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1150EE101 – BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Course Content:

UNIT-I ELECTRICAL WIRING, SAFETY & MEASUREMENTS 6


Electrical symbols- Indian electricity rules– Fuse & types - MCB - Power rating of Basic house
hold equipment –neutral and earth connection – types of earthing - earthing of domestic fitting
and appliances - ELCBs – Electrical installation estimate –Electric Shock & Safety- measuring
instruments – Ammeter – Voltmeter- Wattmeter.

UNIT-II INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 6


History and evolution of electricity-Electrical Quantities, Ohm’s Law, Resistance, Resistor &
types-colour coding of resistance, Temperature coefficient of resistance-Capacitance-Capacitor&
types, Introduction to Magnetism-Basic Concepts-Introduction to A.C. Quantities.

UNIT-III BASIC CIRCUIT CONCEPTS 6


Resistance, Inductance & Capacitance in Series & parallel combination, Kirchhoff’s laws, Star-
Delta transformation, Mesh & Node analysis-Magnetic Circuits.

UNIT-IV ELECTRICAL MACHINES 6


Introduction to three phase quantities-General classification of Electrical Machines, construction
& working of D.C. Machines, A.C.Machines & Transformer-Basic Equations-Applications

UNIT-V POWER GENERATION & ENERGY SOURCES 6


Single line diagram of Power system, Thermal & Nuclear Power Plant-fuel cell, Renewable
Energy Sources -Solar, wind & Hydro power plant structure, Energy Storage, super capacitor–
Battery-Types - rating, testing & troubleshooting.
Total = 30 Periods
TEXT BOOKS:-
1. S. Sivanagaraju, Dr P.K Dhal "Basic Electrical Engineering” Cengage Learning, 2nd
Edition, 2015.
2. B.L.Thereja “Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering and Electronics”, S.Chand, 2006
Edition, Reprint 2014
REFERENCE BOOKS:-
1. Smarajit Ghosh, "Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering", PHI Learning
Private Ltd, 2nd Edition, 2010.
2. Wadhwa.C.L, "Basic Electrical Engineering", New Age International, 4th Edition, 2007.
(Reprint June 2010)
4. T. Thyagarajan, ―Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering, SciTech Publications, 5th
Edition, Reprint Jan 2010.

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UNIT-I ELECTRICAL WIRING, SAFETY & MEASUREMENTS

Electrical symbols- Indian electricity rules– Fuse & types - MCB - Power rating of Basic house hold
equipment –neutral and earth connection – types of earthing - earthing of domestic fitting and
appliances - ELCBs – Electrical installation estimate –Electric Shock & Safety- measuring
instruments – Ammeter – Voltmeter- Wattmeter.

BASICS:

Current: Flow of Electrons in a conductor

Voltage: Potential difference between two points

Power: Product of Voltage and current

Real power: KWH (Kilo watt Hours) – Useful power

Reactive Power: KVArh (Capacitive power)

Resistance: Resistance is the opposition that a substance offers to the flow of electric current

Ohms Law: At a constant temperature, current flow through the conductor, is directly proportional to
the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance (V = I / R)

Kirchhoff’s Law’s:
Law 1 (Kirchhoff Current Law / Nodal Law): Sum of Incoming current is equal to outgoing current
Law 2 (Kirchhoff Voltage Law / Mesh Law): Potential rise is equal to potential drop.

Alternative Current (AC): An electric current that reverses its direction many times a second at
regular intervals, typically used in power supplies.

Direct Current (DC): An electric current flowing in one direction only.

Frequency: The rate at which something occurs over a particular period of time

Hertz: The SI unit of frequency, equal to one cycle per second

Machines: An apparatus using mechanical power and having several parts, each with a definite
function and together performing a particular task.

Motor: Electrical Input to Mechanical output

Generator: Mechanical Input to Electrical output

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 Electrical symbols:

Electrical symbols and electronic circuit symbols are used for drawing schematic diagram.
The symbols represent electrical and electronic components.

Table of Electrical Symbols


Symbol Component name Meaning

Wire Symbols

Electrical Wire Conductor of electrical current

Connected Wires Connected crossing

Not Connected Wires Wires are not connected

Switch Symbols and Relay Symbols

SPST Toggle Switch Disconnects current when open

SPDT Toggle Switch Selects between two connections

Pushbutton Switch
Momentary switch - normally open
(N.O)

Pushbutton Switch
Momentary switch - normally closed
(N.C)

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DIP Switch DIP switch is used for onboard configuration

SPST Relay

Relay open / close connection by an electromagnet

SPDT Relay

Jumper Close connection by jumper insertion on pins.

Solder Bridge Solder to close connection

Ground Symbols

Earth Ground Used for zero potential reference and electrical shock protection.

Chassis Ground Connected to the chassis of the circuit

Digital / Common
Ground

Resistor Symbols

Resistor (IEEE)

Resistor reduces the current flow.

Resistor (IEC)

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Potentiometer (IEEE)

Adjustable resistor - has 3 terminals.

Potentiometer (IEC)

Variable Resistor /
Rheostat (IEEE)
Adjustable resistor - has 2 terminals.
Variable Resistor /
Rheostat (IEC)

Trimmer Resistor Preset resistor

Thermistor Thermal resistor - change resistance when temperature changes

Photoresistor / Light
dependent resistor Photo-resistor - change resistance with light intensity change
(LDR)

Capacitor Symbols

Capacitor
Capacitor is used to store electric charge. It acts as short circuit
with AC and open circuit with DC.
Capacitor

Polarized Capacitor Electrolytic capacitor

Polarized Capacitor Electrolytic capacitor

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Variable Capacitor Adjustable capacitance

Inductor / Coil Symbols

Inductor Coil / solenoid that generates magnetic field

Iron Core Inductor Includes iron

Variable Inductor

Power Supply Symbols

Voltage Source Generates constant voltage

Current Source Generates constant current.

AC Voltage Source AC voltage source

Electrical voltage is generated by mechanical rotation of the


Generator
generator

Battery Cell Generates constant voltage

Battery Generates constant voltage

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Controlled Voltage Generates voltage as a function of voltage or current of other circuit
Source element.

Controlled Current Generates current as a function of voltage or current of other circuit


Source element.

Meter Symbols

Voltmeter Measures voltage. Has very high resistance. Connected in parallel.

Measures electric current. Has near zero resistance. Connected


Ammeter
serially.

Ohmmeter Measures resistance

Wattmeter Measures electric power

Lamp / Light Bulb Symbols

Lamp / light bulb

Lamp / light bulb Generates light when current flows through

Lamp / light bulb

Diode / LED Symbols

Diode allows current flow in one direction only - left (anode) to right
Diode
(cathode).

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Allows current flow in one direction, but also can flow in the reverse
Zener Diode
direction when above breakdown voltage

Schottky Diode Schottky diode is a diode with low voltage drop

Varactor / Varicap Diode Variable capacitance diode

Tunnel Diode

Light Emitting Diode


LED emits light when current flows through
(LED)

Photodiode Photodiode allows current flow when exposed to light

Transistor Symbols

NPN Bipolar Transistor Allows current flow when high potential at base (middle)

PNP Bipolar Transistor Allows current flow when low potential at base (middle)

Made from 2 bipolar transistors. Has total gain of the product of each
Darlington Transistor
gain.

JFET-N Transistor N-channel field effect transistor

JFET-P Transistor P-channel field effect transistor

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NMOS Transistor N-channel MOSFET transistor

PMOS Transistor P-channel MOSFET transistor

Misc. Symbols

Motor Electric motor

Transformer Change AC voltage from high to low or low to high.

Electric bell Rings when activated

Buzzer Produce buzzing sound

Fuse
The fuse disconnects when current above threshold. Used to protect
circuit from high currents.
Fuse

Bus

Bus Contains several wires. Usually for data / address.

Bus

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Optocoupler / Opto-
Optocoupler isolates connection to other board
isolator

Loudspeaker Converts electrical signal to sound waves

Microphone Converts sound waves to electrical signal

Operational Amplifier Amplify input signal

Schmitt Trigger Operates with hysteresis to reduce noise.

Analog-to-digital
Converts analog signal to digital numbers
converter (ADC)

Digital-to-Analog
Converts digital numbers to analog signal
converter (DAC)

Crystal Oscillator Used to generate precise frequency clock signal

Antenna Symbols

Antenna / aerial

Transmits & receives radio waves

Antenna / aerial

Dipole Antenna Two wires simple antenna

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Logic Gates Symbols

NOT Gate (Inverter) Outputs 1 when input is 0

AND Gate Outputs 1 when both inputs are 1.

NAND Gate Outputs 0 when both inputs are 1. (NOT + AND)

OR Gate Outputs 1 when any input is 1.

NOR Gate Outputs 0 when any input is 1. (NOT + OR)

XOR Gate Outputs 1 when inputs are different. (Exclusive OR)

D Flip-Flop Stores one bit of data

Multiplexer / Mux 2 to 1

Connects the output to selected input line.

Multiplexer / Mux 4 to 1

Demultiplexer / Demux 1
Connects selected output to the input line.
to 4

 Indian electricity rules:


Central Electricity Board shall be constituted to exercise the powers conferred by section
The board shall consist of
1. A chairman and five other members to be nominated by Central Government
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2. One member to be nominated by government of each state
3. One member by railway board
4. One member by Chief Inspector of Mines
5. One member by ISI

CEB may make the rules to regulate the generation, transmission, supply and use of energy.
In exercise of the powers conferred under the sections the Central Electricity Board frames the
Indian Electricity Rules

IE RULES
The rules regarding the safety in construction and use of electrical installations / plants / equipment
are framed by Central Electricity Board.
The I.E. rules were first framed in1922 and amended in 1937 and 1956.

Objective of I.E. Rules


To regulate the relation between the Electricity Supplier and Consumer
To make the generation, transmission, distribution and the use of electricity as safe as possible.

General safety requirements


Rule 29: Construction, installation, protection, operation and maintenance of electric supply lines
and apparatus.
INDIAN ELECTRICITY RULES 1956
All electric supply lines and apparatus shall be of sufficient ratings for powers,
insulation and estimated fault current and sufficient mechanical strength for the duty which they
may be required to perform under the environmental conditions of installations and shall be
constructed, installed, protected, worked and maintained in such a manner as to ensure safety of
personnel and property.

Accidents & Main Reasons


Unauthorized persons working on lines / equipment Working without using safety appliances
Working without obtaining proper line clear Working without proper instructions from superiors
Wrong instructions from person who received the line clear Negligence, carelessness, haste
and over confidence Lack of knowledge on feeding arrangements

Service lines and apparatus on consumer's premises. –


i. The supplier shall ensure that all electric supply lines, wires, fittings, and apparatus belonging to
him or under his control, which are on a consumer's premises, are in a safe condition and in all
respects fit for supplying energy he supplier shall take due precautions to avoid danger arising on
premises from such supply lines, wires, fittings and apparatus.

ii. Service lines placed by the supplier on the premises of a consumer which are underground or
which are accessible shall be so insulated and protected by the supplier as to be secured under all
ordinary conditions mechanical, chemical or other injury to the insulate.

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iii. The consumer shall, as far as circumstances permit, take precautions for the safe custody of the
equipment on his premises belonging to the supplier.

iv. The consumer shall also ensure that the installation under his control is maintained in a safe
condition

Cut-out consumer's premises. –


i. The supplier shall provide a suitable cut-out in each conductor of every service line other than an
earthed or earthed neutral conductor or the earthed external conductor of a concentric cable within
consumer's premises, in an accessible position. Such cut-out shall be maintained within an
adequately enclosed fireproof receptacle.

ii. Where more than one consumer is supplied through a common service line, each such consumer
shall be provided with an independent cut-out of junction to the common service.

iii. The owner of every electric supply line, other than the earthed or earthed neutral conductor of
any system, or the earthed external conductor of a concentric cable, shall protect it by a suitable cut-
out.

Identification of earthed and earthed neutral conductors and position of switches and cut-outs
therein
Where the conductors include an earthed conductor of a two-wire system or an earthed neutral
conductor of a multi-wire system or a conductor which is to be connected
thereto, the following conditions shall be complied with: -- (1) An indication of a permanent nature
shall be provided by the owner of the earthed or earthed neutral conductor, or the conductor which
is to connected thereto enable such conductor to be distinguished from any live conductor

FUSE & TYPES

Fuse:
A safety device consisting of a strip of wire that melts and breaks an electric circuit if the current
exceeds a safe level.
The major two categories of fuses include:
 Low Voltage Fuses
 High Voltage Fuses
In order to understand Low voltage fuses better, we can further classify it further into:
 Semi Enclosed or Rewireable Type
 Totally enclosed or Cartridge Type

At a short circuit, high voltage or abnormal input voltage or current the equipment can get damage.
To avoid the damage or safety of the equipment, the fuse can be attach mid of input supply and the
output equipment.
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MCB
What is MCB?
Nowadays we use more commonly miniature circuit breaker or MCB in low voltage electrical network
instead of fuse.

The MCB has some advantages compared to fuse.


It automatically switches off the electrical circuit during abnormal condition of the network means in
over load condition as well as faulty condition. The fuse does not sense but miniature circuit breaker
does it in more reliable way. MCB is much more sensitive to over current than fuse.

Another advantage is, as the switch operating knob comes at its off position during tripping, the faulty
zone of the electrical circuit can easily be identified. But in case of fuse, fuse wire should be checked
by opening fuse grip or cutout from fuse base, for confirming the blow of fuse wire.

Quick restoration of supply cannot be possible in case of fuse as because fuses have to be rewirable or
replaced for restoring the supply. But in the case of MCB, quick restoration is possible by just
switching on operation.

Handling MCB is more electrically safe than fuse. Because of to many advantages of MCB over fuse
units, in modern low voltage electrical network, miniature circuit breaker is mostly used instead of
backdated fuse unit.

Only one disadvantage of MCB over fuse is that this system is more costly than fuse unit system.
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Working:
 Towards load “A” fault identified
 Current transformer C.T, is find high amps, emf generate
 Relay coil is excited emf can attract the NO (normally open) contact, get NC (normally closed)
 Through the Battery/trip circuit, trip coil can get energized, and attract the NC (normally closed) to
NO (normally open), C.B (Circuit Breaker) can open.
 Circuit “A” can get protected.
Power rating of Basic house hold equipment

Electrical Appliances Watts


Refrigerator 1500
Air conditioner: 1 ton 1500
Air conditioner: 2 ton 2500
Wet grinder 500 – 2000
Mixie 100
Iron box 750
Geyser 1000 – 3000
TV 100
Fan 100
Radio 100
Computer 200
Mirco - Oven 500
Electric stove 1500
Room heater 1000
Washing Machine 1000
TL (Fluorescent lamp) 40
CFL 10
Tape recorder 40
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VCD player 40
Water treatment plant 500
Exhaust fan 40
Vacuum cleaner 200

Neutral and earth connection, types of earthing

Neutral:
The main role of neutral point is close the circuit and carry the load current.

Earth
The earth point is connected to the ground. The earth wire is used ensure the safety
The main reason for doing earthing in electrical network is for the safety. When all metallic parts in
electrical equipment’s are grounded then if the insulation inside the equipment’s fails there are no
dangerous voltages present in the equipment case.

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Purpose of Earthing
Safety for Human life / Building /Equipment
 To save human life from danger of electrical shock or death by blowing a fuse i.e. To provide an
alternative path for the fault current to flow so that it will not endanger the user
 To protect buildings, machinery & appliances under fault conditions.
 To ensure that all exposed conductive parts do not reach a dangerous potential.
 To provide safe path to dissipate lightning and short circuit currents.
 To provide stable platform for operation of sensitive electronic equipment’s i.e. to maintain the
voltage at any part of an electrical system at a known value so as to prevent over current or
excessive voltage on the appliances or equipment.

Over voltage protection


Lightning, line surges or unintentional contact with higher voltage lines can cause dangerously high
voltages to the electrical distribution system. Earthing provides an alternative path around the
electrical system to minimize damages in the System.

Voltage stabilization
There are many sources of electricity. Every transformer can be considered a separate source. If there
were not a common reference point for all these voltage sources it would be extremely difficult to
calculate their relationships to each other.

Types of earthing
1. Strip Earthing
2. Rod Earthing
3. Pipe earthing
4. Plate Earthing
5. Water through main earthing

1. What is strip earthing or wire earthing?


In this system of earthing, a copper strip of minimum cross-section 25 mm × 1.6 mm is buried
horizontally inside the ground at minimum depth 0.5 m and alternatively a galvanized iron strip of
minimum of cross-section 25 mm × 4 mm can be buried horizontally at a same depth inside the
ground.
For this purpose around conductor can also be used and at that case the minimum cross-sectional
area for copper conductor would be 3 mm² and for galvanized iron conductor it would be 6 mm².
The buried portion of the electrode that is either script or round conductor should be long enough
to provide required minimum resistance to the earth path. Generally the length of the conductor inside
the ground is maintained more than 15 m.
The buried conductor should be widely distributed as possible preferably in a single straight trench
or in a circular trench or in a number of trenches radiating from a point. This type of earthing is mainly
used in rocky area where excavation work is quite difficult.

2. What is rod earthing?


In this type of earthing, a metallic rod of sufficient length is driven vertically into the ground
normally by hammering on the top. Normally galvanized iron rod of 16mm diameter or hollow
galvanized iron pipe of 25 mm diameter of minimum length 2.5 m are used for this purpose.
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The electrical installation which to be earthed, is connected to the top of the earth rod or pipe by
means of copper or aluminum earth continuity conductor of sufficient cross-section.
The rod earthing system is mainly used where soil has sandy characters and also it is often used for
temporary earthing purpose. This is cheapest and easiest method of earthing as this method does not
require any excavation work.

3. What is pipe earthing?


Pipe earthing system is most commonly used and reliable system. In this method of earthing, a
galvanized steel pipe of suitable length and diameter is buried vertically in the permanent wet soil
under the ground. The length and diameter of the pipe are determined by the conditions of soil and the
current to be carried. Normally minimum diameter and length of the pipe is maintained 40 mm and 2.5
m respectively for ordinary condition of soil and greater length is used for rocky and dry soil
conditions.
The depth under ground level at which the pipe is buried, depends upon the moisture condition of
soil but it should not be less than 3.75 m under the ground. The earthing pipe is surrounded by
alternative layers of charcoal and salt to keep moisture and thereby reduces the earth resistance.
Another galvanized iron pipe of lesser diameter (19 mm) is fitted vertically on the top of the earthing
pipe by means of reducing socket.
The top of this pipe is projected in a cement concrete work on the ground. One or more GI plates
are welded on this pipe by keeping the pipe openings clear to facilitate the connections of earth
continuity conductors from different electrical installations.
The cement concrete work is done to keep the water arrangement accessible and in dry season to
keep the earth resistance minimum, 3 to 4 buckets of water are put in the concrete work or through the
funnel if it is fitted to the top of the 19 mm diameter pipe.

4. What is plate earthing?


This is another popular method of earthing. In this method a metallic plate of sufficient size is
buried in wet soil vertically under the ground. If copper plate is used for this purpose the minimum
dimensional of the plates should be 60 cm × 60 cm × 3 mm and if it is GI plate, then minimum
dimensional should be 60 cm × 60 cm × 6 mm. In case of copper plate, a copper earth continuity
conductor is connected to the plate with the help of copper nuts bolts and washers whereas in the case
of GI plate, GI earth continuity conductor is connected to the plate with help of GI nut bolts and
washers.
This earthing plate along with connected earth continuity conductor, is buried vertically at
minimum 3 m depth under the ground. The surroundings of the plate are filled with alternative layers
of charcoal and salt of minimum 15 cm thickness of each layer. From the buried plate, the earth
continuity conductor is passed through a GI pipe of 12 mm diameter. These GI pipe is used to protect
the earth continuity conductor from direct contact of soil.
Now another GI pipe of 19 mm diameter is driven vertically to the GI plate. Top of this 19 mm
diameter pipe should be projected vertically on the ground level. A concrete chamber is made around
the projected 19 mm diameter pipe and this chamber is covered by cast iron shutter. The 19 mm
diameter pipe is used to keep the water arrangement accessible to the earthing plate.
In this type of earthing, 1 to 2 buckets of water is poured on every 3 to 4 days through a funnel at
the top of the 19 mm diameter pipe to facilitate the moisture content of the surroundings of the
earthing plate.

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ELECTRIC SHOCK:
Electric shock is the physiological reaction or injury caused by electric current passing through the
(human) body.[1]Typically, the expression is used to describe an injurious exposure to electricity. [2] It
occurs upon contact of a (human) body part with any source of electricity that causes a
sufficient current through the skin, muscles, or hair.
Very small currents can be imperceptible. Larger current passing through the body may make it
impossible for a shock victim to let go of an energized object.[3] Still larger currents can cause
fibrillation of the heart and damage to tissues. Death caused by an electric shock is
called electrocution.
An electrical injury has many consequences to a body as the electrical currents can travel through
the nervous system and burn out tissue in patches along the way. This can leave bizarre symptoms
anywhere on the body and may lead to complex regional pain syndrome. Wiring or other metalwork
which is at a hazardous voltage which can constitute a risk of electric shock is called "live", as in "live
wire".
Shocks can be caused by direct or indirect contact. Contact with an exposed conductive part under
fault conditions is called indirect contact. IEC requires certain degrees of ingress protection against
direct contact. Indirect contact protections can be achieved by earthed equipotential bonding and
automatic disconnection of supply by using Residual Current Devices for example.[4]

What affects the flow of electricity?

Electricity flows more easily through some materials than others. Some substances such as metals
generally offer very little resistance to the flow of electric current and are called “conductors." A
common but perhaps overlooked conductor is the surface or subsurface of the earth. Glass, plastic,
porcelain, clay, pottery, dry wood, and similar substances generally slow or stop the flow of
electricity. They are called “insulators." Even air, normally an insulator, can become a conductor, as
occurs during an arc or lightning stroke.

How does water affect the flow of electricity?

Pure water is a poor conductor. But small amounts of impurities in water like salt, acid, solvents, or
other materials can turn water itself and substances that generally act as insulators into conductors or
better conductors? Dry wood, for example, generally slows or stops the flow of electricity. But when
saturated with water, wood turns into a conductor. The same is true of human skin. Dry skin has a
fairly high resistance to electric current. But when skin is moist or wet, it acts as a conductor. This
means that anyone working with electricity in a damp or wet environment needs to exercise extra
caution to prevent electrical hazards.

What causes shocks?


Electricity travels in closed circuits, normally through a conductor. But sometimes a person's body
an efficient conductor of electricity -- mistakenly becomes part of the electric circuit. This can cause
an electrical shock. Shocks occur when a person's body completes the current path with:
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 both wires of an electric circuit;
 one wire of an energized circuit and the ground;
 a metal part that accidentally becomes energized due, for example, to a break in its
insulation; or
 Another “conductor" that is carrying a current.
When a person receives a shock, electricity flows between parts of the body or through the body to a
ground or the earth.

What effect do shocks have on the body?

An electric shock can result in anything from a slight tingling sensation to immediate cardiac arrest.
The severity depends on the following:
 the amount of current flowing through the body,
 the current's path through the body,
 the length of time the body remains in the circuit, and
 The current's frequency.
This table shows the general relationship between the amount of current received and the reaction
when current flows from the hand to the foot for just 1 second.

AMMETER, VOLTMETER, WATTMETER – INSTRUMENTS


TYPES OF INSTRUMENT

(A). MOVING IRON INSTRUMENT


1. Attraction type
2. Repulsion type
1. ATTRACTION TYPE INSTRUMENTS:

Principle:

The basic working principle of these instruments is very simple that a soft iron piece if
brought near the magnet gets attracted by the magnet.

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Construction and Working:
1. It co sists of fixed coil C a d ovi g iro piece D
2. In case of Volt meter, the coil will have several turns of fine copper wire, and for ammeter there
will be only a few turns of thick insulated copper wire.
3. When a current is passed through the coil, a magnetic field is produced by the coil. Hence the
moving iron (soft iron) piece is pulled within the bobbin and deflecting torque is produced.
4. The spindle deflects and the pointer moves over a circular scale to give reading of voltage or
current.
5. Instead of gravity control, spring control can also be adopted. The damping torque is provided
by the air friction damping.

2. REPULSION TYPE INSTRUMENT:


Construction diagram:

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Construction:
 The repulsion type instrument consists of
 A hollow cylindrical bobbin carrying a coil
 Two soft – iron pieces placed face to face inside the hollow bobbin. One is fixed to the spindle
and the other is fixed on the wall of the bobbin.
 A control spring is used
 Air friction damping arrangement
 Pointer moving over a graduated dial
Working:
 When a current passed through the coil, a magnetic field is set up within the hollow space. Two iron pieces
lies in this magnetic field and get magnetized.
 The polarities of the two induced magnets are the same at both ends (the current passed through, we get N
and N poles at one end, S and S poles at other end. When current polarity is reverse, the poles also reverse
to all South and North respectively)

As such any movement, the iron pieces is repelling each other.

 The deflecting torque is produced and the moving iron is deflected.


 The pointer attached to the spindle gives the reading.
 Usually control torque is obtained from a spiral spring and damping torque obtained from an air
friction damping arrangement.

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(B). MOVING COIL INSTRUMENTS:
PERMANENT MAGNET MOVING COIL INSTRUMENT (PMMC)
 The permanent magnet moving coil instrument is most accurate type for d.c
measurements.
PRINCIPLE:
 When the current carrying coil is placed in the magnetic field produced by permanent
magnet (N and S), the coil experiences a force and moves, As the coil is moving and the
magnet is permanent, the instruments is called PERMENENT MAGNET MOVING
COIL (PMMC).
 This basic principle is called D’ARSONVAL principle.
 The amount of force experienced by the coil is proportional to the current passing
through the coil.

CONSTRUCTION DIAGRAM:

CONSTRUCTION:
It consists of
1. A permanent magnet
2. A rectangular light aluminium frame carrying a fine wire coil
3. A soft iron (core) cylinder
4. Phosphor – bronze spring control
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5. Pointer
6. Jewel bearing etc,
7. Scale
8. Mirror
9. Balance weight
Working:
1. When a current is passed to the moving coil, it creates a flux.
2. Already there is a strong magnetic field due to permanent magnet poles.
3. As a result, the moving coil acted upon by a force, and hence a deflecting torque says Td.
4. The deflection of a moving coil (permanent magnet) meter depends on polarity of input supply.
Advantages:
1. It has uniform scale
2. The sensitivity is high
3. It has high accuracy
4. It consumes low power, of the order of 25W to 200µW
5. With a powerful magnet, its torque to weight ratio is very high. So operating current is small.
Dis – advantages:
1. Suitable for d.c measurements only
2. The cost is too high due to delicate construction and accuracy machining.
3. The friction due to jewel – pivot suspension

ELECTRODYNAMO METER WATTMETER


DYNAMOMETER TYPE INSTRUMENT:
(Both a.c and d.c instruments)
 Accurate reading in d.c and slightly erroneous reading in a.c due to coil
inductance
 It is one type of moving coil similar to PMMC.
 The only difference is the main operating field (air gap flux) is produced by a
set of fixed coils and not by a permanent magnet.
 This instrument can be used be as voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter.
 Dynamometer type wattmeter is more popular and widely used.
CONSTRUCTION DIAGRAM:

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CONSTRUCTION:
1. Supply input
2. Load
3. Two fixed coil
4. One moving coil
5. Scale
6. Pointer

1. The fixed coil is usually arranged in two sections (FF) placed closely and parallel to each
other.
2. The moving coil is a fine – wired coil of several turns placed on a spindle with a pointer
on top and bearing on both sides. It is also spring controlled.
3. Two Phosphor – bronze springs lead the current in and out of the moving coil.
4. Damping is provided by air friction damping system.
5. The moving coil is free to move within the central spaced between the two fixed coils.
WORKING:
1. The input supply applies to the fixed coil winding.
2. The fixed coil produced the electromagnetic field; these magnetic fields induce the force
in moving coil.
3. Because of the magnetic field in both fixed and moving coil a torque will be developed in
the pointer
4. The pointer will move from 0 to maximum, depends on the magnetic field produced by
input supply

NOTE: This dynamo meter type instrument used both a.c and d.c measurements.

Advantages:
1. As coils are air cored, eddy current and hysteresis losses are minimum.
2. Accurate readings up to 500Hz
3. Can be used as precision instruments in both a.c and d.c
4. Gives accurate readings
Dis – advantages:

1. Low torque / weight ratio


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2. Increased frictional losses
3. More expensive then moving coil and moving iron instruments

BELOW THREE TOPICS ARE PENDING IN 1st UNIT.

 Earthing of domestic fitting and appliances


 ELCBs
 Electrical installation estimate

REFER THE BOOK PAGES:

BOOK NAME: BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

AUTHORS:

P.V.PRASAD
S.SIVANAGARAJU
P.K.DHAL

UNIT-II INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 6


History and evolution of electricity [1]
Electrical Quantities [14 – 17]
Ohm’s Law [25]
Resistance
Resistor & types
Colour coding of resistance [2]
Temperature coefficient of resistance [18]
Capacitance [20]
Capacitor& types
Introduction to Magnetism
Basic Concepts-Introduction to A.C. Quantities [125]

UNIT-III BASIC CIRCUIT CONCEPTS 6


Resistance, Inductance & Capacitance in Series & parallel combination [63 – 74]
Kirchhoff’s laws [26 – 36]
Star-Delta transformation [77 – 82]
Mesh & Node analysis [82 – 92]
Magnetic Circuits.

UNIT-IV ELECTRICAL MACHINES 6


26
Introduction to three phase quantities
General classification of Electrical Machines [PRABU.K]
Construction & working of D.C. Machines [323 – 333]
A.C.Machines [495 – 592] & Transformer [419 – 430] Basic Equations-Applications

UNIT-V POWER GENERATION & ENERGY SOURCES 6


Single line diagram of Power system [593 – 594]
Thermal Power Plant [595]
Nuclear Power Plant [597 – 598]
Fuel cell [598 – 599]
Renewable Energy Sources [599 – 600]
Solar & Wind
Hydro power plant structure [595 – 596 & 600]
Energy Storage, super capacitor–Battery-Types - rating, testing & troubleshooting [601 – 604]
Total = 30 Periods

TEXT BOOKS:-
1. S. Sivanagaraju, Dr P.K Dhal "Basic Electrical Engineering” Cengage Learning, 2nd
Edition, 2015.
2. B.L.Thereja “Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering and Electronics”, S.Chand, 2006
Edition, Reprint 2014
REFERENCE BOOKS:-
3. Smarajit Ghosh, "Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering", PHI Learning
Private Ltd, 2nd Edition, 2010.
4. Wadhwa.C.L, "Basic Electrical Engineering", New Age International, 4th Edition, 2007.
(Reprint June 2010)
5. T. Thyagarajan, ―Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering, SciTech Publications, 5th
Edition, Reprint Jan 2010.

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