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A Review on Dielectric Resonator Antenna

Conference Paper · June 2016


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5 authors, including:

Trushit Upadhyaya Killol Pandya

Charotar University of Science and Technology Charotar University of Science and Technology


Mukesh R. Chaurasia
Charotar University of Science and Technology


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A Review on Dielectric Resonator Antenna

Pratima R Pimpalgaonkar, Trushit K. Upadhyaya, Killol Pandya

Mukesh R Chaurasia, Bhargavi T Raval

Abstract: In Today’s wireless era,need of a highly partially metallized dielectric resonator can be used
optimized antenna having compact size, low cost, high as a small and low profile antenna operated at low
efficiency, larger bandwidth is must.This increases frequencies. For high gain antennas, dielectric
demand of designing antennas having such resonator antenna arrays are utilized.
benefits.This paper briefly reviews the research
carried out in last decades and recent progress of
Dielectric Resonator as a resonant antenna
DRA antenna for various applications.Unique
features of DRA offers compactness, wide impedance was proposed by Professor S.A Long. Dielectric
bandwidth, low profiles, high gain for the design of Resonator is normally made of high permittivity
high performance antenna.In recent era,DRA is 
material with r
,while its Q factor is usually
utilized for various applications like radar
technology, nano-technology,wireless and satellite between 50 & 500. DRAs operating, at
applications.The application we considered can be fundamental mode radiates like a magnetic dipole
fulfilled using various shapes of DRA like which is independent of their shapes. Comparing
Rectangular, hemispherical, triangular, cylindrical with micro strip antenna which radiates only
etc. using distinct coupling methods for each. through two narrow slots, DRA radiates through
Effective utilization of DRA features can be extended whole DRA surface so it has advantage of wider
by changing its feeding techniques and designs for bandwidth.
optimum performance.

Index Terms: Bandwidth, Dielectric Resonator

The dimension of DRA is related to free
Antenna 0
space resonant wavelength by relation of
.Since the radiation efficiency is not affected by
S.A Long in early nineteen eighties dielectric constant, a wide range of dielectric
proposed the use of dielectric resonator as a constant can be used.However,bandwidth of
resonant antenna. The DRA introduced by Long, dielectric resonator antenna is inversely related to
has advantageous features like high radiation dielectric constant, and may limit our choice. For
efficiency, compact size, light weight and low profile antenna, using a high dielectric
versatility in shapes and feeding mechanism. Many constant,the size of antenna can be reduced by
emerging and existing wireless applications require making it viable.
such characteristics which are fulfilled by DRA
characteristics. Hence, a lot research towards an Generally DRAs are designed at
increase of BW by keeping its size compact is to be frequency range of 1 to 40 GHz,with dimensions
done. ranging from few centimeter to millimeter and
A successfully approach towards it can be

dielectric constant ranges from 8< r >100.In
fulfilled by different methodology like operating recent era,design of DRA is done for specific
DRA in two or more modes, stacking DRAs of applications including integration into mobile
different size and different dielectric constant, handset, use in base station antenna, radar
attaching parametric metallic stripes to incur application,RFID,UWB application and all
resonance, leaving air gaps between DRA and dielectric wireless receiver. According to antenna
ground plane and using different excitation profile requirement, changes can be done on DRA
methods on DRA are followed. This methodology to have required outcome.DRA are low gain
may lead to difficult designs which would be tough elements, arrays of dielectric resonator can be used
to fabricate, so design has to be prepared by to obtain higher directivity.
considering all factors for relevance.
Characteristics of DRA:
DRA has negligible metallic loss, which
makes it highly efficient. This merit of negligible  Due to minimal conductor losses associated with
metallic loss is good for high frequency DRA, they allow to achieve better radiation
applications where conductor loss is proportional to efficiency than other antenna.
the frequency. The exploitation of this
characteristic is in millimeter wave satellites where  Resonant frequency and radiated quality factor
they can be used for satellite to satellite are obtained through the dimensions of DRA
communication. Also a high permittivity or which provides flexibility in designing.

 Excitation in DRA can be increased by exciting

different modes.

 The frequently used targeted frequencies

presented by the research literatures are ranging
from 1GHz to 40 GHz.

 Different distinct feeding techniques provide

advantage towards radiation pattern

Types of DRA and Feeding Techniques:

 DRA can be made of any shapes rectangular

cylindrical, spherical, hemispherical etc. Fig.2 Coaxial probe coupling the E field

Fig.3 Coaxial probe coupling the H field

Fig.1 Different types of DRA When the excitation probe is inside the
resonator, particular attention has to be paid to the
To excite different resonator modes air gap between the probe excitation and dielectric
multiple feeding techniques are used. This material. An air gap result decreases the effect of
excitation is explained as under: dielectric constant which decreases the Q factor.
The probe location allows different choice of
1. Coaxial Probe Excitation 2. Microstrip feeding line and coplanar waveguide
It can be located within the DRA or The principle is similar to the probe
adjacent to it. Within the DRA, a good coupling excitation case. A micro strip line placed close to
can be achieved by aligning the probe along with the DRA can couple the magnetic field of the DRA
the electric field of DRA mode as shown in mode. However, this later can affect the antenna
Fig.2.The adjacent position is currently used to polarization and thus increases the parasitic
couple the magnetic field of DRA mode shown in radiation. This could be reduced by placing the line
Fig.3. In these both cases, the probe is exciting the under the resonator as shown in Fig: 4.Similar way
TE111 mode of the rectangular DRA. is to replace the micro strip line by a coplanar
waveguide shown in Fig.4 which is presenting a
rectangular DRA excited by a coplanar waveguide.


different DRAs shapes represents another degree of

flexibility and versatility. The next subsection will
deal with the cylindrical shape.


In recent years interest in DRA antenna is

due to its prospect of shrinking down the size of
antennas for satellite operation and its potential in
reducing the cost and ease of manufacturing. The
difficulties faced for fabrication techniques are also
a research statement. For innovative design in
mobile and wireless system research on hybrid
modes creation is to be done for enhancing the
bandwidth or develop multiband antenna.
Fig.4 Micro strip feeding line and coplanar Considering the advantages of the DRA, the
waveguide frequency range of antenna can be increased using
DRA arrays. Improvisation in features of DRA can
In these both cases, the mode coupling can be done by changing excitation techniques and
be optimized by changing the resonator position designing parameters.
and/or its dielectric permittivity. For low dielectric
permittivity materials (which allows obtaining a IV. CONCLUSION
wide bandwidth), it is somewhat difficult to excite
the mode. An important point is these excitation DRA has a broad spectrum of dielectric
methods are disturbing DRA modes by introducing materials to be used for intended application. DRA
electrical boundary conditions. This issue is even can be designed to suit wide range of physical and
more sensitive since the antenna is miniaturized. electrical requirement of required application
.Many different excitation schemes are available
3. Aperture Coupling which helps to have greater efficiency and high
directivity. Moreover, DRA doesn’t have metallic
A common method of exciting a DRA is loss, so low-loss dielectric material can be useful
acting through an aperture in the ground plane. The for high radiation efficiency.Thus, effective
Fig.5 shows an example of the excitation of the utilization of DRA characteristic can lead to a
TE111 mode of a rectangular DRA with a wider frequency range, low cost, high radiation
efficiency antenna.
rectangular slot. To achieve relevant coupling, the
aperture has to be placed in a DRA where magnetic ACKNOWLEDGMENT
area is strong. Feeding the aperture with a micro
strip line is a current approach. Pratima Pimpalgaonkar author thanks Dr.
Trushit Upadhyaya and Mr.Killol Pandya for their
constant support and encouragement for the study
undertaken; also the author would like to thank C S
Patel Institute of Technology for providing such a
wonderful platform to carry out the study work.
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[11]Buerkle, Amelia, Kamal Sarabandi, and Hossein Mosallaei. Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN), 2012
"Compact slot and dielectric resonator antenna with dual- Fourth International Conference on. IEEE, 2012.
resonance, broadband characteristics." Antennas and
Propagation, IEEE Transactions on 53.3 (2005): 1020-1027. Miss Pratima R Pimpalgaonkar is currently pursuing her
[12]Abdel Wahab, Wael M., Dan Busuioc, and Safieddin Safavi- M.Tech in Communication System Engineering from Charotar
Naeini. "Low cost planar waveguide technology-based University of Science and Technology and she has completed
dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) for millimeter-wave her Bachelor’s Degree in Electronics and Communication
applications: Analysis, design, and fabrication."Antennas and Engineering from Dr Jivraj Mehta Institute Of
Propagation, IEEE Transactions on 58.8 (2010): 2499-2507. Technology,Anand.Currently her research area includes
[13] Ding, Yong, Kwok Wa Leung, and Kwai Man Luk. Dielectric Resonator Antenna.
"Compact circularly polarized dualband zonal-slot/DRA
hybrid antenna without external ground plane." Antennas and Dr. Trushit Upadhyaya has received his B.E. Electronics and
Propagation, IEEE Transactions on 59.6 (2011): 2404-2409. Communication Engineering - Gujarat University, Ahmedabad,
[14] Ding, Yong, Kwok Wa Leung, and Kwai Man Luk. Gujarat, India and M.E. in Telecommunications - Institute of
"Compact circularly polarized dualband zonal-slot/DRA Telecommunication Research, at University of South Australia,
hybrid antenna without external ground plane." Antennas and Adelaide, South Australia, Dr. Trushit has completed his Ph.D
Propagation, IEEE Transactions on 59.6 (2011): 2404-2409. in Antenna System Design for Satellite Communication -
[15] Kranenburg, R. A., and S. A. Long. "Microstrip transmission Charotar University of Science and Technology, Changa,
line excitation of dielectric resonator antennas." Electronics Gujarat, India He is a member of Institute of Electrical and
Letters 24.18 (1988): 1156-1157. Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Engineers Australia (EA) Indian
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aperture coupling."Electronics Letters 26.24 (1990): 2015-
2016. Mr. Killol Pandya has received his B.E. Electronics and
[17] Zhu, Zhimin, Renaud Gillon, and André Vander Vorst. "A Communication Engineering - Gujarat University, M.E in
new approach to broadband matching for P‐I‐N Communication System Engineering – Gujarat University and
photodiodes." Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 8.1 is pursuing Ph.D at Charotar University Of Science And
(1995): 8-13. Technology.He is a member of IEEE.
[18] Buerkle, Amelia, Kamal Sarabandi, and Hossein Mosallaei.
"Compact slot and dielectric resonator antenna with dual- Mr. Mukesh R. Chaurasia is currently pursuing his M.Tech in
resonance, broadband characteristics." Antennas and Communication System Engineering from Charotar University
Propagation, IEEE Transactions on 53.3 (2005): 1020-1027. of Science and Technology and he has completed his Bachelor’s
[19] Heinrichs, Frank, Rebekka Porath, and Peter J. Massey. Degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from
"Dielectric resonator antenna." U.S. Patent No. 6,323,808. 27 Government Engineering College Bharuch. Currently his
Nov. 2001. research area include microstrip patch antenna and Plasmonics.
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Miss Bhargavi T Raval is currently pursuing her M.Tech in
dielectric resonator antenna excited by a coaxial
Communication System Engineering from Charotar University
probe." Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions
of Science and Technology and she has completed her
on 51.10 (2003): 2913-2917.
Bachelor’s Degree in Electronics and Communication
[21] Kingsley, Simon Philip, et al. "Dielectric resonator antenna."
Engineering from Government Engineering
U.S. Patent No. 7,253,789. 7 Aug. 2007.
College,Gandhinagar.Currently her research area includes Ultra
Wideband Antenna.


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