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You are on page 1of 7

Show all your work, justify your answers: answers without supporting work will

not receive full credit.

It is not necessary to simplify your answers.

1 15

2 20

3 15

4 20

5 15

6 15

1

Problem I (15 points) Show that the equation

x + 2 cos x = 0

f (x) = x + 2 cos x

f is continuous as a sum of continuous functions. Moreover, since −1 ≤ cos x ≤ 1 for all

x, we see that f takes only positive values for x > 2, and f takes only negative values for

x < −2. So by the intermediate value theorem, f must take the value 0 at least once.

2

Problem II (20 points) The position at time t ≥ 0 of a particle moving along a coordinate

line is

π

s = 10 cos(t + )

4

a) What is the particle’s starting position (t = 0) ?

√

2

√

Solution: s(0) = 10 cos( π4 ) = 10 · 2

= 5 2.

b) What are the points farthest to the left and right of the origin reached by the particle ?

Solution: At each of the farthest points, the velocity is zero, i.e., v(t) = 0. Since

π

v(t) = s0 (t) = −10 sin(t + ),

4

the farthest points are reached at times t given by solving: sin(t + π4 ) = 0, i.e., t + π4 must

be an integer multiple of π,

π

t + = kπ , k ∈ Z,

4

π

or, t ∈ {kπ − 4 | k ∈ Z}. Since we only care about t ≥ 0, we restrict k to k ≥ 1. So the

furthest points reached by the particle are:

π

s(kπ − ) = 10 cos(kπ) = 10 · (−1)k .

4

For each k ≥ 1 an even integer, s(kπ − π4 ) = 10 is the furthest point on the right (reached

multiple times). Similarly, for each k ≥ 1 an odd integer, s(kπ − π4 ) = −10 is the furthest

point on the left.

c) Find the particle’s velocity and acceleration at the points in part (b).

Solution: As already mentioned above, at each of the furthest points reached by the particle,

the velocity is zero. The acceleration a(t) = v 0 (t) = −10 cos(t + π4 ) at each of these points is:

π

a(kπ − ) = −10 cos(kπ) = −10 · (−1)k .

4

So the acceleration is negative at each of the furthest points on the right (for k even), and

is positive at each of the furthest points on the left (for k odd).

3

Problem III (15 points) Evaluate the following limits:.

√

a) limx→∞ x+sin x+2

x+sin x

x

Solution:

√

x + sin x + 2 x x(1 + sinx x + √2x ) 1 + sinx x + √2x

lim = lim = lim = 1,

x→∞ x + sin x x→∞ x(1 + sinx x ) x→∞ 1 + sinx x

where we use the fact that limx→∞ sinx x = 0, which is an easy application of the sandwich

theorem.

sin(1−cos x) sin(z)

b) limx→0 x

. (Hint: use the fact proved in class that limz→0 z

= 1.)

Solution:

sin(1 − cos x) sin(1 − cos x) 1 − cos x sin(1 − cos x) 1 − cos x

lim = lim · = lim · lim

x→0 x x→0 1 − cos x x x→0 1 − cos x x→0 x

lim = lim =1

x→0 1 − cos x z→0 z

Also,

lim = lim = lim = lim · lim =1·0=0

x→0 x x→0 x(1 + cos x) x→0 x(1 + cos x) x→0 x x→0 1 + cos x

sin(1−cos x)

Altogether, limx→0 x

= 0.

1

−x100 ≤ x100 cos( √ ) ≤ x100 .

x

Finally, since limx→0 −x100 = limx→0 x100 = 0, we get by the sandwich theorem that

1

lim x100 cos( √ ) = 0

x→0 x

4

Problem IV (20 points) Find the asymptotes of the graph of

√

x2 + 4

f (x) = ,

x

then sketch the graph.

In order to find vertical asymptotes, we compute the side limits of f at x = 0.

2

lim+ f (x) = =∞

x→0 0+

2

lim− f (x) = = −∞

x→0 0−

So, x = 0 is a vertical asymptote.

In order to find horizontal asymptotes, we compute the limits of f at x = ∞ and x = −∞,

respectively. q

|x| 1 + x42

r

4

lim f (x) = = lim 1 + 2 = 1

x→∞ x x→∞ x

q

|x| 1 + x42

r

4

lim f (x) = = − lim 1 + 2 = −1

x→−∞ x x→−∞ x

So y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote at ∞, and y = −1 is a horizontal asymptote at −∞..

There are no oblique asymptotes.

5

Problem V (15 points) For what value (or values) of the constant m, if any, is

(

sin 2x , x ≤ 0

f (x) =

mx , x>0

a) continuous at x = 0 ?

b) differentiable at x = 0 ?

Give reasons for your answers.

Solution:

a) f is continuous at x = 0 if, and only if,

x→0+ x→0

We have:

lim f (x) = lim+ mx = 0,

x→0+ x→0

x→0− x→0

f (0) = sin 0 = 0.

So f is continuous at x = 0 for all m.

f (h)−f (0)

b) f is differentiable at x = 0 if f 0 (0) = limh→0 h

exists. For this we need that:

lim+ = lim−

h→0 h h→0 h

We have:

f (h) − f (0) mh

lim+ = lim+ = m.

h→0 h h→0 h

f (h) − f (0) sin 2h 2 sin h cos h sin h

lim− = lim− = lim− = 2 · lim− · lim− cos h = 2.

h→0 h h→0 h h→0 h h→0 h h→0

6

Problem VI (15 points) Show that the tangents to the curve

π sin x

y=

x

at x = π and x = −π intersect at right angles.

Solution: We have to show that the slopes of the tangents at x = π and x = −π are negative

reciprocals. The slope of the tangent at x = π is y 0 (π) and the slope of the tangent at x = −π

is y 0 (−π), so we need to show that y 0 (π) · y 0 (−π) = −1.

An application of the quotient rule yields:

x cos x − sin x

y 0 (x) = π ·

x2

π·(−1)−0 −π·(−1)−0

So, y 0 (π) = π · π2

= −1 and, similarly, y 0 (−π) = π · (−π)2

= 1. Thus,

Note that there is no need to write the equations of the two tangent lines explicitly.

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