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STABILITY OF A RECTANGULAR PONTOON

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PONTOON

Flat Bottomed Floating Vessel

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STABILITY

Type of Equilibrium

Stable Unstable Neutral

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Floating Body STABLE Equilibrium

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Forces on a Submerged Body

BUOYANCY or UPTHRUST

Submerged Body Direction = Vertically Upwards


Volume = V

U Magnitude = Weight of the


Fluid in Equilibrium
Displaced Fluid
Density = ρ
Volume
B U = Vρg
G
Line of Action:

B = Centre of Gravity of the


Mg Displaced Fluid Volume

= CENTRE OF BUOYANCY

ARCHIMEDES
PRINCIPLE

For Equilibrium,

U = Mg

Vρg = Mg

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Stability of Floating Bodies:

θ
METACENTRE

G G
Mg

B
B B
U Mg

Equilibrium Displaced
Position Position

Mg = U Mg = U

Restoring Moment MR is produced

Equilibrium is STABLE

MR = U(GM)Sinθ = U(GM)θ – for small θ

GM = METACENTRIC HEIGHT

M above G: GM > 0: Stable Equilibrium

Similarly it can be proved that:

M below G: GM < 0: Unstable Equilibrium

M ≡ G: GM = 0: Neutral Equilibrium

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Determination of the Metacentric Height: (Theoretical Value)

Mg
G

B d
U
O

GM  OM  OG  OB  BM  OG …………………………………..…..(1)

d
OB 
2

I
BM  where I = Second Moment of Area of the Waterline
V
Plane about the Axis of Rotation

V = Submerged Volume

b Longitudinal 1
Rolling IR  Lb 3
Axis 12

Transverse Axis

Pitching

1
IP  bL3
12

4
1 1
IR  Lb 3 and I P  bL3
12 12

As L >> b IP >> IR (BM)p >> (BM)R Mp above MR

MP
MR
Stability should be checked for Rolling.
G
B
O

V = bLd

(1)=> GM = d/2 + (Lb3/12)/(bLd) - OG

GM = d/2 + b2/12d - OG ………………………………….……(2)

For Equilibrium,

U = Mg
Vρg = Mg
bLdρ = M
d = M/bLρ

(2)=> GM = M/2bLρ + b3 Lρ /12M - OG ……………..………….……(3)

OG can be determined by balancing the Pontoon on a knife edge


and therefore the Metacentric Height can be determined
theoretically from equation (3).

O G

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Determination of the Metacentric Height: (Experimental Value)

Can be determined by shifting a known weight (Jockey Weight)


by a known distance and measuring the angle of tilt.
U

m1g G1
M
x
θ m1g
Mg G
G
G
(M-m1)g G2

B B
B
U
θ
Mg

Equilibrium Equilibrium
Position 1 Position 2

Considering the shift in Centre of Gravity GG ,

Mg (GG)  m1g( x )  (M  m1 )g(0)

GG  m1 x / M  (GM) tan(θ )  (GM)θ - for small angles

θ  m1 / M(GM)x

As θ is measured in degrees, θ  πθ 0 / 180

 θ 0  180m1 / πM(GM)x

Hence the Metacentric Height can be determined experimentally


from the Gradient of the Graph of θ0 vs x.

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The position of the Metacentre (OM) is independent of the
position of the Centre of Gravity (OG) and this can be proved by
determining OM for different OG values.

OM = OG + GM

Vertically Adjustable
M
Weight: Mass m2

Jockey Weight: Mass m1


G
Angular Scale
O

OG - by balancing the Pontoon on a knife edge


- can be changed by moving the vertically adjustable
weight

GM - from the Gradient of the Graph of θ0 vs x.

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Time Period of Oscillation:

When disturbed, a floating body in STABLE Equilibrium


oscillates about its equilibrium position.

The Time Period of Oscillation T is given by,

2πk
T  where k = Radius of Gyration
g(GM)

As GM T

Advantage: Disadvantages:

Increased Stability Discomfort

High stresses in the


Structure

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Effect of Liquid Cargo:

G Mg G

B B B
U Mg
θ

Equilibrium Displaced
Position Position

Restoring Moment MR = U(GM)θ

…………………………………………………………………………….

M
N
G
G Mg
G

B B B
U Mg
θ

Equilibrium Displaced
Position Position

Restoring Moment MR = U(NM)θ < U(GM)θ

Stability is reduced

NM = Effective Metacentric Height