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LINEAR ALGEBRA

No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Marks : 03

Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Hours : 100

Linear equations: Fields; system of linear equations, and its solution sets;

elementary row operations and echelon forms; matrix operations; invertible

matrices, LU-factorization. (Ref.2 Chap.1)

summary of row-equivalence; computations concerning subspaces. (Ref.1

Chap.2)

transformations; isomorphism; representation of transformations by matrices;

linear functionals; transpose of a linear transformation. (Ref.2 Chap.3)

subspaces; direct-sum decompositions; invariant direct sums; primary

decomposition theorem; cyclic bases; Jordan canonical form. Iterative

estimates of characteristic values. (Ref.2 Chap.6)

Inner Product Spaces: Inner products; inner product spaces; orthogonal sets

and projections; Gram-Schmidt process; QR-factorization; least-squares

problems; unitary operators. (Ref.1 Chap.8)

forms; constrained optimization; singular value decomposition. (Ref.2

Chap.7)

Reference Books:

Thomson Learning Asia, 2003.

2.Kenneth Hoffman and Ray Kunze, "Linear Algebra," 2nd edition,

Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd/ Prentice Hall of India, 2004.

3.David C. Lay, “Linear Algebra and its Applications,” 3rd edition,

Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd, 2005

4.Bernard Kolman and David R. Hill, "Introductory Linear Algebra

with Applications," Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd, 7th edition,

2003.

1

ANTENNA THEORY & DESIGN

No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Electromagnetic Fundamentals, Solution of Maxwell’s Equations for

Radiation Problems, Ideal Dipole, Radiation Patterns, Directivity and Gain,

Antenna Impedance, Radiation Efficiency. Antenna Polarization

Antennas, Micro strip Antenna.

Arrays: Array factor for linear arrays, uniformly excited, equally spaced

Linear arrays, pattern multiplication, directivity of linear arrays, non-

uniformly excited -equally spaced linear arrays, Mutual coupling,

multidimensional arrays, phased arrays, feeding techniques, perspective on

arrays.

Biconical antennas, sleave antennas, and Principles of frequency -

independent Antennas, spiral antennas, and Log - Periodic Antennas.

Parabolic reflector antenna principles, Axi -symmetric parabolic reflector

antenna, offset parabolic reflectors, dual reflector antennas, Gain calculations

for reflector antennas, feed antennas for reflectors, field representations,

matching the feed to the reflector, general feed model, feed antennas used in

practice.

principles, line sources shaped beam synthesis, linear array shaped beam

synthesis — Fourier Series, Woodward — Lawson sampling method,

comparison of shaped beam synthesis methods, low side lobe narrow main

beam synthesis methods Dolph Chebyshev linear array, Taylor line source

method.

]

Method of Moments : Introduction to method of Moments, Pocklington’s

integral equation, integral equations and Kirchoff’s Networking Equations,

Source Modeling Weighted residuals formulations and computational

consideration, calculation of antenna and scatter characteristics.

2

CEM for Antennas : Finite Difference Time Domain Method Geometrical

Optics Wedge diffraction theory, ray fixed coordinate system, uniform theory

of wedge diffraction, E - Plane analysis of Horn antennas. Cylindrical

parabolic antenna, radiation by a slot on a finite ground plane, radiation by a

monopole on a finite ground plane, equivalent current concepts, multiple

diffraction formulation, by curved surfaces, physical optics, method of

stationary phase, physical theory of diffraction, cylindrical parabolic reflector

antennas.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

2nd Edition, 1997

2. Kraus: “Antennas”, McGraw Hill, TMH, 3rd/4th Edition.

3. Stutzman and Thiele, “Antenna Theory and Design”, 2ndEd, John

Wiley and Sons Inc..

4. Sachidananda et. el, “Antenna and Propagation”, Pearson Edu.

Laboratory Experiments:

(FEKO simulators can be used)

1. MATLAB / C Implementation to obtain radiation pattern of an antenna

2. Experimental study of radiation pattern of antenna.

3. Significance of pocklington’s integral equation

4. Measurement techniques of radiation characteristics of antenna.

5. Survey on frequency independent antennas.

6. Analysis of E plane and H- plane Horns.

(Any other experiments can be added in support of the course)

No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total no. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Combinational Circuits, Fault-Location Experiments, Boolean Differences,

Fault Detection by Path Sensitizing, Detection of Multiple Faults, Failure-

Tolerant Design, Quadded Logic

3

Capabilities, Minimization, and Transformation of Sequential Machines:

The Finite- State Model, Further Definitions, Capabilities and Limitations of

Finite – State Machines, State Equivalence and Machine Minimization,

Simplification of Incompletely Specified Machines.

Assignments Using Partitions, The Lattice of closed Partitions, Reductions of

the Output Dependency, Input Independence and Autonomous Clocks,

Covers and Generation of closed Partitions by state splitting, Information

Flow in Sequential Machines, Decompositions, Synthesis of Multiple

Machines.

Experiments, Distinguishing Experiments, Machine Identification, Fault-

Detection Experiments, Design of Diagnosable Machines, Second Algorithm

for the Design of Fault Detection Experiments, Fault-Detection Experiments

for Machines which have no Distinguishing Sequences.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

Tata McGraw Hill Edition

2.Charles Roth Jr., “Digital Circuits and Logic Design”,

3.Parag K Lala, “Fault Tolerant And Fault Testable Hardware

Design”, Prentice Hall Inc. 1985

4.E. V. Krishnamurthy, “Introductory Theory Of Computer”,

Macmillan Press Ltd, 1983

5.Mishra & Chandrasekaran, “Theory Of Computer Science –

Automata, Languages And Computation”, 2nd Edition, PHI,2004

Laboratory Experiments:

I. Digital Circuits & Logic Design

work, dial-tone, dialing, busy, connected, disconnected, and ringing.

2. Write Boolean equation for a BCD decoder, that is, a decoder that has a

BCD code word as input and that has outputs yo through y9. Draw a circuit

that uses AND and OR gates and inverters to implement the decoder.

3. Test the circuit diagram for a multiplexer that selects amoung four sources

of data, each of which is encoded with three bits. The circuit should be

implemented 4-to-1 multiplexers.

4. Design circuit that has as input, a transmit clock and an NRZ serial data

signal and htat generates a Manchester encoded serial data signal as output.

4

5. Develop a circuit of a 4-bit Gray code to unsigned binary converter

implemented using a combinational ROM.

6. Develop a circuit that calculates the average of 16-bit 2s-complement

signed numbers, without checking for overflow.

All the above experiments are to be tested with any suitable simulator or a

HDL.

Any experiments can be included the supports the theory.

----------------------------------------------------------

No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Marks : 03

Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Hours : 100

Axioms, Assigning probabilities, Joint and conditional probabilities, Baye’s

Theorem, Independence, Discrete Random Variables, Engg Example.

Gaussian random variable, Uniform Exponential, Laplace, Gamma, Erlang,

Chi-Square, Raleigh, Rician and Cauchy types of random variables

of functions of Random variables, Central Moments, Conditional expected

values.

generating functions, Engg applications, Scalar quantization, entropy and

source coding.

Pairs of Random variables, Joint CDF, joint PDF, Joint probability mass

functions, Conditional Distribution, density and mass functions, EV

involving pairs of Random variables, Independent Random variables,

Complex Random variables, Engg Application.

involving multiple Random variables, Gaussian Random variable in multiple

dimension, Engg application, linear prediction.

5

Random Process: Definition and characterization, Mathematical tools for

studying Random Processes, Stationary and Ergodic Random processes,

Properties of ACF.

Processes, Engg application, Computer networks, Telephone networks.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1.Probability and random processes: application to Signal

processing and communication - S L Miller and D C Childers:

Academic Press / Elsivier 2004

2. Probability, Random variables and stochastic processes - A.

Papoullis and S U Pillai: McGraw Hill 2002.

3. Probability, Random variables and Random signal principles –

Peyton Z Peebles: TMH 4th Edition 2007.

4. Probability, random processes and applications - H Stark and

Woods: PHI 2001

ELECTIVE I

No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

nonlinear effects, solitons, optical sources, detectors.

Optical Components: Couplers, isolators, circulators, multiplexers, filters,

gratings, interferometers, amplifiers.

receivers, Optical preamplifier, Noise considerations, Bit error rates,

Coherent detection.

Transmitter, Receiver, Different optical amplifiers, Dispersion.

Optical Networks: Client layers of optical layer, SONET/SDH,

multiplexing, layers, frame structure, ATM functions, adaptation layers,

Quality of service and flow control, ESCON, HIPPI.

6

WDM Network Elements: Optical line terminal optical line amplifiers,

optical cross connectors, WDM network design, cost trade offs, LTD and

RWA problems, Routing and wavelength assignment, wavelength

conversion, statistical dimensioning model.

frame work, Information model, management protocols, layers within optical

layer performance and fault management, impact of transparency, BER

measurement, optical trace, Alarm management, configuration management.

Suitable number of Assignments / Tutorials can be given based on the

syllabus

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1.John M. Senior, “Optical Fiber Communications”, Pearson edition,

2000.

2.Rajiv Ramswami, N Sivaranjan, “Optical Networks”, M. Kauffman

Publishers, 2000.

3.Gerd Keiser, “Optical Fiber Communication”, MGH, 1 991.

4.G. P. Agarawal, “Fiber Optics Communication Systems”, John

Wiley NewYork, 1997

No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total no. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

equation, body effect, MOS device design equation, sub threshold region,

Channel length modulation. mobility variation, Tunneling, punch through,

hot electron effect MOS models, small signal AC Characteristics, CMOS

inverter, βn / βp ratio, noise margin, static load MOS inverters, differential

inverter, transmission gate, tristate inverter, BiCMOS inverter.

semiconductor Technology overview, basic CMOS technology, p well / n

well / twin well process. Current CMOS enhancement (oxide isolation, LDD.

refractory gate, multilayer inter connect) , Circuit elements, resistor ,

capacitor, interconnects, sheet resistance & standard unit capacitance

concepts delay unit time, inverter delays , driving capacitive loads, propagate

delays, MOS mask layer, stick diagram, design rules and layout, symbolic

diagram, mask feints, scaling of MOS circuits.

7

Basics of Digital CMOS Design: Combinational MOS Logic circuits-

Introduction, CMOS logic circuits with a MOS load, CMOS logic circuits,

complex logic circuits, Transmission Gate. Sequential MOS logic Circuits -

Introduction, Behavior of hi stable elements, SR latch Circuit, clocked latch

and Flip Flop Circuits, CMOS D latch and triggered Flip Flop. Dynamic

Logic Circuits - Introduction, principles of pass transistor circuits, Voltage

boot strapping synchronous dynamic circuits techniques, Dynamic CMOS

circuit techniques

Amplifier, Current mirrors, Band gap references, basis of cross operational

amplifier.

NMOS, CMOS\SOS technology, CMOS\bulk technology, latch up in bulk

CMOS., static CMOS design, Domino CMOS structure and design, Charge

sharing, Clocking- clock generation, clock distribution, clocked storage

elements.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1.Neil Weste and K. Eshragian,”Principles of CMOS VLSI Design: A

System Perspective”, 2nd edition, Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd.,

2000.

2. Wayne, Wolf, “Modern VLSI design: System on Silicon”, Pearson

Education, Second Edition

3.Douglas A Pucknell & Kamran Eshragian , “Basic VLSI Design”,

PHI 3rd Edition (original Edition – 1994)

4.Sung Mo Kang & Yosuf Lederabic Law, “CMOS Digital Integrated

Circuits: Analysis and Design”, McGraw-Hill (Third Edition).

AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRONICS

No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total no. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Control, Ignition System, Spark plug, Spark pulse generation, Ignition

Timing, Drive Train, Transmission, Brakes, Steering System, Battery,

Starting System

8

Air/Fuel Systems – Fuel Handling, Air Intake System, Air/ Fuel

Management

Sensors – Oxygen (O2/EGO) Sensors, Throttle Position Sensor (TPS),

Engine Crankshaft Angular Position (CKP) Sensor, Magnetic Reluctance

Position Sensor, Engine Speed Sensor, Ignition Timing Sensor, Hall effect

Position Sensor, Shielded Field Sensor, Optical Crankshaft Position Sensor,

Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor - Strain gauge and Capacitor

capsule, Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor, Intake Air Temperature

(IAT) Sensor, Knock Sensor, Airflow rate sensor, Throttle angle sensor

Actuators – Fuel Metering Actuator, Fuel Injector, Ignition Actuator

Exhaust After-Treatment Systems – AIR, Catalytic Converter, Exhaust

Gas Recirculation (EGR), Evaporative Emission Systems

Performance terms, Electronic Fuel Control System, Electronic Ignition

control, Idle sped control, EGR Control

Communication – Serial Data, Communication Systems, Protection, Body

and Chassis Electrical Systems, Remote Keyless Entry, GPS

Brake System (ABS), Electronic Steering Control, Power Steering, Traction

Control, Electronically controlled suspension

Automotive Instrumentation – Sampling, Measurement & Signal

Conversion of various parameters.

Safety Systems – SIR, Interior Safety, Lighting, Entertainment Systems

Automotive Diagnostics – Timing Light, Engine Analyzer, On-board

diagnostics, Off-board diagnostics, Expert Systems

Collision Avoidance Radar warning Systems, Low tire pressure warning

system, Radio navigation, Advance Driver Information System

References: -

SAMS/Elsevier Publishing

Systems and Components, 5th edition, John Wiley& Sons Ltd., 2007

9

SEMSTER - II

WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

Subject Code : 12EC086 IA Marks : 50

No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total no. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

model of wireless channel, time and frequency response, statistical models.

(Ref.1 Chap.2)

Point to point communication: detection in rayleigh fading channel, time

diversity, antenna diversity, frequency diversity, impact of channel

uncertainity.(Ref.1 Chap.3)

Diversity: Introduction, Microdiversity, Microdiversity and simulcast,

Combination of Signals, Error Probability in fading channels with diversity

Reception, transmit diversity. (Ref.2 Chap.13)

Capacity of wireless channels: AWGN channel capacity, resources of

AWGN channel, Linear time invariant gaussian channels, capacity of fading

channels. (Ref.1 Chap.5)

MIMO Systems: Introduction, Space Diversity and Systems Based on Space

Diversity, Smart antenna system and MIMO, MIMO based System

architecture, MIMO exploits multipath, Space time Processing, Antenna

considerations for MIMO, MIMO channel Modeling, MIMO Channel

measurement, MIMO Channel capacity, CDD, Space Time Coding,

Advantages and Applications of MIMO, MIMO applications in 3G .(Ref.4

Chap.15)

MIMO 1 – Spatial multiplexing and channel modeling: multiplexing

capability of MIMO channels, physical modeling of MIMO channels,

modeling MIMO fading channels. (Ref.1 Chap.7)

Multi Antennae Systems: Smart antennas, Multiple Input Multiple Output

Systems, (Ref. 1Chap.20)

References Books:

1. David Tse, P. Viswanath, “Fundamentals of wireless communication”,

Cambridge, 2006.

2. Andreas Molisch, “Wireless communications”, Wiley, 2009

3.William C Y Lee, “Mobile Communication Engineering Theory and

applications”, TMGH, 2008

10

4. Upen Dalal, “Wireless communication”, Oxford, 2009

5. Mark Ciampa, Jorge Olenwa, “Wireless communications”, Cengage,

2007.

-----------------------------------------------------------

Laboratory Experiments:

FREE on the net)

1.Use NS2 simulator to check for the transmission power in the

Wireless network.

2. Using NS2 measure the losses in the channel.

3. Using NS2 implement the propagation model both indoor and

Out door.

4. Using NS2 measure the performance analysis of different

models.

5. Using NS2 implement the CDMA model.

6. Using NS2 measure the Latency, BW and efficiency of the

given Wireless model.

Any other experiments can be added to supplement the theory.

No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total no. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

comparison between CMOS and BI - CMOS.

MESFETS.

small signal operation of MESFETS and MOSFETS.

scaling theory, processing challenges to further CMOS miniaturization

conventional vs. tactile computing, computing, molecular and biological

11

computing Mole electronics-molecular Diode and diode- diode logic .Defect

tolerant computing,

lines, super buffers- An NMOS super buffer, tri state super buffer and pad

drivers, CMOS super buffers, Dynamic ratio less inverters, large capacitive

loads, pass logic, designing of transistor logic, General functional blocks -

NMOS and CMOS functional blocks.

circuits, NAND-NAND, NOR- NOR, and AOI Logic, NMOS, CMOS

Multiplexers, Barrel shifter, Wire routing and module lay out.

Strategies encompassing hierarchy, regularity, modularity & locality, CMOS

Chip design Options, programmable logic, Programmable inter connect,

programmable structure, Gate arrays standard cell approach, Full custom

Design.

Reference Books:

Cambridge publications

2.Eugene D Fabricius “Introduction to VLSI Design”, McGraw-Hill

International publications

3.D.A Pucknell “Basic VLSI Design”, PHI Publication

4.Wayne Wolf, “Modern VLSI Design” Pearson Education,

SecondEdition , 2002

MODERN DSP

No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total no. of Lecture Hours : 06 Exam Marks : 100

sampling rates and thus the multirate signal processing and hence their

applications in communication systems and signal processing. It is intended

to introduce a basic course in multirate signal processing especially meant

12

for students of branches eligible for M Tech courses in EC related

disciplines.

Processing, Classification of Signals, The Concept of Frequency in

Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals, Analog-to-Digital and Digital-

to-Analog Conversion, Frequency-Domain Sampling: The Discrete Fourier

Transform, Properties of the DFT, Linear Filtering Methods Based on the

DFT(Ref.1 Chap.1 & 7).

Design of Digital Filters: General Considerations, Design of FIR Filters,

Design of IIR Filters from Analog Filters, Frequency Transformations.(Ref.1

Chap.10)

Multirate Digital Signal Processing: Introduction, Decimation by a factor

‘D’, Interpolation by a factor ‘I’, Sampling rate Conversion by a factor ‘I/D’,

implementation of Sampling rate conversion, Multistage implementation of

Sampling rate conversion, Sampling rate conversion of Band Pass Signals,

Sampling rate conversion by an arbitrary factor, Applications of Multirate

Signal Processing, Digital Filter banks, Two Channel Quadrature Mirror

Filter banks, M-Channel QMF bank.(Ref.1 Chap.11)

Adaptive Filters: Applications of Adaptive Filters, Adaptive Direct Form

FIR Filters- The LMS Algorithm, Adaptive Direct Form Filters-RLS

Algorithm. (Ref.1 Chap.13)

References:

1. Proakis and Manolakis, “Digital Signal Processing”, Prentice Hall 1996.

(third edition).

2. Roberto Cristi, “Modern Digital Signal Processing”, Cengage

Publishers, India, (erstwhile Thompson Publications), 2003.

3. S.K. Mitra, “Digital Signal Processing: A Computer Based Approach”,

III Ed, Tata McGraw Hill, India, 2007.

4. E.C. Ifeachor and B W Jarvis, “Digital Signal Processing, a

practitioners approach,” II Edition, Pearson Education, India, 2002 Reprint.

-------------------------------------------

Laboratory Experiments:

I. Modern Digital Signal Processing

i. USING MATLAB

1 Question based on response of LTI systems to different inputs

13

A LTI system is defined by the difference equation y[n]=x[n]+x[n-1]+x[n-

2].

(a) Determine the impulse response of the system and sketch it.

(b) Determine the output y[n] of the system when the input is x[n]=u[n].

(c) Determine the output of the system when the input is a complex

exponential (Eg. x[n]=2ej0.2πn).

pole and zeros and the frequency response of the system

Design a simple digital FIR filter with real co-efficients to remove a

narrowband (i.e., sinusoidal) disturbance with frequency F0=50 Hz. Let

Fs=300 Hz be the sampling frequency.

(a) Determine the desired zeros and poles of the filter.

(b) Determine the filter coefficients with the gain K=1

(c) Sketch the magnitude of the frequency response.

3 Question on simple digital filtering using the relationship between pole and

zeros and the frequency response of the system

Design an IIR filter with real co-efficients with same specifications

mentioned in Q2 and repeat the steps (a) to (c).

Generate a signal with two frequencies x(t)=3cos(2πF1t) + 2cos(2πF2t)

sampled at Fs=8 kHz. Let F1=1 kHz and F2=F1+∆ and the overall data length

be N=256 points.

(a) From theory, determine the minimum value of ∆ necessary to

distinguish between the two frequencies.

(b) Verify this result experimentally. Using the rectangular window, look at

the DFT with several values of ∆ so that you verify the resolution.

(c) Repeat part (b) using a Hamming window. How did the resolution

change?

Generate the sequence x[n]=n-64 for n=0,…127.

(a) Let X[k]=DFT{x[n]}. For various values of L, set to zero the “high

frequency coefficients” X[64-L]=….X[64]=…….=X[64+L]=0 and take the

inverse DFT. Plot the results.

(b) Let XDCT[k]=DCT(x[n]}. For the same values of L, set to zero the

“high frequency coefficients” XDCT[127-L]=…….XDCT[127]. Take the

inverse DCT for each case and compare the reconstruction with the previous

case.

6 Filter design

Design a discrete time low pass filter with the specifications given below:

Sampling frequency = 2 kHz.

14

Pass band edge = 260 Hz

Stop band edge = 340 Hz

Max. pass band attenuation = 0.1 dB

Minimum stop band attenuation = 30 dB

Hamming windowing

Kaiser windowing

Applying bilinear transformation to a suitable, analog Butterworth filter.

specifications) and computational complexity.

whose input and impulse response are specified.

2. Write an ALP to obtain the impulse response of the given system, given

the difference equation. .

1.Sampling of an Image.

2.Design of equiripple filters.

3.Application of frequency transformation in filter design.

4.Computation of FFT when N is not a power of 2.

5.Sampling rate conversion and plot of spectrum.

6.Analysis of signals by STFT and WT.

7.Delayed auditory feedback signal using 6713 processor.

8.Record of machinery noise like fan or blower or diesel generator

and obtaining its spectrum.

11. Synthesis of select dual tone multi frequency signals using 6713

processor.

12. Fourier Transform & its inverse Fourier Transform of an image.

Any other experiments can be added to supplement the theory.

No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

15

Digital Modulation Techniques: Digital Modulation Formats, Coherent

Binary Modulation Techniques, Coherent Quadrature –Modulation

Techniques, NonCoherent Binary Modulation Techniques, Comparison of

Binary and Quaternary Modulation Techniques, M-ary Modulation

Techniques, Power Spectra, Bandwidth Efficiency, M-ary Modulation

formats viewed in the Light of the channel capacity Theorem, Effect of

Intersymbol Interference, Bit Versus Symbol Error Probabilities,

Synchronisation, Applications.

Representation, Formulation of the Convolutional Decoding Problem,

Properties of Convolutional Codes: Distance property of convolutional codes,

Systematic and Nonsystematic Convolutional Codes, Performance Bounds

for Convolutional Codes, Coding Gain. Other Convolutional Decoding

Algorithms: Sequential Decoding, Feedback Decoding,Turbo Codes.

receiver for channels with ISI and AWGN, Linear equalization, Decision-

feedback equalization, reduced complexity ML detectors, Iterative

equalization and decoding-Turbo equalization.

feedback equalizer, adaptive equalization of Trellis- coded signals, Recursive

least squares algorithms for adaptive equalization, self recovering (blind)

equalization.

Spectrum Digital Communication System, Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

Signals, Frequency-Hopped Spread Spectrum Signals, CDMA, time-hopping

SS, Synchronization of SS systems.

Characterization of fading multi-path channels, the effect of signal

characteristics on the choice of a channel model, frequency-Nonselective,

slowly fading channel, diversity techniques for fading multi-path channels,

Digital signal over a frequency-selective, slowly fading channel, coded wave

forms for fading channels, multiple antenna systems.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. John G. Proakis, ―Digital Communications‖, 4th edition, McGraw

Hill, 2001. 2. Bernard Sklar,

nd

―”Digital Communications - Fundamentals and Applications”, 2

Edition Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd, 2001.

16

3. Simon Haykin, ― Digital Communications‖, John Wiley and Sons,

4. Andrew J. Viterbi, ―CDMA: Principles of Spread Spectrum

Communications‖, Prentice Hall, USA, 1995.

---------------------------------------------------

ELECTIVE – II

NANOELECTRONICS

Subject Code : 12EC054 IA Marks : 50

No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total no. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

milestones in microfabrication and electronic industry,Moores law and

continued miniaturization,Classification of Nano structures,Electronic

properties of atoms and solids: Isolated atom, Bonding between atoms,Giant

molecular solids,Free electron models and energy bands,crystalline solids,

Periodicity of crystal lattices, Electronic conduction,effects of nanometer

length scale,Fabrication methods: Top down processes,Bottom up processes

methods for templating the growth of nanomaterials, ordering of

nanosystems.

Characterization: Classification, Microscopic techniques, Field ion

microscopy, scanning probe techniques, diffraction techniques: bulk ,surface,

spectroscopy techniques: photon, radiofrequency, electron, surface analysis

and dept profiling: electron, mass, Ion beam, Reflectrometry, Techniques for

property measurement: mechanical, electron, magnetic, thermal properties.

Inorganic semiconductor nanostructures: overview of semiconductor

physics,Quantum confinement in semiconductor nanostructures:quantum

wells,quantum wires,quantum dots,superlattices,band offsets,electronic

density of states.

Fabrication techniques: requirements of ideal semiconductor,epitaxial

growth of quantum wells, lithography and etching,cleaved edge

overgrowth,growth of vicinal substrates,strain induced dots and

wires,electrostatically induced dots and wires,Quantum well width

fluctuations,thermally annealed quantum wells,semiconductor

nanocrystals,collidal quantum dots,self-assembly techniques.

Physical processes: modulation doping,quantum hall effect,resonant

tunneling,charging effects,ballistic carrier transport,Inter band absorption,

intraband absorption,Light emission processes,phonon bottleneck, quantum

confined stark effect,nonlinear effects,coherence and dephasing,

17

characterization of semiconductor nanostructures:optical electrical and

structural.

Methods of measuring properties:structure:

atomic,crystallography,microscopy,spectroscopy. Properties of nanoparticles:

metal nano clusters, semiconducting nanoparticles, rare gas and molecular

clusters, methods of synthesis(RF, chemical, thermolysis,pulsed laser

methods) Carbon nanostructures and its applications(field emission and

shielding,computers,fuel cells,sensors,catalysis).Self assembling

nanostructured molecular materials and devices: building blocks,principles

of self assembly, methods to prepare and pattern nanoparticles,templated

nanostructures,liquid crystal mesophases.Nanomagnetic materials and

devices:magnetism,materials,magneto resistance,nanomagnetism in

technology,challenges facing nano magnetism.

Applications: Injection lasers,quantum cascade lasers,singe photon

sources,biological tagging,optical memories,coulomb blocade

devices,photonic structures,QWIP’s,NEMS,MEMS.

References:

1. Ed Robert Kelsall,Ian Hamley,Mark Geoghegan, “ Nanoscale

science and technology” ,John wiley and sons,2007.

2. Charles P Poole,Jr,Frank J owens “Introduction to

Nanotechnology” ,John wiley,copyright 2006,Reprint 2011.

3. Ed William A Goddard III,Donald W Brenner,Sergey Edward

Lyshevski,Gerald J Lafrate, “ Hand Book of Nanoscience

Engineering and Technology” ,CRC press,2003

No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total no. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Wireless communication channel specifications, wireless communication

systems, wireless networks, switching technology, communication problems,

wireless network issues and standards.

components, technologies, design issues, protocols and applications.

18

Wireless personal area networks. Architecture, components, requirements,

technologies and protocols, Bluetooth and Zigbee.

IEEE 802.11x, WLAN protocols, 802.11 p and applications.

support, protocols, broadband networks and applications. WWANs. Cellular

networks, Satellite networks, applications.

networks, VANETs. Research issues in wireless networks.

Reference Books:

and protocols”, Wiley, First edition, 2010.

2. P. Kaveh, Krishnamurthy, “Principles of wireless networks: Aunified

approach”, PHI, 2006.

3. Iti Saha Mishra, “Wireless communication and networks 3G and

beyond “, MGH, 2009

4. Ivan Stojmenovic, “Handbook of wireless networks and mobile

computing”, Wiley, 2009

5. P. Nicopolitidis, M. S. Obaidat, etal., “Wireless Networks”, Wiley, 2009

6. Yi-Bing Lin, Imrich Chlamtac, “ Wireless and Mobile Network

Architectures”, Wiley, 2009.

7. Mullet, ‘Introduction to wireless telecommunication systems &

Networks’, Cengage, 2009

No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

event simulation, single server simulation, alternative approaches, other types

of simulation.(Ref.1 Chap.1)

19

Building valid, credible and detailed simulation models. Techniques for

increasing model validity and credibility, comparing real world observations.

(Ref.1 Chap.5)

Selecting input probability distributions. Useful probability distributions,

assessing sample independence, activity I, II and III. Models of arrival

process.(Ref.1 Chap.6)

random number generators. Random variate generation: approaches,

continuous random variates, discrete random variates, correlated random

variates.(Ref.1 Chap.7 & 8)

analysis for steady state parameters. Comparing alternative system

configurations. Confidence intervals. Variance reduction techniques.

Antithetic and Control variates.(Ref.1 Chap.9)

Reference Books:

4th edition, 2007

2. Jerry Banks, “Discrete event system simulation”, Pearson, 2009.

3. Seila, Ceric, & Tadikamalla, “Applied simulation modeling”,

Cengage, 2009.

4. George S. Fishman, “Discrete event simulation”, Springer,

2001.

5. Frank L. Severance, “System modeling and simulation”,

Wiley, 2009

20

SEMESTER – III

No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total no. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Construction of Galois Field GF (2m) and its basic properties, Computation

using Galois Field GF (2m) Arithmetic, Vector spaces and Matrices.(Ref.1

Chap.2)

circuits, Syndrome and Error Detection, Minimum Distance Considerations,

Error detecting and Error correcting capabilities, Standard array and

Syndrome decoding, Decoding circuits, Hamming Codes, Reed – Muller

codes, The (24, 12) Golay code, Product codes and Interleaved codes.(Ref.1

Chap.3)

Encoding using Multiplication circuits, Systematic Cyclic codes – Encoding

using Feed back shift register circuits, Generator matrix for Cyclic codes,

Syndrome computation and Error detection, Meggitt decoder, Error trapping

decoding, Cyclic Hamming codes, The (23, 12) Golay code, Shortened cyclic

codes.(Ref.1 Chap.5)

Implementation of Galois field Arithmetic, Implementation of Error

correction. Non – binary BCH codes: q – ary Linear Block Codes, Primitive

BCH codes over GF (q), Reed – Solomon Codes, Decoding of Non – Binary

BCH and RS codes: The Berlekamp - Massey Algorithm.(Ref.1 Chap.6)

Majority Logic Decodable Codes: One – Step Majority logic decoding,

one – step Majority logic decodable Codes, Two – step Majority logic

decoding, Multiple – step Majority logic decoding.(Ref.1 Chap.8)

properties, Distance properties, Viterbi Decoding Algorithm for decoding,

Soft – output Viterbi Algorithm, Stack and Fano sequential decoding

Algorithms, Majority logic decoding(Ref.1 Chap.11)

Multilevel Concatenated codes, Soft decision Multistage decoding,

Concatenated coding schemes with Convolutional Inner codes, Introduction

21

to Turbo coding and their distance properties, Design of Turbo codes.(Ref.1

Chap.15)

codes, Concept of Inter – leaving, cyclic codes for Burst Error correction –

Fire codes, Convolutional codes for Burst Error correction.(Ref.1 Chap.21)

Reference Books:

1.Shu Lin & Daniel J. Costello, Jr. “Error Control Coding” Pearson /

Prentice Hall, Second Edition, 2004. (Major Reference)

2.Blahut, R.E. “Theory and Practice of Error Control Codes”

Addison Wesley, 1984

ELECTIVE – III

ASIC DESIGN

No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total no. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Introduction: Full Custom with ASIC, Semi custom ASICS, Standard Cell

based ASIC, Gate array based ASIC, Channeled gate array, Channel less gate

array, structured get array, Programmable logic device, FPGA design flow,

ASIC cell libraries

Data Logic Cells: Data Path Elements, Adders, Multiplier, Arithmetic

Operator, I/O cell, Cell Compilers

ASIC Library Design: Logical effort: practicing delay, logical area and

logical efficiency logical paths, multi stage cells, optimum delay, optimum

no. of stages, library cell design.

library, Names, Schematic, Icons & Symbols, Nets, schematic entry for

ASIC’S, connections, vectored instances and buses, Edit in place attributes,

Netlist, screener, Back annotation

22

A Brief Introduction to Low Level Design Language: an introduction to

EDIF, PLA Tools, an introduction to CFI designs representation. Half gate

ASIC. Introduction to Synthesis and Simulation;

Physical Design, CAD Tools, System Partitioning, Estimating ASIC size,

partitioning methods. Floor planning tools, I/O and power planning, clock

planning, placement algorithms, iterative placement improvement, Time

driven placement methods. Physical Design flow global Routing, Local

Routing, Detail Routing, Special Routing, Circuit Extraction and DRC.

Reference Books:

Pearson Education, 2003.

2. Jose E.France, Yannis Tsividis, “Design of Analog-Digital VLSI

Circuits for Telecommunication and signal processing”, Prentice

Hall, 1994.

3.Malcolm R.Haskard; Lan. C. May, “Analog VLSI Design - NMOS

and CMOS”, Prentice Hall, 1998.

4.Mohammed Ismail and Terri Fiez, “Analog VLSI Signal and

Information Processing”, McGraw Hill, 1994.

MULTIMEDIA COMMUNICATION

No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Marks : 03

Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Hours : 100

multimedia networks, multimedia applications, network QoS and application

QoS. (Ref.1 Chap. 1)

Information Representation: text, images, audio and video, Text and image

compression, compression principles, text compression, image compression.

Audio and video compression, audio compression, video compression, video

compression principles, video compression standards: H.261, H.263, P1.323,

MPEG 1, MPEG 2, Other coding formats for text, speech, image and

video.(Ref 1 Chap 3 &4)

23

Detailed Study of MPEG 4: coding of audiovisual objects, MPEG 4

systems, MPEG 4 audio and video, profiles and levels. MPEG 7

standardization process of multimedia content description, MPEG 21

multimedia framework, Significant features of JPEG 2000, MPEG 4 transport

across the Internet. (Ref2. Chap.5)

reference model for synchronization, Synchronization specification.

Multimedia operating systems, Resource management, process management

techniques. (Ref. 3. Cahp 9 & 11)

error resilient video coding techniques, multimedia transport across IP

networks and relevant protocols such as RSVP, RTP, RTCP, DVMRP,

multimedia in mobile networks, multimedia in broadcast networks. (Ref.2

Chap. 6)

Assignments / Practicals can be given on writing the programs to encode and

decode the various kinds of data by using the algorithms. Students can collect

several papers from journals/conferences/Internet on a specific area of

multimedia communications and write a review paper and make a

presentation.

Reference Books:

2001

2. K. R. Rao, Zoran S. Bojkovic, Dragorad A. Milovanovic,

“Multimedia Communication Systems”, Pearson education, 2004

3. Raif steinmetz, Klara Nahrstedt, “Multimedia: Computing,

Communications and Applications”, Pearson education, 2002

4. John Billamil, Louis Molina, “Multimedia : An Introduction”,

PHI, 2002

Subject Code : 12EC071 IA Marks : 50

No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total no. of Lecture Hours : 70 Exam Marks : 100

and applications; RF Electronics Concepts; Fundamental Concepts in Wave

Propagation; Circuit Representations of two port RF/MW networks

24

Passive Circuit Design: The Smith Chart, Application of the Smith Chart in

Distributed and lumped element circuit applications, Design of Matching

networks.

networks, Gain Considerations in Amplifiers, Noise Considerations in Active

Networks.

Active Networks: Linear and Nonlinear Design: RF/MW Amplifiers Small

Signal Design, Large Signal Design, RF/MW Oscillator Design, RF/MW

Frequency Conversion Rectifier and Detector Design, Mixer Design, RF/MW

Control Circuit Design, RF/MW Integrated circuit design.

Reference Books:

Electronics Illustrated”, Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2004.

2.Reinhold Ludwig and Pavel Bretchko, “RF Circuit Design: Theory

and Applications”, Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2004.

ELECTIVE IV

No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total no. of Lecture Hours : 70 Exam Marks : 100

Sensors and Actuators, Communication Interface, Embedded Firmware,

Other System Components

Characteristics and Quality Attributes of Embedded Systems :

Hardware Software Co-Design and Program Modelling : Fundamental

Issues in Hardware Software Co-Design, Computational Models in

Embedded Design, Introduction to Unified Modelling Language, Hardware

Software Trade-offs

Embedded Firmware Design and Development : Embedded Firmware

Design Approaches, Embedded Firmware Development Languages.

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) based Embedded System Design :

Operating System Basics, Types of OS, Tasks, Process and Threads,

Multiprocessing and Multitasking, Task Scheduling, Threads, Processes and

Scheduling: Putting them altogether, Task Communication, Task

Synchronization, Device Drivers, How to Choose an RTOS

25

The Embedded System Development Environment:

The Integrated Development Environment (IDE), Types of Files Generated

on Cross-compilation, Disassembler/Decompiler, Simulators, Emulators and

Debugging, Target Hardware Debugging, Boundary Scan

Trends in the Embedded Industry :

Processor Trends in Embedded System, Embedded OS Trends, Development

Language Trends, Open Standards, Frameworks and Alliances, Bottlenecks

Reference Books::

1. Shibu K V, Introduction to Embedded Systems, Tata McGraw Hill

Education Private Limited, 2009.

2. James K Peckol, Embedded Systems – A contemporary Design

Tool, John Wiely, 2008

No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total no. of Lecture Hours : 70 Exam Marks : 100

Wimax genesis and framework: 802.16 std., wimax forum, other 802.16

stds. Protocol layer topologies: layers of wimax, CS, MAC CPS, security

layer, phy layer, reference model, topology.

unlicensed frequencies, fixed wimax system profiles, mobile wimax profiles.

permutation, 802.16 transmission chains, channel coding, turbo coding, burst

profile.

Wimax MAC and QOS: CS layer, MAC function and frames, multiple

access and burst profile, uplink bandwidth allocation and request

mechanisms, network entry and QoS magmt.

technology in wimax, MBS. Wimax architecture, mobility handover and

power save modes. Security.

Reference Books:

1. Loutfi Nuyami, “WIMAX: technology for broadband access”, John

Wiley, 2007

2. Yan Zhang, Hsia Hwa Chen, “Mobile WIMAX”, Aurobech

publications, 2008.

26

RF MEMS

No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total no. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Review – Introduction to MEMS. Fabrication for MEMS, MEMS

transducers and Actuators . Microsensing for MEMS, Materials for MEMS.

MEMS materials and fabrication techniques – Metals, Semiconductors, thin

films, Materials for Polymer MEMS, Bulk Machining for silicon based

MEMS, Surface machining for Silicon based MEMS, Micro Stereo

Lithography for Polymer MEMS.

Switching, Switches for RF and microwave Applications , Actuation

mechanisms, micro relays and micro actuators, Dynamics of Switch

operation, MEMS Switch Design and design considerations. MEMS

Inductors and capacitors.

Micromachined RF Filters and Phase shifters.

RF Filters, Modeling of Mechanical Filters, Micromachanical Filters, SAW

filters – Basics, Design considerations. Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters,

Micromachined Filters for Millimeter Wave frequencies.

Micromacbined Phase Shifters, Types and Limitations, MEMS and

Ferroelectric Phase shifters, Applications.

Micromachined Transmission Lines – Losses in Transmission lines, coplanar

lines, Meicroshield and membrane supported lines, Microshield components,

Micromachined waveguides, directional couplers and mixers, Resonators and

Filters..

Integration and Packaging for RF MEMS. Roles and types of Packages, Flip

Chip Techniques, Multichip module packaging and Wafer bonding,

Reliability issues and Thermal issues.

Reference Books :

2003 Reprint

2. RF MEMS Circuit Design J De Los Santos, Artech House, 2002

3. Transaction Level Modeling with SystemC: TLM Concepts and

Applications for Embedded Systems, by , Frank Ghenassia

Springer, 2005

4. Networks on Chips: Technology and Tools, by and Giovanni Luca

Benini

De Micheli , Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2006.

27

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