volumes
IBM Power Systems

• A logical volume may contain one of the following:


– Journaled (JFS) or enhanced journaled file system (JFS2)
– Journal log (/dev/hd8)
– Paging space (/dev/hd6)
– Boot logical volume (/dev/hd5)
– Dump device
– Nothing (raw logical volume)

• Examples of JFS/JFS2 logical volumes:


/dev/hd1 /home
/dev/hd2 /usr
/dev/hd3 /tmp
/dev/hd4 /
/dev/hd9var /var
/dev/hd10opt /opt
/dev/hd11admin /admin
/dev/lv00 /myfilesystem
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What is a file system?
IBM Power Systems

• A file system is:


– Method of storing data
– Hierarchy of directories

• Seven types are supported:


– Journaled file system (JFS)
– Enhanced journaled file system (JFS2)
– CD-ROM file system (CDRFS)
– DVD-ROM file system (UDFS)
– Network file system (NFS)
– Common Internet File System (CIFS)
– Proc File System (PROCFS)
– Autonomic Health Advisor File System (AHAFS)

• Different file systems are connected together through directories to form


the view of files that users see.
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Why have multiple file systems?
IBM Power Systems

• Can strategically place it on disk for improved performance.


• Some tasks are performed more efficiently on a file system
than on each directory within the file system, for example,
back up, move, secure an entire file system.
• Can limit disk usage of users by file system through quotas.
• Maintain integrity of the entire file system structure, for
example, if one file system is corrupted, the others are not
affected.
• Special security situations.
• Organize data and programs into groups for ease of file
management and better performance.

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Standard file systems in AIX
IBM Power Systems

hd4

/ (root)

home sbin opt lpp proc usr dev tftpboot var mnt etc tmp

hd1 hd10opt hd2 hd9var hd3

/ / / / /

csm freeware bin lib sbin spool adm tmp

Note: The drawing depicts logical, not physical volumes.


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/etc/filesystems
IBM Power Systems

/:
dev = /dev/hd4
vol = root
mount = automatic
check = false
vfs = jfs2
log = /dev/hd8
type = bootfs
/home:
dev = /dev/hd1
vol = /home
mount = true
check = true
vfs = jfs2
log = /dev/hd8
/home/team01:
dev = /dev/fslv00
vfs = jfs2
log = /dev/loglv00
mount = true
options = rw
account = false

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Mount
IBM Power Systems

•mount is the glue that logically connects file systems to


the directory hierarchy.
• File systems are associated with devices represented by
special files in /dev (the logical volume).
• When a file system is mounted, the logical volume and its
contents are connected to a directory in the hierarchical
tree structure.
## mount
mount /dev/fslv00
/dev/fslv00 /home/patsie
/home/patsie

What to Where to
mount mount it
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Mounting over an empty directory
IBM Power Systems

Before After
home home

liz john patsie liz john patsie

.profile .profile
.exrc data doc .exrc data doc
myscript myscript

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Mounting over files
IBM Power Systems

Before After
home home

liz john patsie liz john patsie

reports pgms .profile


.exrc

.profile
.exrc data doc
myscript
.profile
.exrc data doc
myscript
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Listing file systems
IBM Power Systems

## lsfs
lsfs
Name
Name Nodename
Nodename Mount
Mount Pt
Pt VFS
VFS Size
Size Options
Options Auto
Auto Accounting
Accounting
/dev/hd4
/dev/hd4 --
-- // jfs2
jfs2 1966080
1966080 --
-- yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd1
/dev/hd1 --
-- /home
/home jfs2
jfs2 131072
131072 --
-- yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd2
/dev/hd2 --
-- /usr
/usr jfs2
jfs2 4587520
4587520 --
-- yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd9var
/dev/hd9var --
-- /var
/var jfs2
jfs2 655360
655360 --
-- yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd3
/dev/hd3 --
-- /tmp
/tmp jfs2
jfs2 393216
393216 --
-- yes
yes no
no
/proc
/proc --
-- /proc
/proc procfs
procfs --
-- --
-- yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd10opt
/dev/hd10opt --
-- /opt
/opt jfs2
jfs2 524288
524288 --
-- yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd11admin
/dev/hd11admin --
-- /admin
/admin jfs2
jfs2 262144
262144 --
-- yes
yes no
no
/dev/fslv00
/dev/fslv00 --
-- /db2
/db2 jfs2
jfs2 262144
262144 rw
rw no
no no
no

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Listing logical volume information
IBM Power Systems

• List all logical volumes for a volume group


## lsvg
lsvg -l
-l rootvg
rootvg
rootvg:
rootvg:
LV
LV NAME
NAME TYPE
TYPE LPs
LPs PPs
PPs PVs
PVs LV
LV STATE
STATE MOUNT
MOUNT POINT
POINT
hd5
hd5 boot
boot 11 22 22 closed/syncd
closed/syncd N/A
N/A
hd6
hd6 paging
paging 88 16
16 22 open/syncd
open/syncd N/A
N/A
hd8
hd8 jfs2log
jfs2log 11 22 22 open/syncd
open/syncd N/A
N/A
hd4
hd4 jfs2
jfs2 15
15 30
30 22 open/syncd
open/syncd //
hd2
hd2 jfs2
jfs2 35
35 70
70 22 open/syncd
open/syncd /usr
/usr
hd9var
hd9var jfs2
jfs2 55 10
10 22 open/syncd
open/syncd /var
/var
hd3
hd3 jfs2
jfs2 33 66 22 open/syncd
open/syncd /tmp
/tmp
hd1
hd1 jfs2
jfs2 11 22 22 open/syncd
open/syncd /home
/home
loglv00
loglv00 jfs2log
jfs2log 11 22 22 closed/syncd
closed/syncd N/A
N/A
hd11admin
hd11admin jfs
jfs 22 44 22 open/syncd
open/syncd /admin
/admin
fslv00
fslv00 jfs2
jfs2 22 44 22 closed/syncd
closed/syncd /db2
/db2

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Checkpoint (1 of 3)
IBM Power Systems

5. V______ G______
1. V______ G______
D ______ A______
VGDA 6. P______ V______

2. P______ P ______

3. L_____ P______

4. L______ V_______
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Checkpoint solutions (1 of 3)
IBM Power Systems

5. Volume group
1. Volume group___
Descriptor area__
VGDA 6. Physical volume

2. Physical partition

3. Logical partition

4. Logical volume
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Checkpoint (2 of 3)
IBM Power Systems

7. How many different physical partition (PP) sizes can be set within a
single VG?

8. By default, how big are PPs?

9. How many volume groups (VGs) can a physical volume (PV) belong
to?
a. It depends on what you specify through SMIT
b. Only one
c. As many VGs as exist on the system

10. True or False: All VGDA information on your system is identical,


regardless of how many VGs exist.

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Checkpoint solutions (2 of 3)
IBM Power Systems

7. How many different physical partition (PP) sizes can be set within a single
VG?
The answer is one.

8. By default, how big are PPs?


The answer is traditionally 4 MB, but LVM chooses an optimal size based on
the number of PPs/PV and the size of largest PV in the VG.

9. How many volume groups (VGs) can a physical volume (PV) belong to?
a. It depends on what you specify through SMIT
b. Only one
c. As many VGs as exist on the system
The answer is only one.

10. True or False: All VGDA information on your system is identical, regardless of
how many VGs exist.
The answer is false. All VGDAs within a VG are the same.
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Checkpoint (3 of 3)
IBM Power Systems
Use the following output to answer the questions below:
## lsfs
lsfs
Name
Name Nodename
Nodename Mount
Mount PtPt VFS
VFS Size
Size Options
Options Auto
Auto Accounting
Accounting
/dev/hd4
/dev/hd4 --
-- // jfs2
jfs2 294912
294912 -- -- yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd1
/dev/hd1 --
-- /home
/home jfs2
jfs2 32768
32768 --
-- yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd2
/dev/hd2 --
-- /usr
/usr jfs2
jfs2 3309568
3309568 ---- yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd9var
/dev/hd9var --
-- /var
/var jfs2
jfs2 65536
65536 --
-- yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd3
/dev/hd3 --
-- /tmp
/tmp jfs2
jfs2 131072
131072 -- -- yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd10opt
/dev/hd10opt ---- /opt
/opt jfs2
jfs2 163840
163840 -- -- yes
yes no
no
/dev/cd0
/dev/cd0 --
-- /infocd
/infocd cdrfs
cdrfs ro
ro yes
yes no
no
/dev/lv00
/dev/lv00 --
-- /home/john
/home/john jfs2
jfs2 32768
32768 rw
rw yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd11admin
/dev/hd11admin --
-- /admin
/admin jfs2
jfs2 262144
262144 -- -- yes
yes no
no

11. With which logical volume is the /home file system associated?

12. What types of file systems are being displayed?

13. What is the mount point for the file system located on the /dev/hd4 logical
volume?

14. Which file system is used primarily to hold user data and home directories?
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Checkpoint solutions (3 of 3)
IBM Power Systems

Use the following output to answer the questions below:


## lsfs
lsfs
Name
Name Nodename
Nodename Mount
Mount PtPt VFS
VFS Size
Size Options
Options Auto
Auto Accounting
Accounting
/dev/hd4
/dev/hd4 --
-- // jfs2
jfs2 294912
294912 -- -- yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd1
/dev/hd1 --
-- /home
/home jfs2
jfs2 32768
32768 --
-- yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd2
/dev/hd2 --
-- /usr
/usr jfs2
jfs2 3309568
3309568 ---- yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd9var
/dev/hd9var --
-- /var
/var jfs2
jfs2 65536
65536 --
-- yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd3
/dev/hd3 --
-- /tmp
/tmp jfs2
jfs2 131072
131072 -- -- yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd10opt
/dev/hd10opt ---- /opt
/opt jfs2
jfs2 163840
163840 -- -- yes
yes no
no
/dev/cd0
/dev/cd0 --
-- /infocd
/infocd cdrfs
cdrfs ro
ro yes
yes no
no
/dev/lv00
/dev/lv00 --
-- /home/john
/home/john jfs2
jfs2 32768
32768 rw
rw yes
yes no
no
/dev/hd11admin
/dev/hd11admin --
-- /admin
/admin jfs2
jfs2 262144
262144 -- -- yes
yes no
no

11. With which logical volume is the /home file system associated?
The answer is /dev/hd1.
12. What types of file systems are being displayed?
The answers are enhanced journaled file systems (JFS2) and CD-ROM (CDRFS).
13. What is the mount point for the file system located on the /dev/hd4 logical volume?
The answer is /.
14. Which file system is used primarily to hold user data and home directories?
The answer is /home.
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Exercise
IBM Power Systems

System
storage

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Unit summary
IBM Power Systems

Having completed this unit, you should be able to:


• Describe the terminology and the concepts associated with:
– Physical volumes
– Volume groups
– Logical volumes
– Physical partitions
– Logical partitions
• Describe how file systems and logical volumes are related

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2013. All Rights Reserved.


US Government Users Restricted Rights - Use duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp