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INTRODUCTION

Genetic engineering has been contributing its technological and scientific advances
to different areas, such as pharmaceuticals, agriculture and food sector among
others. With the development of genetically engineered foods has managed to
incorporate features resistant to pests, herbicides, adverse temperatures, etc.
These foods are known as transgenic obtained from the intersection of genes from
different species, which has developed worldwide controversies.

GM foods have been at the center of a complex debate that merely technical and
biological, with other aspects of various kinds are mixed: interest generated by
patents, protection of consumers, farmers' rights, biosafety, etc. Certainly the
ethical acceptability of the application of recombinant DNA techniques to plant
species must take into account the increased production and greater profitability
and security of future crops.

However, it is clear that this can not become the one and only factor to consider.
The ethical debate on transgenic species and their impact on health and the
environment of the human being moves on a previous critique of modern
instrumental view of nature recognizing, however, a clear inherent value. This may
justify setting limits to human performance, preventing account of creation as a
mere object susceptible to appropriation.

The issue of GM food worldwide is controversial and moves in a bipolar medium,
those groups who defend genetically modified foods and another group
demonstrating against them. The ethical acceptance of these biotech products and
their bioethical implications in the modern world are the goals of this work.

A decade later. a European team created the first transgenic plant resistant to the antibiotic kanamycin snuff. to be produced for mass consumption the "Flav Savr" tomato. it was approved for marketing in the United States the first complete transgenic food. modified by engineering. in which the constitution was amended to make it more resistant to herbicides and corn. . in 1983. HISTORY This began in 1973 when a group of US academics transfer genes between bacteria manages different species. In 1994. Foods that were subsequently modified transgenic soy. which will be modified to resist certain insects and generate higher yields per crop and harvest. designed to have longer life and better flavor than conventional ones.

as its protein content. TRANSGENIC FOODS 1. etc. Generally it is plants that are introduced genes from another species or to which they modify the expression of some of their genes. . they are organisms whose genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating or natural recombination. such as: resistance to pests. the fatty acid content. 2. Types of genetically modified foods In the production plant has 2 types of transgenic foods are:  Transgenic foods indirect: this group is composed of all foods that are not modified to improve nutritional factor but to modify an aspect of its production or preservation. DEFINITION It is a genetically modified food. by the introduction of genes from other species. That is. its content in one or more amino acids. genetically modified foods in this group accounts for about 5% of the total. Currently.  Transgenic foods direct: This group represents modified foods from the point of view of a particular factor directly related to their nutritional value. The advantage of genetic engineering is that you can alter the genes without relying on the natural processes of reproduction. which comes from an animal or plant to which it has been introduced genes from another species through genetic engineering techniques in order to design specifically any of its qualities. the reduction or elimination of an antinutritional factor. weather conditions or lengthen preservation after harvest. In this case there is usually no change in nutritional value.

Once transgenic cells obtained subsequently can regenerate complete transgenic plant. while rapeseed with only 26 million hectares represented 18% of the total. cotton and canola. The number of countries where the majority of the hectarage of biotech crops around the world went to fourteen in 2005. Of the total area planted soybeans (91 million hectares) it was 60% genetically modified compared with 56% in 2004. releasing its load of genes. These pellets (microscopic metal particles) through the cell wall and some reach the core. The gene or genes to be transferred to the plant are inserted in a small chromosome (plasmid) of the bacteria. marketing and research of genetically modified food 4. From 1996 to 2005 the area has increased from 1. These genes are joined to the own genetic material of the cell. reaching multiplied greatly in recent years. . which can introduce this plasmid into the plant cell handled thereby an MG cell is obtained. In 2005 virtually all cultivated worldwide with transgenic varieties surface was reduced to four products: soybeans.3. the total list of producers of transgenic complete with countries where less than 500. thus providing the cells 4. Production.1World production of genetically modified foods The total area of transgenic crops in the world has maintained a significant growth since its inception.7 million hectares planted in six countries to 90 million hectares in 21 countries. Obtaining methods.000 hectares are planted with genetically modified crops. In the case of corn planted 147 million hectares 14% were from varieties obtained by biotechnological methods. The 8.5 million farmers dedicated to biotech crops also marked an important milestone in reaching a cumulative plantation of more than 400 million hectares since 1996. For a transgenic food there are two methods:  First method This method exploits the ability of genetic manipulation naturally performs the bacterium “Agrobacterium tumefaciens”. GM cotton accounted for 28% of the 35 million hectares planted this crop. corn.  Second method The gun method: is to shoot on many cells of microscopic metal beads attached carrying genes that are intended to incorporate the genetic heritage of the cell.

It is center of origin and diversification of global importance of agricultural species such as tomato. they foresee diseases are vaccine carriers. delay the ripening process enables longer life and have a shelf of certain foods. have better sensory characteristics and increased food availability. cotton. reduces the use of Chemotoxic substances such as fertilizers or pesticides.  Benefits for the environment: Allow more rational use of land. the release of transgenic crops in Peru affects the agricultural exports of conventional and organic products. of which 5. resulting? In displacement and loss of local varieties production and traditional knowledge associated with these systems. POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS  Benefits for consumers: Best meet the nutritional and dietary needs and preferences of the market.356 are endemic. ecological and cultural characteristics. . 5. genetic resources and cultural diversity. water and nutrients. sweet potato.  Benefits for producers: They are phenotypically organisms better adapted to adverse environmental factors have accelerated growth and development. potato. among others. ? On the other hand.4. beans and squash. This large native biodiversity and wild relatives is accompanied by the traditional farmer management in place to keep this agricultural biodiversity. allowing an intensification of production and cost reduction. microbial infections and insect pests. Due to its geographical. a possible release of transgenic crops in Peru lead to severe risk of genetic contamination of local varieties and wild relatives through gene flow. chili. They have herbicide resistance. It is estimated that Peru has approximately 17 thousand species of plants.2 THE SITUATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED IN PERU Peru is among the 10 mega-diverse countries that concentrate 70% of the planet's biodiversity in ecosystems. species.

the creation of new toxins. damage to species of beneficial insects. gene transfer unintentional wild species. producers of traditional or organic foods can be displaced.6. cultural and ethical. herbicides and glyphosate.  Environmental risks: They refer their impact on the environment to the threat to biodiversity. . 7. and there are concerns of religious. the development of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria and possible negative health effects long term. breaking the natural balance. the indiscriminate use of herbicides. Examples of transgenic foods  Transgenic maize: in this case the new genes are inserted into the plant genome. POSSIBLE RISKS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS  Health risks: They relate mainly to food safety.  Socioeconomic risks: Are designated as socioeconomic risks the development of technology in the hands of large multinationals. Thanks to the modifications that receives it more resistant to insects. access may be limited due to patent protection. etc. GMOs with new features may differ from their natural relatives in their ability to survive and reproduce under changing environmental conditions may interact in unexpected or undesirable to biological communities local. Corn kernels are produced through genetic transformations they are characterized by their orange color and are usually very bright. the presence of allergens.

celiac disease are detected. cows. because it is very complex. and it is believed that there is a direct relationship with genetic modifications carried out on these plants. When it is modified it is more resistant to certain herbicides and glyphosate. In order to produce transgenic potatoes it is necessary to generate the necessary conditions.  Transgenic wheat: This type of wheat is much more resistant to insects. this includes pigs.  Transgenic potatoes: in this case the starch enzyme is invalidated since it is introduced antagonizing the gene copy annuls. birds and fish.  Transgenic tomatoes: these tomatoes differ from common that the time in which decomposes once harvested is much higher. To do this it must be introduced into the genome of the tomato plant. Today these types of tomatoes try to be reintegrated into the market as it had been removed by certain difficulties to market. To this end one of the enzymes to be inhibited by genetically its opposite gene. Transgenic soybean changes are made from genes extracted from herbicides and bacteria are introduced into soybean seeds. pests and drought. Currently they can not be found on the market. The changes are intended to increase the weight and size of the animals and also accelerate their development time. However it is important to note that more cases of people is intolerant to wheat.  Transgenic meat: over twenty years ago that animals are modified. .

5. primarily for damage to the environment and health that they can cause. 4. despite the benefits they can provide for those who consume them. Best features of foods produced when cooking. . 6. Transgenic foods: Advantages and disadvantages Benefits of Transgenic foods Some of the benefits of genetically modified foods. Increased food production with a substantial saving of resources. Increased toxic substances in the environment. are: 1. Better adaptation of plants to more deplorable living conditions. including: 1.  Transgenic rice: to genetically modify rice was introduced three new genes. Ability of food for use as drugs or vaccines for the prevention and treatment of diseases. 3. many experts and organizations oppose the commercialization of GM foods. Foods with better and more nutrients.  Transgenic grapes: these fruits are usually modified to increase resistance and remove the seeds they produce. 3. Loss of biodiversity. Possible poisoning due to allergies or intolerance to processed foods. 2.  Transgenic coffee: the coffee is usually modified in order to increase production. Insect resistance and unwanted herbs to drugs developed to combat it. 4. 2. Acceleration in the growth of plants and animals. 5. 8. among others. The result is a greater presence of vitamin A. 7. increased insect resistance. Best tasting products created. lower levels of caffeine and enhance its aroma. Soil contamination. Disadvantages of Transgenic foods: However. one from a bacterium and two from daffodils.

RECOMMENDATIONS  Tell us about the impact of GMOs on health and the environment. 9.  Producers should ensure that the seeds used for planting non-transgenic.  Pressure authorities to the rule which is obliged to indicate in the labeling of products containing genetically modified ingredients if signed. .  Promote organic farming without chemical inputs used.

10. Handling a timely live food. generate a change in the general level of this kind which would cause unpredictable in organoleptic changes primarily. . Transgenic foods they should be checked in a very thorough way. 3. are causing various biological changes in any living being. which would change their lifestyle. 2. Certain transgenic foods may be causing cancer diseases around the world. therefore it is necessary to avoid eating foods and also check to know for sure that is being consumed. CONCLUSIONS 1. although there is where every manager should always tell the truth about the food consumed and made from various living species . as these when ingested daily.