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The Oxford Reverse Dictionary

The Oxford

Compiled by
David Edmonds


Great Clarendon Street, Oxford ox26DP

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© Oxford University Press 1999

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First published 1999

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British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Data available

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Data available
ISBN 0 19 86017�X

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Typeset in Nimrod and Arial
by Interactive Sciences Limited, Gloucester
Printed in Great Britain by
MacKays of Chatham
Chatham, Kent
....... .. ... .......... .. . ............ ............. .. ...... ........................ ................ ...... . .............. . ......... . ........ . ....... ..

...................... .............. ......... ........... . ... .. ............... .... .. ........ . ...... ....... ......... ..... .. ......... ....... ........ ...

We all have words 'on the tip of our tongue', and we all know how hard such
words often are to coax back into consciousness, and how bad our speech or
writing will look without them: "that bit of the wall that turns into the
window" can never really replace reveal without the decorator thinking us a
fool, and "the sort of magistrate who conducts inquiries into the causes of
someone's death" is no substitute for coroner-indeed, no other term can be.
This dictionary is designed to solve these problems quickly and efficiently,
grouping the tongue-tip terms under their key concepts: so coroner will be
found in the article magistrate, reveal at wall, and kriegspiel at both war and

The Oxford Reverse Dictionary will guide you to the standard terms for things
most people have heard of: it is not an English-learner's dictionary, nor will it
help you to literary or archaic words, or to slang; colloquialisms are offered
only where standard speech offers no workable substitute. The cabinet minis­
ter's tonguetip has of course a different population from the schoolboy's, and
the diversity of the 31,000 listed items takes this into account; but words from
specialist vocabularies have been omitted, as have core vocabulary words such
as dog and family which are usually immediately available to any native

Items sharinga key concept will be found as entries within the article devoted
to that concept (so entries for topiary, spudder, and trug will all be found in the
article gardening), and items sharing a single definition (such as agent and
representative, or symposium and colloquium) are nested together in a single
entry within the appropriate concept article. Such nested items are related in
sense, but not necessarily interchangeable: they are listed alphabetically, and
any item moved to the back of such a list may be considered an inferior match.

Articles are arranged in a single alphabetical sequence through the diction­

ary. Within each article entries are arranged alphabetically where that is
possible, or in an appropriate sense-progression such as life-death, top-bot­
tom, eldestjlargest-youngestjsmallest: there is also a general tendency to
move out from core items to those that are more peripheral to the senses of the
article headword. Each entry is glossed in the briefest possible way consistent
with clarity-the user already knows what the tonguetip term means, and so
only needs a pointer, not an exhaustive definition.

Where any exist, suffixes or prefixes bearing the basic meaning of the article
headword are listed next after it (for example, -wise after manner), together
(unless one is found elsewhere in the article) with an example of their use:
they may serve as a spur to recollection of many further terms semantically
related to the topic treated in the article but not specifically mentioned in it, or
assist users in correctly coining their own mot juste where none is shown/
exists. Similarly, adjectives related to the article headword in meaning but not
in appearance (for example, dental at tooth), or whose formation may present
other difficulties if imperfectly remembered, are listed at the beginning of the
article. Item plurals are also given when irregular, but not where a regularly­
formed plural of equal currency exists.

Dictionary-writing is a lengthy and lonely process, and I am grateful to many

people for help and encouragement along the road. A special acknowledge­
ment is due to Patrick Hanks for detailed advice during the earlier stages of
the project, and to Kate Wandless for smoothing the bumpy road of
author-publisher relations. Thanks are also due to Dr Adrian Young for infor­
mation on medical terms, Tim Parry for clarification of some psychiatric con­
cepts, and Alasdair Cross for legal definitions. The typescript benefited at a
late stage from a thorough read conducted by Lucinda Coventry.


a.m. before noon

fern. feminine
pl. plural
e.g. for example
esp. especially
km kilometre(s)
m metre(s)
MP Member of, Parliament
NHS National Health Service
p.m. after noon
RAF Royal Air Force
RC Roman Catholic
UK United Kingdom
US,USA United States (of America)
VDU visual display unit
19th-c. nineteenth-century (and so on)
In memoriam
optimae amicae
abandonment • abandonment of a a bortion • advocating abortion:
legal claim: waiver • abandonmen t of pro-choice . deprecating abortion:
religious or political adherence: apos­ pro-life, right-to-l ife . start an abor­
tasy • person abandoning such ad­ tion artificially: ind uce . drug caus­
herence: apostate, turncoat ing abortion: abortifacient

abbot . adjective: abbatial . female a bout . combining forms: circum­

abbot: abbess • abbot's assistant: (e.g. circumambient), peri- (e.g. perim­
prior • abbess's assistant: prioress eter) . about to happen: i m minent,
abbreviation • abbreviation pro­ impending
nounced as a string of letters: i nitial­ above • combining forms: epi- (e.g.
ism • abbreviation pronou'nced as a epidermis), over- (e.g. overhang),
word: acronym • abbreviated title of su per- (e.g. superstructure), supra­
a book or document: short title eab­ (e.g. supramundane), sur- (e.g. sur­
breviated version of a statement or real)
document: precis, resume, summary
abrasive • abrasive powder: emery
abdomen . adjectives: coeliac, ven-
abroad • person emi­

tral severe abdominal pain caused living abroad:
by wind or intestinal obstruction: g re, exile, expatriate • done or regis­
colic . stress-associated abdominal tered abroad: offshore • sell abroad:
pain with diarrhoea or constipation: export
i rritable bowel syndrome • fibre­ absence • absence without permis­
optic inspection of the abdomen: sion: French leave • absence from
laparoscopy • incision into the ab­ school without permission: truancy
domen: laparotomy • membrane lin­ • permission to be absent: leave, fur­
ing the abdominal cavity: peritoneum lough • grant of brief absence from
• inflammation .of the peritoneum: school:exeat • person who is absent:
peritonitis a bsentee • employee's statement
Aberdeen • adjective: Aberdonian that his absence was due to illness:
self-certification • in absence: in
able • combining form: -able, -ible,
a bsentia
-uble • adequate ability: proficiency
• person with exceptional abilities: absurdity • absurd misrepresenta­
genius, prodigy • demonstrate one's tion: travesty • seemingly absurd but
abilities: prove oneself in fact true statement: oxymoron,
paradox • proof of a statement's fal­
Aboriginal • Aboriginal club: nulla­
sity by demonstrating the absurdity of
nulla, waddy . Aboriginal dance
ceremony: corroboree • Aboriginal
its logical consequences: reductio ad
medicine man: koradji . Abori­
a bsurdum
ginal throwing stick: boomerang academic . academic conference:
. Aboriginal wind instrument: didg­ colloquium, symposi um . academic
eridoo • land set aside for Aboriginal thesis: d issertation • academic
settl'!ment: reservation essay: dissertation, paper, memoir
academiC dre ss I act 2
...... ........

academic dress • academic hat: for the current day's transactions:

bonnet, mortarboard, square • aca­ daybook, journal • account-book for
demic cloak: gown • coloured minor transactions: cash book
headcovering worn over the back of a . large book in which financial ac­
gown: hood . hood tail: l i ripipe counts are written up: ledger • enter
• dark clothing worn with academic an item in a ledger: post . make one
dress: su bfusc account consistent with another: rec­
accent • East London accent: Cock­ oncile . comparison of totals from a
ney • Irish accent: brogue • North­ double entry account: trial balance
umberland accent: burr • South East • money coming into an account: re­
England accent: Estuary English cei pts . person assembling and re­
• actors' sham rustic accent: cording financial data: bookkeeper
Mummerset • person recording or verifying finan­
cial data: accountant • preparation
accepted • generally accepted or
of financial data to aid management
believed: received
management accounting
accommodation • available ac­ • cost
analysis of operational costs:
commodation: vacancy • accommo­ accounting . British government's
dation unit that is part of a larger general account at the Bank of Eng­
building: flat, maisonette • stable land: Consolidated Fund . con­
blocks converted to accommodation sidered account for legal or publicity
units: mews 0 denoting accommoda­ use: statement
tion with its own kitchen and bath­
accusation • counter-accusation:
room: self-contained . denoting ac­
recrimi nation
commodation available as part of a
work contract: tied • institution of­ achieve • achieve by skill or devi
fering basic accommodation: hostel ousness: contrive • best achieve­
• wardened accommodation for the ment: record • past achievements:

elderly or handicapped: sheltered record , track record

housing acid . dye indicating acidity: litmus
account . account showing the as­ acquaintance • influential ac­
sets , liabilities, and capital of a busi­ quaintance: connection • helpful ac­
ness at a particular point in time: bal­ quaintance: contact
ance sheet • denoting a balance
acrobat • acrobat performing on a
sheet showing no debts: ungeared
tightrope: wire-walker • acrobat's
• temporary account for items await­
tights: maillot • acrobat's pair of long
ing final allocation: su spense ac­
poles with foot supports: stilts
count • account to which credit pur­
• swinging bar used by acrobats: trap­
chases may be charged: charge
eze . acrobatic stunts on the wings
account • official examination of ac­
of an airborne aircraft: wing wa lking
counts: audit . accounting record of
money received: credit .accounting across . combining forms: d ia-,
record of money spent or owed: debit trans- (e.g. transatla ntic) • measure­

• accounting system with each item ment taken across a circle: diameter
entered both as a credit and as a debit: act • daring escapade, stunt
double entry . difference between • illegal act: crime, offence • kind or
debits and credits in an account: bal­ helpful acts: offices, good offices
ance • accounting item rejected by . act without preparation: improvise
the auditor, and repayable by those re­ • act on another's behalf: represent
sponsible: surcharge • account-book • person acting on behalf of another:
3 acting I add

a gent, representative • sudden urge room assistant: d resser • actor's pre­

to act: impulse • repeatedly perform­ performance stage fright
ing the same act(s): serial • actor's arrival on stage: entrance

acting • combining form: pro- (e.g. • actor's signal to speak: cue • ac­

pronoun) • person acting for an ab­ tor's long speech: monologue

sent doctor: locum .person acting .actor's speech when alone on stage:
for a monarch who is absent or incap­ soliloquy • actor's words not in­
acitated: regent .acting without tended to be heard by others on stage:
forethought: impetuous aside • actor's words made up on the
action .combiningform: -ation (e.g. spur of the moment: ad-lib • actor's

hesitation), -ence (e.g. reference), mistake in speaking: fluff • actor's

-tion, -ure (e.g. closure) • action done loud whisper: stage whisper
in automatic response to a stinmlus: • actors' sham rustic accent:
reflex • action done purely for ap­ Mummerset • actor's movements,
pearance: gesture, window dressing gestures, etc.: business .plan of
• action consisting of spoken o r writ­ an actor's movements: blocking
ten words: i IIocution • established • actor's departure from the stage:
series of actions: procedure, process, exit • actors' backstage rest room:
routine • freedom of action: carte g reen room • actor's return to the
blanche, free hand • ability to take stage to acknowledge applause: cur­
independent action: i n itiative • in­ tain call • noise made by actors simu­
capable of effective fiction: effete lating indistinct conversation: rhu­
.still requiring action: outstanding barb • denoting an actor who has
• out of action: hors de combat learnt his or her role completely:
activity • combining form: -ery (e.g. word-perfect • denoting an actor
archery), -ism (e.g. exorcism) .recre­ dressed as a member of the opposite
ational activity: hobby, pastime, pur­ sex: en travesti • tendency to offer an
suit • menial or boring activity: actor roles of a type in which he or she
drudgery • pointless cycle of activ­ has already been suucessful: type­
ities: merry-go-round casting • play for one actor: mono­
actor • adjective: histrion i c .ex­ d rama .scene for two actors: duo­
perienced actor: trouper • actor who logue .(of an actor) forget one's
overacts: ham • actor in a folk play: lines during a performance: d ry • re­

mummer • actor who performs in si­ mind an actor what he or she must
lence: mime .actor taking a princi­ say: prompt .acting technique en­
pal role: lead i n g lady, leading man couraging emotional identification
• actor taking minor roles: bit player with the character portrayed: the
• actor appearing only in crowd Method, method actin g • troupe of
scenes: extra, figurant .actor who actors presenting several plays at the
has prepared another actor's role, in same venue in the course of a season:
order to replace him or her if neces­ repertory company • euphemism
sary: understudy • sardonic term for denoting an unemployed actor: rest­
actor: Thespian • group of actors ing
playing together: ensemble • actors

participating in a performance: cast acupressure .Japanese acupres­

• actor's role • actor's try-out

sure therapy: shiatsu • spot where

for a role:audition • actor's make-up: pressure is applied: acupoint

greasepaint • actor's flesh-coloured add • extra section added at the end
tights: fleshings .actor's dressing- of a book: appendix • add something
.. �.�.��������.�.�� �.

not part of the original design: retro­ adolescence • adolescent love:

fit calf love • period in which adoles­
add ict • combining form: -holic (e.g. cents reach sexual maturity: puberty
alcoholic, workaholic) • addict's • skin disease of adolescents, with
phased abandonment of addictive black pustules: acne
drugs: withdrawal • addict's instant adult • age at which adulthood is
abandonment of addictive drugs: cold reached! majority, coming of age
tu rkey .firm treatment of addicts: • suitable for children and adults:
tough love • clear an addict's body of family
drug residues: detoxify
adultery • man whose wife has com­
addition . combiningform: epi- (e.g. mitted adultery: cuckold • married
epiphenomenon) .addition to a book woman's male lover: cicisbeo • con­
etc.: addendum, appendix, supple­ doned adulterous relationship: me­
ment • addition to a building: an nex, nage it trois (pl. menages a troiS)
annexe, extension .addition to a • person alleged in a divorce case to
collection: accession • addition to a have committed adultery: respondent
document: an nex, schedule, rider • person alleged in a divorce case to
• special addition to a price or pay­ have committed adultery with the re­
ment: premium, surcharge • add­
spondent: co-respondent
ition to will: cod icil
advance .advance payment: ante
address • address used as a
• performance in advance of official
collecting-point for mail: accom mo­
opening: preview • advance publica­
dation address • address for a letter
tion: preprint
to be left at a post office until called
for: poste restante advantage • advantage granted to
few: privilege • take unfair advan­
adhesive • synthetic resin used in
tage of: exp loit • use of various ploys
paints and adhesives: polyurethane
to gain psychological advantage over
.join with adhesives: bond
one's rivals: gamesmanship
adjective • characterizing adjec­
advertisement • advertisement
tive: epithet • denoting an adjective
that precedes its noun: attributive making exaggerated claims: puff
• denoting an adjective that is placed • advertisement discrediting rival
after the verb: predicative, postposi­ products: knocking copy • advertise­
tive ments shown between television pro­
grammes: spot advertising .prelim­
adjust • adjust a mechanism: regu­
inary advertisement not naming the
late, set • make small adjustments:
product: teaser • advertisement writ­
fi nesse, fine-tu ne, titivate • thin
ten by an aircraft smoke trail: sky­
strip of material used to make an
writi ng .catchphrase used in an ad­
exact fit: shim
vertisement: slogan • simple tune
admiration • uncritical admir-
used in an advertisement: jingle • ad­
ation: adulation • object of admir­
vertisement's quotation of a sup­
ation: cynosure • deserving admir­
posedly impartial and unsolicited
ation: commendable, estimable,
commendation of the item advertised:
laudable, praiseworthy
testimonial .large board to display
admission • admission ritual: in iti­ advertisements: hoarding • pair of
ation • university admission cere­ advertisement boards linked by shoul­
mony: matriculation • right of ad­ der straps: sandwich boards • small
mission: entree, entry handbill: flyer .promotional mater-
5 adviser I age

ial on the outside of packaging etc.: a process of enquiry conducted by af·

outsert • appearance of an advertise­ firmation: cataphatic
ment in a newspaper etc.: insertion afraid of • combining form: -phobe
.newspaper advertisement presented (e.g. xenophobe) � see also fear
as editorial material: advertorial
African .African club:
.small newspaper advertisements
• African panga • long nar·
grouped by topic: classified advert­
row African drum: tom-tom • Afri­
isements • advertising campaign:
can hut village: kraal • African itin­
promotion • postal advertising cam·
erant storyteller: griot • expedition
paign: mai Ishot • unsolicited adver­
to hunt or observe wild animals: sa­
tising sent by post: j u n k mail • adver­
fari • African fly causing sleeping
tising using images or sounds not
sickness: tsetse
registered by the conscious brain:
subliminal advertising .advertise· after . combining forms: epi- (e.g.
ment's subliminal meaning: epilogue), meta- (e.g. metaca rp), post­
meta message • person who writes • after dinner: postprandial • after

the text for advertisements: copy­ sexual intercourse: postCOital

writer .person who sticks up un­ afternoon • adjective: post-
authorized advertisements: fly-poster meridian .afternoon performance:
� see also publicity matinee • afternoon sleep: siesta
adviser • respected personal ad­ again • combining forms: ana- (e.g.
viser: guru, mentor • professional anagram, where the letters are 'written
adviser: consultant • group nomin­ again' to form another word), re- (e.g.
ally advising the sovereign: Privy redo) • request for a performance to
Council • group of experts research· be given again, or such a perform­
ing specific government problems: ance: encore
think tank • influential but unofficial against • combining forms: anti­
advisers to a person in authority: (e.g. antih ista mine), cata- (e.g. cata­
kitchen ca bi net .person serving as pult, literally 'throw against ), contra­
a mouthpiece for divine advice: or­ (e.g. contraception), counter- (e.g.
acle, prophet countermeasure), ob- (e.g. object, lit­
aerial .horizontal rod aerial: dipole erally 'throw against,)
• aerial having a series of short rods: age • age of early childhood: infancy
Vagi antenna • bowl-shaped aerial • age at which sexual activity be·
receiving satellite signals: satell ite comes possible: puberty • age be­
dish tween puberty and adulthood: adoles­
aerobatics • vertical circle: loop cence • age at which consent to
the loop • aircraft's fast revolving sexual intercourse becomes legally
motion: spin • acrobatic stunts on valid: age of consent • person under
the wings of an airborne aircraft: the age of legal responsibility: minor
wing wa lking • age o f youthful immaturity: nonage
• too young to legally engage in a cer·
affection • be uncritically fond of:
tain activity: under age • age at
adulate, adore, dote upon .adoles·
which a person is considered capable
cent affection: pu ppy love .feel un­
of managing his own affairs: age of
requited affection for: carry a torch
d iscretion • age of legal adulthood:
majo rity • achieve this: come of age
affirmation • official affirmation: • age at which sexual activity de­
confi rmati on, ratification • denoting clines: climacteric • person of the
...a'!ent I ag
ric ulture .
.. .. ..... ........ ..... ........................ ................. ...................................................... ................... .

same age: contemporary • person tente • draft of an agreement: proto­

below the age of ful legal responsibil­ col • bargaining to reach an
ity: juve n i le • person in his or her agreement: negotiation • bargains

sixties: sexagenarian .person in his made to mutual advantage: horse­

or her seventies: septuagenarian trading .demand that must be satis­
• person in his or her eighties: octo­ fied before agreement is reached:
genarian • person in his or her nine­ sti pulation .condition attached to
ties: nonagenarian • person a hun­ an agreement: proviso • exceptions
dred or more years old: centenarian specified in an agreement: saving
• mental and physical decay associ­ clause • proviso added to an agree­
ated with old age: senil ity .loss of ment: rider • in full agreement:
memory and control of bodily func­ unanimous .one side to an agree­
tions amongst the aged: senile de­ ment: party • denoting an agreement
mentia • age of senile dependency: between two parties: bilateral .de­
dotage • person in this state: dotard noting an agreement between three or

agent • confidential agent: hench­ more parties: mu ltilateral .person

man • agent arranging sea transport: forwarding an agreement though not

shipbroker .agent for the purchase party to it: intermediary, mediator

• breach of an agreement's terms: in­
and sale of shares, insurance policies,
etc.: broker • broker's fee: brokerage fri ngement .formal announcement

• sporting or artistic agent searching of intention to end an agreement: no­

tice • reject an agreement already
for promising recruits: talent scout,
made: renounce, repudiate, rescind
talent spotter
aggression • policy of yielding to agricultural machinery .device
the demands of a potential aggressor: turning over the soil: plough .tined
appeasement • diplomacy enforced framework breaking the soil: harrow
by threats of aggression: gunboat d i p­ • sowing machine: dri II • reaping and
lomacy, power politics, sabre­ threshing machine: combine, com­
rattling bine harvester
agreement • apprenticeship agree­ ag riculture • combining forms:
ment: i n dentures • formal agree- agri-, agro- .agriculture perceived
ment: compact, pact • general as a technocratic activity: agribusi­
agreement: consensus • interim ness, agro-industry • agricultural

agreement: modus vivendi .legally system of abandoning land as it be­

enforceable agreement: contract comes exhausted: shifting cultivation
• agreement between the pope and a • denoting a shifting system in which
secular state: concordat • agreement vegetation in new areas is cut down
between states: treaty • imagined and burnt: slash-and-burn • denot­

agreement between members of a so­ ing agriculture producing small per­

ciety to forego certain personal free­ acre yields by cheap methods: exten­
doms for the general good: social con­ sive • denoting agriculture
tract • agreement to suspend producing high per-acre yields by ex­
hostilities for a stated period: armis­ pensive methods: intensive .denot­
tice • agreement reached through ing agriculture whose yields are just
concessions: com promise .agree­ sufficient to feed the farmer: subsist­
ment reached by parties to a dispute ence • denoting agriculture avoiding
or settlement • informal
lawsuit: the use of artificial chemicals: or­
treaty: convention • informal under­ ganic • denoting agriculture that
standing reached between states: en- preserves an ecological balance: sus-
7 aesthetics I a i rcraft

tainable 0 denoting agriculture or thermal 0 admit air to: aerate, venti­

land devoted to crop-growing: arable late oallowing the passage of air:
odenoting agriculture or land devoted porous odesigned for minimum air­
to stock-grazing: pastoral 0 denoting resistance: streaml ined 0 operated
agriculture involving both of these: by air pressure: pneu matic 0 in the
mixed 0 introduction of intensive open air: alfresco 0 denoting air hav­
agriculture to developing countries: ing less oxygen than normal: rarefied
green revolution 0 denoting agricul­ oairless region: vacuum 0 die
tural property or methods: agrarian through lack of air: suffocate 0 kill
ointensive stock-rearing methods: through deprivation of air: suffocate,
battery farming, factory farming asphyxiate oair-pollution filter for
obuilding for intensive poultry rais­ the nose and mouth: mask 0 retard­
ing: broi lerhouse odark and con­ ing effect of air on a moving object:
stricted pen in which a calf is raised drag 0 study of air movement: aero­
for veal:veal crate 0 crate-free envir­ dynamics 0 study of air travel: aero­
onment for stock-raising: loose hous­ nautics
i ng 0 ingathering of crops: harvest
aircraft 0 combining form: aero­
ocelebration of this: harvest festival ,
osmall light aircraft: m icrolight
harvest home 0 feeding cattle on cut
oaircraft with one pair of wings:
grass brought in: zero-g razi ng
ominimization of eros ion by plough­
monoplane aircraft having two
sets of wings: biplane odenoting an
ing along contours: contour plough­
aircraft that can move its wings from
ing 0 denoting agricultural land left
a right-angled to swept-back position:
unsown: fa llow 0 medieval allocation
of agricultural land: open-field sys­ swing-wing, variable geometry
oaircraft taking off from and landing
tem 0 agricultural machinery: dead­
on water: seaplane oaircraft taking
stock 0 agricultural animals: l ive­
stock 0 seasonal movement of off and landing on water or land: am­
livestock to different pasture: trans­ phibian ojet aircraft landing and

humance olivestock fattened for taking off vertically: jump jet oen­
slaughter: fatstock 0 animal's weight gineless fixed-wing aircraft: glider
as saleable meat: deadweight 0 book opowered aircraft kept buoyant by
recording livestock pedigrees: herd gas: airship, dirigible owingless air­
book 0 supply water for agricultural craft with powered horizontal rotor:
purposes: irrigate 0 study of soil hel icopter 0 wingless aircraft with
management and crop production: unpowered horizontal rotor: autogiro,
agronomy � see also crop, fa rm, autogyro oaircraft capable of space
tool travel: spaceplane oaircraft
equipped to carry liquids in bulk:
aesthetics 0 aesthetic expert: con­
tanker 0 aircraft observing enemy
noisseur 0 person with no aesthetic
positions: spotter plane • aircraft de­
sense: boor, philistine
signed to evade radar detection:
Aids 0 sexual activity with precau­ stealth plane 0 aircraft's main body:
tions against Aids: safe sex 0 cancer
fuselage oaircraft with little or no
suffered by Aids victims: Kaposi's fuselage: flying wing ofar from the
sarcoma fuselage: outboard 0 near to the fu­
air ocombining forms: aero-, atmo­ selage: inboard • inside the fuselage:
(e.g. atmospheric), pneum (o)- 0 in i n board, on board ooutermost layer
the air: aerial ocontaining air: pneu­ of an aircraft's structure: skin
matic 0 riSing current of warm air: olights showing an aircraft's position:
aircraft I airc
raft 8
.... .... ........... ........ . .... ..... .... .............. .......... ................. . ... .... ..
... . . .... . ... ........... .. . . ... . . . . ... . . . . .. .
. ... .

navigation lig hts, ru nning lig hts, flying aircraft: pressu rization
sidelights .aircraft carrying goods: • aircraft's cargo area: hold • person
freig hter • pilotless aircraft packed in charge of cargo: loadmaster • air­
with explosives: flying bomb • air­ craft crew responsible for passengers
craft manufacture and technology: or cargo: cabin crew • list of aircraft
aerospace • part of an aircraft's passengers or cargo: man ifest .per­
structure specially curved to give it son hiding on an aircraft in order to
lift: aerofo i l • streamlining structure travel without paying: stowaway
on an aircraft: fa iring • flattened pro­ • aircraft's paying passengers and
jection improving stability: fin cargo: payload , useful load • behind
• wheels etc. supporting an aircraft or to the back of an aircraft: astern
while on the ground: landing gear, • on the outside of an aircraft: out­
un dercarriage .cables etc. control­ boa rd .use of a powered aircraft to
ling flight surfaces and engines: rig­ pull a glider into the air: aerotowing
ging • aircraft's single triangular • bulk air transport of troops or sup­
wing: delta wing • hinged rear edge plies: airl ift • flying or operation of
of an aircraft's wing: aileron, fla p aircraft: aviation • aircraft's planned
• aircraft wing flap projected t o create or actual course: fl ight path, vector
drag: spoiler .aircraft's door: hatch • route regularly used by aircraft: air

• detachable unit on an aircraft: pod lane, airway • permitted air route:

• front and rear of an aircraft: fore air corridor • official record of an
and aft • part of an aircraft for the aircraft's journey: log • aircraft's

flight crew: cockpit, flight deck flight recorder: black box, fl ight data
• transparent cover of an aircraft recorder .flight path of an aircraft
cockpit: ca nopy • flight crew's waiting to land: holding pattern
powered seat for emergency escape: • aircraft circling a given point at dif­
ejection seat, ejector seat • cockpit ferent altitudes while waiting to land:
instrument panel: console, dash­ stack • aircraft's path between take­
board • instrument showing an off and level cruising: climb-out • tilt

aircraft's height: altimeter • instru­ an aircraft to make a turn: bank

ment showing the rate of climb or des­ • aircraft's steep climbing turn:
cent: va riometer • rod controlling chandelle .level an aircraft: flatten
direction of flight: control column, out • aircraft's maximum possible al­
joystick • persons responsible for fly­ titude: ceiling • maintain an aircraft
ing an aircraft: fl ight crew .person at a steady altitude: trim .aircrafi's
in command of an aircraft: captain, deviation from course due to wind:
pi lot • captain's assistant: first of­ drift • aircraft's speed relative to the
ficer, co-pilot • person directing an ground: ground speed • aircraft's
aircraft's route: navigator • device speed relative to the ambient air: air­
keeping an aircraft on a set course: speed • trail of disturbed air left be­
automatic pilot • electronic avi­ hind a moving aircraft: slipstream,
ation equipment: avionics • remov­ wake, wa sh • trail of condensed
able cover for an aircraft engine: water left by an aircraft at high alti­
cowling • aircraft engine's outer cas­ tude: va pour tra i l • instance of two
ing: nacelle • section divider in an aircraft passing each other closer
aircraft: bulkhead .aircraft's small than is permitted: airmiss .denoting
window: porthole • aircraft's an aircraft in difficulties: in distress
kitchen: gal ley .maintenance of at­ • region of low or uneven pressure de­
mospheric pressure inside a high· stabilizing an aircraft: air pocket, tur-
9 aircraft I airport
......................................................... .......................................................................................

bulence • aircraft shake caused by lator • prohibit an aircraft from

turbulence: buffet, buffeting .(of an flying: ground • illegally seize con­
aircraft) rock from front to back: pitch trol of an aircraft: hijack, skyjack
.(of an aircraft) rock from front to .air force unit of six aircraft: fl ight
back: rol l • (of an aircraft) twist from • anti-aircraft fire: flak • military
side to side: yaw • violent swing of an aircraft's emergency takeoff: scram­
aircraft on or near ground: ground ble • military aircraft's wartime op­
loop • aircraft's steep downward eration: mission � see also aerobat­
plunge: nosedive • aircraft's fast re­ ics, airliner, navigation
volving motion: spin .aircraft's un­ aircraft carrier • airstrip on an
powered landing: deadstick landing aircraft carrier: fl ight deck
• aircraft's rough emergency landing:
airfield .military airfield: airbase
crash-landing, hard landing • air­
.hard-surfaced area on an airfield
craft's emergency landing with a final
where aircraft may park or man­
vertical drop: pancake landing
oeuvre: apron, fl ightline • strip for
• aircraft's gradual descent to the run­
taking off and landing: runway • illu­
way: approach • aircraft's circling
minated runway: flarepath .flexible
course after aborted approach:
cylinder showing wind direction and
goa rou n d • aircraft's .landing des­
force: drogue, sleeve, windsock
cent: glide path • runway contact by
.large building for housing aircraft:
the wheels of a landing aircraft:
touchdown • landed aircraft's decel­
eration along the runway: rol l-out airliner c airliner carrying many

• aircraft's slow ground movement to passengers: jum bo, j u m bo jet

or from the runway: taxi ing • airport • short-haul airliner carrying many

personnel servicing an aircraft be­ passengers: airbus • part of an air­

tween flights: ground crew .prepare liner for the passengers: cabin
an aircraft for its return journey: turn • most expensive class of passenger

rou n d • housing for an aircraft: accommodation: first class • middle

hangar • official unveiling of a new class passenger accommodation: cl u b
aircraft: roll-out • hire an aircraft for class • cheapest passenger accom­
a trip: charter • hire of an aircraft modation: economy class, tourist
without crew: d ry lease • hire of an class • persons attending to passen­
aircraft with crew: wet lease • enter gers' needs: cabin crew, flight attend­
or place on an aircraft: em bark, em­ ants, stewards • bag suitable for
plane, enplane .throw from an air­ transport in the cabin: carry-on,
craft: jettison • leave an aircraft: dis­ flight bag .air-traveller's luggage
em bark, deplane • denoting an beyond his or her allowance: excess
aircraft safe to fly: ai rworthy .estab­ baggage • list of airliner passengers:
lishment monitoring aircraft move­ manifest • person hiding on an air­
ments: tracki ng station • service
liner in order to travel without pay­
monitoring and directing aircraft ing: stowaway • company providing
movements: air traffic control .per­ scheduled public air transport: airline
mission for an air movement given by • product promotion giving vouchers

air traffic control: clearance .de­ redeemable for stated distances of free
tails of a proposed flight submitted to air travel: Air Miles™
air traffic control: flight plan .com­ airport .airport building for de­
puterized mock-up of an aircraft cock­ parting and arriving passengers: ter­
pit used in pilot training: fl ight simu- m i nal • airport reception counter:
airship I alle rgy . . .
......... ........................... ............ .......................... ..... ........ ................. .....................................

desk • those parts of an airport ter­ nature • alcohol denatured by metha­

minal that lie between its street en­ nol: methylated spirit • abstinence
trance and customs and passport con­ from alcoholic drinks: teetotalism,
trol: landside • those parts of an temperance
airport terminal that lie between the alcoholism .delusions caused by
aircraft and customs and passport alcoholi&l: delirium tremens
control: airside • desk where depart­ • intermittent craving for alcohol:
ing passengers have their tickets in­ dipsomania echild's mental and
spected: check-i n • non-appearance physical retardation caused by the
of booked passenger: no-show • re­ mother's consumption of excessive al­
fusal to honour a ticket, due to over· cohol during pregnancy: fetal alcohol
booking: bumping • ticket-holder
waiting for a seat to become available:
algae .proliferation of algae in
stanC:by .airport information board
water: algal bloom • study of algae:
or screen: ind icator • airport lounge
for passengers changing planes: tra n­
sit lounge • airport exit to a particu­ algebra • algebraic expression of

lar flight: gate • raised passageway the sum or difference of two terms: bi­
to an aircraft: pier • movable steps nomial .expression of more than
giving access to an aircraft: ram p two algebraic terms: polynom ial
.airport's non-flying staff: ground • number multiplying an algebraic

staff • airport employees servicing variable: coefficient

an aircraft: ground crew • rotating alien • fictional mechanical alien or­
machine from which luggage is col­ ganism: dalek _ imagined alien
lected: carousel • arrival or depart­ being: l ittle green man • person
ure of an aircraft: movement • ele­ claiming to have had dealings with
vated office from which flight alien beings: contactee • wartime
movements are controlled: control imprisonment of resident aliens: i n­
tower • tiredness felt after a flight ternment • resident alien in ancient
across time zones: jet lag Greece: metic
airship .mechanically propelled alkali • dye indicating alkalinity: l it­

airship: dirigible • German military mus .non-alkaline substance: base

airship used in First World War: Zep­ all . combining forms: o mni-, pa ne,
pel i n • airship's gas container: en­ panto- (e.g. pantomime, originally (re­
velope • cabin suspended beneath an ferring to a mime artist) 'imitator of all)
airship: gondola .for all persons or things: u niversal
• all at once: en bloc, simu lta neously
alcohol • courage gained by drink­

ing alcohol: Dutch courage • appar­ .all-in: freestyle • all-knowing: om­

atus for distilling alcohol: sti l l .per­ n iscient • all-powerful: omnipotent
• all together: en bloc, en masse
son authorized to sell alcoholic
drinks: victualler, licensed victualler • disease breaking out over all parts of

• denoting a place authorized to sell

a country or over all the world: pan­
alcoholic drinks: licensed .denoting demic
an alcoholic drink served without fur­ allergy • allergy causing breathing
ther dilution: neat, straight .denot­ difficulties: asthma • allergy caused
ing a region where alcoholic drinks by pollen: hay fever • substance
cannot be purchased: d ry • add alco­ causing an allergic reaction: al lergen
hol surreptitiously to a drink: spike • denoting a substance unlikely to
.make alcohol unfit to drink: de- cause an allergic reaction: hypo-
11 alliance I ambassador

allergenic • itchy red spots caused by runes • ancient British and Irish al­
food allergies: h ives, nettlerash, urti­ phabet: ogham • Indian alphabet:

caria • compound released into cells Devanagari • alphabet of raised dots

to combat allergens: h istamine for blind people: Bra i l le .former al­
• medicine used to treat allergies: phabet of raised letters for blind
antihistamine • cure allergy by grad­ people: Moon • pronunciation sign
ual exposure to its cause: desensitiza­ written above or below a letter: dia­
tion • skin allergy test: patch test critic • write in a different alphabet:
alliance • informal alliance: en- transliterate
tente • secret alliance between firms altar • chief altar: high altar • port­
to prevent competition: cartel • se­ able altar: su peraltar • altar canopy:
cret alliance of purchasers at an auc­ baldacchino, ciborium • ornamental
tion to force down prices: ring • tem­ cloth covering the front of an altar:
porary alliance between political frontal • ornamental cloth behind an
parties: coal ition, front .temporary altar: dossal • shelf behind an altar:
alliance between businesses: consor­ reta ble • ornamental screen behind
tium an altar: reredos • painting placed
allowance • money paid to a carer behind an altar: a ltarpiece • railing
for looking after an invalid: attend­ round an altar: parclose • altar cabi­
ance allowance .money paid to net for the reserved sacrament: taber­
local councillors for tim� spent on nacle • drain near an altar: piscina
council business: attendance allow­
alternative medicine • medical
system associating parts of the hands
alloy • alloy used to join metal: sol­ and feet with different parts of
der • mercury alloy used to fill teeth: the body: zone therapy • massage
amalgam • alloy of gold and silver: system based on zone therapy: re­
electrum • goldlike alloy of copper flexology .joint manipulation:
and zinc: pinchbeck • silver-like
chiropractic .regime of massage,
alloy of nickel, zinc, and copper: exercise, and diet control: naturop­
nickel silver, German silver • alloy athy • medicinal use of plants: herb­
of which monumental brasses are alism • healing by spiritual means:
made: latten faith healing .healing by crystals:
almond • almond paste: marzipan crystal healing
• scald almonds to remove their skin:
amateur • amateur dabbler in an
art or skill: dilettante • person
alone • pers<1n who lives alone: her­
falsely claiming amateur status:
mit, recluse • person who enjoys shamateur
being alone: loner, sol itary
ambassador .papal ambassador:
almost .combining form: quasi­
nuncio • nuncio sent to a non­
(e.g. quasi-autonomous) • strip of
Catholic country: pro-nuncio • am­
land almost detached from the main­
bassador's deputy: charge d'affaires
land: pen insula
• ambassador's assistant: attache
Alps • beyond the Alps: ultramon­ • ambassador's residence: em bassy
tane • this side of the Alps: • ambassador's introductory letter:
cismontane • traditional Alpine credentials, letter of credence
wooden house: chalet • dress of an ambassador who is pre­
al phabet • ancient Anglo-Saxon sented to the head of state: court
and Scandinavian alphabet: futhark, d ress � see also d i plomacy
ambiguity I an ger 12
. . . . . ...............................................................................
........ . ...... . . ... ..... .............................. ....

ambiguity .statement made am­ through a common ancestor: cognate

biguous by
its grammar: amphi­ • relationship by descent from a com­
bology, amphiboly • statement de­ mon ancestor: consanguinity .re­
signed to have a second (usually sembling or deriving from ancestral
indecent) meaning: double entendre, characteristics: atavisti c
double entente anchqr • small anchor with several

American Indian In­ • American flukes: grapnel • small anchor used

dian thought to have magic powers: to haul a ship: kedge, kedge anchor
medicine man, shaman .American .straight part of an anchor: shank
Indian axe: tomahawk • American • triangular plate on an anchor's arm:

Indian peace pipe: calu met .Ameri­ fluke .stone used as an anchor: kil­
can Indian shoe: moccasin .Ameri­ lick
can Indian spell: medicine .Ameri­ ancient • combining forms:
can Indian tent: lodge, teepee, archaeo-, palaeo- • excavation and
wigwam study of the physical remains of an­
among . combiningform: inter- (e. g. cient civilizations: archaeology
international) .among others: inter • study of fossil animals and plants:

al ios • among other things: inter pa laeobiology .study of fossil

alia plants: palaeobotany
amount • tiny
amount: iota, jot, angel • angel of the first order: ser­

soup�on, trace, vestige• required aph • angel of the second order:

or permitted amount: quantu m , cherub • angel of the third order:
quota, ration • insufficient amount: throne • angel of the fourth or­
short measure • amount left over: der: domination .angel of the fifth
surplus • express or measure an order: virtue .angel of the sixth or­
amount: q uantify • assessed by der: power • angel of the seventh
amount: quantitative, quantitive order: principal ity • angel of the

eighth order: archangel .angel of

ammunition • ammunition for a

single shot: round • denoting ammu­ the ninth order: angel .feast of the
archangel Michael: M ichaelmas
nition containing explosive: l ive • de­
noting ammunition containing explo­ .local group of Hell's Angels: chap­
sive but no projectile: blank ter
• ammunition store: magazine anger • anger at unfair treatment:
ind ig nation, offence, outrage, re­
anaesthetic .anaesthetic affect­
sentment • expression of public
ing the whole body: general anaes­
anger: outcry • public outrage or the
thetic .spinal anaesthetic given in
event causing it: scandal • public
childbirth: epidural, extradura l .de­
display of anger: scene • childish
noting an anaesthetic affecting a spe­
outburst of anger: tantrum .easily
cified part only: local
angered: irascible, irritable, short­
analysis • detailed
critical analysis: tempered, testy, tetchy, truculent
critique • analysis
of complex pro­ • intended to cause anger: provoca­
cedures to improve efficiency: sys­ tive • remark made to provoke anger:
tems analysis taunt • sulky bad temper: petu lance,
ancestor • earliest
ancestor: pro­ pique • natural proneness to anger
genitor, primogenitor • enumeration or equanimity: tem perament • petu­
of a person's ancestors: genealogy, lant expression of the lips: moue,
pedigree • related through a com­ pout • angry frown: scowl • angry
mon male ancestor: agnate • related rebuke: scolding .denoting a bad-
13 angle I animal

tempered person: curmudgeonly, tune: mascot _ animals bred or

dyspeptic .cause persistent resent­ raised for profit: livestock, stock
ment: ra nkle .soothe anger: ap­ • animal hunting others: predator
pease, mollify, pacify, placate, pro­ .hunted animal: prey .animal used
pitiate by hunters to attract others: decoy
• animal eating its own species: canni­
angle . combining form: -gon
• angle smaller than 90°: acute angle bal • animal eating flesh: carn ivore
• animal eating plants: herbi­
• angle of 90°: right angle • angle be­

tween 90 180°: obtuse angle .denot­ vore • animal feeding on refuse:

ing an angle not a right angle: oblique scavenger .animal in its second
• denoting an angle that combines
year: yearling • animal that chews
with another to make 90°: comple­ the cud: ru minant • animal depend­
mentary • denoting an inward­ ent upon external sources of heat:
pointing angle: re-entrant • denoting ectotherm • animal creating its own
bodily heat: endotherm • animal
an outward-pointing angle: salient
.figure with many angles: polygon maintaining a steady body tempera­
ture: homeotherm 0 male animal
.having three angles: triangular
• having four angles: quadran­ kept for breeding: sire • animal's fe­
gular _ having five angles: male parent: dam • young born to an
pe nta ngular it having, eight. angles: animal at one time: brood, litter
• smallest member of a litter: runt
octangular • tool for marking angles:
• give birth to young: th row • mal­
bevel • instrument to measure or
draw angles: protractor, set square formed or mutant animal: monster
• offspring of animals of differen t spe­
• instrument measuring angles pre­
cies: crossbreed, hybrid • large
cisely: goniometer
group of animals: herd • group of
Anglo-Saxon • ancient Anglo- herded animals: drove, herd, flock
Saxon alphabet: futh ark, runes • animals of a particular or
• Anglo-Saxon prince or noble: athel­
time: fa una 0 underwater animal
ing life: epifauna .denoting an animal
animal . combining forms: theri-, native to a particular region: endemic
zoo- • animal without a backbone: .wild animal's home: den , lair, lie
invertebrate • animal having a back­ • area regularly traversed by an ani­

bone: vertebrate • animal having mal: home ra nge • animal's seasonal

two feet: bi ped • animal having four change of habitat: migration .pan­
feet: quadrltped • warm-blooded ani­ icked rush of a number of animals:
mal suckling its young: mammal stampede • animal's bedding of
• animal carrying its young in a straw etc.: litter • animal's projecting
pouch: marsupial • scaly-skinned nose and mouth: snout • animal's
cold-blooded animal: reptile • cold­ flexible snout: proboscis • animal's
blooded terrestrial animal having an frightening jaws: maw • hind part of
aquatic larval stage: amphibian an animal's body: rump • animal's
• variety of animal developed by skin with the hair: pelt • clean an
breeding: strain • animal used to pull animal's coat: groom • skin disease
carts, ploughs, etc_: draught animal of hairy and woolly animals: mange
• set of draught animals: team • ani­ • animal's seasonal loss of plumage or
mal used to carry loads: beast of fur: moult • animal's internal organs
b u rden • animal regarded as symbol­ eaten as meat: offal, pluck .animal's
izing a group or bringing good for- flexible grasping appendage: tentacle
an kle I anuS 14
. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........
. . . ..... .......

• animal's track or scent: spoor • de­ versary: terce ntenary .400th anni­
noting animals adapted to a very dry versary: q uatercentenary • SOoth
environment: xerophilous • ability anniversary: quincentenary .600th
of certain animals to change colour: anniversary: sexcentenary
metachrosis • denoting a tamed ani­
announcer .announcer at a public
mal: domestic, domesticated .de­
event: master of ceremonies • an­
noting an animal returned to the wild: '
nouncer at a variety show: compere
feral • establish an animal in a for­
eign habitat: natural ize • denoting an noy .easily annoyed: irritable,
an animal bred for research: labora­ peevish, tetchy • until it becomes
tory .denoting an untethered ani­ annoying: ad na useam
mal: loose .animal's dose of medi­ anointing .ritual anointing for re­
cine: drench .climb onto an animal ligious purposes: unction .oil used
for riding: mount .(of a male ani­ for ritual anointing: chrism
mal) climb onto a female animal for
copulation: mount • animal excre­
answer • sharp answer: retort
ment: droppings, dung .remains of
• witty answer: rejOinder, riposte
.witty answer thought of too late:
prehistoric animals found in rock:
fossil • taking the form of an animal: esprit de I'escalier • refusal to give
straight answers: stonewalling
theriomorphic, zoomorphic • ani­
mal trainer: handler • exploitation of ant . combining form: myrmec(o)­
animals justified by alleged human • adjecti ve: formic • female ant:
superiority: speciesism • protected queen .male ant: drone • sterile
area for wildlife: reserve, sanctuary ant performing most basic tasks:
• enclosure for keeping animals in worker .African and Asian animal
semi-natural conditions: vivarium that eats ants: pangolin, scaly ant­
• place for keeping stray animals: eater • study of ants: myrmecology
pound .collection of wild animals antibiotic • antibiotic produced
for exhibition: menagerie, zoo .doc­ from blue moulds: penici l l i n .denot­
tor treating animals: vet, veterinary
ing an antibiotic effective against a
surgeon .allegedly unjustifiable ex­ large range of organisms: broad­
periments performed on animals: vivi­
section • book describing different
kinds of animals: bestiary • study of antidote .serum containing anti­
animals: zoology • study of animal dotes: antiserum, antivenin .sup­
behaviour: ethology • study of ani­ posed antidote to al poisons:
mals whose existence is doubted: mithridate
cryptozoology antique • interesting antique: objet
ankle • ankle-covering: gaiter, spat de vi rtu • person who studies or col­
• ankle ornament: anklet lects antiques or antiquities: anti­
quaria n, antiquary
anniversary .25th anniversary:
silver j u bilee .SOth anniversary: antler .flat section of antler: palm
• prong of antler: tine
golden jubilee .2Sth or SOth anni­
versary: ju bilee • denoting a 40th an­ anus . combining form: proct(o)­
niversary: ruby .denoting a 60th .adjective: anal .muscle closing the
anniversary: diamond .1OOth anni­ anus: sphincter .inflammation of
versary: centenary .1SOth anniver­ the anus: proctitis • swollen veins in
sary: sesquicentenary .200th anni­ the anus: haemorrhOids, piles .in­
versary: bicentenary .300th anni- strument for inspecting the anus:
15 anxiety I Arab

proctoscope • surgical construction appetite • adjective: orectic .per

of an artificial anus: colostomy son with a gross appetite for food:
• study of the anus: proctology gourmand .person with an insati­
able sexual appetite: lecher
anxiety .abnormally tense or anx­
ious: neurotic • showing no anxiety: appetizer .first course of a meal:
nonchalant hors d'oeuvre, starter .small open
sandwich served as appetizer: canape
apart • combining forms: d ia- (e. g.
• alcoholic drink taken before a meal
diagnosis, literally 'telling apart), se­
as an appetizer: aperitif
(e.g. separate)
applause .loud and long applause:
apartheid • formerdomination by ovation • persons hired to applaud:
whites in South Africa: baaskap claque
• term under apartheid for a South Af­
apple • apple that is green when
rican black: Bantu • offensive former
ripe: g reening • alcoholic drink
South African term for any black per­
son: Kaffir .offensive former South made from apple juice: cider • apple
African term for a person of mixed brandy: Ca lvados .apple of one's
ethnic origins: Coloured • homeland eye: cynosure
for South African blacks under apart­ appointment • appoint to a post:

heid: Bantustan • urban settlement nominate .where no appointments

for South African black� under apart­ are needed: d rop-i n .person not
heid: location, township • township keeping an appointment: no-show
drinking place: sh ebeen apprenticeship • apprenticeship

ape • adjective: simian • large agreement: indentures • having com­

powerful ape: gorilla pleted an apprenticeship: time­
apex .adjective: apical
Arab .Arab leader: sheik .Arab
Aphrodite • Latin name: Venus scholar or man of high social stand­
appeal •passionate appeal: cri de ing: effendi .nomadic desert Arab:
• litigant who
cceur (pl. cris de creur) Bedou in .Arab living in Israel or
appeals to a higher court: appellant Palestine: Palesti nian .Arab who
does not want a negotiated peace with
appearance . combining form:
Israel: rejectionist .Arab guerrillas:
-morph (e.g. polymorph), -phany
fedayeen • Arab sailing boat: dhow
• appearance of a god to mortals:
.Arab quarter in a town: kasbah
epiphany, theophany .first appear­
• Arab covered market: bazaar, souk
ance of an ' artist in public: debut
• Arab meat ball: kofta • Arab dish of
.sportsman or -woman playing in
spiced durum semolina: couscous
public for the first time: debutant
• Arab dish of mashed chickpeas: fela­
• surface appearance of a manufac­
fel, hummus .Arab cracked-wheat
tured article: fi nish .done merely
salad: tabbouleh • Arab fruit-juice
for the sake of appearance: token
drink: sherbet .Arab hooded cloak:
.denoting pleasant appearance and
burnous, djellaba • Arab headdress:
manner: personable • misleading
keffiyeh • Arab headband: agal
appearance: gu ise, illusion
.Arab man's long robe: dishdasha
appendix .inflammation of the • Arab eye make-up: koh l • Arab ges­
appendix: appendicitis • surgical ture of greeting: salaam • Arab name
removal of an appendix: appendec­ for God: Allah • dried-up river chan­
tomy nel in some Arab countries: wad i
arbitra tor I arch itecture 16
. . ........ ... .......... ................ ........... ... . . . . ................................ . ..............
.... . . ........... . . .....................

• Arab term for kif marijuana: fleche • ornamental porch with col­
• spirit i n Arab folklore:
genie (pl. umns: portico • covered walk round
genii), jinn (pl. same) � see also Mus­ a quadrangle: cloister • cloistered
lim quadrangle: cloi ster garth, garth
arbitrator . adjective: arbitral • ar­ • window projecting from a sloping
bitrator's formal decision: arbitra­ roof: dormer • denoting an opening
ment, determination • denoting an wider �t one end than at the other:
arbitrament that the parties must splayed • splayed window opening:
obey: binding em brasure • ornamental stone open­
work above a window: tracery
arch • row o f arches: arcade • stone
• semicircular alcove: lunette .large
at the centre of an arch: keystone
polygonal recess: oriel • projecting
• area behind the shoulder of an arch:
spandrel • underside of an arch: sof­ support for a wall: buttress • arch­
fit • support for an arch: pier shaped buttress: flying buttress
• structure supporting the lateral .moulding round the edge of a ceil­
thrust of an arch: abutment ing: cornice .moulding round a
door or window:
architrave, d rip­
archaeology . combining form:
stone, hood mould, label • wall fill­
archaeo- (e.g. archaeometry) • ur­
ing the end of a pitched roof: gable
gent archaeological investigation of a
• decorative triangular gable above a
site about to be disturbed: rescue
door or wall: pediment • pediment's
archaeology • systematic inspection
of a ploughed field: field wa lking recessed central area: tympanum
• decorative band at a wall top: frieze
• analysis of layering of remains:
• projecting wall above a fireplace:
chimney breast • projecting support:
archdeacon • adjective: archidi­
corbel • ornamental woodwork at a
aconal .title of an Anglican arch­
gable end: bargeboard • ornamental
deacon: venerable • archdeacon's
battlements: castellation • ornament
formal inspection: visitation
at the top or corner of a building: fin­
archer • astrological term: sagittar­ ial .ornament covering a joint in
ius ribwork: boss • Norman pointed or­
archery • adjective: toxophilite namentation: dog-tooth • ornamen­
.archery range: butts .mound for tal moulding of semicircular section:
the target in a range: butt • distant bead ing .ornamental framing for
target: rover an inscription: cartouche • orna­
architect . adjective: architectonic ment covering converging vaulting:
• architect working i n consultation boss • grotesquely carved water
with local inhabitants: commun ity spout: gargoyle • decoration in the
architect Chinese style: chinoiserie • outer
architecture de­• architecture covering for a wall: cladding .lower
signed to sympathize with its environ­ part of an interior wall: dado
ment: landscape architecture • de­ • smooth, square-cut masonry: ashlar
noting architecture in the styles of • steps and platform before a main en­
ancient Greece and Rome: classical trance: perron • elaborately decor·
• denoting architectural style mani­ ated entrance: portal • row of arches:
fested in functional buildings: ver­ arcade • exterior gallery on an
nacular • upper part of a classical upper floor: loggia .open courtyard
building: entablature • rounded roof­ in the centre of a building: atrium
ing vault: dome .slender spire: • underside o f a n architectural fea-
17 archive I aromatic

ture: soffit � see also beam, brick, armour .armour made of small
building, column, dome, ornament, metal rings: chain mail • helmet's

vault, wall, window plume: crest • helmet's face-guard:

beaver, visor • throat armour: gor­
archive • archived record: muni­
get • armour for the chest and back:
ment .person i n charge o f an arch­
cuirass • sleeveless mail coat: haber­
ive collection: archivist
geon • full-length mail coat: hau berk
Arctic .Arctic plain: tundra .Arc­ .arm armour: vambrace .ar­
tic sledge dog: husky moured glove: gau ntlet • thigh ar­

mour: cuisse • shin armour: greave

area .large area: tract .long nar­
• cloth garment worn over
row area: belt • remote area: hinter­
land, interior • area with a particu­
s u rcoat
lar use or character: zone • key area: arms • adjective: heraldic .system
nexus • area radically different from by which coats of arms are devised:
those surrounding it: enclave • area heraldry • expert in this: heraldist
cut off from those to which it is re­ .official controlling the College of
lated: exclave • surrounding area: Arms: Earl Marshal .official over­
purlieu • area with controlled access: seeing state ceremonial and grants of
exclusion zone • wet and boggy arms: herald, officer of arms,
area: quagmire .area devoted to persuiva nt .chief herald: King of
buildings of a particular kind: estate Arms .herald's emblazoned coat:
.area of influence or concern: pur­ tabard • shield bearing a coat of
view • area covered or available: arms: escutcheon • smaller shield

ra nge drawn inside another: inescutcheon

• section of an escutcheon: quarter
Ares • Latin na117R: Mars
• coat of arms with its bearers etc.:
argument • adjective: eristic .ar­ achievement • diamond-shaped
gument presented in court: submis­ board showing this: hatchment
sion • argument carefully ignoring • heraldic design: device, em blem
unfavourable facts: special pleading • left-hand side of a coat of arms: dex­
• noisy but trivial argument:squab­ ter • right-hand side of a coat of
ble .likely to cause argument: con­ arms: sinister • depict a coat of
tentious • prone to argue: disputa­ arms: emblazon .display two coats
tious • refutation of another's of arms on one shield: impale .de­
argument: rebuttal • allowing no ar­ noting a coat of arms that represents
gument: fi nal • denoting a superfi­ the bearer's name: canting
cially plausible argument: prima facie
army • adjective:
mil itary .citizen
• denoting a fallacious argument got
army: m i l itia, home guard • irregu­
up to convince: specious • user of
lar resistance force: m i l itia • front
dishonest arguments: casuist, soph­
part of an army: van, vanguard
• side of an army: flank • ground be­
arm . combining form: brachio­ tween opposing armies: no-man's­
. adjective: brachial • arm of an octo­ land • army training school: m i l itary
pus: tentacle .dinosaur with short academy
armlike front legs: brachiosaurus
aromatic • aromatic ointment
• ornament worn round the upper
made from a tree resin: balsam
arm: armlet
• massage treatment using aromatic
armed forces . adjective: mil itary oils: aromatherapy
arou nd I Asi a n 18
.. . . . . . . . . . ........... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ ..
.... .... . . .

around • combining forms: am phi­ artistic origination: creativity • art­

(e.g. amphitheatre). circum- (e.g. cir­ istic discernment: taste • knowledge
cumference). peri- (e.g. perinatal) of the fine arts: virtu • artwork

arrange • arrange in sequence turned out to make a living: potboiler

• artist's complete output: oeuvre
without overlaps: stagger • arrange­
• outstanding artistic creation: mas­
ment of battle forces: disposition
• possible arrangement of a set of
terpiece, masterwork, piece de re­
items: permutation sistance (pl. pieces de reSistance)
• artwork imitating other styles: pas­
arrest • arrest performed by an or­
tiche • amateur dabbler in an art: dil­
dinary person: citizen's arrest • im­ ettante • art exhibition: salon .put
munity from arrest: sanctuary .dip­ works of art on show: exhi bit .arte­
lomat's immunity from arrest:
fact assembled at the exhibition: in­
sta llation • presentation of artefacts
arriva l .person dealing with ar­ which includes performers: perform­
rivals at a hospital, office, or hotel: re­ ance art • found object considered as
ception ist • non-arrival: no-show a work of art: objet trouve (pl. objets
arrow • arrow
for crossbow: bolt trouves) • organized series of artistic
• arrow'scentral wooden section: events: festival • spontaneous artis­
shaft • back-turned spike on an tic event: happen ing
arrow head: barb .feathered end of Artemis . Latin name: Diana
an arrow: fl ight .feather an arrow:
arthritis • arthritis in the joints:
fletch • case for arrows: qu iver
osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis
art • creative art: fine art • vulgar • swimming exercises as a cure for
or sentimental art: kitsch .art in­ arthritis: hydrotherapy
tended to arouse sexual desire: erot­
artificial • artificial body parts:
ica • art produced by the untrained:
prosthetics • artificially created:
outsider art • art giving a minute re­
production of reality: hyperrea lism
factitious, synthetic
.realistic depiction of current social artist • major artist of the 13th 17th

conditions: social realism, verismo centuries: old master • artist's work­

• denoting grimly realistic art: shop: studio, atelier • artist's

kitchen-sink • artistic norms pro­ dummy: lay fig ure, manikin • artist's
mulgated under Stalinism: socialist personal style: idiom • artist's youth­
realism • denoting art depicting ful output: j uvenilia • artist's com­
physical appearances in a natural plete output: corpus, oeuvre .art­
way: fi gurative, realistic • denoting ist's most important creation:
art not depicting physical appear­ magnum opus • group of artists hav­
ances in a natural way: abstract ing a similar approach: school • per­
• denoting unconventional art: avant­ son posing for an artist: model
garde, underground • type of art:
ash • adjectives: cinera ry, cinerous
genre • genres created before an
• container for cremated ashes: urn
audience: performing arts .denot­
ing those genres involving three­ Asian .light Asian cart drawn by
dimensional modelling: plastic one or more people: rickshaw
• genres based on line and tone: • Asian savoury pastry: samosa
graphic arts • recurrent feature in • rainy season in southern Asia: mon­
an artwork: motif • conveyance of soon • yellow powder used to flavour
feeling in art: expression • faculty of and tillt Asian dishes: turmeric
19 assembly I athletics

assembly • assembly by the pur­ ant to a senior military officer: aide­

chaser: self-assembly • supplied de-cam p .priest's liturgical assist­
ready for easy assembly: prefabri­ ant: acolyte
cated assumption • assumption made as
assessment • analytical assess­ a basis for further reasoning: hypoth­
ment: critique • formal assessment esis • based upon assumptions: sup­
of an employee's performance: ap­ posititious
praisal • person gIvmg an assess­ asthma • adjective: asthmatic
ment of an artistic work or perform­ • person suffering from asthma: asth­
ance: critic • difficult or impossible matic .drug taken by asthmatics to
to assess: imponderable widen the bronchi: bronchodilator
asset • denoting assets not easily • instrument measuring asthmatics'
convertible into cash: fixed, illiquid lung capacity: pea k flow meter
• denoting assets easily converted to
astrology • astrological forecast of
cash: disposa ble, liquid, near-money
future events: horoscope .astro­
• denoting assets expected to be sold
logical chart: zodiac .sector on an
within a year: cu rrent • sale of as­
astrological chart: house, sign
sets: disposal • selling off assets of a
purchased company for quick profit: astronaut • trainee astronaut:
asset-stri pping • simultaneous trad­ space cadet .astronaut's protective
ing of assets in different l markets to clothing: spacesuit • astronaut's

profit by price differences: arbitrage period of physical activity in space

• convert assets into cash: rea lize outside the spacecraft: space wa lk,
• gradual increase in an asset's value: extravehicular activity • astronaut's
appreciation • gradual decrease in supply line during extravehicular
an asset's value: depreciation .pro­ activity: umbil ical • imagined dis­

gressive write-off of an asset's pur­ tortion of space time enabling astro­

chase value: amortization • charge nauts to breach the laws of physics:
upon assets: encumbrance • prevent space warp
the use of assets: freeze • legal docu­ Athena . Latin name: Minerva
ment disposing of one's assets after
athletics • athletic contest with two
death: wi ll
events for all competitors: biathlon
assimilation • gradual assimila­ • athletic contest with three events for
tion: osmosis • assimilation of cul­ all competitors: triathlon • athletic
tural minorities: integration contest with four events for al com­
assistant . combining form: sub- petitors: tetrathlon • athletic contest
(e.g. subed itor) , vice- (e.g. vice­ with five events for all competitors:
president) • general assistant: go­ pentath lon • athletic contest with
pher, factotum, mate, office boy seven events for all competitors: hept­
.author's or composer's assistant, athlon • athletic contest with ten
taking down dictation or copying events for al competitors: decathlon
drafts: amanuensis .criminal's as­ • international athletic contest for the
sistant: accompl ice, a bettor .hunt­ disabled: Paralympics • athletic
er's or fisherman's assistant: gillie event not a race: field event .ath­
• golfer's assistant: caddie • civil letic event involving racing: track
servant assisting a senior government event • balanced series of athletic
official: private secretary • adminis­ exercises: circuit • disc thrown by an
trative assistant to a senior military athlete: discus .large heavy ball
officer: adjutant • confidential assist- thrown by athlete: shot • athlete
At la ntic Ocean I attitude 20

competing in short races: sprinter for manipulating atoms and mol­

• athlete competing in middle or long ecules: nanotech nology • atomic

distance races: distance ru nner clock: caesium clock

.athlete's warm oversuit: tracksuit attach • inessential extra item at­
• weatherproof tracksuit: shell suit
tached . to something: appendage
Atlantic Ocean • equatorial re­ • attachment between newborn infant
gion of the Atlantic with uncertain and its mother: umbil ical cord
winds: doldrums .warm current
attack • combining form: (of a dis­
running northwest from the Gulf of
ease) -Iepsy (e.g. epilepsy) • brief at­
Mexico: Gulf Stream, North Atlantic
tack: foray, incursion, sal ly, sortie
• fierce attack: bl itz, onslaught
atmosphere • having a stale warm • sudden attack: strike .sudden sur­
atmosphere: frowsty, fuggy, fusty, prise attack: coup de main (pl. coups
stuffy .device to improve a room's de main) • sudden attack from a de­
atmosphere: ion izer • map line join­ fensive position: sally, sortie • attack
ing points of equal atmospheric pres­ on an enemy position: assault .un­
sure: isobar .regions of the earth's provoked attack: aggression • attack
crust and atmosphere inhabited by designed to disable a perceived threat:
living organisms: biosphere • suc­ first strike, pre-emptive stri ke .re·
cessive regions of the earth's atmos­ sponse to attack: counterattack,
phere: troposphere, stratosphere, counteroffensive, secon d stri ke
mesosphere, thermosp here, iono­ .attack by aircraft: air raid e re·
sphere • interface between tropo­ peated attacks from low-flying air­
sphere and stratosphere: tropopause craft: strafi ng .denoting a military
.interface between stratosphere and attack carried out with great preci­
ionosphere: stratopause • ozone­ sion: surgical • crime of attacking a
rich layer in the stratosphere: ozone person: assault • person or thing
layer .thin area in this: ozo ne hole vulnerable to attack: soft target
• proportion of moisture present in
attendant • group of attendants
the atmosphere: humidity .elong­
upon an important person: entou­
ated region of high atmospheric pres­
rage, retinue, train • protective at­
sure: ridge • elongated region of low
tendant: bodyguard, minder
atmospheric pressure: trough .area
of atmospheric pressure lower than attention • focus the attention: con­

those around it: depression .un­ centrate .centre of attention: cyno­

stable atmospheric pressure: turbu­ sure .forcing the attention: intru­
lence • instrument measuring at­ sive, obtrusive • activity designed to
mospheric pressure: barometer distract attention: d iversion .avoid­
atom • atom with a net positive or
ance of attention: low profi le • craft­
negative charge: ion • atom's central ily avoiding attention: furtive .time
core: nucleus (pl. n uclei) • force hold­ spent devoting one's attention to an­
ing atoms together: bond • bonded other: qual ity time
group of atoms: molecule • group of attitude • set of attitudes: mental ity,
atoms behaving as a unit: radical mi ndset .set of attitudes opposed to
• constituent of an atom: particle, those currently prevailing: counter­
subatomic particle, elementary par­ culture .confrontation of different
ticle • force holding quarks, neu­ attitudes: culture shock • spread of
trons, and protons together within the middle-class materialism: embour­
nucleus: strong force • technology geoisement • person with outdated
21 attract I away

attitudes: fogey • still adhering to • falsename used by an author: nom

old attitudes: unreconstructed, u n re­ de plume, pseudonym • right of
generate authors to royalties from libraries:
attract • bargain offered to attract
public lending right .person in
customers: come-on, loss-leader charge of a dead author's works: liter­
• attractive but worthless: meretri­ a ry executor • assign authorship:
cious attri bute
aubergine .aubergine in Greek authority • with full authority: ex

cuisine: mel itza nes • aubergine in cathed ra • showing authority:

Indian cuisine: brinjal magisterial • shared authority: part­
auction • auction at which the price
nership • intrusively authoritarian:
is progressively reduced: Dutch auc­
officious .misuse of authority: mis­
tion • item sold at an auction: lot feasance .area of authority: remit,
terms of reference .legal authority
.price which an item must reach be­
fore being sold: reserve, reserve to act for another: power of attorney
• person authorized to act for another:
price, upset price • secret alliance of
purchasers at an auction to force
down prices: ring authorization • authorization to
audiotape audiotape machine
• proceed: commission, mandate,
recording telephone messages: an­ remit • be absent without authoriza­
swering machine, answerphone tion: take French leave
• container for audiotape: cassette automatic • introduction or use of

Australian • native Australian: automatic equipment: automation

Aborigi nal • Australian wild dog: • done in automatic response to a

dingo .ostrich-like Australian bird: stimulus: reflex

emu .river backwater in Australia, autumn • fine weather in late au­
filled only by floods: billabong tumn:Indian summer, St Luke's
.large area of pasture: run • Austra­ summer, St Martin's summer
lian term for a British person:
Pommy • Australian term for an un­ available • available but not obliga­

skilled farmhand: rouseabout, roust­ tory: optional • available to all: open

about • Australian terms for the • general availability: open access,

rural hinterland: backblocks, out­ open door • acceptance of what hap­

back pens to be available: pot luck • not
available: inaccessible
Austrian • title of former Austrian

emperors: Kaiser • Austrian mayor: avocado • Mexican dish of mashed

burgomaster • Austrian province: avocado: guacamole

Land (pl_ Lander) .Austrian folk avoid • have no dealings with: boy­
dance: landler .Austrian chocolate
cott • avoid skilfully and repeatedly:
cake: Sachertorte (pl. Sachertorten)
elude, evade .avoid a need or diffi­
author • author employed to write culty: obviate
for another: ghostwriter .author of
award • person
receiving an award:
film and TV scripts: screenwriter,
laureate • statement
of reasons for
scenarist • author's youthful output:
bestowing an award: citation
j uvenilia • author's inability to think
of new material: writer's block away • combining forms: a b(s)- (e.g.
• author's assistant, taking down dic­ abduct), ap(o)- (e.g. apogee), de- (e.g.
tation or copying drafts: amanuensis deduct), out- (e.g. outbound)
axe I AZtec .
. .. . . .. ... . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................... ........... .. . . . . . .....
... ... .

axe • small axe: hatchet • Ameri­ er's ice axe: piolet • axe handle: haft
can Indian axe: tomahawk • animal­
Aztec • Aztec temple: teocalli
slaughterer's axe: poleaxe • climb-
baby • adjective: infantile • baby chante, maenad • staff carried by
less than four weeks old: neonate Bacchus' followers: thyrsus
• baby with insufficient blood oxygen:
back . combiningforms: dors- .ad­
blue baby .one of two babies born at jectives: dorsal, (lower back) lu mbar
a birth: twin .one of three babies • back sloping forward at the top:
born at a birth: triplet • one of four hum pback, hunchback • back of a
babies born at a birth: q uadrup let leaf of paper: verso .lying on one's
.one of five babies born at a birth: back: supine • bag strapped to the
quintuplet • set of clothes for a new­ back: haversack, knapsack, ruck­
born baby: layette • baby's bed: cot, sack
cradle • baby's small portable bed:
carrycot • baby's wickerwork cot: back again . combining forms:
Moses basket • baby's plastic teat: ana- (e.g. anamnesis) , re- (e.g. return)
comforter, dummy • baby's long­ backbone . adjectives: spinal, mye­
legged feeding chair: high chair loid • having a backbone: vertebrate
.baby's babbling: lal lation • wind •having no backbone: i nvertebrate
suffered by a baby: colic • feed a .joint of meat containing a backbone:
baby whenever it cries: demand-feed chine
• breast-feed a baby: suckle • woman
backer • person lending money to fi­
employed to suckle another's baby:
nance a film or play: angel • person
wet nurse .discourage a baby from
betting on a racehorse: pu nter
breast-feeding: wean .liquid baby
food to replace breast milk: formula backwards • combining form:
• bounce a baby: dandle • first faeces retr( 0)- (e.g. retrospect)
of a newborn infant: meconium .un­ bacon • side of bacon: fl itch • slice
explained deAth of a sleeping baby: of bacon: rasher • cube of bacon: lar­
cot death, sudden i nfant death syn­ don .tough outer layer on bacon:
drome .abandoned baby of un­ rind .denoting bacon having alter­
known parentage: foundling • baby nate strips of fat and lean: streaky
secretly substituted for another:
bacterium • bacteria in contamin­
changel ing .scaly skin on a baby's
head: cradle cap • space between the ated food: Escherichia coli, listeria
• bacterium causing gonorrhoea:
parts of an baby's skull: fontanelle
gonococcus • bacterium causing
• apparatus providing special envir­

onment for a premature baby: incuba­ pneumonia and dental decay: strepto­
tor • pouch for carrying a baby: sling coccus • bacteria cultivated for ex­
• institution offering daytime care of
perimentation: culture • test for bac­
teria: Gram sta in • substance
babies: creche • killing a baby: in­
arresting the multiplication of bac­
teria: bacteriostat • substance kill­
Bacchus • Greek name: Dionysus ing bacteria: antiseptic, bactericide,
• malefollower of Bacchus: bacchant disi nfecta nt • study of bacteria:
.female follower of Bacchus: bac- bacte riology
b a d I banet 24
........... .................................................... ...................................... .............. .....

bad . combining forms: caco- (e.g. bag: twist tie • baglike bodily mem­
cacophony), dys- (e.g. dysfunction), brane: sac
mal- (e.g. maladministration), m is­ bagpipes .Irish bagpipes: uillean
(e.g. misadventure) • exceptionally
p ipes • small bellows-powered bag­
bad: egregious .famously bad: no­ pipes: musette • pipe on bagpipes on
torious • gradually getting worse: which the tune is played: cha nter
insidious .a thing's bad aspects: • pipe on bagpipes used to produce a
downside • bad breath: halitosis continuous bass note: d rone • shrill

badge .flower-shaped badge of col- sound of bagpipes: skirl

oured ribbon: rosette • school or bail • pay bail money for another:
sports team badge: colours stand bail, sta n d surety • abscond,

badger • male badger: boar having gained release by bail: jump

• badger's burrow: earth, sett bail
badly • combining form: cata- (e. g. baking .mixture of flour and yeast
catachresis), mis- (e.g. mismanage) for baking: dough • yeast SUbstitute
used in baking: baking powder
badm i nton • badminton bat: racket
balance • adjective: equili brious
• feathered cork used as a ball: sh ut­
tle, shuttlecock • strike the ball to . astrological term: libra .state of
commence play: serve balance: equili brium • balance of
forces or interests: equipoise • per­
bad taste • person having bad
son performing balancing feats:
taste: boor, groundling, vulgarian a crobat, juggler, fu nam bulist • self­
• vulgarly showy: garish, gaudy, balancing flywheel: gyroscope .lose
lurid balance: overbalance
bag • plastic o r paper bag with han­ Balinese • Balinese percussion or­
dles: carrier bag • capacious bag: chestra: gamelan
holdal/, tote bag • small bag for cos­
Balkan • Balkan guerrilla: chetnik
metics: vanity bag • small sealed

bag: sachet • travelling bag: grip, · ball .large black ball used i n bowls:
suitcase .small travelling bag: va l­ wood • small white ball used in
ise • two-sectioned travelling bag: bowls: jack • ball used in ice hockey:
Gladstone bag, portmanteau • bag puck • ball that is out of play: dead
strapped to the back: haversack, ball .heavy exercise ball: medicine
knapsack, rucksack • school bag on ball .large metal ball thrown in ath­
a long strap: satchel • cylindrical letics: hammer, shot • spiked metal
canvas bag with a drawstring: duffel ball used as a war obstacle: caltrop
bag . sailor's bag: ditty bag .sol­ • ball of decorated blown glass: witch

dier's bag: kitbag • air-travellers' ball .forward spin on a ball: top­

shoulder bag: carry-on , flight bag spin
• bag for carrying a child on the back: ballet • ballet company: corps de
papoose .large bag at the side of a ballet .chief female ballet dancer:
motor cycle, beast of burden, etc.: pan­ prima ballerina .leading ballet dan­
nier • bag used to remove a corpse cer: coryphee .rank-and-file ballet
from an accident, battlefield, etc.: dancers: corps de ballet • female
body bag .large bag for protection ballet dancer: bal/erina, danseuse
against exposure: su rvival bag • male ballet dancer: danseur • rail
• small piece of plastic-covered wire supporting ballet dancer doing exer­
used to secure the neck of a plastic cises: barre • ballerina's short skirt:
25 balloon I banknote

tutu • balet shoes with strengthened bank' • bank dealing in commercial

toes: poi nte shoes • ballet step: pas loans and investment: merchant bank
• arm movement: port de bras • spin • deposit-taking cooperative offering

made on one foot: pi rouette • posture cheap loans to members: cred it u n ion
with one leg lifted at right angles: ar­ • bank account for frequent deposits

abesque • series of steps for a ballet: and withdrawals: current account

choreography • person devising • bank account for longer-term de­

these: choreographer • person posits: deposit account • bank ac­

teaching ballet dancers their steps: count for several persons: jOint ac­
repetiteur • solo dance: pas seul count • bank account deficit:
.dance for two people: pas de deux overdraft .customer's book record­
.dance performed on the tips of the ing deposits and withdrawals on his
toes: pointe, en pointe • short dance account: bank book, pass book
to display technique: divertissement • bank card giving access to cash dis­

• ballet enthusiast: balletomane � see pensers: cash card • management of

also dancer a bank account by telephone or com­
puter modem: direct banking, home
balloon .large balloon, moored in
banking, telebanking • remove from
groups to frustrate air attack: barrage
a bank account: debit • arrangement
balloon • balloon's gas container:
for a third party to draw on one's ac­
envelope • enclosed pasS\:lnger com­
count: direct debit • money paid into
partment below a balloon: gondola
a bank account: deposit • money
ban • ban on trade: embargo • ban taken out of a bank account: with­
on implementation of a decision: veto d rawal • bank deposit that cannot be
• ban on dealings with a person, or­ withdrawn before a set date: time de­
ganization, etc.: boycott posit • instruction to a bank to make
band • band
conductor: band master regular payments: standing order
• sudden withdrawal of deposits by
• chiefmusician in a band: band­
many investors: ru n • cheque drawn
leader .roofed outdoor band plat­
form: bandstand by a bank on its own funds: ba nk
d raft, ban ker's draft • bank's printed
bandage • bandage supporting an order for payment of a specified sum:
injured arm: sling .loosely woven money order • cheque guaranteed by
dressing: ga uze • bandage twisted a bank: certified cheque • banks' es­
tight to stop the flow of blood: tou rni­ tablishment for the exchange of
quet • bandage stiffened with plaster cheques: cleari ng house • banks'
of Paris: cast, plaster cast • pad ap­ trading in short-term loans: money
plied to stop bleeding: compress ma rket • banking transaction ef­
• protective or healing material fected via the telecommunications
placed on a wound: d ressing .ab­ network: electronic transfer of fu nds
sorbent pad: swab • absorbent plug: • wall-mounted deposit box used
tampon • soft moist mass applied to when the bank is closed: night safe
relieve inflammation: poultice • secure store for valuables: safe de­

bank' • artificial bank: berm posit, safety deposit • bank's secure

• steep bank: bl uff, scarp .large de­ storeroom: va ult
fensive bank: earthwork .long bank banknote • thin line inside bank­
built to prevent flooding: dyke, em­ note paper: thread mark • banknote
ban kment .artificial bank carrying design visible only when held up to
a road or railway: embankment the light: watermark
....... ....... ..... I ���.���
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . �.?
bankrupt • official appointed to barrier •
crowd barrier: crush bar­
manage the affairs of bankrupts: re­ rier • roadside
barrier preventing ac·
ceiver • release a bankrupt from fur· cidents: crash barrier • improvised
ther payments: discharge barrier blocking a street: barricade
baptism • baptism by dipping: im­
.insurmountable barrier: Chi nese
wa ll • imagined invisible barrier:
mersion • baptism by pouring water
over: affu sion • baptism by sprink· force field
ling: aspersion • person making barrister • barristers regarded col·

promises for a child being baptized: lectively: the bar • barrister's ap·
godparent prenticeship: pupillage • barrister

bar • short bar attaching a collar to a

advising a court martial: judge advo­
cate • barrister serving as a part·
shirt: stud • bar at which drinks
time judge: recorder • barrister's of·
must be paid for: cash bar • bar at
fice: chambers • barrister's advice
which the drinks are free: open bar
on a point of law: opinion • barris·
bar code • bar code reader: light ter's wig, gown, etc.: court d ress
pen, wa nd • pass a light pen over a • case information and instructions
bar code: wipe given to a barrister: brief • brief
bargai n • bargain offered to attract given to a barrister chosen by the ac·
customers: come-o n, loss-leader cused while in court: dock brief
. • shrewd bargaining to mutual advan· • brief to follow a case for a client not

tage: horse-trading .refuse to hon· directly involved in it: watching brief

our a bargain: renege • initial fee paid to a barrister: re­

tainer • subsequent fee paid to a bar·

barge .large light barge: wherry
rister in a long case: refresher _ hon·
• barge towed by another boat: butty
orific title bestowed on a senior
• person who works on a barge: bar­
barrister: King's Counsel, Queen's
Cou nsel .such barristers collect·
bark • removea tree's bark: decorti­ ively: the inner bar • other barristers
cate •
bark bruised as a source of collectively: jun iors, the outer bar
tannin: tan , tan bark .tanbark used • organization training and regulat·
as a ground·cover: tan, spent tan ing barristers: I n n of Court .forbid
• bitter extract of cinchona bark: a barrister to practice: d isbar
base • base for a statue etc.: pedes­
barometer . denoting a barometer tal .military base: garrison .forti·
using a vacuum box to measure at· fied base established on an enemy
mospheric pressure: aneroid .liquid shore: beachhead • fortified base es·
metal used in a barometer: mercu ry, tablished inside enemy territory:
quicksilver bridgehead .proposition used as a
barrel •
large barrel: hogshead, tun base for further reasoning: hypoth­
• small barrel: keg • person who esis
makes barrels: cooper • plank from basket • food basket: hamper
which barrels are made: stave •basket for soft fruits: punnet • bas·
• metal band compressing a barrel's ket for garden vegetables: trug • bas·
staves: hoop • small hole in the side ket for dirty clothes: l i nen basket
of a barrel: vent .plug for a barrel • basket for sewing items: work­
vent: spigot .allow air to enter a basket • basket on a cycle or donkey:
barrel: vent • open a barrel: broach pannier .wooden neck·frame for
• wooden peg to seal a barrel: spile carrying baskets: yoke • willow
27 basketball I bean

cropped for basket-making: osier bay • small sheltered bay: cove

• shoot from this: withy • large bay: gulf
basketbal l • attempt at goal beach • adjective: littoral • barrier

awarded after a foul: free throw • ad­ preventing beach erosion: groyne
vance the ball by continuous boun­ .defended beach position: beach­
cing: dribble • aggressive marking of head
opponents: ful l-court press beads • large string of beads used in

Basque •Basque ball game: jai alai, prayer: rosary • small string of beads
pelota • court for this: fronton used in prayer: chaplet
.Basque separatist terrorist organ­ beam .metal beam: g i rder .verti­
ization: Eta cal underground beam supporting
bastardy • supposed heraldic indi­ foundations: pile, spile • beam laid
cation of bastardy: bar sinister, bend horizontally in a wall: wa ll plate
sinister • court order obliging a bas­ • beam or plate distributing weight

tard's father to contribute to its sup­ along a wall: template • beam sup­
port: affi liation order porting a floor: joist • beam support­
ing joists or rafters: summer • hori­
bath . adjective: balneal • bath with
zontal beam connecting rafters: tie
underwater jets: jacuzzi™ • bath
beam • short beam supporting a raf­
with hot aerated water: spa, spa
ter or arch: hammer beam • roof
bath, spa pool • steam hath: Tu rki sh
beam supporting rafters: purlin
bath • hot-air bath: sauna • bath
• beam at the apex of a roof: ridge
only large enough to sit in: hip bath
• mark left on a bath's sides by re­
piece .long beam supporting and
ceding water: tidemark • dried trop­ connecting a framework: stri ngpiece
• beam fixed at one end: canti­
ical fruit used as a bathing sponge:
loofah lever • beam above an opening: l i ntel
• beam across a fireplace: ma ntel tree
batter • thin fried cake of batter: • short horizontal wall-post to carry
pancake • sweet batter baked with a scaffolding beams: putlog • horizon­
fruit filling: clafoutis tal beam dividing a window: transom
battery • rechargeable battery stor­ • vertical beam dividing a window:

ing electricity as chemical energy: ac­ mullion • beam between a door and a
cumulator .point at which current fanlight: transom • beam across the
enters or leaves a battery: electrode tops of columns: architrave • over­
• slow battery charger: trickle char­ head beam supporting equipment:
ger • denoting an exhausted battery: gantry • denoting a beam carrying
flat the structure above it: load-bearing
• use o f beams: tra beation • small
battle • small battle: incident, skir­
piece of stone or wood supporting a
mish • closeaerial battle: dogfight
beam's end: tassel • heavy beam
• battle area: field, front • position­

ing of troops for battle: deployment, used to knock down walls: ram , bat­
disposition • join battle: engage teri ng ram .floating beam restrict­
• bravery in battle: gallantry • offi­
ing access to a harbour etc: boom
cial report from the battlefront: d is­ bean • adjective: leg uminous
patch • regroup after defeat: rally • smallFrench kidney bean: flageolet
• the ultimate battle, or one causing • bean giving bean sprouts: mung
huge destruction: Armaged don • curd made from mashed soya beans:
• battlefield hospital: field hospital tofu
b ear / beer
. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

bear • adjective: ursine • young of a quilt with a detachable cover:

bear: cub continental quilt, duvet • confined to
bearer • combining forms: -fer, bed: bedridden .long-handled brass
-phore (e.g. semaphore, literally 'sign­ pan formerly used to warm a bed:
bearer) • person carrying the cross warm ing pan .Japanese quilted
in Christian processions: crucifer mattress used on the floor as a bed:
• person carrying a censer: thurifer
futon . animal's bedding of straw
etc.: litter
bearing • combining forms: -ferous
(e.g. odoriferous), -gerous (e.g. bee . adjective: apian .female bee:
cornigerous) q ueen .male bee: drone • sterile
bee doing most of the tasks of the
beast • adjective: bestial, animal,
group: worker .large group of bees:
feral • beast-like characteristics: ani­
swarm • hexagonal wax structure
mal ity
built by bees: honeycomb • sub­
beauty . combining form: calli­ stance fed to potential queens: royal
• products claiming to improve the ap­ jelly • structure for bees to live in:
pearance of the skin: cosmetics beehive, hive • group of beehives:
• exercises designed to improve apiary • person who studies or keeps
strength and appearance: cal listhen­ bees: apiarist
ics • not beautiful: plain
beef .cut of beef from the outside
beaver •
young beaver: kit, kitte n leg: si lverside .cut of beef from the
• beaver's den: lodge breast: brisket • cut of beef from the
becoming • combining form: lower part of the spine: loin • best
-escent • becoming liquid: deliq ues­ part of this: sirloin • high-quality
cent • becoming rotten: putrescent beef taken from the hindquarters:
• becoming sexually mature: pubes­ steak • lean cut from the rump: top­
cent side .boned sirloin steak: entrecote
• thick steak of fillet beef: chateau bri­
bed • bed
without head- or footboard:
divan • bed
with a canopy supported a n d • small thick slice of fillet beef:
by posts: four-poster • matching pair tournedos • seasoned dish of raw
of single beds: twi n beds • narrow steak and egg: steak tartare • beef
bed, often one of a tiered set: bunk stew with onions and beer: carbon­
• canvas bed suspended by cords at its
nade • French beef stew: grillade
• beef cooked in a sour cream sauce:
ends: hammock • portable bed for
the injured: stretcher • enclosed bed beef stroganoff • seasoned smoked
carried on poles: litter • fixed bed on beef: pastrami • flat cake of minced
a train, ship, etc.: berth • NHS hos­ beef: burger
pital bed for which a charge is made: beer • beer brewed and stored trad­

amen ity bed, pay bed • bed made up itionally: cask beer, real ale • beer
as a practical joke with a single sheet stored with carbon dioxide: keg beer
folded back on itself: apple-pie bed • beer served from a bulk container:
• bed's solid frame: bedstead • can­ draught beer • nitrogen device in
opy over a bed: tester • panel at a some beer cans: widget • dark hoppy
bed's head: headboard • thick upper beer: mild .dark beer made with
bed-covering sewn in sections: eider­ roasted malt: stout • dark beer made
down, q uilt • fabric case stuffed with with charred malt: porter .light ef­
feathers etc. as a mattress or pillow: fervescent beer: lager • treated grain
tick • ornamental cloth bedcover: for brewing: malt, grist • water used
bedspread • bed-covering consisting in brewing: liquor .malt and liquor
29 beetle I belief

mixture: mash • breakdown of ive behaviour: trait, quirk,

sugars in brewing: fermentati on man nerism, idiosyncrasy .uncon­
.mature further after fermentation: ventional behaviour: eccentricity, de­
condition .clarify a brew: fi ne viance .child's playful misbehav­
.final taste of beer: fi nish • foam on iour: mischief .morally correct
beer: head • beer mixed with a soft behaviour: conformity, decorum,
drink: shandy .drink of lager and propriety, rectitude, virtue • behav­
draught cider: snakebite .tall beer iour intended to fulfil social expect­
mug with a handle: tankard .large ations: role playi ng • behaviour

earthenware beer mug: stein .per­ aimed at others' benefit: altruism

son making beer: brewer • beer cart .servile behaviour: toadying, truck­
or lorry: d ray ling .dishonest behaviour: sl eaze,
beetle • adjective: col eopterous skulduggery • immoral behaviour:
• beetle infesting kitchens etc.: cock­ vice .employee's improper behav­
roach • ticking wood-boring beetle: iour: miscond uct .engrained pat­
death-watch beetle • luminescent
tern of maladaptive behaviour: per­
sonal ity disorder • stiffly
beetle: gl ow-worm • sacred beetle of
ancient Egypt: scarab • student of well-behaved: prim • strict and re­
beetles: coleopterist served in behaviour: un bending
• breaching propriety or convention:
before . combining forms: afore­ transgressive .denoting behaviour
(e.g. aforementio ned), ante, fore- (e.g. expressing one's feelings of social su­
foreplay) , p re-, pro- .att or happen periority: supercil ious • imitation of
before (some other event): anticipate behaviour: mi mesis .encourage­
• acting beforehand: proactive ment of desired behaviour by rewards:
• thing or person coming before an­
rei nforcement, positive reinforce­
other: foreru nner, precursor, prede­ ment • encouragement of desired be­
cessor • before the war: antebellum, haviour by cessation of punishment:
pre-war • feeling, when i n a new situ­ negative reinforcement • scientific
ation, of having experienced it before: study of human or animal behaviour:
deja vu behavioural science
beg .living by begging: mendicant behind . combiningform: retro- (e.g.
• begging the question: petitio
retrochoir) • behind with payments:
principii in arrears
beginner .keen or ambitious be­ being . combining form: onto-
ginner: aspirant • inexperienced be­ • study of the concept of 'being':
ginner: novice, tyro • suitable for be­ ontology
ginners: entry-level
belief • system of beliefs: doctri ne,
beginning • combining form: dogma • system of religious belief:
-escent (e.g. pubescent) • adjectives: faith • firm belief: conviction .mis­
em bryonic, inci pient, inceptive, in­
taken belief: fallacy, misapprehen­
choate, i n itial, nascent .sudden be­
sion • belief that all matter has an
ginning: outbreak, outburst • from
element of consciousness: pan­
the beginning: ab in itio, ab ovo, de
psychism • belief that plants and
inanimate objects possess souls: ani­
behaviour . combining form: -ery mism .doctrine of design and pur­
(e.g. foolery) 0 generally accepted be­ pose in the material world: teleology
haviour, or its rules: convention, eti­ • traditional beliefs of a community:
quette, protocol .person's distinct- fo lklore 0 credulous belief in the
bell I bet
. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

supernatural: superstition • belief bench .long backless bench: form

that one's nation is superior: chauvin­ .long wooden bench with high back:
ism, ethnocentricity, j i ngoism .per­ settle • upholstered bench against a
son dying for his beliefs: martyr wall: banquette
• person changing his or her beliefs to
bend bend in a road:
• V-shaped
suit prevailing fashion: time server hairpin. bend .deflection of light or
• correct a mistaken belief: disa buse
radio waves passing from one medium
• publicly disown a belief: reca nt to another: refraction • bending
• still adhering to old beliefs: unre­
readily: flexi ble, pliable .full of
constructed , unregenerate • person bends: flexuous, sinuous
abandoning religious or political be­
beneath • combining forms: hypo-,
liefs: apostate • unable to believe:
i ncred ulous i nfra- (e.g. infrastructure), sub- • be­
neath the earth's surface: subterra­
bell • bell rung to instruct people to
nean • beneath the skin: hypoder­
return to their houses: curfew • bell mic, subcutaneous • beneath one's
rung for the recitation of Roman Cath­ dignity: i nfra dig
olic prayers commemorating the In­
benefit • reciprocal
benefit: quid
carnation: angelus • bell rung at
pro quo • state
benefit paid to dis­
death or a funeral: knell • alarm bell:
tocsin • bell's tongue: clapper • bell abled persons needing home care: at­
tower: campa nile • art of bell­ tendance allowance e state benefit
ringing: campanology • set of bells offsetting a disabled person's loss of
for campanology: peal .large set of earnings: disability benefit • state
bells for musical performances: caril­ benefit paid to those temporarily off
lon work through illness: sickness bene­
fit • state payment to the long-term
belonging to . combining form :
sick: incapacity benefit • state bene­
-ine (e.g. Alpine) • sense of 'not be­
fit assisting travel for the disabled:
longing': alienation
mobility allowance • state payment
below . combining forms: hypo­ to a family on low income: family
(e.g. hypodermic , literally 'beneath the credit • situation where any increase
skin'), infra- (e.g. infrastructure), sub­ in income triggers a counterbalancing
• below the threshold of conscious­ withdrawal of state benefits: poverty
ness: subliminal trap .seeming benefit designed to
belt • ornamental belt: sash • orna­ cause its recipient trouble: poisoned
mental belt worn with men's evening chal ice
dress: cummerbund • ornamental
beside • combining form: para- (e.g.
belt won by champion boxer: Lons­ parathyroid)
dale belt • belt worn by a beginner
best • best of ali: creme de la creme,
in martial arts: white belt • belt
worn by an expert in martial arts: par excellence • best available: faute
black belt • belt worn by certain po­ de mieux, pis aller
lice and army officers, with a strap bet • bet recommended as a near cer­
over the shoulder: Sam Browne tainty: nap • bet placed by those with
• similar belt, carrying cartridges: expert knowledge: smart money
bandolier • shoulder belt supporting • bet in which winnings and stake
a sword etc. on the opposite hip: bal­ from a first event are placed on a sec­
dric • belt-attachment to hold a ond: double • bet in which initial
sword: frog • padded belt supporting winnings are placed on a series of sub­
a hernia: truss sequent events: accu mulator • bet
31 betraya l I biblical figures

with cumulatively doubled stakes: bias . unfair bias: discri m ination,

martingale • bet naming the first two favouritism, partiality, parti pris,
in their correct order: perfecta • bet prejud ice • deliberate bias in favour
naming the first two, but not giving of those usually discriminated
their order: quinelJa • bet naming against: positive discrimination
the first three in their correct order:
Bible • first part of the Bible, con­
tricast • bet that a horse will finish
taining the Jewish scriptures: Old
in the first three: place, place-bet Testament . first five books of the
• denoting a bet placed on a horse be­
Old Testament: Pentateuch • first
fore the runners are announced: ante­ six books of the Old Testament: Hexa­
post • denoting a bet made for a win
ta uch • first seven books of the Old
or a place: each-way • final odds at Testament: Heptateuch • second
the start of a horse race: sta rting part of the Bible, containing further
price • money etc. p u t down o n a bet: Jewish scriptures not found in the
stake • system where those backing Hebrew canon: Apocrypha • third
the first three divide the total stake: part of the Bible, containing the Chris­
pari-mutuel • system where win­ tian scriptures: New Testament
nings are calculated from the total • Jewish commentary upon the Old
staked, not from odds offered: total iza­ Testament: Masorah, Midrash • Jew­
tor, totalizer, tote • per$on who takes ish mystical interpretation of the Old
bets: bookmaker . person holding Testament: Kabbalah o Greek ver­
bets laid: stakeholder • make a bet: sion of the Old Testament: Septuagint
place • textual criticism of the B ible: lower
betrayal • betrayal of one's country: criticism • biblical exegesis from a
treason • person doing this: rene­ comparative historical and cultural
gade, traitor • person deserting one standpoint: higher criticism • inter­
side to j o in the other: trimmer, turn­ pretation of biblical symbolism: typ­
coat ology • biblical passage read litur­
gically: lesson • list of biblical
better • combining form: out- (e.g.
readings: lectionary • biblical etc.
outsmart) • better than what is on
passage upon which a sermon is
general offer: preferential . progres­
preached: text
sively beneficial cycle of cause and ef­
fect: virtuous circle biblical figures • the first human:
Adam • his wife: Eve • the first
between . combining form: inter­
murderer: Cain • his victim: Abel
• between two other things: inter­
• Noah's grandfather, said to have
mediate • between living people:
lived 969 years: Meth uselah . patri­
inter vivos
arch in charge of the ark: Noah
beyond • combining forms: extra­ • father of the Jewish nation: Abra­
(e.g. extraterritorial), hyper- (e.g. ham • his wife: Sarah • his son,
hypersonic), meta- (e.g. meta physical), offered as a sacrifice: Isaac • grand­
para- (e.g. paranormal), super- (e.g. son of Abraham, later called Israel:
su pernormal), supra- (e.g. su pra­ Jacob • Jacob's son, later a ruler in
national), sur- (e.g. surreal), trans­ Egypt: Joseph • Israelite leader in
(e.g. transnational), ultra- (e.g. ultra­ the Exodus: Moses • Moses' assist­
montane) • beyond one's authority: ant: Aaron • Moses' successor, leader
ultra vires • beyond what is neces­ in the conquest of Canaan: Joshua
sary: supererogatory, de trop • go • national Israelite leader in emergen­
beyond: transcend cies: judge • Israelite leader famous
bicyc,e I bird 32
. . . ............................ ..................... ... ........ .................... . ........... .. . ............. ... .......
. . ..... .. .. ..... .. .

for h i s strength: Samson • Philistine bill • hotel or restaurant bill: ac­

seductress of Samson: Delilah • first count, tab • itemized bill: i nvoice
king of Israel: Saul • second king of
billiards • billiard-player's stick:
Israel:David • Philistine giant slain
cue • cue support: rest . long stick
by David: Goliath • son of David:
to support the cue: bridge, jigger
Absalom • third king of Israel: Solo­
• stroke made with an inclined cue:
mon • skilled hunter: Nimrod
masse • stroke in which the cue
• furious charioteer: Jehu • pro­
slips: m iscue • ball struck by the
claimer of the will of God: prophet
cue: cue ball • ball at which the cue
• prophet ascending to heaven in a
ball is aimed: object bal l • revolving
chariot: E l ijah • Elijah's successor:
motion imparted to the ball: spin
Elisha • Jew cast into the lions' den:
• backspin given to the cue ball:
Daniel • prosperous Jew suddenly
deprived of everything: Job • biblical
screw • sidespin given to the cue
sea monster: leviathan ball: side • stroke in which the cue
ball strikes both the others: cannon
bicycle • bicycle for general use: • pouch into which the ball is struck:
roadster • bicycle with broad tyres pocket • strike a ball into a pocket:
and many gears: mountain bike • bi­ pot • stroke pocketing a ball: hazard
cycle whose rider lies on his back: re­ • direct pocketing of the cue ball:
cumbent • bicycle for two riders, one
coup • brush past another ball: kiss
seated behind the other: tandem • bi­ • successful turn at play: break
cycle with one wheel: mon ocycle, uni­
• score-keeper: marker
cycle . three-wheeled bicycle: tri­
cycle • early bicycle with one very bingo • person announcing the num­
large and one small wheel: pen ny­ bers drawn: caller . card with every
farth ing • early bicycle pushed along number marked off: fu ll house
by the rider's feet: velocipede • sup­ binoculars . outdoor binoculars:
port for a bicycle wheel: fork • small field g lasses . theatre binoculars:
wheel steadying a child's bicycle: sta­ opera g lasses
bil izer • racing cycle's sealed tyre: tu­
biology • biological
bular tyre • bicycle's mileage meter: classification:
cyclometer • bicycle handlebars taxonomy • biological classes: fam­
with handles below the bar: d rop ily, genus, species • biology of pos­
handlebars _ bicycle handgrip that sible life on other planets: astrobiol­
may be twisted to change the gears: ogy, exobiology • health or
twist-grip • particular cycle gear environmental risk posed by micro­
rati.o: speed • bicycle gears that biological experimentation: biohaz­
move the chain to different cogs: de­ ard
railleur • U-shaped slot for quick
bird • combining
form: avi-, ornith­
wheel-changing: d ropout • cycle
• adjectives:
avia n , ornithic • bird too
without pedalling: freewheel • jump
young to leave the nest: nestling
made on a bicycle while standing on
• bird j ust able to fly: fledgling
the pedals: bunny hop • cyclist's
• group o f birds: fl ight • bird hunted
trick of riding with the front wheel off
by man: game bird • earliest known
the gound: whee lie • bag beside a
bird, a kind of flying dinosaur:
cycle's rear wheel: pannier
archaeopteryx . mythical bird, said
bile • combining form: chol- • X-ray to burn itself every 500 years and rise
examination of the bile ducts: again from the ashes : phoenix
cho liangography . large extinct fl ightless bird: dodo
33 birth I bishop

o tall pink wading bird: fl amingo birth to live offspring: viviparous

o birds imitating human speech: o giving birth from eggs hatched
budgerigar, mynah, parrot 0 denot­ within the body: ovovIvi parous
ing a bird able to feed itself soon after o producing one offspring at a birth:
hatching: precocial 0 denoting a bird uniparous 0 producing several off­
unable to do this: altricial 0 bird's spring at a birth: m ultiparous
claw: talon 0 outer part of a bird's o group o f animals produced at a
wing: pinion o forked bone between birth: litter 0 one of three offspring
the neck and breast of a bird: wish­ born at a birth: triplet o one of four
bone • bird's muscular stomach: g iz­ offspring born at a birth: quadruplet,
zard 0 membrane between the toes of quad 0 one of five offspring born at a
a swimming bird: web 0 group of birth: q uintuplet, q u i n o one of six
eggs laid by a bird at one time: clutch offspring born at a birth: sextuplet
o massed birdsong at daybreak: dawn o one of seven offspring born at a
chorus 0 birds' seasonal change of birth: septuplet o one of eight off­
habitat: m i g ration 0 glide or soar spring born at a birth: octuplet 0 pla­
without wing movement: plane o loss centa and foetal membranes dis­
of a bird's markings due to moulting: charged after giving birth: afterbirth
ecl i pse 0 bird's cleaning its feathers o difficulty in giving birth: dystocia
with its beak: preening o mass of o virgin birth: parthenogenesis 0 re­
bones and feathers regurgitated by a birth in another body: reincarnation
bird of prey: pellet , place where o present from birth: congenital, co n­
birds rest at night: roost 0 enclosure nate o following birth: post-partum
for keeping birds: aviary 0 alumin­ o hormone stimulating milk produc­
ium identification strip round a bird's tion after giving birth: prolacti n
leg: ring 0 tie up a bird's wings and o ratio of births to size of population:
legs: pinion, truss o person who birth rate, natal ity o equivalence of
rears or keeps birds: aviculturist birth and death rates: zero popula­
o study of birds: orn ithology tion growth � see also childbirth
birth 0 combining form: -genesis birth-giving o combining form:
o adjective: natal • close to the time -parous (e.g. viviparous)
of birth: near-term, perinatal 0 ob­
stetrics dealing with this period:
biscuit o thin crisp biscuit: wafer
o thin crisp biscuit made of flour and
perinatology 0 expulsion of a fetus
water: water biscuit 0 thin dry bis­
before it can survive independently:
cuit cracker 0 thin narrow biscuit:
miscarriage . vaginal discharge at
the onset of labour: show 0 shorten­
langue de chat o hard biscuit: nut
ing of uterine muscles before and dur­
o rich crumbly biscuit: shortbread,

ing birth: contractions 0 inducing shortcake 0 currant biscuit: gari­

uterine contractions: ecbolic o new­ baldi o light almond biscuit: maca­
born offspring: neonate 0 birth of
roon 0 biscuit of nuts in a chocolate
base: florentine
offspring already dead: stillbirth
o matter discharged after birth: after­ bishop o adjectives: episcopal, pon­
birth, lochia o denoting or occurring tifical 0 bishops collectively: epis­
in the time immediately before or copacy 0 chief bishop: patriarch, pri­
after birth: perinatal 0 first milk pro­ mate • senior bishop: arch bishop,
duced by a cow or goat after giving metropol itan 0 bishop in charge of a
birth: beestings 0 glvmg birth by diocese: diocesan 0 assistant bishop:
means of eggs: oviparous 0 giving coadj utor, suffragan • sovereign's
bite I b lo od 34
... . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

letter nominating a bishop: letter mis­ ation to remove the bladder:

sive • bishop's ordination: consecra­ cystectomy • thin tube for draining
tion •
mitre • bishop's
bishop's hat: the bladder: catheter
over-vestment: dalmatic • bishop's
blade • rotating blade: vane
long surplice: rochet • bishop's staff:
• sharpen a metal blade: whet
crook, crozier, pastoral staff
• bishop's ceremonial chair: throne blame • person made to bear the
• bishop's folding chair: fa ldstool blame . for another's wrongdoing:
• archbishop or metropolitan's area of scapegoat, whipping boy • free

authority: province • bishop's area from blame: exculpate, exonerate,

of authority: d iocese, see • bishop's vindicate
period of office: episcopate
blind • blind with angled slats: jalou­
• bishop's letter to all his clergy: pas­
sie • blind with pivoting slats: ven­
toral letter • bishop's inspection of
etian blind
his diocese: visitation • move a
bishop to another see: translate blind ness • partial blindness: scot­
oma • blindness over half the field of
bite • take small bites: nibble • bite
persistently: g naw vision: hemianopia • inability to see
in the dark: night bli ndness, nyctal­
black . combining forms: melan­
opia • dog trained to lead the blind:
• 'black box' in an aircraft: fl ight re­
guide dog � see also colour blind­
corder • 'black hole' in astronomy:
ness, sight
collapsar • boundary of a 'black
hole' : event horizon • 'black lung' blood . combining forms: haem-,
caused by miners' inhalation of coal haemat-, -aemia • adjectives:

dust: anthracosis, pneumoconiosis haemal, haematic, sang uineous

• black hairstyle with tight braids giv­ • blood cell: corpuscle • proportion

ing a geometrical scalp pattern : corn­ of corpuscles in blood, or the deter­

rows • person having one white and mination of this: blood count • red
one black parent: mUlatto • person blood cell:eryth rocyte . white blood
having one white and one mulatto par­ cell: leucocyte • small lymphatic
ent: quadroon . person of mixed leucocyte: lymphocyte • abnormal
European and black descent: Creole leucocyte in leukaemia: lymphoblast
blackboard • wooden frame sup- • SUbstance colouring erythrocytes:
porting a blackboard: easel haemoglobin • colourless fluid part
of blood: plasma . disc-shaped cell
blackcurrant • French blackcur­
fragment in blood: platelet, thrombo­
rant liqueur: cassis
cyte . amber liquid produced by co­
black magic . Haitian black
agulating blood: serum • blood move­
magic: voodoo • West Indies black
ment round the body: circulation
magic: obeah
• denoting the heart and blood ves­
blacksmith • blacksmith's work­ sels: cardiovascular • denoting the
shop: forge, sm ithy • blacksmith's brain and its blood vessels: cerebro­
metal workblock: anvil vascular • coagulated blood: clot,
bladder • combining form: cyst(o)­ thrombus • inadequate supply of
• adjectives: cystic, vesical • inflam­ blood: ischaemia . obstruction of
mation of the bladder: cystitis • in­ the blood supply: infarction . stop­
ternal examination of the bladder: page of blood to the brain: stroke
cystoscopy • surgical cutting of the • stop blood flowing from a wound:
bladder: cystotomy • surgical oper- staunch, stem . substance stopping
35 blood I b l ood vessel
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

bleeding: styptic • pad applied to blo o d: d ialysis,

stop bleeding: com press • point • haematophagous
feeding on blood:
where an artery may be pressed • blood-sucking parasite: leech
against a bone to stop bleeding: • blood relationship: kinship

sure point • periodic uterine bleed­ blood clot . combining form:

ing: menstruation, period • blood
thrombo- • clotting of the blood:
substance aiding coagulation: factor
thrombosis • swelling caused by
• deficiency of red cells in the blood:
thrombosis: haematoma • reduced
anaemia • red cell antigen: rhesus clotting capacity of the blood: haemo­
factor • denoting blood having the philia • substance preventing blood
rhesus factor: rhesus positive . de­
clots: anticoagulant • dissolution of
noting blood lacking the rhesus fac­
a blood clot: thrombolysis
tor: rhesus negative • blood disease
blood pressure • high blood pres­
causing proliferation of white cells:
sure: hypertension • high blood
leukaemia • blood protein counter­
acting antigens: anti body • blood pressure in pregnancy: pre-eclampsia
poisoning caused by bacteria: septi­ . low blood pressure: hypotension
• having normal blood pressure:
caemia, toxaemia • blood poisoning
normoten sive • temporary loss of
caused by pus: pyaemia . septicae­
mia caused by a retained tampon: consciousness through a fall in blood
pressure: syncope • pituitary hor­
toxic shock syndrome • excessive
glucose in the blood: hyptlrglycaemia mone tending to increase blood pres­

• insufficient glucose in the blood: sure: vasopressi n • drug reducing

hypoglycaemia • sufficient glucose blood pressure: beta blocker . in­
in the blood.: normog lycaemia strument measuring blood pressure:
sphygmomanometer • inflatable
• presence of parasites in the blood:
parasitaemia • excessive accumula­ bag used with this: cuff

tion of blood: congestion • swelling blood vessel . combining forms:

caused by collected blood: haemato­ angio-, arterio-, phleb-, vaso-, ven­
cele • substantial discharge of blood: • adjective: vascular, venous • full of
haemorrhage • presence of blood in veins: venose • in or into a vein:
the urine: haematuria . determin­ i ntravenous . network of blood ves­
ation of the number of corpuscles in a sels: circul atory system, vascular
specific volume of blood: blood count system • blood vessel running from
• blood protein transporting oxygen: the heart: artery • blood vessel run­
haemoglobin • protein found in the ning to the heart: vei n • artificial
blood of a diseased person: blood vessel replacing one that is
paraprotein . study of the blood: ' blocked: bypass • main artery from
haematology • blood transfer: trans­ the heart: ao rta • main artery of the
fusion • person providing blood for neck: carotid artery . artery supply­
transfusion : donor • store of blood ing the heart: coronary artery • ar­
for transfusion: blood bank . set of tery supplying the lungs: pulmonary
types of human blood that are mutu­ a rtery • progressive hardening of the
ally compatible for transfusion: blood arteries: arteriosclerosis, ath ero­
group • baby with insufficient blood sclerosis . arterial obstruction by a
oxygen: blue baby . the injection of blood clot or air bubble: em bolism
oxygenated blood to enhance a . large vein returning blood to the
sportsman's performance: blood dop­ heart: vena cava • vein carrying
i ng • artificial purification of the blood to the liver: portal vei n • fine
b lue I bo at 36
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . ...

blood vessel: capillary • breakage of • horizontal boards with overlapping

capillaries below the skin: rupture, edges: weatherboarding
contusion • inflammation of vein
boarding • Continental boarding
walls: phlebitis • patchy inflamma­
house: pension • boarding establish­
tion of smaller veins: angi itis, ment for cats: cattery • boarding es­
vascul itis • swollen vein in the legs: tablishment for dogs: kennels
varicose vei n • varicose veins on the
spermatic cord: varicocele . treat­ boat ' . floating platform: raft • boat

hollowed out of a log: dugout • flat­

ment of varicose veins by injections to
harden their walls: sclerotherapy bottomed square-ended boat: punt
• swollen veins in the anus: haemor­ . flat-bottomed boat supporting a
bridge: pontoon • small sailing boat:
rhoids, piles • narrowing of blood
dinghy • light fast boat: yacht • Ma­
vessels: vasoconstriction • widening
layan sailing boat: proa • small oared
of blood vessels: vasodi lation • drug
boat used in the Far East: sampan
narrowing blood vessels: vasoco n­
. light rowing boat for one person:
strictor . drug widening blood ves­
scull, skiff • traditional Nile boat:
sels: vasodilator • causing the con­
felucca • small boat carried on a
striction or dilatation of blood vessels:
ship: cutter, jolly boat . large boat
vasomotor • throb of an artery as
carried on a ship: longboat • small
blood passes: pulse • place where ar­
boat plying between a ship and the
terial bleeding may be stopped by
shore: tender • boat conveying
pressure: pressure point • medical sailors on shore leave: l iberty boat
puncturing of a vein: venepuncture
. large motor boat: launch • motor
• surgical opening of a vein: phlebot­
boat with living accommodation:
omy, venesection . X-ray examin­ cabin cruiser, houseboat • fast
ation of a vein: angiography, motor boat designed to skim over the
ven ography water: hyd roplane 0 fast motor boat
blue . combiningform: cyano- . ad­ with a vaned hull: hydrofoil • rescue
jectives: azu re, cyanic • brilliant boat: lifeboat • fast coastal patrol
light blue: electric blue • dark blue: boat: cutter • small naval patrol boat:
royal blue . yet darker blue: navy vedette • small powerful boat towing
ships: tug • inshore fishing boat:
blue • brilliant deep blue: u ltramar­
ine • blue-tinged skin due to poor cir­ smack • fishing boat using nets:
culation: cyanosis
trawler • unpowered boat used to un­
load ships: barge, lig hter • flat­
blunder • social blunder: gaffe, faux bottomed boat carrying freight on in­
pas • blunder in speaking: slip of land waterways: barge • boat plying
the tongue, lapsus ling uae to and fro across a stretch of water:
ferry • pleasure boat on the Seine at
blush . adjective: eru bescent . cos­
Paris: batea u mouche • anchored
metic reddening the cheeks: blusher
boat marking the course of a race:
board • board made o f thin layers of stake boat . light racing boat: shell
wood with alternating grain: plywood • round wickerwork boat: coracle
• board made of plaster set between • small pedal-operated pleasure boat:
paper: plasterboard • board made of pedalo • boat with one hull: mono­
layers of glued paper: pasteboard hull • boat with parallel twin hulls:
• strong pasteboard used in book catamaran • boat with three parallel
covers: mill board • board with a net­ hulls: trimaran • boat's secondary
work of small holes: pegboard hull: outri gger • boat's stabilizing
37 body I body

float: outrigger • boat with a vaned other information: messenger • di­

hull: hydrofoil • protective strip gestive passage through the body: ali­
along a boat's side: rubbing strake me ntary canal . cavity behind the
• denoting a deckless boat: open nose and mouth: pharynx • main

• space at the bow or stern of an open part of the body without head or
boat: sheets • flat surface forming a limbs: torso, tru n k • tube from
boat's stern: transom • unmoor a mouth to gullet, oesopha­
boat: cast off • (of an open boat) re­ gus • tube from the throat to the
ceive water over the gunwales: ship lungs: trachea, windpipe • inflam­
water, ship a sea • scoop water out mation of the trachea: tracheitis
of a boat: bail • group of boats: floti lla • part of the body between neck and
• boat's side above water: freeboard abdomen: thorax • area between the
• top of this: gunwale • boat's con­ breasts: cleavage • bodily organs
tinuous line of planking: strake used in breathing: respiratory tract
• sailing boat's liftable keel: centre­ • muscular partition between thorax
board, daggerboard • keel block to and abdomen: diaphragm • part of
take the mast: step • vertically the body between the thorax and
hinged flap for steering: rudder groin: abdomen • depression in the
• horizontal bar fixed to the top of the belly:navel • organs of the main bod­
rudder: tiller • boat's rudder socket: ily cavities: viscera <It organ produ­
gudgeon • rudder pin: pintle cing chemicals for bodily use: gland
• boat's bow rope: painter • boat's • regulatory substance produced by
steersman: cox, coxswa in, helm, glands: hormone • supposed regula­
helmsman • boat's sudden change of tory system for the metabolism: bio­
course: sheer • boat race on a course logical clock, body clock • tube
round obstacles: slalom • secure a from stomach to anus: intestine
boat to an anchor or land: moor • side between the ribs and hip: flank,
• wedge supporting a beached boat: loin . front between chest and waist:
chock . depth of water needed by a midriff • membrane lining the abdo­
boat: draught • passable by ships and men: peritoneum • inflammation of
boats: navigable .. see also ship, sail­ this: peritonitis • duct conducting
ing urine from the kidney to the bladder:
body • combining forms:somat-, ureter • duct conveying urine out
-some (e.g. chromosome) . adjec­ from the bladder: urethra • inflam­
tives: corpora l , corporeal, personal, mation of the urethra: u rethritis
somatic • permanently damage a • lower abdominal area: groin . area
body part: maim • body opening: me­ between the top of the legs: crotch,
atus, orifice • body's chemical pro­ crutch • final opening o f the intes­
cesses: metabolism . pliable body tine: anus • area between the anus
pariition or lining: membrane, sep­ and scrotum or vulva: perineum
tum • denoting this: parietal . lower part of the abdomen: pubes
• baglike bodily membrane: sac • tissue covering the pubic bone:
• outer membrane enveluping the mons pu bis, mons Ve neris • strong
brain and spinal cord: dura, dura elastic connective carti lage
mater • inner membrane enveloping • hormone oxidizing body sugar: insu­
the brain and spinal cord: pia, pia lin • body sac containing liquid: cyst
mater • nerve tissues controlling the • disease's chief bodily location: focus
body: central nervous system • bod­ • swollen, hot, and painful bodily
ily substance conveying a stimulus or state: inflammation • exceptionally
. .
I bo m b
.. . . . . . .................. . ... ..................... .............................................
. ... . .. .

sensitive bodily state: irritability tainer who twists his or her body int0 1
• colourless tissue fluid: lymph • ex· abnormal positions: contortionist ;
cess of fluid in the body: d ropsy, oe­ . elegant bodily movements:
dema • excessive discharge of fluids: ment • bodily position: postu re
fl ux • insufficient fluid in the body: • bodily movements or posture taken
dehydration • inability to control to indicate thoughts and feelings:
bodily functions: incontinence body language . awareness of the
• blockage of a bodily passage: ob­ body's position: ki naesthesia . ex· .
stru ction • excessively low body tem· cessive bodily sensitivity: erethism
perature: hypothermia • denoting . form and development of the body:
creatures maintaining a constant physique • body type: somatotype
body temperature: warm-blooded • person with a lean and delicate
• denoting creatures whose body tem· body: ectomorph • person with a
perature varies with that of their compact and muscular body: meso­
surroundings: cold-blooded . pro· morph • person with a plump body:
duction and discharge of substances endomorph . non·reproductive bod·

by a bodily organ: secretion bodily ily characteristics manifested at

organ secreting chemicals: gland puberty: secondary sexual charac­

teristics • tissue etc. inserted into
• slipping down o r forward o f a bodily
organ: prola pse • wasting away of an
the body by surgery: implant . arti·
organ dystrophy • un·
or tissue:
ficial body part: prosthesis • violent
and uncontrollable body movement:
wanted air in body tissue: em phy­
convu lsion • body's incapacity for
sema • damaged body area: lesion
self·movement: paralysis . localized
. small bodily swelling: nodule
death and decay of bodily tissue: gan­
• general bodily swelling: d ropsy, oe­
g rene, necrosis • dead body: corpse
dema • bursting of an organ or tis·
• rebirth in another body: reincarna­
sue: ru ptu re . listening to bodily
tion . lacking a physical body: d is­
sounds with a stethoscope: auscu lta­
carnate, disincarnate
tion • study of the body by dissec·
boil ' • purify by boiling off: distil
tion: anatomy • machine examining
• immerse briefly in boiling water:
the body by radiation, ultrasound,
etc.: scanner . medical imaging of
bodily organs or tissue: mag netic res­ boW . formation of pus in a boil:
onance imaging . X·raying a section maturation • cut a boil: la nce
through the body: tomography, com­ bolt . large bolt with a rounded
puterized axial tomography • sub· head: coach bolt • piece of metal
stance whose course through the body with an internal thread to receive a
may be monitored: tracer • examine bolt: nut
the body by touch: pal pate • diagnos· bomb • bomb or its casing: shell
tic tapping of the body: percussion • hand thrown bomb: g renade
• clinical measurement of bodily func· • crude hand· thrown petrol bomb:
tions as indication of continued life: Molotov cockta il • bomb containing
vital signs . use of electric currents napalm bomb • bomb
jellied petrol:
to heat the body's inner organs: dia­ hidden under earth or water and ex·
thermy • rubbing the body to relieve ploding on contact: mine • bomb ex·
pain etc.: massage • person skilled ploding at a fixed depth under water:
at this: masseur (fem. masseuse ) depth charge • bomb travelling
• physical treatment of bodily injuries under its own power or remote·
or deformity: physiotherapy • enter· controlled: missile • denoting a
39 bone I book

bomb equipped to find its target: hom­ covering the knee joint: kneecap, pa­
ing • bomb releasing projectiles on tella • bones of the lower leg: fibula,
impact: cluster bomb • bomb explod­ shin, shi nbone, tibia . ankle bones:
ing into fragmentation
fragments: tarsus • foot bones: metatarsus
bomb . these fragments: shrapnel • turn into bone: ossify • soft sub­

• denoting a bomb causing fires: in­ stance in bone cavities: marrow

cendiary • denoting a bomb destroy­ • opening in a bone: foramen . j oint
ing living beings rather than struc­ between bones: commissure • close
tures: anti-personnel • artillery and j o int between bones: sym physis . fu­
bombs: ordnance • bomb detonator: sion of bones in a joint: a n kylosis
fuse • prepare a bomb by activating • rigid seamlike junction between
its fuse: arm, prime . peg deactivat­ bones: suture • cord connecting a
ing a hand grenade: pin • bomb an muscle tobone: sinew, tendon
area intensively: ca rpet-bomb • de­ • bone caries • bone soften­
fusing or removal of unexploded ing: osteoma lacia • break or crack
bombs: bomb disposal • defuse a in a bone: fracture . arrange the
bomb: disarm • fierce fire caused by parts of a broken bone: set . (of
bombs: firestorm � see also nuclear broken bones) re-fuse: knit • rigid
weapon support for a broken bone: splint
bone • combiningfqrms: oss(i), • steel rod rejoining fractured bones:
osteo- • adjectives:
osseous, osteal pin • bone osteoporosis
• bone-formation: osteogenesis • bone inflammation:osteitis • bone
• set of bones supporting a body: skel­ cancer: osteosarco ma • degener­

eton • head bones: skull • principal ation of bone and cartilage in joints:
bone of the upper arm: humerus osteoarthritis • death of bone tissue:
• principal bones of the lower arm: osteonecrosis . medical treatment
radius, ulna . wrist bones : carpus of bone and muscle deformities:
• hand bones: metacarpus • bone orthopaedics • therapeutic manipu­
connecting the breastbone and osteop­
lation of bones and muscles:
shoulderblade: collarbone, clavicle athy • bone-house: charnel house,
• flat bone protecting the upper chest: ossuary
breastbone, sternum • curved bone
bone marrow • adjective: myeloid
protecting the lower chest: rib • set of
• inflammation of the bone marrow:
these: ribcage • interlocking set
osteomyelitis • malignant tumour of
of bones from the skull to the small of
the bone marrow: myeloma
the back: backbone, spine, spinal
column, vertebral column • one of book • combining form: bibl io-
these bones: vertebra (pl. vertebrae) • book made as a continuous roll:
• flat bone in the upper back: scroll • ancient hand-written book:
shoulderblade, scapula • bones at codex (pl. codices) . early printed
the base of the spinal column: sac­ book: incunabulum (pl. incunabula)
rum, coccyx • bony structure to • strong cloth book for young chil­
which the legs are attached: pelvis dren: rag book • account-book:
• proj ection of this below the waist: ledger . account-book for the cur­
hip . triangular bone forming the rent day's transactions: daybook,
back of the pelvis: sacrum • penis journal . account-book for minor
bone in certain mammals: baculum, transactions: cash book • ship's re­
os penis . principal bone o f the cord book: journal, log • book listing
upper leg: thighbone, femur • bone property-holdings in 1086: Dom esday
.. .
I book
... . .
. ... .. . ...
. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .

Book . denoting a book with remov­ g rangerize • insert blank pages be­
able pages: loose-leaf • publicity tween the printed ones: interleave
booklet: broch ure, prospectus • in­ • short introduction to a book: fore­
struction book: h a n d book, manual word . list of chapters etc. in a book:
. student's book giving instruction in contents . list of errors found in a
a subject: course book, textbook, book: corrigenda, errata • list of con­
workbook • elementary textbook: tributors to a book: acknowledge­
primer • book giving systematic in­ me nts, cred its • book's abbreviated
formation: companion, compen­ title: short title • book's section title:
dium, encyclopedia, handbook half-title . page headline: ru nning
• book intended for consultation on head • short quotation a t the start of
specific topics, not discursive reading: a book or chapter: epigraph . sum­
reference book • book for constant mary of a book's contents: abstract,
reference, giving immediate guidance: epitome, synopsis • separate sec­
companion, vade mecum • book's tion of a book, dealing with a point of
coverage • book
treatment of a topic: detail: excursus • book's final
containing a collection of writings summing-up: conclusion • closing

etc.: anthology, collectanea, com­ section of a book: epilogue • extra

mon place book, florilegium, m i scel­ section added at the end of a book: a p­
lany, omnibus • book describing dif­ pendix • small dictionary at the back
ferent kinds of animals: bestia ry of a book: g lossary, vocabulary
• book compiled to honour a scholar: . extra page(s) replacing a defective
Festsch rift • book listing a region's section: cancel . drawn illustration
animals: fa una • book listing events in a book: figure . photograph repro­
etc. of the current or preceding year: duced in a book: plate • blank page
yearbook • book with samples of at the start or end of a book: flyleaf
good handwriting: copybook • book • large fold-out page: gatefold
listing herbs: herbal . large lavishly­ • count a book's pages: pagi nate
illustrated book: coffee-table book • piece of paper with a page printed
• book giving the rules o f a language: on each side:folio, leaf • count a
g rammar • book recording livestock book's fol iate • book com­
pedigrees: herd book . Mass book: posed of sheets folded once: folio
m i ssal • book listing names and ad­ • book composed of sheets folded
dresses: d i rectory • book of psalms: twice: quarto • book composed of
psalter • book of sermons: homil iary sheets folded three times: octavo
. list of books: bibl iography . list of . right-hand page of an open book:
books regarded as correctly attributed recto . left-hand page of an open
to an author, or as classics: canon book: verso • decorative paper inside
• book's page-size and layout: format the covers: endpaper • part of
• white space created by a book's attached to paste-down the cover:
inner margins: g utte r • part of a . list of a book's printing errors: er­
book preceding the main text: front rata • part of a book published separ­
matter • pictures in a book: i l l u stra­ ately: fascicle, instalment, offprint,
tions, plates • drawn material in a prepri nt • inserted slip bearing the
book: g raph ics • illustration facing owner's name: bookplate, ex l ibris
the title page: frontispiece • small • note in a library book showing
decorative design at the end of a chap­ where it is shelved: Shelf mark
ter etc.: tailpiece . illustrate a book • preparation and public sale of a
with material taken from others: book: publishing • details of a book's
41 bOOkbinding I bow and arrows

printer and publisher: im print, colo­ boredom . listless boredom: ennui

phon . denoting a book with worn • bored through lack o f variety: stale
pages: dog-eared . denoting a book • tedious period: longueur . lengthy
with discoloured pages: foxed • book and boring: long-winded • become
stand: lectern • support for a row of boring: pall
books: bookend • production of born • born i n wedlock: legitimate
machine-readable books: electronic • born out of wedlock: bastard, il leg it­
publishing • book-collector: biblio­ i mate, natural
phile • passionate enthusiasm for
borough • adjective: m u n icipal
collecting books: bibliomania • itin­
• chairperson of a borough council:
erant bookseller: colporteur • porno­
graphic books: curiosa, erotica � see
also publishing both . combining forms: ambi-,
a mphi-, bi- (e.g. biconcave) • able to
bookbinding • glued unsewn bind­ use both hands equally well:
ing: perfect binding • binding hav­ a m bidexterous • able to live or oper­
ing the spine in a different material ate on both land and water: amph ibi­
from the rest: quarter binding . fine ous
goatskin for bindings: morocco
bottle • small cylindrical bottle:
• sheepskin used as a substitute for
phial . pocket-sized bottle: flask
morocco: roan • calfskin impreg­
• unmarked bottle for serving wine or
nated with birchbark oil: Russia lea­
water: carafe, decanter • large bottle
ther • binding in limp leC}-ther which
protected by a frame: carboy . large
overhangs the pages: yapp • strong
bottle for home winemaking etc. :
pasteboard used in book covers: m i l l­
demijohn • double-sized wine bottle:
board • part of a binding into which
magnum • wine bottle 4 times the
the pages are fixed: spine • emboss­
normal size: jeroboam • wine bottle
ing of a book cover: stamping, tooling
6 times the normal size: reh o boam
• embossing o f a book cover without a
• wine bottle 8 times the normal size:
coloured inlay:blind stamping, blind
methuselah • wine bottle 12 times
tooling • book's paper cover: d ust
the normal size: salma naza r • wine
jacket, dust-wrapper, jacket, wrap­
bottle 16 times the normal size:
balthaza r • wine bottle 20 times the
bookmaker • bookmakers' signal­ normal size: nebuchad nezzar . very
ling system: tic-tac • bookmaker's small bottle of spirits: miniature
assistant: runner . metal bottle cap with a crimped

boot • high waterproof boot: wader edge: crown cap, crown cork
• spiked plate . for a climber's boot: boundary • limitingpar­ boundary:
crampon • heavy nail strengthening ameter • perimeter
boundary line:
a sole: hobnail • small projection to a • assert territorial boundaries: beat

sole, giving improved grip: stud the bounds, perambu late

border • borderland between Eng- bow • traditional Muslim bow of
land and Wales or Scotland:marches greeting: salaam • former Chinese
• sharing a border: conterminous, bow of greeting: kowtow
contiguous • having the same bor­ bow and arrows • skill or sport of
ders: coterm inous • border post for shooting with these: archery . large
passport and customs control: check­ bow drawn by hand: long bow
point • earthwork marking a border: • bow's string notch: nock • powerful
dyke bow on a wooden frame: crossbow
bovve ' , brain

••• •• ••••• • • • • •••••••• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • n• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •••••••••••

• missile shot by this: bolt • arrow ing a boxer knocked unconscious: out;
notch: nock . shaped like a bow: a r­ • time allowed for a fallen boxer to ge
cuate up: count • knock down a boxer for a,
count of ten: knock out • denoting a
bowel • difficulty in emptying the
bowels: constipation . flushing out boxer so knocked down: out for the
count • victory awarded because the
of the lower bowel: colonic irrigation,
opponent is unfit to continue:tech­
enema • stress-related bowel pain: i r­
rita ble bowel syn drome • remove nical knockout • complete a bout: g o ,
the bowels: disem bowel, eviscerate
the'distance • boxer's deformed ear:
� see also intestine
caul iflower ear . ornate belt as
championship prize: Lonsdale belt i
bowl • crushing bowl: mortar • practice boxing, with light blows: l
• church holy-water bowl: stoup sparring • suspended stuffed bag
bowls . large black ball used in boxing practice: punch bag • sus-
bowls: wood • small white ball used pended stuffed ball for boxing prac- t
in bowls: jack • session of play in one tice: punchball
direction: end . captain of a bowls boy • boy singing in a church choir:
team: skip • kind of bowling green chorister • winged boy portrayed in I
that rises towards the middle: crown Renaissance paintings: amoretto, r

g reen • section of a green used for a cherub, putto

match: rink • uneven ground making
a bowl change course: rub . French brain . combining form: cerebro-,
bowls: boules, petanque encephalo- . adjective: cerebral, en­
cephalic • half of the brain: hem i-
box . large metal box o f a standard
sphere • brain area concerned with
design: container • large light
a specific activity: centre • front part
wooden box: tea chest • small orna­ of the brain, controlling memory and
mental box: casket • box for a set of
thought:cerebrum, forebrain, pros-
cutlery: canteen • insulated food­
encephalon . section of this:
box: cool box • light circular hatbox:
• denoting the foremost part of the
band box • open-ended box for
frontal lobe: prefrontal • brain area
papers: pigeon-hole • box for sewing
coordinating cerebellum muscles:
materials: workbox
• outer layer covering the brain: cor­

boxing •
bout • pro­
boxing match: tex • membrane covering the brain
gramme of bouts : bill • a bill's sup­ and spinal cord: meninx (pl. menin­
porting bouts: undercard • standard ges) • inflammation of the meninges:
boxing rules: Queenberry Ru les meningitis . outer membrane envel­
• boxing shorts: trunks • boxer'S at­ oping the brain and spinal cord: d u ra,
tendant: cornerman, secon d dura mater • inner membrane envel­
• boxer'S official weighing before a oping the brain and spinal cord: pia,
bout: weigh-in • boxer'S defensive pia mater • brain and spinal cord:
posture: guard . pretended blow: central nervous system . denoting
feint • blow made with a bent elbow: the brain and spine: cerebrospinal
hook • upwards blow made with a • inflammation of the brain and
bent elbow: up percut • blows with al­ spinal cord: encephalomyel itis
ternate fists: one-two • grappling at • nerve transmitting signals from the
close quarters: clinch • time allowed eye to the brain: optic nerve • nerve
for a standing boxer to collect himself: transmitting signals from the ear to
standing count . denoting a boxer the brain: auditory nerve . denoting
knocked to the floor: down . denot- the brain and its blood vessels: cere-
brake I breast
.......... . . . .. . . ... . ... . .. .... .. . . . . .. . . . . ...... . . . . . . ......... . . . . . . . .... . . . . . .. .. ...... . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ..
........... . . . .................

brovascular • stoppage of blood to brass: verdigris • person working

the brain: stroke • arterial bleeding w ith brass:brazier � see also monu­
into brain tissues: cerebral haemor­ mental brass
rhage • inflammation of the brain:
brassiere • brassiere giving firm
encephalitis . syphilitic inflamma­
support for active pursuits: sports
tion of the brain: paresis • brain dis­
bra • part of a brassiere supporting
order with sudden loss of conscious­
one breast: cup
ness or convulsions: epilepsy
. inability to express or understand bread • dry
hardtack bread:
speech due to brain damage: aphasia • bread rusk • bread
baked twice:
• impaired muscular coordination aerated by soda: soda b read • very
due to brain damage: cerebral palsy small loaf of bread: rol l • ring-shaped
• person suffering from cerebral bread roll: bagel . small thin bread
palsy: spastic • persistent impair­ roll: bridge roll . light sweet bread
ment of reasoning or memory due to roll: brioche . flat bread roll for
brain disease or injury: dementia toasting: muffi n . flat hollow unleav­
. fluid accumulation in the brain: ened bread: pitta . large loaf with di­
hydrocephalus . disease which in­ agonal slashes on a rounded top:
directly affects the brain: encephal­ bloomer . loaf made of two round
opathy • surgical cutting of the lumps of dough, the smaller on top:
brain's white nerve fibres: leucotomy, cottage loaf • brown loaf with whole
lobotomy, stereotaxis . 1;Jrain sur­ wheatgrains: g ranary loaf • small
gery to treat mental illness: psycho­ piece of fried or toasted bread: crou­
surgery . supposed memory trace in ton • small piece of bread to dip into
the brain: engram • electrical activ­ sauce etc.: sippet . slice of bread:
ity of a relaxed brain: alpha rhythm ro und • slice of bread soaked in egg
• electrical activity of an alert brain: and fried: French toast . long nar­
beta rhythm • record of the brain's
row bag uette, French
French loaf:
electrical activity: electroencephalo­ loaf, French stick • German rye
g ram • computer system modelled on
bread: pumpernickel • Italian aer­
the human brain: neural net, neural
ated bread made with olive oil: cia­
network . computer model of the
batta • thin Italian breadsticks: gris­
brain's ability to recognize and dis­
sini • toasted Italian bread drenched
criminate: perceptron
in olive oil: bruschetta • mixture of
brake • broad cylinder attached to a flour and liquid for breadmaking:
braked wheel: brake drum . curved dough
block pressing against the drum:
break • sudden a n d complete break:
brake shoe .. thin block pressing
rupture • break off through struc­
against a disc brake: brake pad
• hard material attached to the shoe
tural strain: shear • broken piece of

or pad: brake l i ning • denoting a hy­ pottery, glass, etc.: shard

draulically enhanced braking system: breakfast . light breakfast: contin­

power-assisted e ntal breakfast . substantial break­
branch • adjective: ramose • local fast including hot food: English
branch of certain trade unions: b reakfast • breakfast and lunch com­
chapel bined: brunch

brass • inscribed brass plate in a breast . combining form: mast­

church etc.: monumental brass • adjectives: mammary, mam illary,
• greenish surface colour of oxidized pectoral • small pinkish proj ection
breath I bridge 44
. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................. .........................

from a breast: ni pple • hollow be­ closely related stock: inbreed • popu-
tween the breasts: cleavage • breast­ lation improvement by controlled
bone: sternum • inflammation of the breeding: eugenics
breast: mastitis • enlargement of a bribe • wiling
to take bribes: cor-
man's breasts: gynaecomastia rupt, venal • refusing bribes: incor-
. X-ray location of breast tumours:
ruptible • payments made to an influ-
mam mography • surgical removal of ential person to promote a product or
a breast lump: lumpectomy • surgi­ interest: payola • bribe someone to
cal removal of a breast: mastectomy
commit an unlawful act: suborn
• chemical polymer used in breast im­ ·
bric k • bricks made from sun-dried
sil icone • leaving the breasts
uncovered: topless • baglike mam­ clay: adobe • brick made from cin-
ders: breeze block • heat-resistant
mary gland of cattle etc.: udder
brick: fi rebrick • brick suitable for
breath . combining form: spiro- exposure to view in the finished build­
• adjective: respiratory . process of ing: face brick • brick-making mix-
breathing: respiration • single in­ ture: loam, pug • furnace for bricks:
take of breath: draught • breathing kiln • bake fire
bricks in a kiln:
in: i n h alation, inspiration • breath­ • hack • de-
stack of bricks for firing:
ing out: exhalation, exspiration noting bricks not yet fired: un burnt
. excessively fast breathing: hyper­ • brick laid at right angles to a wall:
venti lation • excessively slow breath­ header • brick laid parallel to a wall:
ing: hypoventilation • breath needed stretcher • built row of bricks: ,;
for physical exertion: wind • take course • horizontal decorative band .

short quick breaths: pant • difficulty of bricks: string course • brickwork

in breathing: dyspnoea • difficulty in a timber frame: nogging • piece of
in breathing due to constriction of the brick used as a missile: brickbat • ce-
bronchi: asthma • easily becoming ment or mortar filling the joints in
breathless: short-winded • breath­ brickwork: pOinting • �
lessness caused by enlargement of the brick-carrier: hod • appearance of
air sacs of the lungs: emphysema crystallized salts on brickwork: ef-
• denoting breathing that is noisy and florescence
laboured: stertorous • breathe with
bridge • many-arched bridge
a whistling sound: wheeze • office
carrying a road or railway: viad uct
workers' headaches and respiratory
• many-arched bridge carrying a river '
problems, thought to be caused by
or canal: aq ueduct • bridge rising
poor ventilation: sick building syn­
steeply tohumpbackits centre:
drome • bad breath: halitosis • tem­
bridge • bridge supported by cables:
porary cessation in breathing: ap­
suspension bridge • bridge for ped-.
noea • bodily organs used in
estrians: footbridge • raised pas­
breathing: res piratory system, re­
sageway between buildings: wal kway '
spiratory tract • instrument record­
• bridge that may be erected quickly '
ing breathing movements: spirograph
from prefabricated parts: Bailey '
• mechanical or manual restoration of
bridge • bridge with a raisable sec- '
a person's breathing: artificial respir­
tion: bascule, bascule bridge . rais­
ation • machine providing prolonged
able bridge at a castle entrance: draw-
artificial respiration: iron lung, res­
bridge . arch of a bridge between its
supports: span • supporting frame- .
breed • breed two species together: work for a bridge: truss • floating ob­
cross-breed, hybrid ize • breed from ject used to support a bridge: pontoon '
45 bristle I Buddh ist

• pile set upstream of a bridge to pro­ sponse: pilot . set of related broad­
tect it from floating objects: starl ing casts:series, serial • serial about or­
bristle • adjective: setaceous dinary people: soap opera
• broadcast containing several epi­
. hedgeho g's bristles: spi nes
sodes of a serial: omnibus • broad­
broad • combining form: platy- (e.g.
cast advertisement: commercial
platypus) • broadcasting to a small or selected
broadcast . simultaneous broad­ audience: narrowcasti ng • broadcast
cast of a programme on radio and tele­ programme featuring phone-calls
vision: simulcast • television broad­ made to the presenter: phone-in
cast: screening • broadcast news • type of broadcasting featuring
report: news bul leti n, newscast phone-ins and topical discussions:
• person reading such a report: news­ talk radio, talk show • broadcast pro­
caster • denoting broadcasting re­ gramme in which celebrities are
ceiving no state funding: independent interviewed informally: chat show
• denoting broadcasting funded by ad­ • time at which broadcasting attracts
vertisements: commercial • room the greatest audiences: prime time
equipped for studio
broadcasting: • broadcast news reporter: journal ist,
• broadcasting equipment: transmit­
correspondent • organization sup­
ter • frequencies used by a broadcast­ plying news stories: news agency
ing station: channel • denoting an
• unscheduled broadcast of important
unauthorized broadcasting station: news: newsflash • end of a day's
pirate . adjust a receiver to receive a broadcasting: close-down • person
particular station: tune . immediate ,
employed to listen in to foreign broad­
rebroadcast of incoming signals: re lay
casts: monitor
• deliberate generation of interference
to render a broadcast unintelligible: bronze . combining form: chalco­
( e.g.chalcolithic) • oxide film on
jamming • broadcast sound covering
a censored word: bleep • denoting bronze: patina, ve rdigris
broadcasting without the use of satel­ brother . combining forms: frater-,
terrestrial • text of a broadcast:
lites: fratri- • adjective: fraternal
script . music associated with a par­ • brother sharing only one parent:
ticular programme or broadcaster: half-brother • religious brotherhood:
signature tune . list of recordings fratern ity • killing one's brother:
broadcast on a radio programme: fratricide
playlist •
selection and scheduling of
brown • greyish brown: dun • light
broadcasts: programming . esti­
yellowish brown: fawn • reddish
mated audience of a particular broad­
brown seen in old photographs:
cast: rati ng . time devoted to a par­
ticular type .of broadcast: airtime
• spoken linkage between broadcast Buddhist • Buddhist religious
items: continuity • broadcaster pro­ teacher: bonze • Buddhist scrip­
viding continuity between a number tures: Tri pitaka, sutra • Buddhist

of contributors: anchorman, l inkman mystical text: tantra • Buddhist con­

. out-of-studio setting for a broadcast: cept of universal law: dharma • Bud­
location • description of a broadcast dhist policy of non-violence toward all
event: commentary, voice-over . de­ living things: ahimsa • central Bud­
noting broadcasts transmitted at the dhist beliefs: four noble truths
time of occurrence: live • sample • Buddhist tradition emphasizing self­
broadcast made to assess audience re- salvation: Theravada • Buddhist
b u ilder I bu i l d i n g 46
. . . . . ...... . . . .............................. . . . . . ... . . . . . . ........................ .. . ..... . ..... ................. ....... . .......... ..
. .... . .....

tradition emphasizing mutual salva­ fo lly • sham cave mouth: grotto

tion: Mahaya na . final goal of Bud­ • denoting a building not joined to
dhist spiritual progress: n i rva na any other: detached, freesta nding
• way of life leading t o nirvana: eig ht­ • denoting a building joined o n one
fold path, Middle Way • Buddhist's side only: semi-deta ched • denoting
personal fate: karma • degree of spir­ a building joined at the ground floor
itual insight freeing from the cycle of only: link detached . denoting a
rebirth: enlightenment • Buddhist building with few internal divisions:
state of supreme happiness: ananda open.-plan • denoting a building hav­
• word repeated i n Buddhist medita­ ing some rooms higher than others by
tion: mantra • disk symbolizing the less than a storey: split-level . denot-
universe: mandala • Buddhist tower ing a building having four pillars:
temple: pagoda • domed Buddhist
tetrastyle • denoting a poorly con­
shrine: stupa • Buddhist monastic
structed building: je rry-built • base
order: sangha . Japanese Buddhism, of a building: foundation, footi ngs
emphasizing meditation: Zen • Jap­ • side of a building: elevation, facade,
anese Buddhist festival of the dead: front, frontage • drawing or diagram
Bon • Tibetan Lamaism Buddhism:
of this: elevation • building's princi-
• Tibetan chorten
Buddhist shrine:
pal facade: frontispiece • projecting
. leader of Tibetan Buddhists: Dalai
part of a building: wing • external
Lama • Tibetan Buddhist monk:
angle of a building: quoin • proj ect
lama � see also Ti bet
beyond a building'S lower part:
builder • designer of buildings: oversail . denoting a timber-framed
architect • construction labourer: building: half-ti mbered • part of a
navvy • builder in stone: mason, building made with stone: stonework
stonemason • builder in brick: • part of a building made with brick:
bricklayer • builder in wood: carpen­ brickwork . part of a building made
ter • glass-fitter: glazier • pipework­ with wood: woodwork . large open
installer: plum ber • builder special­ area before or within a building: con­
izing in high work: steeplejack, course • open area before a building:
spiderman • person minding a build­ forecourt • open area at the centre of
ing or site overnight: nightwatchman a building: atrium, court, cou rtyard,
• builder undertaking a whole project: well • area where visitors are dealt
co ntractor • builder undertaking with: reception . large oblong hall
part of the proj ect for the contractor: with interior colonnades: basilica
su bcontractor • builder's V-shaped • vertical shaft for a staIrcase: stair­
brick trough:hod wel l • roofed exterior platform at
building • adjectives: architectura l , ground level: veranda • this at a

tectonic • buildings and their equip­ higher level: balcony • floor of a

ment regarded as an investment: building: sto rey . person who de­

plant • building of historical import­ signs buildings and supervises their
ance: monument • round domed construction: arch itect • erection of
building: rotu nda . very tall build­ buildings: development • replace­

ing:h i gh-rise, skyscraper • squalid ment of existing buildings: redevelop­

or decrepit building:slum . detached ment • denoting a building site with
subsidiary building: outbuilding, out­ no previous development: g reenfield
house • group of buildings: complex • denoting a previously developed
• buildings erected to fil space be­ building site: brownfield • area
tween others: i nfi l l . sham building: where development is forbidden: con-
47 building I bun

servation area, g reen belt . adapta­ . large open container for b uilding
tion of a building to new uses: conver­ debris: skip • structural subsidence:
sion • declare a building unfit for settlement _ completely destroy a
use: condemn • unlawful occupation building: raze • structure of an un­
of a building:squatting • walls, roof, finished or gutted building: shell
and floor of a building: fa bric • fragments of a collapsed or demol­
. standardized building unit: module ished building:
rubble .. see also

• plate strengthening a beam or joint: a rchitecture, beam, roof, wal l , win­

fish • beam supporting a floor: joist d ow
• built support for an arch or bridge: b u i lding materials . stiff clay:
pier • narrow area under a floor or pise • crushed stone and gravel: ag­
roof, giving access to wiring or plumb­ g regate • lime and clay mixture: ce­
ing: crawl space • channel within a ment . lime and cement mixture:
building's walls for ventilation, mortar • thin mortar: g rout • ce­
cables, etc.: duct, trunking . direc­ ment, sand, and gravel mixture: con­
tion faced by a building's windows: crete .. see also brick, cement
exposure • smooth surfaces of build­ b u i lding society • denoting a
ing stone: d ress • strip of material
building society distributing its
covering adjoining surfaces: fi llet, profits amongst its members: m utual
flashing, flaunching • waterproof
• restructure a building society as a
filler: mastic • vertical layer of ce­ public company: demutual ize
ment: perpend . levelled layer of
bulge • adjectives: bulbous, tumes-
floor cement: screed • concrete layer
under a building: oversite, raft • re­
inforce a building by assuring or im­ bull • adjective: tauri n e . astro­
proving the strength of its founda­ logical term: taurus . stab with the
tions: underpin • planking horns: gore • Spanish bullfighter
supporting setting concrete: shutter­ killing the bull: matador • Spanish
bullfighter on foot: torero • Spanish
ing • framework suspended by ropes,
for working on the exterior of a high mounted bullfighter: toreador
• matador's mounted assistant: pica­
building: cradle • builders' frame­
work of planks and poles: scaffolding dor • bullfighter's decorated dart:

. raised walkway o n this: catwal k banderi l l a

• building's intrinsic weight: dead bullet • plastic or rubber bullet used
load • weight of people or goods in a in riot control: baton round • bullet
building: l ive load . allowance or expanding on impact: dumdum
charge made for a building's wear and • bullet emitting smoke etc. s o that its
tear: dila pidations • area devoted to course may be traced: tracer • diam­
buildings of a particular kind: estate eter of a bullet: ca li bre 0 groove

• technical inspection of a building: round the cylindrical part of a bullet:

survey • property in buildings and canellure • bullet's rebound: rico­
land: real property, realty • building chet • explosive firing bullets: pro­
with its land and appurtenances: pre­ pellant
mises, property . denoting a build­ bun • fruit bun eaten toasted and
ing of certified architectural import­ buttered: teacake • iced yeast bun
ance: listed, scheduled • control of with currants: Bath bun . fIat bun
building development: planning, town sprinkled with sugar: Chelsea bun
planning • building along the sides • bun eaten on Good Friday: hot
of a road: ribbon development cross bun
bunch I businessman 48

bunch • bunch of bananas: hand overhead power lines: trolley, trolley

• bunch o f fruit: truss wheel • person taking fares on a bus:
bundle • adjectives: fascicu lar, fas­
conductor (fern. conductress)
ciculate • wrapped or bound bundle: business • business owned by its
bale • bundle of cloth or papers: emplo ees:y cooperative • business
wad not under state management: private
enterprise • business's established
burden • adjective: onerous • un­
reputation: goodwi ll _ denoting a
reasonable burden: im position
business demanding large capital in­
burglar • burglar's crowbar: jemmy vestment: capital-intensive • denot­
• burglar climbing the outside of a
ing a business needing a large labour
building: cat burglar force : labour i ntensive . transfer a
burial • adjectives: fu nera ry, sepul­ business to state management: nation­
chral • preparation of a corpse for alize . free business from govern­
burial: last offices, laying out ment controls: deregulate . region
• burial with appropriate rites: inter­ offering government incentives to in­
ment . chamber used for burials: coming businesses: development
va ult _ ancient stone burial chamber: area, enterprise zone • enter new
cist • burial of the dead as a cultural areas of business: d iversify • item of
phenomenon: inhu mation � see also business: transaction _ routine busi­
tomb ness matters: administration . per­
son setting up a business: entrepre­
burn • start burning: kindle
• blacken by burning: char • burn
neur . number of persons employed
in a business: headcount • employ­
singe • burn unstead­
ees regarded as a business asset:
ily: g utter _ burn slowly and
human resources _ business's build­
smokily: smoulder . medical treat­
ings and equipment: plant • business
ment by burning: cauterization, caut·
agent: factor • business agent for
ery _ grade of flesh-burn: degree
sportsmen, musicians, etc. : manager
• denoting a burn affecting the skin
• association advancing the interests
surface only: first-degree • denoting
of local businesses: Chamber of Com­
a burn causing blistering but no per­
merce • excess of business income
manent scarring: second-degree
over expenditure: profit, surplus
• denoting a burn affecting tissue
• total money entering or leaving a
below the skin: third-degree
business: cash flow • dishonest
burner • laboratory burner: Bunsen means of gaining business advantage:
burner _ portable burner giving a
graft, sleaze • disposal of subsidiary
hot flame for removing paint: blow­ business interests: d ivestment, di­
lamp vestiture • person engaging in dis­
bush • dense group of bushes: honest business dealings: racketeer
thicket _ bushes etc. growing round a _ business collapse: fai l u re
tree: u ndergrowth
businessman • powerful business­
bus • bus for 10-15 passengers:
mini­ man: magnate, tycoon • dishonest
bus • two-storey bus: dou ble-decker businessman: racketeer, shark • per­
• bus driver's compartment: cab son managing large sums of money: fi­
_ extending framework connecting nancier • industrial manager or pro­
with overhead power lines: panto­ prietor: industrialist • young urban
g raph • wheel on a pole extending to professional: yuppie _ young black
49 butcher I bypass

urban professional: buppie � see also buyer • purchaser by telephone or

manager computer link: teleshopper • protec­
butcher • butcher's chopper: tion of buyers' interests: consumer­
cleaver • butcher's cutting table: ism . assessment of buyers' needs
block and preferences: market research
s let the buyer beware: caveat emp­
butter • purify butter by melting:
clarify • Indian clarified butter: g hee
. machine for making butter: churn buzz • buzzing device announcing a
butterfly • butterfly pupa: chrysalis phonecall: pager • buzzing in the
• butterfly expert: lepidopterist ears: tinn itus
button • stitching anchoring a but­ bypass • bypass encircling a town:
ton: shank .. see also fastener orbital road, ring road
cabbage . cabbage's tight head: balls: hundreds and thousands
heart 0 cooked cabbage and potato o skill of decorating cakes with sugar
fried up together: bubble and paste: sugarcraft • small seedless
squeak grape used in cakes: currant 0 small
cabinet • cabinet minister respon­ seedless raisin used in cakes: sultana
• shop selling fancy cakes and pas­
sible for finance: C hancellor of the
Exchequer 0 cabinet minister re­ tries: patisserie
sponsible for foreign affairs: Foreign calcium . combining form: calci­
Secretary 0 cabinet minister respon­ • comaining or producing calcium:
sible for home affairs: Home Secre­ calciferous • harden b y addition of
tary 0 cabinet minister with no per­ calcium: calcify
manent responsibilities: Min ister calendar • calendar now in general
without Portfolio 0 cabinet for hi-fi use: Gregorian calendar o denoting
equipment: console a date from this calendar: New Style
cable 0 cable for securing a ship to a o calendar formerly used in Europe:
pier:hawser o cable for steadying a Julian calendar . denoting a date
mast: guy rope from this calendar: Old Style 0 an­
nual publication containing a calen­
cafe 0 small cafe selling alcoholic
dar and other statistical information:
drinks: estami net 0 cafe with com­
almanac 0 calendar adjustable for
puters for customers' use: cybercafe
any year: perpetual calendar o de-
cake 0 fancy cake: gateau (pl. gat­ noting a day or month occasionally
eaus or gateaux) 0 sweet cake or tart: added to the calendar: intercalary
torte (pl. torten) o light cake made
with little or no fat: sponge 0 cylin­
call o call for someone via a bleeper:
page 0 sense of being called to follow
drical sponge cake with a jam filling:
a particular career:vocation
Swiss rol l o layer cake with a filling:
sandwich 0 small breadlike cake: calm 0 calm and dignified: sedate
scone 0 small rich cake: madeleine o calmness in trying circumstances:
• small crisp batter cake: waffle sangfroid
• rich fruit cake eaten on Palm Sun­ Cambridge University o adjec­
day: simnel cake o rich cake with tive: Cantabrigian o part of the term
equal amounts of each ingredient: when undergraduates are expected to
pou nd cake 0 cake
made of bread be resident: fu l l term o autumn term
dough, lard, and currants: lardy cake at Cambridge: M ichaelmas term
o Austrian chocolate cake with a jam o winter term at Cambridge: Lent
and cream filling: Sachertorte (pl. term 0 summer term at Cambridge:
Sachertorten) 0 dense oatcake: flap­ Trin ity term 0 Cambridge first-degree
jack 0 small hard currant cake: rock examination or course: tripos 0 per­
cake 0 dark gingerbread: parkin son gaining first-class honours in the
o thick sweet decorative paste: fon­ Cambridge mathematica tripos:
dant o silver ball for decorating wrangler 0 member of a university
cakes: dragee o small coloured sugar sports team: blue 0 governing body
51 camel I cancer

of Cambridge University: senate cover: hood • camera socket for ac­

• member of a senate committee: syn­ cessories: shoe • camera attachment
dic • chief administrator of Cam­ producing a brief very bright light:
bridge University: reg istrary . mem­ flash • camera device delaying ex­
ber of the Cambridge university posure: self-timer • single-legged

police: bulldog • Oxford and Cam­ camera un ipod

stand: • camera

bridge universities considered to­ stand with three sloping legs: tripod
gether: Oxbridge • Cambridge • crosswise camera movement: pan

undergraduate recelvrng financial • vertical camera movement: tilt

help from his college: sizar . Cam­ • move a camera towards or away
bridge college annual feast: Com­ from object: track • bring an object
memoration • Cambridge college into close or distant camera focus:
servant: bedder, bedmaker, gyp zoom • wheeled platform for a film
• Cambridge college relaxation room: or television camera: dolly . liftable
combination room • confine within platform for a film or television cam­
the college: gate • suspend a student: era: crane
rusticate • expel a student: send camp • temporary camp: bivouac
down • camp for volunteers doing commu­
camel • camel with one hump: nity proj ects: work camp • German
dromedary • camel with two humps: prisoner-of-war camp for officers:
Bactrian camel • frenzied state of Oflag • German prisoner-of-war
rutting male camels: must camp for other ranks: Sta lag • Soviet
labour camp: gulag . prison camp
camera • type of camera producing
enforcing a regime of hard labour: la­
a print after each exposure: i nstant
bour camp, work camp • camper's
camera • type o f camera i n which
enamelled lidded cooking pot: billy­
the image is reflected onto a glass
screen: reflex camera • denoting a
reflex camera whose viewfinder uses campaigner . person advocating
the aperture lens: single-lens reflex something's abandonment or prohib­
. denoting a reflex camera whose ition: a bolitionist . vigorous cam­
viewfinder has a separate lens: twi n­ paigner: activist
lens reflex • diference in angle of Canadian • Canadian game of
view between lens and viewfinder: sliding stones across ice: curling
parallax • hole on the front of a cam­ • member of the French-Canadian
era admitti g light to the film: aper­ nationalist movement: Quebecqois
ture . device for varying aperture
canal • canal barge,boat:
size: diaphragm • denoting a camera
na rrowboat • path beside a canal:
with a large aperture: fast • effective
towpath • pivoting counterbalanced
aperture size: stop • focusing glass:
canal bridge: bascule bridge
lens • device set in front of the lens
• bridge carrying a canal: aqueduct
to screen out certain types of light: fil­
• short canal section whose water
ter • device admitting light to the
level may be raised or lowered: lock
aperture: sh utter • opening of the
• set of locks: fl ight • boat used on
shutter, admitting light to the film: ex­
Venetian canals: gondola
posure • wire allowing the shutter to
be activated from a distance: cable re­ cancel • combining forms: dis (e.g.
lease • duration of exposure: speed disallow), un- (e.g. unsettle)
• exposure for longer than usual shut­ cancer • combining forms: carcin-,
ter settings: time exposure • lens -oma • adjective: carcinomatous
candidate I car 52

• cancer suffered by Aids victims: candlestick • candlestick attached

Kaposi's sarcoma . surface cancer to a wall: sconce • branched candle­
of the skin or internal organs:carcin­ stick: candela brum • suspended

oma . likely to develop into cancer: multi-light candlestick: chandelier

preca ncerous • substance causing • Jewish liturgical candlestick: me­

cancer: carcinogen • herpesvirus norah • candlestick's spiked top:

causing certain cancers: Epstein­ pricket
Barr virus • start of cancer: carcino­ cane . cane carried by military of­
genesis • excessive growth as an ficers: swagger stick
indicator of cancer: hyperplasia
• enlargement of an organ in an early
cannabis . cannabis fibre: hemp
• cannabis cigarette: joint, reefer
stage of cancer: dysplasia • abnor­
mal tissue growth caused by cancer: cannibal • adjective: anthropopha­
neoplasm • protein found in the gous
blood of a diseased person:
cap • round flattish brimless cap:
paraprotein • specimen taken from
beret . academic cap: square, mor­
the cervix to detect cancer: cervical tarboa rd • woman's openwork cap:
smear . denoting cancer that tends Jul iet cap • French military peaked
to spread: i nvasive . development of cap: ke pi • Scottish beret: bonnet,
secondary cancers distant from the tam-o'-shanter
first: metastasis • cancer treatment
by chemotherapy • cancer
capable of . combining form:
treatment by X-rays: rad iotherapy, ra­
-acious (e.g. efficacious) • capable of
sexual intercourse: potent
d iation therapy • denoting therapy
applied after successful treatment of a captain • captain of a merchant
cancer to suppress secondary tu­ ship : master . captain's assistant:
mours: adjuvant � see also tumour, mate
and under the individual organs af­ car . car made before 1905 (or before
fected 1916): veteran car . car made be­
candidate • potentially successful tween 1917 vi ntage car
and 1930:
candidate: papabile (pl. papabili) • old and inefficient car: banger, jal­

• candidate entered to divide the vote: opy, rattletrap, tin lizzie • ordinary
spoiler • candidate initiating an elec­ car strengthened for racetrack colli­
tion but expecting stronger candi­ sions: stock car • car modified to
dates to come forward: stalking horse give high performance: hot rod • car
• offer oneself as a candidate: sta nd modified for drag races: dragster
• small racing car with skeleton body:
. list of a political party's election
candidates: sl ate . list of candidates go-kart . low-built car designed for
speed: sports car • car offering com­
for final choice: shortl ist • check on
fort and high performance: gran
a candidate's background and general
suitability: screening, positive vet­
turismo • car offering basic comfort
with high performance: sports car
ting, secu rity check, vetting
. large and comfortable car: limou­
candle • waxed wick for lighting sine . long car offering extra accom­
candles: taper • rendered fat used to modation: stretch limousine • police
make candles: tallow • dealer in can­ patrol car: squad car • small fuel­
dles: chandler . candle trimmer: efficient car: microcar • open two­
snuffers • extinguish a candle: seater car: roadster • small open car
snuff for difficult terrain: buggy • opening
53 carava n I cards

panel in a car roof: sunroof, sunshine abling purchases to be made on credit:

roof • hood . car
car's folding roof: credit card • bank card issued to per­
with a folding or detachable roof: con­ sons with a high credit rating: gold
vertible • car wheel with narrow card • bank card enabling electronic
metal spokes: wire wheel • two-door transfer of payments from purchaser's
car with a sloping rear: coupe . lug­ to vendor's accounts: debit card
gage space at the back of a car: boot • card usable only in branches of the
• car with a large luggage area: estate shop etc. issuing it: store card
car . car with upward-opening rear • store card enabling purchases to be
door: hatchback . car provided by an made on credit: charge card, option
employer: company car . car pro­ card • store card accruing bonus
vided to a client without charge: cour­ points for purchases made there: loy­
tesy car • open shelter for a car: car­ alty card • cheque or credit card giv­
port • car's small interior light: ing a donation to a specified charity
courtesy l ight . car seat with a for each transaction made: affinity
rounded back: bucket seat • car seat card • card unlocking a door: key
with a flat back: bench seat • person card 0 card giving unlimited use of a
' specified transport network for a spe­
employed to drive a car for another:
chauffeur (fern. chauffeuse) . person cified period: travel card • electronic
employed to clean or park cars: valet swipe card reader: card swipe . pull
. registration plate with numbers etc. a card through this : swipe, wipe
chosen by the purchaser: va nity plate cardinal • cardinal representing the
caravan . large caravan: mobile pope: legate • denoting a legate with
home • motor vehicle with living ac­ full powers: a latere • cardinal's
commodation: camper, camper va n, short hooded cloak: mozzetta • coun­
caravanette cil of cardinals: consistory
carbohydrate . combining form: cards • card that is a king, queen, or
-ose (e.g. lactose) j ack: cou rt card • card that beats all
others not of its suit: tru mp • card
carbon • circulation of carbon be­
that may be assigned any identity by
tween living organisms and their en­
its holder:wild card • set of playing
vironment: carbon cycle
cards: pack • set of cards with a par­
card • card held up for pupils to see: ticular symbol: suit . set of cards
flash card . card indicating where a with a fifth suit of elaborately illus­
person should sit at table: place card trated trumps: tarot pack . re­
• card printed with one's name and arrange a pack of cards: sh uffle
address: visiting card • card shown • shuffle cards dishonestly: stack
to a footballer who is being cautioned: • divide a pack of cards: cut • distrib­
yellow card • card shown to a foot­ ute cards in rotation: deal • box from
bailer who must leave the field: red which cards are dealt at a casino:
card • card sent on 14 February: val­ sa bot, shoe • cards dealt to a player:
entine . plastic card with built-in hand . player who is dealt to first:
microprocessor: smart card . plastic elder, elder hand, forehand . dealer
card with magnetically encoded infor­ in a two-handed game: younger hand
mation: swipe card • bank card • cards remaining undealt: stock,
guaranteeing cheques: cheque card talon • cards held by a player: hand
• bank card giving access to cash dis­ • hand played exposed: dummy • an­
pensers: cash card • bank card en- nounce trumps, or the possession of
care I cart 54

certain cards: declare . player mak­ to take proper precautions: contribu­

ing a successful bid: declarer • hand tory negligence . careful and thor­
with no card above a nine: yarbor­ ough: painstaking, scrupulous
ough • set of cards of the same suit careless • careless and hasty: slap-
and adj acent values: sequence . suit dash • idly careless: negligent
of which a player holds many cards: • wilfully careless: reckless
long suit • suit of which a player
career • summary of a person's car­
holds several high cards: strong suit eer and education: curricu lum vitae
• suit of which a player holds only one
• descriptions of the careers and con­
or two cards: short suit • card that is
nections of important people: proso­
the only one of a suit in a hand:
pography • desire to follow a certain
singleton • lack of cards of a particu­ career: vocation . cultivation of con­
void • cards laid down in a
lar suit:
tacts that may further one's career:
round of play: trick • card played
networking . person with great car­
when unable to follow suit: discard eer potential: hig h-flyer, self-starter
• failure to follow suit when able to do • person only interested in career suc­
so: revoke . card ranked at its play­ cess: careerist • tacit barrier to car­
er's will:joker, wi ld card . scoring eer advancement: glass ceiling
card combination: meld • sequence
caretaker • resident caretaker:
of cards of the same suit: run . de­
concierge • security official in a
noting cards identifiable from their
public gallery: invig ilator . official
backs: m arked • conceal a card in the
keeping order in a public recreation
hand: palm • play a trump: ruff
ground: park keeper • employee
. force the play of particular cards:
looking after sports pitches:
d raw • play the first card to a trick:
g roundsman
lead . win a trick cheaply: finesse
carpenter • carpenter making
• person who cheats at cards: card
sharp, card sharper • closing rounds joiner • carpenter
stairs, doors, etc.:
making furniture: cabinet maker
of play: endgame . organized meet­
ing to play cards: d rive . card game carpet • long narrow strip of carpet:
in which there are no partnerships: runner • small carpet: mat, rug
round game . card games won by • soft raised surface of a carpet: pile
gaining tricks bid: contract bridge, carriage • light one-horse carriage:
solo whist • card games won by gig . two-wheeled horsedrawn taxi:
gaining the most tricks: auction hansom, hansom cab . enclosed
bridge, piquet, whist • bridge tour­ carriage: coach . Irish light car­
nament with al competitors playing riage: jaunting car . Russian three­
the same hands: duplicate bridge horse carriage: troika • Russian open
• bridge victory taking all the tricks: carriage: d roshky • hooded wheel­

grand slam • bridge victory taking chair for invalids: 8ath chair
twelve tricks: small slam • card carrying • combining forms: -fer
games won by combinations held: (e.g. conifer), -ferous (e.g. odorifer­
poker, rummy • card game won by ous), -phore (e. g. semaphore, literally
spotting similar cards: snap • card 'sign-carrying) • carriage of a boat or
game won by acquiring family sets: its cargo between navigable waters:
happy famil ies • fortune telling from portage
cards: cartomancy
cart • small cart: float • small cart
care . failure to take care: negli­ pushed or pulled by hand: handcart,
gence • failure o f a n injured person trolley . light Asian cart drawn by
55 Carthage I castrate

one or more people: rickshaw • cart melted away: cire perdue, lost wax
used in the French Revolution to con­ • clay mould around a wax model:
vey condemned persons to the guillo­ mantle • made in a single casting:
tine: tumbril . ancient two-wheeled monobloc
cart: chariot • cart's pole to which castle . castle overlooking a city:
draught animals are attached: shaft citadel • castle motte • cas­
. fastening attaching a draught ani­ tle's central keep, donjon
mal to the shaft: trace • wooden
• castle's underground cell: dungeon
crosspiece on the necks of draught • castle ditch: moat • raisable bridge
animals: yoke over a castle's moat: d rawbridge
Carthage • adjective: Punic • castle's fortified gatehouse: barbi­

cartilage • combining form: can • heavy grating lowered from

chondro- (e. g. chondrocyte) . adjec­ above: portcullis . castle's defensive
tive: cartilaginous wall: rampart • castle's outer wall:
bai ley . castle's outer wall between
cartridge • cartridge containing
towers: curtain wall . area enclosed
powder but no bullet: blank • belt
by a castle wall: bailey, ward . low
with loops for cartridges: bandolier
wall sheltering troops on a castle wall:
carving • adjective: g lyptic . gro­ parapet • parapet with regular open­
tesque carving: gargoyle • carve ings for shooting through: battlement,
upon something: i n scribe crenel lation • walled part between
cash • available cash: liquid ity these openings: merion • having bat­
• cash available for immediate use: tlements: embattled • opening for
cash in hand . cash kept in hand to dropping missiles on people below:
settle minor expenses: petty cash machicolation, murder hole • pro­

• cash that must be accepted in pay­ jecting fortification built where two
ment: legal ten der . cash refund walls meet at an angle: bastion
given to a purchaser: cashback • room set in a castle wall: casemate
• bank card giving access to cash dis­ • castle's longdrop lavatory: garde­
pensers: cash ca rd • cash given to a robe • inward slope of a castle wall:
customer at a supermarket checkout, batter . small outer door: postern,
and debited to his charge card: sally port • bank sloping down from
cash back • possession having a cash a castle: glacis • flat open area in

value: asset • assets easily convert­ front of a castle: esplanade • gov­

ible into cash: liquid as sets, near ernor of a royal castle: constable
money • convert assets into cash: • troops stationed i n a castle: garrison

real ize • French castle: chateau (pl. cha­

caste • member of the Hindu teaux)
priestly caste: Brahman • member of cast off . (of a snake) cast off an old
the Hindu worker caste: Sudra skin:slough • the skin so cast off:
• member of the lowest Hindu caste: slough • action of casting off a skin:
Dalit, untouchable • official name of ecdysis
the lowest Hindu caste: scheduled castrate • castrate a male animal:
caste • person of no caste: outcaste, geld • castrated man: eunuch . cas­
pariah 0 Hindu forehead mark indi­
trated male singer in baroque opera
cating caste: tilak or the papal chapel: castrato • cas­
casting • hollow container shaping trated bull: ox • castrated cockerel:
material being cast: mould • casting capon • castrated stallion: gelding
method using a wax model which is • castrated ram: wether
cat / ce ll 56

cat • adjective: feline • male cat: milk, and thereby transmitted to hu­
tom • adult unspayed female cat: mans: brucellosis . stick for prod­
queen • young cat: kitten • tailless ding cattle: goad • open trough for
breed of cat: Manx . (of a cat) give cattle fodder: manger • beet grown to
birth: kitten • imagined cat with a feed cattle: mangold, mangel-wurzel
broad grin: Cheshire cat . howl like • US cowherd: cowboy • cattle­

a cat: caterwaul • small door for a rearer: grazier . round-up of cattle

cat: cat flap • inflammation of a cat's on a ranch: rodeo � see also cow
ear: can ker • cat with mottled fur:
cause • combining forms: -genic,
tabby • dark brown fur on a Siamese -genous, -facient, -fic, -i ble, -otic
cat: seal point . plant cats like to
• adjective: aetiological • causing
smell: catmint, catnip • boarding es­
abortion: a bortifacient • causing
tablishment for cats: cattery
cancer: carCinogenic • causing
cathedral • covered walk in a cath- drowsiness: narcotic, soporific
edral complex: cloister • cathedral • caused by medical treatment: iatro­
precinct: close • cathedral govern­ genic • having an internal cause: en­
ing body: chapter • meeting place for dogenous • having an external
this: chapter house • priest presid­ cause: exogenous • without appar­
ing over a cathedral chapter: dean, ent cause: spontaneous
provost • priest belonging to a cath­
edral chapter: canon • denoting a
cave . combining form: speleo­
• g rotto • deep
small artificial cave:
cathedral chapter: capitular • canon
natural cave: pothole • cave dweller:
required to reside in the precincts:
trog lodyte . cave dweller in Scandi­
residentiary canon • priest in
navian mythology: troll • pointed cal­
charge of cathedral music: precentor
cium carbonate excrescence hanging
• deputy precentor: succentor
from a cave roof: stalactite • tapering
• priest assisting in cathedral services
calcium carbonate column rising
but not a chapter member: m i nor
from a cave floor: stalagmite • study
or exploration of caves: speleology
cathode • electron beam emitted by
ceiling • denoting a ceiling hung
a cathode in a vacuum tube: cathode
ray • vacuum tube for this: cathode from the floor above: suspended
• access panel in a ceiling: trapdoor
ray tube
cathode ray tube • surface of celebrity • entertainment celebrity:
this: screen • movement of the elec­ star • treat as a celebrity: lionize
tron beam across the screen: sweep cell • combining forms: cyto-, -cyte,

cattle . adjective: bovine • group of -blast (e.g. erythroblast). -plast (e.g.

cattle: herd • divided foot of cattle: protoplast) . cell identical to another:
cloven hoof • one of a hornless clone • sexually mature germ cell:
breed of cattle: poll • infectious cattle gamete • cell formed by union of two
diseases: murrai n , rinderpest . cat­ gametes: zygote • body cell able to
tle disease affecting the central ner­ absorb bacteria: phagocyte . net­
vous system: bovine spongiform en­ work of nerve cells: ganglion • ab­
cephalitis, mad cow disease . cattle normal aggregation of cells: nodule
disease affecting the skin and lungs: • grouping of cells, esp. in the brain:
a nthrax . cattle disease ulcerating cytoarchitectonics, cytoarchitecture
hoofs and mouths: foot and mouth • colourless material comprising the
disease • inflammation of the udder: living part of a cell: protoplasm
garget • cattle disease infecting the • protoplasm excluding the nucleus:
57 Celtic I chamber pot

cytoplasm • natural substance con­ • fungal disease of cereal crops: ergot

trolling body-cell activity: hormone • human disease caught by eating the
• hostile reaction of body cells to im­ infected grain: ergotism • breakfast

planted tissue etc.: immune reaction mixture of cereals, dried fruit, and
• compound released into injured nuts: muesli
cells: histamine • medicine able to
ceremony • admission ceremony:
target particular cells: magic bul let
in itiation • ceremony to make an
• growth of natural cells in an artifi­
award: investiture • ceremony to
cial environment: culture, tissue cUl­
place a person in office: i n d uction
ture • poisonoust o cells: cytotoxic
• ceremony to mark a turning-point in
• cell disintegration: lysis • study of
rite of passage • me­
a person's life:
living cells: cytology
morial commemoration
Celtic • ancient Celtic priest: Druid • elaborate ceremony: solemn ity,
cement • cement used between pomp and circumstance • perform
bricks: pOinting • cement used be­ a ceremony: solemn ize • person dir­
tween tiles: grout • cement used to ecting ceremonial: master of cere­
cover a floor: screed • cement used monies
to cover a wall: parg et • vertical
Ceres • Greek name: Demeter
layer of cement: perpend • cement

hardening under water: Portland ce­ cinder • brick made from cinders:
ment • liquid cement sealing a joint: breeze block
l ute . lime and cement mixture: chain . chain restricting an ani­
mortar mal's movement: tether • chain con­
cemetery • underground cemetery: trolling a dog by neck pressure: choke
catacomb . large cemetery: necrop­ chain • U-shaped link at a chain's
olis end: shackle • crosspiece through a
censorship . moral censorship of chain link: tog gle
texts: bowdlerization • deliberate
chair . ceremonial chair: throne
generation of interference to render a
• dining chair with arms: carver
broadcast unintelligible: jamming . high-backed armchair with project­
• broadcast sound covering a censored
ing sidepieces: wing chair • infant's
word: bleep • government notice to
long-legged chair: h i g h chair • fold­
news editor� forbidding publication of
ing chair of wood and canvas: deck­
specified information: D-notice . le­
chair • enclosed chair carried on
gislation empowering censorship of
poles: sedan chair . piece of thin
information: Official Secrets Act
wood in a chair back: splat • rod be­
census • person gathering census tween chair legs: stretcher
data: enumerator • completed census
chalk • adjective: calcareous
form: return
centre . combining form: centro, chamber It adjective: cameral 0 de­

mes- (e.g. mesolithic), -centric . cen­ noting a single-chamber legislature:

tral point: epicentre, nexus • mov­ unicameral • denoting a two­
ing from the centre: centrifugal chamber legislature: bicameral • de­
. moving to the centre: centripetal noting a three-chamber legislature:
• having a common centre: concen­ tricameral
tric • having no centre: acentric chamber pot • piece of furniture
cereal • cereal stalks remaining in containing a chamber pot: commode
the ground after harvesting: stubble • contents of a chamber pot: slops
champagne I check 58

champagne • champagne exclu­ • person opposed to all change: reac­

sive to one shipper: monopole • de­ tionary • person who changes his
noting unsweetened champagne: brut principles to suit the times: trimmer,
• champagne and orange juice: time-server • 'change of life': meno­
Bu ck's Fizz pause • denoting something that
cannot be changed: flat, sacrosanct
chance • adjective: fortuitous
• situation or action that cannot be
• subject to chance: p robabilistic, ran­
changed: fait acco m p l i • inability to
dom, stochastic • chance happen­
cope with change: future shock . un­
ing: fl u ke • fortunate development of
wiling to change: hidebound
events by chance: sere n d i p ity . per­
son seizing offered chances: oppor­ • things never change: plus ya

t u n ist . loss of other chances when change, plus c'est la me me chose

one is taken: opportun ity cost • keep unaltered: preserve • unchan­

ging: u n iform
chandelier . cut-glass chandelier:
l ustre
channel . channel for fast-moving
water: race • drainage channel:
change . combining forms: meta­ d itch , dyke
(e:g_ metamorphosis), -tropic (e_g_ psy­
Channel Islands • Channel Is­
chotropic), tropo- (e_g. tropophyte)
lands magistrate: j u rat • French
• extreme change: makeover, quan­
name for the Channel Islands: lies
tum leap, revolution, sea-change,
transmutation, u p heava l , U-turn,
chapel • chapel for the use of pa­
volte-face • involving extreme
change: radical • adaptive change: rishioners living far from the main

accl imatization church: chapel of ease • small do­

• minor change:
amendment, variation • subtle
mestic chapel: oratory

change: n uance • unpredictable charge • extra charge: surcharge

change: vaga ry . capricious change • charge for as separate items: un­
of mind: whim • change of appear­ bundle
ance: metamorphosis • change of charity • adjective: elee mosynary
the eucharistic elements: transub­ • day of street charity collections: fla g
stantiation • moment of decisive day . legally binding undertaking to
change: tu rning point • improve by make payments to a charity: coven­
basic changes: reform • constant ant
change: flux . capable of infinite
Charlemagne • adjectives: C a ro­
changes: protean • resistance to
l i n g i a n , Carlov i n g i a n
change: inertia . open to change: ne­
Charles I and II . adjectives: C a ro­
gotia ble . easily changed: flexible
lean, Caroline • supporter of Charles
• favouring steady change: p rogres­
I: Cava l i e r, Roya l ist . opponent of
s ive . changing unpredictably: mer­
Charles I: Parliamentarian, Round­
c u rial, volatile, wayward • change
sides: a postatize • adapt to suit indi­
vidual requirements: personal ize cheat • person who cheats at cards:
• initiate new areas of activity: d iver­ card sharp, card sharper . dishon­
sify • process of change: transition esty in business or public life : sleaze
• general direction of change: trend check . check truth or validity: ver­
• thing that initiates or accelerates ify, vet . check against a standard:
change: catalyst • after essential ca l i b rate • check a job applicant's
changes: m utatis m uta ndis . person background: vet • place where
advocating gradual change: reform ist checks are carried out: control
59 cheek I cherub

cheek 0 adjectives: buccal, malar ing or preventing a chemical reaction:

o drooping cheek: jowl inhi bitor
cheese 0 adjective:
caseous chemistry 0 chemistry of com­
o small whole cheese: truckle 0 soft pounds containing carbon: organic
cheese made from skimmed milk: cot­ chem istry 0 chemistry of compounds
tage cheese 0 French soft white not containing carbon: inorganic
cheese: Brie 0 French goat's cheese: chemistry o chemistry of plants:
chevre o soft cheese from Normandy: phytochemistry 0 chemistry of liv­
Camem bert 0 Danish soft white ing organisms: biochemistry
cheese with blue veins: Danish blue o chemistry of radioactive substances:
o round Dutch cheese with a yellow radiochemistry 0 chemistry of the
rind: Gouda 0 Greek goat's cheese: stars and space: astrochemistry
feta o Italian soft blue-veined cheese: o medieval chemistry, seeking to turn
Dolcelatte ™ 0 Italian hard blue­ base metals into gold: a lchemy
veined cheese: Gorgonzola 0 Italian o chemical analysis of a compound,
cream cheese: mascarpone 0 firm expressed in symbols: form ula (pl. for­
white Italian cheese: mozzarella mulae) o substance used in chemical
o rich blue-veined Laicestershire
analysis: reagent 0 substance having
cheese: Stilton o sweet brown Norwe­
the same crystal structure as another:
gian cheese: Gjetost o hard Swiss
isomorph 0 chemical decomposition
cheese: Emmenta l 0 pale Swiss
by electric current: electrolysis
cheese with holes: Gruyere
o chemical decomposition by water:
o cheese's tough outer skin: rind
hydrolysis o not subject to chemical
o protein present in cheese: casein
decomposition: stable
o curdling agent used i n cheesemak­
ing: rennet o denoting unripe cheese: cheque o cheque for a fixed amount
green 0 sprinkled with grated cheese usable abroad: traveller's cheque
and browned: au gratin o melted o cheque drawn by a bank on its own
cheese on toast: ra re bit, Welsh rarebit funds: bank draft, ban ker's draft
o melted cheese on toast with a o cheque guaranteed by a bank: certi­
poached egg: buck rarebit fied cheque 0 cheque counterfoil:
chemical o combining
forms: stub o person writing a cheque:

chemi- (e.g. chemisorption), chemo­ drawer 0 institution that must hon­

(e.g. chemotherapy) 0 chemical liquid our a cheque: drawee o person bene­
destroying bacteria: disi nfectant fiting from the cheque: payee o writ­
o eat away by chemical action: cor­ ing on the back of a cheque:
rode endorsement o payee named in an
endorsement: endorsee 0 denoting
chemical reaction o self-
an uncrossed cheque: open 0 denot­
sustaining series of chemical reac­
ing a cheque that is invalid because
tions: chain reaction 0 substance
drawn long before: sta le 0 credit a
used in a chemical reaction: reagent
o substance changed in a chemical re­
cheque to the payee's account: clear
action: reactant 0 substance formed
o pay a presented cheque: honour
by a chemical reaction: product o refuse to pay a presented cheque:

o production of compounds by reac­ dishonour 0 instruct one's bankers

tion from simpler materials: synthe­ not to honour a cheque: stop
sis 0 substance accelerating a chem­ cherub o adjective: cherubic
ical reaction:catalyst 0 biochemical o cherub in Renaissance paintings:
catalyst: enzyme 0 sUbstance slow- amoretto, putto
cherry I childbirth 60

cherry • sour cherry used i n cook­ abandoned by its parents: fou n d l i n g

ing: more l l o • child whose parents are dead:
chess • chess played o n separate orphan • child substituted for an­
boards: kriegsp i e l • opening tactic: other in infancy: changeling . par­
gambit • chess pieces in order of im­ ental responsibility for a child: cus­
portance: king, q ueen, b i s h o p, tody • child cared for by a guardian:
knight, rook or castle, pawn • bring ward . child under state guardian­
a back-line piece forward: devel o p ship: ward of court • bring up
• denoting a piece that can b e taken: another's child: foster • children

en prise • attack upon the oppon­ killed by Herod: Holy I n n ocents

ent's king: check • repeated check­ • child's leading reins: harness
ing of the king: perpetual check • child's playful misbehaviour: m i s­
• closing moves: endgame • winning ch ief • exceptionally talented child:
position: checkmate . concede de­ child prodigy, wunderkind • chil­

feat without checkmate: resi g n dren's part of a house: n u rsery • day

• situation i n which a player cannot nursery for young children: creche
move except into check: sta lem ate • child who comes home to an empty
• situation in which the need to make house: latch key child . project offer­
a move is itself a disadvantage: ing pastimes for children during
zugswa ng • declaration when ad­ school holidays: playscheme • per­

justing a piece: j ' a d o u be • side of the son supervising children in public:

board on which both queens stand at cha perone • supervise children
the start of play: q ueenside • half­ while their parents are out: ba bysit
move in computer chess: ply • expert • study and treatment of the diseases
chess-player: m aster • chess-player of children: paediatrics • dentistry
of the highest class: g rand m aster of children: paedodontics . glvrng
chest • adjectives: pectoral , thor- priority to the interests of children:
acic • deformed human chest with chi ld-ce ntred • denoting something
projecting breastbone: pigeon chest, that children cannot open or use:
pigeon b reast • chest murmur: c h i ld proof • suitable for children
souffle and adults: fam i ly • state agency or­
ganizing child maintenance pay­
chew • chew the cud: ru m i nate
ments: C h i l d S u p port Agency . per­
chicken • brood of chickens: clutch son sexually attracted to children:
� see also fowl
paed ophile . representation of a
chickpea • chickpea paste: hum­ naked winged child in Renaissance
mus • chickpea rissole: felafel art: amoretto, cherub, putto
chief • combining form: a rch-
childbirth • adjective: obstetric, pu­
• chief beam: architrave • chief
erpera l • process of childbirth: del iv­
bishop: a rch bishop . chief monk:
e ry • childbirth at home: home de­
ab bot, prior • chief nun: a b bess,
l ivery • childbirth under water:
water b i rth • device for this: b i rthing
chilblain • ulcerated chilblain: kibe pool • childbirth via a cut in the
child • combining form: paed- . ad­ mother's abdomen: Caesari a n , Cae­
jective: fi l i a l • early childhood: in­ sarian section . childbirth with
fancy • denoting a child born within minimUl medical and technological
wedlock: legitim ate . denoting a intervention: natural child birth . de­
child born out of wedlock: ba stard, i l ­ noting a woman capable of childbirth:
legitimate • child that has been fecund • woman who has never
61 childbirth I Chinese

given birth: nulli para • woman giv­ puerperi um 0 government office

ing birth for the first time: primi para where births are recorded: register of­
• woman bearing a child for another: fice � see also birth, pregna ncy
surrogate mother • medical care
chimney . free-standing part of a
and study of those giving birth: ob­ chimney: stack • hooded chimney
stetrics • doctor providing such care,
top: cowl • duct inside a chimney:
or person making such study: obstet­
fl ue • partition between flues: withe
rician • assist the b irth of a child: de­
l iver • nurse attending at childbirth: Chinese . combining form: Sino-
midwife • hospital for the care of • Chinese official:mandari n • Chi­
childbirth: maternity hospital . hos­ nese native labourer: coolie • Chi­

pital area for the final stages of la­ nese secret criminal gang: To ng, Tria d
bour: delivery su ite • start labour ar­ • Chinese idol: joss • Chinese tem­

tificially: i nduce • hormone ple: joss house • Chinese Buddhist

stimulating womb contractions and teacher: bonze . absolute principle
milk secretion: oxytocin • hormone in Chinese philosophy: Tao • active
making the cervix dilate: relaxin male principle in Chinese philosophy:
• period between the start of contrac­ yang • passive female principle of
tions and delivery: labour • spinal Chinese philosophy: yin • Chinese
anaesthetic given in childbirth: epi­ philosophical system advocating hu­
dural, extradural • drug easing la­ mility and piety: Taoism • Chinese
bour pains: pethidine . position of woman's close-fitting silk dress:
the fetus at the time of delivery: pre­ cheongsam • stick for eating Chi­
sentation • presentation with feet or nese food: chopstick • Chinese fry­
buttocks first: breech del ivery • sur­ ing pan: wok • soup made from a

gical cutting of the vagina at child­ coating on bird's nests: bird's nest
birth: episiotomy • large pincers as­ soup • Chinese egg dish: foo yong
sisting childbirth: forceps • suction • Chinese dish o f grilled meat i n a
device assisting childbirth: vacuum spicy sauce: satay • Chinese-style

extractor, ve ntouse • greasy deposit dish of meat, mixed vegetables, and

covering a newborn infant: vernix rice: chop suey • Chinese-style dish
• prediction of a future child's genetic of fried noodles with shredded meat
disorders: gpnetic counselling . de­ and vegetables: chow mein . Chi­
noting the period before childbirth: nese pancake filled with vegetables:
antenatal, antepartum • denoting spring roll . small Chinese savoury
the period after childbirth: post­ dumpling: wonton . prawn-flavoured
natal, post-partum • denoting the rice-flour crisp: prawn cracker . Chi­
period from the child's conception nese snack of small dumplings: d i m
until weaning: matern ity • first li­ sum • small white Chinese dessert
quid from the breasts: colostrum fruit: Iychee • Chinese sauce with
• substance encouraging breastmilk: sugar and vinegar or lemon: sweet
glalactagogue . excessive produc­ and sour sauce . food additive used
tion of galactorrhoea
breastmilk: in Chinese cuisine: monosod ium glu­
• breastfeed a baby: nurse . woman's tamate 0 illness caused b y excess ive
fever after childbirth: milk fever monosodium glutamate: C h inese res­
• fever caused by uterine infection taurant syndrome • Chinese sor·
after childbirth: puerperal fever ghum spirit: mao-tai • Chinese game
. period after childbirth in which the played with small tiles: mah-jong
reproductive organs return to normal: • Chinese gambling game: fan-tan
Chi nese communism I Christ 62

• Chinese geometrical puzzle: ta n­ cess of available options: embarras de

g ram • Chinese martial art: kung fu choix • wrong option in a multiple­
• Chinese plant with medicinal root: choice question: d i stractor
g i nseng • Chinese therapy by
choir . adjective: chora l • section of
needles: acupuncture • bodily en­
a church choir standing on the north
ergy path in Chinese medicine and
side: cantoris . section of a church
acupuncture: meri d i a n . life force in
choir standing on the south side: de­
Chinese medicine and philosophy: chi
cani • choir divided to sing antiphon­
• Chinese exercise systems: t'ai chi
ally: double choir • boy member of a
ch'uan, qigong • Chinese divination
choir: chori ster
manual: I C h i n g , Book of Changes
• former Chinese bow of greeting: choose • choose as candidate for an
kowtow • principal Chinese lan- election: adopt . choose at random:
guages: Mandarin, Putong h u a d raw, select by lot
• transliteration systems from Chi­ chorus • adjectives: choral, choric
nese: Wade-G iles, P i nyin . architec­
tural decoration in the Chinese style:
Christ . combining form: C h risto­
• adjective: d o m i n ical • centred on
�hinoiserie . famous type of medi­
Christ: C h ristocentric . re­
eval Chinese porcelain: M i n g • Chi­
presentation of Christ's descent from
nese sailing vessel: junk • Chinese
Jesse: Jesse tree • Christ's birth, or
traditional racing boat: dragon boat
a representation of it: Nativity
• imitation of Chinese motifs in West­
• model of the stable, with figures:
ern art: chinoiserie • study of Chi­
crib • commemoration of the birth of
nese culture and politics: S i nology
Christ: C h ristmas• period of fasting
Chinese communism . party of- preceding this: Advent • commemor­
ficial in charge of political education: ation of the visit of the Magi: Epiph­
com m i ssar • individual political in­ any • commemoration of the presen­
doctrination: thought refo rm • polit­ tation of the infant Christ:
ical wallposter: dazibao (pl. same) Presentation , Pu rification, Cand le­
. j acket in Chinese communist style:
mas • commemoration of Christ's
Mao jacket
fast: Lent • commemoration of
chip • denoting chips with wavy Christ's appearance in glory to three
edges: crinkle-cut disciples: Tran sfi g u ration • com­
memoration of Christ's entry into Je­
chivalry • glove thrown down by a
rusalem: Pa l m S u nday • commemor­
knight as a challenge: gage
ation of Christ's institution of the
• patroness's ribbon etc. worn by a
Eucharist: Corpus Ch risti • Christ's
knight: favour • moral obligations of
suffering and death: the Passion
the nobility: noblesse oblige
• place of Christ's betrayal: Gethsem­
chocolate • denoting chocolate ane • Christ's route to Calvary: Via
made without milk: p l a i n • greyish Dolorosa • place of Christ's crucifix­
deposit on the surface of stored choc­
ion: Calva ry . marks of Christ's cru­
olate: bloom • maker or seller of
cifixion bestowed on others through
chocolate: chocolatier
prayer: sti g mata • representation of
c h oice • choice where both options the dead Christ in his mother's arms:
have disadvantages: dilemma pieta • site of Christ's burial: Holy
• choice with no real alternatives: Sepulchre • Christ's freeing of the
Hobson's choice • choice made to righteous dead: Ha rrowing of Hell
allocate scarce resources: triage • ex- • celebration of Christ's resurrection:
63 Christian I church

Easter • commemoration of Christ's from diocesan control: pecu liar . de­

return to heaven: Ascension . com­ noting a church endowed for a chapter
memoration of the descent of the Holy of canons: colleg iate . large church
Spirit: Pentecost, Whit Su nday . ex­ originally part of a monastery: min­
pected return of Christ to earth at the ster . small private chapel: oratory
Last Judgement: Second Coming • sanctify a church for use: conse­
• representation o f Christ as universal crate . assign a church to a saint's
ruler: pantocrator • doctrine of protection: dedicate • church usher:
Christ's two natures: d ual ism � see verger • senior layman resposible for
also Lent church property etc . : churchwarden
• churchwarden's assistant: sides­
Christian . member of Christ's im­
mediate circle during His earthly
man . church caretaker and grave­
digger: sexton • official in charge of
ministry: disciple . member of this
continuing group, perceived as lead­
vestments and sacred vessels: sacris­
ers and founders of the Church: apos­ tan . church robing vestry
• official leading processions etc. : ver­
tle . Christian love: agape . medi­
eval Christian expedition to regain
ger • forms of church service: l iturgy
8 church assembly: synod, convoca­
the Holy Land: crusade • Christian
observing Sunday as the sabbath: sa b­ tion . church court: consistory
• church law: canon law • expel from
batarian • Christian preaching in­
a church: excommunicate • court­
tended to make converts : evangelism
• Christian thanksgiving for the har­ yard before a church: parvis
. church porch: galilee • church
vest: ha rvest festival • Christian
antechamber: na rthex • holy-water
tradition emphasizing scriptural au­
thority and personal conversion: basin near a church door: stoup
• main part o f a church: nave
evangel icalism . Christian Church
• wooden congregational bench: pew
following the Pope: Roman Cath olic
• pew
• Christian
Church Church follow­ with high s ides giving privacy:
ing the Oecumenical Patriarch: box pew • kneeling cushion: has­
Orthodox Church . denoting those sock, kneeler • space for access be­
Western Christian Churches follow­ tween pews: aisle . raised enclosed
ing the principles of the Reformation: platform for preaching: pulpit • read­

Protesta nt • denoting Christian ing stand for a B ible: lectern • broad

unity: ecu m en ical • officially ex­

aisle or passageway: ambulatory
• wooden seat for choir or clergy: stall
clude someone from the Christian sac­
raments: excommun icate . ledge o n this supporting a standing
person: m isericord, misere re • sec­
chromosome • female chromo-
tion of a church choir standing on the
some: X chromosome 8 male
north side: cantoris • section of a
chromosome: Y chromosome . num­
church choir standing on the south
ber and appearance of an organism's
s ide: deca ni • booth for priest to hear
chromosomes: karyotype . chromo­
confessions: confessional • part of a
some defect causing intellectual im­
church containing the high altar:
pairment and physical abnormalities:
sanctuary • sanctuary cupboard:
Down's syndrome • study of chro­
aumbry • side table in a sanctuary:
mosomes: cytogenetics
credence • stone seats for the cele­
church • adjective: eccl eSiastical, brants, built into the south sanctuary
ecclesia I • principal church o f a dio­ wall: sed ilia . view onto the altar, cut
cese: cathedral . church exempt through a pillar: hag ioscope, squint
Church of England I circle 64

• part of a church round the sanctu­ mu nion • Anglican provincial synod:

ary: cha ncel • wood or stone parti­ convocati o n • parish's contribution
tion at the chancel entrance: rood to diocesan funds: quota • priest

screen, screen • part of a church be­ supervising a group of parochial

tween nave and altar: choir • part of clergy: rural dean • parish priest for­
a church built out to form one of the merly receiving tithes: rector . par­
arms in a cross-shaped plan: transept ish priest not formerly receiving
• part of a church where nave and tithes: vicar • priest's house: rectory,
transepts join: crossing . part of a vicarage .job as parish priest: bene­
church to the side of a nave or chan­ fice, l iving . priest in charge of a
cel: aisle • part of a church beneath benefice: i n c u m bent . formal be
the main floor: crypt, u ndercroft stowal of a benefice: induction
• set of windows overlooking aisle . period between incumbents: inter­
roofs: clerestory • gallery running reg n u m
over an arcade: trifori um • section of cider • strong rough cider: scru m py
a church east of the main altar: retro­ • drink of draught cider and lager:
. choir • curved or polygonal exten­ snakebite • pulpy fruit left after
sion to the east end of a church: apse cider-making: pomace
• apse with an ambulatory: chevet
cigar • long straight-sided cigar: cor­
• part of a church, or building adja­
ona . long thin cigar: panatella
cent to it, used for baptisms: baptist­
• cigar tapering at the ends: perfecto
ery • chapel dedicated to the Blessed
• open-ended cigar: cheroot • stub of
Virgin: Lady chapel • water con­
a cigar: butt • airtight cigar box: hu-
tainer for baptisms: font • chapel or
altar endowed for Masses for the
founder's soul: cha ntry • icon screen cigarette . cigarette with a filter:
in an Orthodox church: iconostasis filter t i p . stub of a cigarette: butt
• room where vestments etc. are kept: cinema • small cinema: cinema-
sacristy • grotesque stone figure on theque • cinema programme ofIer-
the outside of a church: gargoyle ing two full-length films: d o u b l e fea- .
• roofed gate into a churchyard: Iych­ ture • building housing several
gate • building in a churchyard for cinemas: m u ltiplex • ratio of width to
exhumed bones: charnel house •a height of projected image:
tenth of one's income given to the ratio
Church: tithe . authorization from a
circle • combining form: cycl- (e.g.
Church authority: faculty . denoting
cyclorama) . imagined circle joining
a Church having state control or sup­
the earth's poles: meridian • im­
port: esta b l ished • sever formal
agined circle round the earth equidis­
links between Church and state: dis­
tant from its poles: equator • prehis­
esta b l i s h . Church administrative
toric stone circle: henge • distance
district: parish • study of the Church
across a circle: diameter • distance
Fathers and their writings: patristics,
round the outside of a circle: circum­
patrology • study of church building
ference e line from the centre to the
and decoration: ecclesiology � see
circumference of a circle: radius
also altar
• half-circle: semicircle • quarter­
Church of England • adjective: circle: q u a d rant . circular move­
Anglican • group of Churches world­ ment of water or smoke: eddy • cir­
wide that are in communion with the cular movement of the axis of a
Church of England: Anglican Com- spinning object: precession
65 circus I clean

circus . large circus tent: big top ing social groups of equal status: hori­
• place
where circus animals are kept: zontal • acceptable in the best
menagerie • enclosed area for a circles: pukka
circus performance: ri ng • person
classification • classification of
directing a circus performance: ring­
plants and animals by shared fea­
tures: taxonomy • classification of
citadel • ancient Greek citadel: plants and animals based on inherited
acropolis . Russian citadel: kremlin characteristics: cladistics • classifi­
• North African citadel: kasbah cation of plants and animals by genus
citizen • combining
form: -ese (e.g. and species: Lin naean nomenclature,
Viennese) • adjective:
civil • gift of binomial nomenclature • classifica­
honorary citizenship: freedom tion by general type: typology • clas­
sification according to rank: hier­
city . adjedives: civic, urban . chief
city: metropolis • city formed by the
a rchy • classification according to
joining of several towns: conurbation shared ancestry: clad istics
• huge composite city: megalopolis, clause • clause that is in itself a
metroplex • central par;t of a city: complete sentence: main clause
inner city . outlying part of a city: • clause that is not in itself a complete
suburb • suburb inhabited by daily sentence: subordi nate clause
commuters: dormitory suburb . city • clause in a contract stipulating ex­
area inhabited by a particular ethnic ceptions: saving clause • contract­
or social group: g hetto • preserved ual clause freeing a party from obli­
open land round a city: g reen belt gations under stated conditions:
clairvoyance • having powers of escape clause . contractual clause
clairvoyance: fey � see also spiritual­ allowing for price increases: escal­
i st ator clause
clan • matriarch
clan's female head: claw • front claw of a lobster or crab:
. clan's male head: patriarch . dis­ pincer • having non-retactile claws:
tinctive plaid of a Scottish clan: tar­ cynopodous
clay • clay used for bricks and walls:
class • lowest social stratum: under­ adobe • clay used for china: kaol in
class . wor&ing classes: proletariat
• clay worked for making pottery or
. middle-class person with conven­
bricks: pug • thin clay used to decor­
tional views: bourgeois • the provin­ ate pottery: slip • clay used to make
cial middle classes: Middle England
reddish pottery: terra cotta • mixture
• salaried classes: salariat • member
of clay and straw used for walls: cob
of the upper middle class: haut bour­
• clay used as a filter:ful ler'S earth
geOis • privileged and influential
• liquid clay sealing a joint: l ute
section of society: overclass • ad­

mirer of the upper classes and their clean • clean without using water:
ways: snob • admirer of the lower d ry-clean . clean by hard rubbing:
classes and their ways: inverted snob scour • clean by pressurized sand:
• dialect of a particular social class: sandblast • cleanly practices: hy­
sociolect • class structure: social giene • sterilize food by gamma radi­
scale, social ladder • improving ation: irradiate • disposable piece of
one's social status: upwardly mobile paper etc. for cleaning: wipe • mass
• person keen to improve his or her of matted fine wire used for cleaning:
social status: social climber . involv- wire wool
on, focusof a picture or sound: defin- prepositioned
.climbing alone aids:and free
without climbing
clericalscrivclerk ment: sol o cl i m bi n g .spiked plate

preparillg legal documents: ener for.climber'a climber' s boot: crampon

clergy .the clergy collectively: the

attendant scarrying ice axe: supplies:
piolet .climber'
porter s
• adjective:

clothseveralgroupparishes: Of clergyteamresponsible
clerk •

for cleric assistillg a priest: mini

deaconstry clillic givillg generalservices:
cleric servillg a prison, college, ship, titioner and specialist

padre : chapl a i n
clerical military
rank:deacon: chaplain:
order minor cler­ polycliniclc inicclinic for women: well­
• clinic •

ical ranks below

clitoris enlarged and rigid state of

orders .Protestant clergyman: min­
• •

ster,deaconpastor .minister' s lay assist­ the
in theclitoris: erecticorpus
o n erectile tissue
• •

clergyman attached toin clitoris: cavernosum


a make ship someone

or military unit: chapl a part at the end of the clitoris: glpre­

ordai n .person apeparing

priest orforminister:
ordin­ .fold of skin surrounding this:

puce removal ofcithercumci

clitoris: cli.ex­
(pl. corpora cavernosa) •

and the ordi n
incomeand .clergyman'
derived from it: s job,
bene­ dectomy, femal e s i o n

ce apiece of black material worn cision ofofthethe clitoris
together and astitchillg
vulva: infibul tion

sonsuchwhopersons clerical collar:

is notcollectively: stock per­
a cleric:l a itlyayman clock .precise clock: chronometer
re­ai­ atomiclongcase clock: clock: caesium clock

duce a cleric to lay status: defrock, l .large grandfather

ciprizeest, Protestant,Church Roman of Engl and,

Catholic clgrandmother
ock smallerclocklongcase small clock:
• • •

Church angular
ock movement clock with
.clock mechanism: a handle: carri
escape­ age
.. see also

cliff .steep cliff: bl u ff, crag, preci ­

e idcollapse clock's swinging
e, landslofippart of a cliff face:

study of rod:
clock- pendulum
m aking: oartogyor
climate dry climate with hot sum­
denotinganalaogue clock dialdenotingwith moving
• •

climate and cold winters:
denotillg a mildconticlimate:
nental hands: a clock
temperate dial with a changing numerical dis­
small region: mispecial croclimclimate
ate of a

play: digi t al .following the direction

of clock' sthehands: clockwidirection

se circu­

cli macti c .sex­

lating in opposite toder­a

ment ill a play: catastrophe mo­
ual climax: orgasm crucial

shi s hands:
ns setsynchroni anti cl o ckwi s e,
a clock tozethe same time wi d
a •
• adjective:

climb climb down using a doubled as another:


rope: abseilthe, rappel climb byswarm


pillg with hands and feet: clcloister:


up holplaced .climber' for a climber' s handsfoot­or .land ill the middle of a

feet: s insecure garth

cloister • adjective:

rock: smear
pi t on pin driven
secure a intos rope
climber' the oiusedlcloforth, clothwaxcl impregnated
o th strong withcloth oil:

round a piton, rock, etc.: belay rock sails and paintings: canvas
• cloth •
• •

67 clothes I clothes
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

• cloth to cover a corpse: shroud, dart . double fold held by stitching:

winding sheet • cloth placed over a pleat • sharp narrow pleat: kn ife
chair back to protect it from hair-oil: pleat • decorative frill or pleat:
antimacassa r • roll of cloth: bolt ruche • strip of ornamental material
• cloth-maker: person clothier • on a skirt or dress: flounce . length
cleaning and thickening cloth: fuller of cloth trailing behind a dress: train
. clay used by a fuller: fuller's earth • slit a t the back o f a jacket etc.: vent

. cloth-merchant: mercer, draper, • slit covering fastenings or for a

clothier pocket opening: placket • pocket

clothes • adjective: sartorial . all sewn onto the surface of a garment:

the clothes owned by a person: ward­ patch pocket • pocket set into a gar­
robe • set of clothes worn together: ment: slash pocket • gradual widen­
outfit, ensemble • items completing ing of a garment: flare • turned and

an ensemble: accessories • denoting sewn edge of a garment: hem • thin

clothes suitable for both men and stripe for business clothes: pinstripe
• garments that can be worn in vari­
women: un isex • denoting clothes in
ous combinations: separates • cloth­
a timelessly elegant style: classic
• casual clothes: leisure w ar e • style
ing etc. collected by a bride before her
of women's clothes having a low neck marriage: troussea u, bottom d rawer
• clothes a new baby: layette for
and high waist: empire line . denot­
ing women's clothes shaped to fit the • baby's short coat: matinee coat
body: fu lly fashioned • denoting • baby's one-piece garment: playsuit,

clothes revealing glimpses of the body: rompers • couturier's range of new

peekaboo • denoting clothes that are clothes: collection • liturgical

functional rather than decorative: clothes: vestments . long strip of

sensible • ceremonial clothes: fu l l cloth worn over the shoulders or
dress, robes • clothing specific to a round the waist: sash . fabric tri­
certain activity: kit • clothes other angle worn over the shoulders: shawl
than uniform or regulation dress: . long scarf or shawl: stole • long
mufti • maker of clothes: tailor • de­ scarf of fur or feathers: boa • small
sign and manufacture of fashion shawl: fichu • fabric head-covering:
clothes: couture • designer of fash­ kerchief . square of cloth worn
ion clothes:couturier (fern. couturiere) round the neck: neckerchief • small
. couturier's trademark: label . cou­ shiny decorative disk: sequin
turier's shop: salon • denoting • clothes indicating membership o f a
clothes from a fashionable couturier: colours • guardsman's tall
team etc.:
designer . maker of theatrical or fur bearskincap:
. dark clothes
fancy-dress costumes: costumier worn with university robes: subfusc
• full-sized model for displaying • one-piece garment leaving only the
clothes:dummy • colours on a gar­ head, hands, and feet exposed: boiler
ment: colou rway • part of a garment s uit, coverall, jum psu it, siren suit
contrasting in colour with the main • one-piece undergarment covering
fabric: facing • turned-back edge of a arms, trunk, and legs: combinations
garment: revers . part of a garment • loose overall: smock, blouse
covering the shoulders: yoke . glit­ . loose garment reaching the knees:
tering substance as clothes ornament: tunic • sleeveless tunic: tabard
paillette, seq u i n , spangle . flattened • athlete's warm oversuit: tracksuit,
stitched fold in a garment: tuck sweatsuit . weatherproof tracksuit:
• tapered tuck shaping a garment: shell suit • casual trousers: slacks
o denim trousers with a forbib: horse­ mentalfrill:shirt frill:olong shirt starched
clot hes I clothes 6E

shaped trousers neck worn

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ··

riding: at the knee:.trousers ending

gathered bed: nightwear: oloose coat
dun­ : jabot 0

baggy covering:
knickerbockers: o elastic stripsleeveless
supportingvest:a stocking�
garees 0 ruff
j o d h p u rs nights h i rt

olengthleg:of cloth wound roundwith the o strip of material covering theof cloth
knickerbockers d ressing gown\

lower short jacket tals: opiece

plus fours

elasticated waist and cuffs:sleeveless wound aboutwoman' the hips andone crotch:i
gaiter, spat garter 0 singlell

jacket: silk jacket with an up· garment: s all-

woman' i n- s under·�
puttee 0 G-stri n g , thong

right collar: shaping undergarment:


o belted jacket with box pleats:belted

jacket, wind cheater 0 loi ncloth o

o lightweight woman's light belt

jerkin 0 teddy 0

jacket with patch pockets: stocking suspenders:

mandarin jacket fou n dation"

ojacket in Chi­ o woman' s breasts:

N o r­ found ation garment, corset, g i rd le,i

nese communist style: ing the

fol k jacket ro ll-on 0

ojacket with slits at theoutdoor side orjacket

back: o woman' s vest:
bush suspender belt !

oloose- fittingvestbodice:exposing
jacket, safari jacket

waterproofed with jacket

wax: pulled over ostomach:
woman's short
Mao jacket b ra,

olong waterproof ballerina' s

bodice, l i berty

the head:jacket: thick double­ skirt: woman' s

hacking jacket 0 ice

breasted garment covering the trunk andwoman's

waxed jacket

warm hooded jacket:sitting up in bed:
crop top 0

worn short
when close- fiarms,
tting and garment covering
cagoule 0 tutu 0

sleeveless cloak: trunk, legs:

reefer, reefer jacket

short cloak with a mask: o woman' s close-andfitting garment cover-

anorak, p a rka body, bodysu it, leotard •

the head: o woollen cape withthicka slitbluefor ing the

oo woman' trunk
woman'ss swimsuit legs:
two-piece consisting
swimsuit: of the
bedjacket 0 catsuit, u n itard

sweater:over collar: sweater's high

cape 0

turned- lower
o woman'half s lightofotight-
d o m i no body stocking:
bikini 1

poncho 0

sweater: omotor­ fitting strap'

guernsey 0

ist' s short coat: sailor's less top for women or girls:

polo neck, roll­ monokini

short overcoat:olong heavy overcoat: woman's close- fitting

neck, turtleneck 0 ho use­

sleeveless top: strap sup­

p U l l over, s l i pover coat, peig n o i r

oloose overcoat belted at porting a sleeveless top: part

car coat 0 boob

the back: oheavy woollen ofo close-

a dress above bodice:
the waist:
pea coat, pea jacket, tube, bustier 0

hooded coat with toggle coat:

fastenings: fi tting
pilot jacket tank top 0

waterproof o woman's matching woman' cardigans short and

g reatcoat ha lter 0

bullet-a coat
proofwithcoat:a jumper:
ulster bodice

denoting open jacket:close-fittingowoman' s shirt:


single row ofa coat

buttons: dress:
duffel coat 0 mack­

and an with two rows offront:
but­ o dress hanging
i ntos h , ra i n coat 0 twinset 0

overlapping straight from the shoulders:

fla k jacket 0 bolero

ofrontback:edge of a o dress flaring outo long fromformal shoulderdress:to

single-breasted bl ouse 0 sheath,

jacket that is folded hem:

sheath d ress

oo short-
loose sshirt
leevedor dress:
casual top: oorna- denoting a dress having

low neckline: dress

l a pel tent d ress
T-s h i rt gown 0 a
kaftan decollete 0 0
69 clothes I coal

skirt of a single piece of cloth wound model • women's clothes when worn
round and tucked in: sarong • dress by men: d rag • wear clothes of the
or skirt of a single overlapping piece opposite sex: cross-d ress • put on
with one fastening: wrap-around, clothes: don • wear informal or
wrap-over • dress o r skirt ending scrufy clothes: dress down • wear
well above the knee: mini • dress or smart clothes or fancy dress: d ress up
skirt of mid-calf length: midi • coat • take o ff clothes: doff � see also
or skirt of ankle length: maxi • div­ glove, hat, un iform, robes, vest­
ided skirt: culottes • full wide skirt ments �for items offoreign clothing
with a tight waistband: dirndl . pad­ see under the appropriate national ad­
ding formerly worn under the rear of jective
a skirt: bustle . loose underdress: cloud • adjective:
nebulous • tower­
chemise • light underskirt or under­ ing clOUd-mass: cumuloni mbus
dress: petticoat • short petticoat: slip • rounded clOUd-mass: cumulus
. hoops formerly supporting a skirt: . mass o f fast-moving cloud: wrack
farthingale • hooped petticoat: crin­ . low grey cloud: nim bostratus, nim­
oline • woman's light dressing gown: bus . low layer o f clumped grey
negligee . loose dress ' worn by a cloud-masses: stratocumulus • cloud
woman in bed: nig htd ress, night­ forming a continuous grey sheet: stra­
gown • women's underwear and tus • height of cloud base: ceiling
nightclothes: lingerie . furry tube to • study of clouds: nephology

warm the hands: muff • workman's

club' • adjectives:
clavate, claviform
heavy jacket with leather-patched
. heavy bludgeon
club: • spiked
shoulders: donkey jacket • man's
metal club: mace • Irish club: shil­
heavy double-breasted overcoat: ul­ lelagh . Australian Aboriginal club:
ster • man's long-tailed coat for for­ nul la-nulla, waddy • South African
mal day wear: morning coat, tai l coat club: knobkerrie
• man's suit for formal daytime wear:
club' • veto someone's proposed
lounge suit • man's formal evening
jacket: dinner jacket • man's velvet
membership of a club etc. : blackball
jacket: smoking jacket . man's long­ clutch • disengage a motor's clutch:
tailed coat for formal evening wear: decl utch
dress coat, ,ailcoat . man's long­
coal • soft lignite
brownish coal:
tailed coat for outdoor formal wear: • hard smokeless anthracite
frock coat . man's false shirt front: • coal heated in a vacuum: coke
dicky • sash worn with male evening • coal dust with small pieces of coal:
dress: cum merbu nd • opening at the slack . semi-liquid mixture of water
front of trousers: flies • man's shorts and coal particles: slu rry • black li­
for swimming or boxing: trunks quid distilled from bituminous coal:
• man's long underpants: long johns
coal tar • wood preservative distilled
• decorative pouch for the male geni­ from coal tar: creosote • area with
codpiece • man
tals: over-eager to many coal deposits: coalfield • coal
dress smartly: dandy, fop • denoting mine: colliery • coal miner: collier
a neatly dressed man: dapper, spruce • coal miner's basket: cort • coal
. elegantly dressed: SOigne (fern. mine safety official: deputy • ship
soignee) • basket for dirty clothes: transporting coal: collier • coal store:
linen basket • dummy to display bunker • fireside ornamental coal­
clothes: mannequin . person em­ box: scuttle • stony residue from
ployed to wear clothes for display: burnt coal: clinker
coastal code: of.denoting a text sentcodeout
c oast I cold 70

with a subtropical climate: ofcomposed .signalling
. . ......................................................... .......................... ...................
. . . ..... . . .... ..........................

byline:tides: scenic area regularly

curve in covered
a coast­ studylongs and shorts:
coast • adjective: l ittoral • scra m b l e

coast road: lel lines of varyingcomposed of paral­

rivi­ en clair

urbancoastalseasidewatchman:road: thickness:
era Morse
salti n g • code • cryptogra p h y,

.light-emitting device reading bar

bight • cor­ cryptology •

niche • bar

coatcoat with flour ororcement:

esplanade • code, un iversal prod uct code

with plaster strongpressure:

black coffee made
coastg uard

.coat a wall with planking: under steam

l ight pen

coffee topped stimulant with frothed milk:

coat •

in coffee:
d redge • •

cocaine .potent hard form of co­


coffee sediment:
ren d e r espresso

caine: purified cocaine: coffee pot with a plunger:

clad � see also clothes •

though the grounds: heated water

coffee pot passing
cappuccino •

cockney' s traditional
caffeine • g rounds
crack • free­

dress: cockney wearing

• cafeth1tre

coffin .stone coffin :



inner coffin: frame­

advocaat and lemonade:

cockney percolator

work on which a coffin may be set or

pea rl ies •

brandy with flavoured carried: coffin­

pearly queen, pea rly king

water and ice: brandy, carrier:

cist • shell •

lemon juice, and orange liqueur:

cocktail •

gin cogwheelcogged with orteeth at bar

gin and
andginangostura bitters:
s n owba l l •
bier, catafa l q u e •

cherry brandy: toothed

smash •
pall bearer

dry vermouth: or rail:

gin, andli­ electricrotating

motor: coil in a dynamo or
car • pink
cog 90°:
crown wheel •

Campari: gin, orange

gin • S i n ga­

queur, and lemon juice: .rum and

pore s l i n g •

.rum and water:

marti ni • •

.face of a coin: impres­


lime juice:and coconut:.rum, pineapple

negro n i • a rmature

juice, back of a coin:

White Lady

sionridgesstamped oncoin'as edge:

coin • adjective: num ismatic,

spirits with beaten eggtequila and milk:

g rog

on a
nummular obverse

d a i q u i ri

ofcoin manufactory: collection

• reve rse •

pina colada

specimen coins at the Royal Mint:


vodkavodkaand orange juice: juice:

deprive a coin of monetary sta­

• milling

and tomato
egg-nog, egg fl i p •

tus: study of coins:

• mint •

whiskywhiskyand ginger
slammer, teq u i l a slam­

wine: with
mer • screw­ pyx •

lemon or lime juice: .cold

d river •
demonetize •

wine etcor : spirits with fruit juices, and damp: .feeling of extreme
Bloody M a ry •
n u m ismatics

spices, cold: sleepy state brought tissue on by

whisky mac •

. coconut fibre: extreme cold:

whisky sour cold . combiningjorms: cryo-

caused by extreme cold:

dried coconut kernels:

for low temperat­

p u n ch nip •

deciphering of codes:this: ures: substance produ­

hypothermia •

word enabling
coconut •

cing low temperatures:

• copra

writtena intext:code: .deep-freezingmedical of corpses in hopethatof
bite •

subsequent advances
code • crypt­ cryometer •

encode electronically: could reverse the cause of death:

a n alysis • key­ cryogen
word • crypto­
g ra m • encipher,
encrypt • cryo-
71 collapse I colour
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .

genics, cryonics • medical treat­ this for senior teaching staf: high
ment using intense cold: cryotherapy table . college room where provi­
• surgery using intense cold to des­ sions are sold: buttery • college re­
troy tissue: cryosurgery laxation senior
room for fellows:
collapse • inwards collapse: implo­ common room • this for postgradu­
sion ates: middle common room • this

for undergraduates: junior common

collar • high stiff collar with turned
room • college principal's apart­
down corners: wing collar • high
ments: lodge, lodgings • college
turned-over collar on a sweater: polo
doorkeeper: porter • college finan­
neck • bar attaching a collar to a
cial manager: bursar • cleric serving
shirt: stud
a college: chaplain • senior member
collection • collection of related
of a college: fel low, don • college fel­
items: compendium • collection of
low in charge of discipline: dean
miscellaneous items: farrago, job lot • college teacher responsible for a par­
. collection of writings: anthology, ticular subject: tutor • college tuition
collectanea, commonplace book,
session for an individual or small
f1orileg ium, miscellany, omnibus
group: tutorial • annual college feast:
• collection of historical documents:
gau dy, commemoration • money de­
a rch ive • collection of texts: corpus
posited with college authorities to pay
• collection of essays on a particular
for breakages: caution money � see
topic: symposium
also Cam bridge, Oxford, un iversity
collective farm • collective farm
colony • adjective: colon ial � see
in Israel: • collective farm in
Russia: kolkhoz
also state

collector • collector of bygones: colour • combining forms:

antiquary • collector of beer mats: chromato-, chromo- • adjective:

tegestologist . collector of books: chromatic • one of a group of basic

bibliophile • collector of butterflies colours combining to form all the
and moths: lepidopterist • collector o thers: primary colour • colour

of coins and medals: numismatist made by mixing two primary colours:

• collector of matchboxes: phillumen­ secondary colour • range of colours:
ist • collector o f stamps: phi latelist spectrum , palette • band of colours
produced by refraction of a light
college . adjeaives: collegial, colle­
source: spectrum • denoting a colour
giate • college for pupils in their
that combines with another to make
final years of secondary education:
sixth-form college . further educa­ white compleme ntary
or black:
• colour saturation • pro­
tion college providing courses in prac­
tical or technical subjects: technical ducing colour: chromogenic • using
college . military college training only one colour: monochromatic
potential officers: military academy • in a single uniform colour: self­

• military college training officers for coloured • having several colours:

staff duties: staff college • music particoloured, pied, polychromatic,
college: conservatoire • Orthodox polychrome • denoting colours that
Jewish college: yesh iva • college site are burnt into a surface: en caustic
and buildings: campus • college • small patch of colour: fleck • subtle

doorkeeper's room: lodge • college shade of a colour: tint . faint trace of

courtyard: q uadrangle • college din­ a colour: tinge • quality of a colour:
ing room: hall, refectory . table in tone • marked with patches of
colour: traders to fix prices:
co lou r blindness I communication 72

colouring matter:
complete solid headtailof afollowing
comet: a
dappled, m ottled, va riegated carte l , price

colour blindness: .luminous

pigment ring


three to discern
colours:only two of the

comfortable andcomfort
colour blindness • comet •


degree of material
m o n ochromatism

green- blindness:


blue- blindness:
dichromatism comfort •
daltonism, protan ­ snug

arbitrary command:

column rectangular column:

opia deutera n ­ stan d a rd of living

command thatruler'

rail: ofshortthese:ornateornamental
column supporting
opia tritanopia

amade fencing becommand:

obeyed: .oriental

command • adjectives: ma ndatory,

.denoting mand advised by thesovereign' s com­

• pilas­ preceptive •

a columnengaged attachedcolumn
to theatwall: Privy Council:
ter • d i ktat, u kase •

theof end binding official

baluster • d i ctate

an arcade: .row ofrowcolumns col­ instruction: .carry out a
b a l u strade fi rman •


defining a space: slight head of a

gaged Order in C o u n c i l

comment comment made in pass­

• •

column: concave
respond d i rective

ing: .percepti ve com­ex­

curve intheatopscolumn: beam

colonnade execute

across of columns: ment: witty comment


pressing a general truth:

• •

ornamentalcylindrical porch with columns:

capital • o b iter d i ctum

stone forming
entasis • aper�u

commitment morally committed:

(statistics etc.) in columns: arrange
of a column:
architrave a phori s m ,

avoid committing oneself:

• epigra m
portico •

comb .projecting point on a comb: committee .committee establish­

tam b o u r •

spinning:comb wool or hemp before


ing anoforganization' s general prin­

tabu late

combat medieval mock-combat be­

ciples operation:
on a committee
particular appointed to advise
tooth •

tweensuchmounted knights: problem:.parliamen­


played with counters on maps: game

for combat:
steeri n g comm it·

tary committee appointed for a special

• tee •

purpose: invita­
joust working

tion to join a committee given by itsa

l i sts • g ro u p, worki ng party

combatant .Spanish bullfighter

current members:

on foot: Spanish mounted

one's aims:with persons sympathetic
spiel select comm ittee

bullfighter: Spanish bull­

fighter killing the bul l :


matador' s mounted assistant: Commonwealth Commonwealth

• fil
torero •

.person who fought in a Roman embassy:

toreador •

or person engaged in warfare:nation
to entertain: commune member of a commune:
• pica­ •

dor h i g h commission

communication .communication
g l a d i ator

combinationcombin­ into a

by posture orestablish
gesture:or facilitate com­


single unit:
com m u nard
gerent .. see also soldier, troops

ation intocombination
a coherent ofwhole:businesses: munication: .organs.commu­
of mass
combination • body language,

nications company: commu­

consolidation • kinesics •

.combination of nication over a distance by teleph one,

synthe­ l iaise
sis • the media
conglom erate, consorti um, corpor­ carrier •
ation, syndicate
73 communism I compass

radio, etc.: telecommunication or company making an acceptable

. work from home using telecommu­ counterbid to a hostile takeover: wh ite
nications: telecomm ute . discussion k n ight . company controlled by its
involving three or more persons at dif­ shareholders: joi nt-stock company
ferent sites using telecommunica­ e nominal company: shell company
tions: teleconference . centre link­ • company section with a specific
ing ground communications to function: division e denoting a
satellites: teleport • international highly efficient company: lean
communications system using tele­ • transfer a state-run company to pri­
printers: telex • international com­ vate ownership: denationalize, privat­
munications system using electronic ize • worker involvement in com­
scanning: fax e telecommunications pany government: industrial
channel with a bandwidth sufficient democracy • transport or com-
for voices: voice channel munications company: carrier
communism • kind of communism e company's preferred style of presen­
retaining elements of Western liberal­ tation: house style • tax on company
ism: Eurocommunism e central pol­ profits: corporation tax • internal to
icy committee of a communist state: a company: house . company de­
politburo •
standing legislative com­ partment responsible for recruitment,
mittee of a communist stale: presid­ training, and welfare: personnel
ium e opposition to the official Party • company department responsible
line: spl ittism o underground pub­ for product innovation and improve­
lishing in a communist state: sam iz­ ment: research and development
dat . countries not controlled by • chart showing the interrelation of
communism: free world � see also company posts : organ ization chart
Chi nese com munism, Soviet • colours and symbols on a company's
compact disk • compact disk vehicles: l ivery • spying to gain com­
player able to play several disks in pany secrets: industrial espionage
succession: m u lti player e denoting companies whose shares

company adjective: corporate are quoted on the London Stock Ex­
• company operating in several coun­ change: listed e (of a company) ex­
tries: multi national, tran snational tend or vary its operations: d iversify
• company whose shares are not on • reorganize a company on a smaller
public sale: private company . com­ scale: downsize, rational ize • close a
pany whose shares are traded on the company down: liquidate, wind up
stock exchange: public company comparison • standard against
• capital raised by a company's sale of
which other items may be assessed:
its shares: stock . funds used in a
benchmark, control, datum l ine,
company's day-to-day trading: work­ yard stick • having no such common
ing capital . companies under com­
standard: incommensurable . giv­
mon ownership: g roup • company
ing an annual comparison: year­
created to control others, whose
shares it holds: holding company
. company controlled by a holding compass • gyroscope-aligned com­
company: subsidiary . combination pass: gyrocompass • denoting one of
of two companies into one: merger the four main compass points: car­
• buy-out of one company by another: d i nal e deflection of a ship's compass
takeover • denoting a takeover re­ needle by iron in the ship: deviation
sisted by its victim: hostile • person • direction in which a compass needle
will ofturn:a compass needle from.deflec­ strict compliance:
competition I computer 74

magnetic north:
magnetic n o rth
true to compliance: minimal
compl iance •

competition' s pre­to
speCific performance

takin down dictation copyings

liminary rounds: free pass

declination tokenism

round' s competition
losers are elimin­in drafts:
personal musical style: composer'
competition • composer •

ated: open to all: denotinglista ofcompe­ compound with the

heats •

tition com­
a m a n uensis

same formula as another, but different

bye • •

petitors in ordermainofbunch achievement:


atomic disposition:containing carbon:

com­ ing a compound
knock-out • compound •

petitors:disadvantage imposed denoting a compound not

open •

a su­ containing carbon:

isomer •

perior competitor: .denot­ chemicalinanalysis of a compound,

league table •

ing a playergroup receiving no competing

handicap: expressed symbols:
pack, van • organic •

of clubs breakdown substances:

of a compound
vie • i norgan i c

together over a season: out­ into its constituent

handicap •

side the competition:

fo rmula (pl. for­
scratch • mulae) •
league • de­
hors conco u rs composition

compromise be-
. combining form: • adjective: pneu­

tween two mutually incompatible ob­

compilation compressed air

trivial complaint: cause

-Iogue matic

for complaint: jectives:

govern­ middle.admitting
way of
(e.g. catalogue)

ment compromise:
plaints: official investigating com­
complaint • adjective: querulous compromise •

no compromise:
• quibble •

grieva n ce • trade-off •

via media

treatment by minute doses of sub­ done without

categorica l , dog­


causing the disease:

and massage of computational de­

complementary medicine

bones and muscles: vice using beads on wires:

compulsion • COln­

vo l u ntary

manipulation ofmassage
the spinaltreatment.machine
culumn: making mathematical cal­a

culations: .ruler with

athy computation •

using fragrant oils: sliding central section:

osteopathy a bacus

massage system based on zoneneedles


apy: inserting
c h i ro practic • calcu lator

into the skin:

a romatherapy slide rule

computer that can.hand-

hand: be hheld
eld in the

computer . combiningform: cyber-
reflexo logy

computer serving asportable

a diary:computer:

• adjective: comp utational, cyber
acu p u n cture


portable computer:
complete . combiningform: hol(o)­ pal mtop

computer for use by one person

(e.g. holocaust) personal

atputera time: com­

organ izer •
completely • combining form:

using a microprocessor:
notebook • lap­
cata- (e.g. cataclysm), de- (e. g. de­

having a pale.having
com­ use: computer sizedofforcamera­
top •
n ude) , holo- (e. g. holograph), over­

plexion: production
perso nal computer •
(e.g. overjoyed), per- (e. g. perfect)

a having
red complexion: ready copygeneralby this:purpose computer
m icro­

a yellowish complexion: more

complexion • computer •

powerful than a personal com-

ashen, p a l l i d , wa n desktop •
flori d , ru ddy desktop p u blish­
• sal­ ing •
low, j a u n d i ced
75 computer I computer

puter: workstation • medium-sized sponse time • denoting systems pro­

computer: m i n icomputer • powerful cessing data as it is generated: real­
computer supporting many peri­ time . short time during which a
pherals: mai nframe • multimedia computer deals with one user or pro­
computer and entertainment system: gram before switching to another:
multiplayer • denoting activities per­ time sl ice . device displaying data
formed by computers: electronic on a screen: visual display unit
• manufacturer's test o f a computer . computer's displayed list of com­
component before releasing it for use: mands or facilities: menu . movable
bench test • time during which a indicator on computer screen: cursor
computer is out of action: downtime • strip of icons used to perform cer­
• time during which a computer is op­ tain flmctions: too lbar . hand-held
erational: uptime • detect and repair device selecting items shown
computer faults: debug • computer on-screen: mouse, puck • ball moved
or program for creating and editing to control the cursor: rollerbal l • pad
texts: word processor • physical on which this is moved: mat • dis­

components of a computer: hardware play device receiving commands by

• part of a computer where operations touches on the screen: touch screen
are executed and central • pull an icon across the screen: drag
processing un it, mainframe • inte­ • small command panel with touch­
grated circuit replacing this: m icro­ sensitive areas: touch pad • mark a
processor • other devices connected displayed item for particular treat­
to these: peri pherals • computer part ment: select • device allowing direct
storing data and programs: memory input of handwritten material: stylus
• computer programs, routines, and . photosensitive device inputting ma­
procedures: software • set of hard terial via the screen: light pen, styl us
and software Imits devoted to a par­ . onscreen warning of system mal­
ticular application: system . exclu­ function or bad error
sively assigned to a particular func­ message . onscreen request for user
tion: dedicated • denoting input: prompt . program replacing
computing equipment compatible an unchanged screen display with a
without modification to that of other moving image: screen save r • op­

manufacturers: plug-compati ble tional background pattern on a com­

. start a computer: boot • gain ac­ puter screen: wal l paper . damage to
cess to a comp� ter system: log in, log computer screen from long use: burn­
on . string giving user access to a in . linear sequence of characters
system or part of it: password • ser­ etc.: stri ng • convert pictures or
vice or administrative computer sound into computer-processable
tasks: housekeeping . coded in­ form: d i gitize . computer scanning
structions controlling a computer: of existing images: d i gital imaging
command, program • reverse a pre­ • computer-aided recognition of
vious command: undo . allow the printed characters: optical character
use of a program etc.: support • self­ recogn ition • visual images pro­
operating program with reasoning duced using computer technology:
capacity: knowbot • repeated se­ g raph ics, computer g raph ics,
quence of programmed instructions: videographics . computer model of
loop • single instruction expanding the brain's ability to recognize and
into a set: macro . time taken by a discriminate: perceptron . language
system to implement commands: re- defining operating tasks: job control
co mput er I compute r 7€1
. . . ................. ........................................................................................··································· 1

language • character string identify­ removable disk: hard d isk, hard drive
ing a program: identifier • character • removable flexible disk: flop py< !
with no assigned identity used in a floppy disk • floppy disk drive
search string: wild card . character a laser: floptical • digital analogue
string identical with that searched in terface: modem . modem convert �i
for: m atch • proceeding by trial and ing digital to sound signals: acoustic ;
error: heuristic • copy data to a stor­ coupler • convert an image into
age location: save • extra copy of digital form for computer use: scan i
data taken for security: back- u p • computer's operating speed: 1
• conducting a n operation i n simul­ speed • computer's ability to inter· ,
taneous parts: para l l e l p roces s i n g connect systems: conn ectivity •

• chief printed circuit board: m other­ nected set of data items: record;
board • transfer a program or data to • data stored under a particular name:1
memory: load • denoting a program fi le • search directions for a file: pathl
or device directly accessible to the • description of a file's whereabouts:,
user: front-end • background com­ path name . list of files: d i rectoryj
puter process handling peripheral • directory at the highest level of a\
tasks: daemon . system of intercon­ hierarchy: root d i rectory . access
nected computers: network • directly data requiring file readthrough:
controlled by a computer: online q uential access . text stored in
• not directly controlled b y a com­ file: document • computer manipula-i
puter: offl i n e • study of electronic tion of texts: text process i n g ,
data processing for storage and re­ p rocessing • word processing
trieval: information science, i nfor­ ture starting a new line to avoid
mation tec h n o logy, i nformatics division: word wrap • insert
• printout of computer data: ial into a document: paste • defined;

hardcopy . onscreen display of data: structure for data processing, storage,1 1

soft copy • printout of what is or display: format . formatting soft-:I
shown on the screen: screen d u m p ware: fi lter . restructuring and com-'1
• onscreen mockup o f page layout be­ puter loading of data:
fore printing: page preview _ series tion • company restructuring
of jobs waiting for the printer: print utilize computers: business p rocess '!
queue • show an input character on­ re-e n g i neeri n g • analysis of complex
screen: echo • temporary area procedures with a view to their como:
opened onscreen to display a pro­ puterization: systems analysis :
gram's output: window, viewp o rt • piece of computer code that can cor­
• component transferring electrical rupt or destroy data: virus • harmful
signals to the recording medium: self-replicating computer program: .
head • computer device able to worm • messages sent over a com' :
switch between disks: changer puter network: electro n i c m a i l
• smallest unit of electronic informa­ noting a computer terminal lacking
tion: bit • group of eight bits: byte independent processing capability: �
• series of characters stored in a com­ dumb . denoting a terminal having ':
puter: stri n g • back-up of changed this: intelligent • denoting a com- 'i
files only: i ncremental back-up • de­ puter serving several terminals:
vice giving high-speed back-up to m u lti-access . link a smaller com- '
tape: tape streamer • flat plate for puter to a larger one: dock • device
data storage: disk • device accessing allowing use of audio components:
this: disk drive • rigid non- sound card • cafe with computers
77 computer disk I computer keyboard

for customers' use: cybe rcafe • rural • removable flexible disk: fl oppy,
establishment with computers for cus­ floppy disk • floppy disk drive using
tomers' use: telecentre, telecottage a laser: fl optica l • denoting a disk of
. ordering goods by direct computer double storage capacity: double dens­
link: teleshopping • increased avail­ ity • concentric circle on a disk:
ability of information due to com­ track • subdivision of a track on a
puters: information revolution magnetic disk: sector • device ac­

• legal controls over use of electronic cessing a disk: disk drive . computer
data: data protection • person using device able to switch between disks:
codes to access a computer network: changer . disk storage device allow­
cypherpunk . person gaining illicit ing data access from any of them:
access to secret computer data: j u kebox . protect the contents of a
hacker • sexual pleasure obtained disk from overwriting or erasure:
via computer technology: cybersex write-protect
• half-move in computer chess: ply
computer graphics . small on­
. ability to use computers: computer
screen graphic: g lyph • graphic serv­
literacy • fear of computers:
ing as a menu item: icon • control
cyberph obia • instruction book for a
system using windows, icons, etc. :
computer user: manual • technical
graphical user interface • screen
assistance to a computer user: sup­
graphic of a box posing questions to
port, tech nical support • notional
the user: diaiog box, dialogue box
environment for computer communi­
. computer drawing device: graphics
cation: cyberspace • computer­
tablet • gradual change of an image
generated model of future events:
by computerized techniques: morph­
simulation • computer-generated
ing . ready-made artwork in soft­
three-dimensional environment: vir­
ware packages: clip art • denoting
tual reality . fiction set in a
systems creating three-dimensional
computer-dominated society: cyber­
displays: immersive
punk • control for computerized
video games : console, joypad, joy­ computer hardware • surface
stick, light gun • denoting a compu­ area taken up by a piece of hardware:
terized game playable over the Inter­ footpri nt • hardware standard deter­
net: m u lti-user • computer mining what software it can run: plat­
application alldWing the combination form • denoting hardware that can
of animated and live-action elements be operated independently: stand­
in a film: rotoscope • human alone . number of hardware units
thought mechanisms or processes sold as a package: bundle . hardcopy
when compared with those of a com­ describing the uses and design of
puter: wetware • denoting logical hardware: documentation • device
systems reflecting the inexactness of or program connecting two items of
human thought: fuzzy � see also com­ hardware: interface • provide a user
puter disk, com puter graphics, com­ interface for software: encapsulate
puter hardware, computer keyboard, • hardware manufacturers' after-sales
computer memory, computer sys­ advice service: technical su pport
tem, computer window, electronic • sudden hardware failure: crash
data, file, prog ram, virtual rea lity,
computer keyboard • computer
word processor
key giving quick access to a function:
computer disk . rigid non- hot key • computer key altering the
removable disk: hard disk, hard drive function of another: control key, shift
computer memory I computer software 78

key • computer key used to arrest an • denoting software not kept perman­
operation: escape key • computer ently in the memory: n on-resident
key assigned a function by the current
computer network • network op­
program: function key • computer
erating within a building etc.: local
key used to execute a command: enter
a rea network • network of independ­
key • computer key used to start a
ent computers: d i stributed system
new line of text: carriage return
• network serving distant computers:
• computer key that alternately initi­
wide area network • international
ates and arrests a function: toggle,
computer network: I nternet . elec­
toggle key, toggle switch
tronic network for rapid transfer of
computer memory • computer's digital information: su perh ighway,
temporary memory area: buffer, clip­ i nformation s u perhig hway e com­
board • computer's auxiliary mem­ puter providing network services:
ory: cache • fast temporary memory: h ost . network computer or program
scratch pad . fast memory for ma­ managing access to a central re­
terial in current use: worki ng mem­ source: server • workstation net­
ory • memory used for storage of in­ worked to a server: client • user
terim results: worki ng storage point on a network: term i n a l . con­
• memory retaining data without elec­ nect several devices in series: da isy­
tricity: flash memory • denoting chain • device connecting two net­
memory that can only be written works: gateway • denoting a device
once: read-only • denoting memory accessible without the network: local
that is cleared with loss of power: • denoting a device accessible only via
volatile • denoting a memory able to the network: rem ote • network proto­
retain data despite power cuts: non­ col allowing a user on one computer
volatile . memory facility giving dir­ to log in to another computer on the
ect access to each location: random same network : tel net • socket con­
access • memory facility allowing necting devices to a network: port
access only in a certain order: se­ computer software • software
q uential access . memory section: available free of charge: freeware,
p a rtition • part of a computer mem­ shareware • software made available
ory where programs must be loaded: over a network or television system:
conventio n a l m e m o ry • security telesoftware • software programmed
copy of memory contents: dump using artificial intelligence tech­
• memory store not part o f the main niques: expert system • software al­
processor: exte rnal memory • bin­ lowing extensive cross-referencing:
ary number identifying a memory lo­ hypertext • software supporting
cation: a d d ress . circuit board giv­ basic computer functions: operati ng
ing extra memory: expansion board, system • software for collective use:
expansion card • board containing g rou pware . software devised to
extra memory chips: memory board meet a particular user's needs: appli­
• key data into a computer's memory: cation • permanent read-only soft­
ca pture, enter, input • enter data ware: fi rmware . formatting soft­
into non-volatile memory: save . des­ ware: filter • container for loading
troy data in a computer's memory: de­ computer software: cartridge • de­
lete, erase • transfer a program or noting software not kept permanently
data to memory: load, write • per­ in the memory: n on-resident • de­
manent software programmed into noting software able to exchange data
the read-only memory: firmware without conversion: i nteropera ble
79 computer system I condition

o able to use specified software with­ taneously: superscalar 0 gain access

out modification: compatible o ser­ to a computer system: log in, log on
ies of coded software instructions: o string giving user access to a system
algorithm, program, routine o elec­ or part of it: password 0 means by
tronic device enabling the use of pro­ which user and system interact: user
tected software: dongle . provide a interface o onscreen warning of sys­
user interface for software: encapsu­ tem malfunction: error message
late 0 transfer software from one sys­ computer window • subsection of
tem to another: port • ready-made a window: pane o simultaneous use
artwork in software packages: clip art of several windows: windowing • re­
o software manufacturers' after-sales duce a window to an icon: iconify
advice service: techn ical support o arrange windows so that they do not
o sudden software failure: crash overlap: tile 0 bar at the foot of a win­
computer system • computer dow giving information on the docu­
system modelled on the human brain: ment edited or the program running
neural net, neural n etwork • theory
status bar
and development of computer systems concern o lack of concern: apathy,
able to think like humans: artificial in­ ind ifference o showing no coneern:
tel ligence 0 denotin g systems em­ insouciant, nonchalant
ploying artificial intelligence: expert, concert 0 concert for an unseated
fifth-generation o logic employed by audience: promenade concert o con­
such systems: fuzzy logic o control cert given by one or a few players: re­
system using windows, icons, etc. : cital
graphical user interface o part of a
conclusion o conclusion derived by
computer system preventing un­
logic: deduction, inference 0 conclu­
authorized access: firewall o denot­
sion inferred from a limited number
ing a system simultaneously usable by
of instances: general ization 0 un­
several people: mu lti-user o system
stated conclusion: implication o con­
multi-use: time-sharing 0 denoting
clusion wrongly inferred: non sequi­
systems able to exchange data without
conversion: interoperable 0 denoting
concrete 0 concrete reinforced
a system making input data immedi­
ately available as feedback: real time with steel: ferroconcrete, rei nforced
o denoting processing data as
concrete 0 denoting concrete
strengthened by rods inserted under
it is generated: real-time 0 denoting
systems creating three-dimensional tension: prestressed o large flat

displays: immersive 0 arrange and

piece of concrete: slab • concrete
layer under a building: oversite, raft
adjust the elements of a computer sys­
o planking supporting setting con­
tem: configure 0 copy data from one
computer system to another: down­ crete: sh utteri ng
load 0 transfer data to a larger com­ condiments 0 table condiment­
puter system: upload 0 re-express holder: cruet 0 mixture of oil, vin­
data for use with a different system: egar, and herbs: dreSS ing
convert o computer's ability to inter­ condition forms: -acy
o combining
connect systems: connectivity 0 10- (e.g. l unacy), -hood (e. g. falsehood) ,
gical organization of a computer sys­ -ness (e.g. silli ness), -osis (e.g. neur­
tem: arch itecture o denoting an osis), -osity (e.g. pomposity), -tude
architecture allowing several instruc­ (e.g. solitude) 0 in its original condi­
tions to be loaded and executed simul- tion: pristine 0 agreed conditions:
con diti oning I container 80

terms • essential condition: pre­ consent • adjective: consensual

req u isite, s i ne qua n o n . permission short of consent: toler­
conditioning • conditioning of cut ation •

timber by exposure t o the weather: consequence • inevitable conse­

seasoning . raising tolerance levels quence: coro l lary . have or cause as
by regular exposure: desensitization a consequence: enta i l , entra i n

cone • adjective: conical, conic, conservation • open area round a

conoid • cone intersected by a plane: town, with development restrictions:
conic sectio n • mathematics of g reen belt . other area so treated:
conic sections: con ics Enviro n mental ly Sensitive Area

conference • academic conference: • listed building's level of importance:

colloq u i u m , sym posium . represen­ g rade

tative sent to a conference: delegate consonant • type of consonant pro­

duced by a sudden release of air: plo­
confinement • confinement to
s ive • type of consonant produced by
one's home: ho use a r rest . confine­
breath friction: fricative • type of
ment in a distant part of one's coun­
consonant produced by brief contact
try: i nte rnal exile • confinement of
between palate and tongue tip: fl a p
enemy aliens during wartime: intern­
• type o f consonant produced by con­
tact or proximity between palate and
confirm • confirm formally: vo uch
tongue blade: palatal • type of con­
• confirm a statement: corroborate
sonant produced by contact between
conform • determined refusal to tongue tip and the palatal ridge or
conform: perversity • person not upper front teeth: dental • type of
to conform: d ropout, ec­ consonant produced by full or partial
centric lip closure: l a b i a l
confuse • confused state of the eld­ constitution • partial suspension
erly: senile dementia • confused of the constitution: state of emer­
mass: welter • surprise and confuse: ge ncy
disconcert, nonplus • in headlong
consul • consul's office or staff: con­
confusion: pell-mell
s u late • host government's official
connect • adjective: conju nctive, recognition of consular staff: exeq ua­
connective • temporary electrical or tur
telephone connection: patc h consultation • opportunity pro­
connoisseur • connoisseur o f food vided by an MP, lawyer, etc. for infor­
and drink: gourmet, gastronome mal consultation: surgery
• connoisseur of pictures and an­ consume . consume sparingly: eke
tiques: virtuoso out • promotion of consumer inter­
conqueror • Spanish conqueror of ests: consumerism
South America: co n q u istador contact . forcible contact: impact
conscience • adjective: conscien­ ., spread by contact: contagious
tious • person refusing to fight as a container • container for fluids:
matter of moral principle: conscien­ reservo i r, cistern • cylindrical metal
tious objecto r container: canister • sealed con­
conscious • temporary loss of con­ tainer holding a measured amount of
sciousness: blackout • below the medicine etc. : a m poule • container
level of consciousness: su b l i m i n a l for audiotape: cassette, reel • barred
. ri gid unconscious state: cata lepsy container for animal feed: crib • con-
81 containing I contract

tainer for film, ink, or a computer pro­ the British isles to the Urals: Europe
gram: cartridge . large flexible con­ • major section of a continent: sub­
tainer for water-transport of liquids: continent • creation of continents by
dracone • suspended container with the raising of the earth's crust: epeir­
a discharge chute: hopper • con­ ogeny • gradual movement of the
tainer for molten metal: crucible earth's continents: continental drift
. container for building waste: skip
contraception • penis sheath:
• container for papers: briefcase, fi le,
condom • contraceptive cover for
portfolio • case for unfolded draw­
the cervix: cap, diaphragm , Dutch
ings: portfolio • container for petrol
cap • intrauterine contraceptive:
or water: jerrycan . container for
coil, loop . device for washing out
relics: reliquary • container for tea:
the vagina: douche • substance kill­
caddy . tin-lined wooden container
ing spermatozoa: spermicide • oral
for shipping tea: tea chest • perfor
contraceptive containing both oestro­
ated hollow metal sphere to hold in­
gen and progestogen: combined pill
fusing tea leaves: tea baH • container
• oral
am p ulla, cruse
contraceptive that may be taken
for wine or oil;
after intercourse: morning-after pill
• small container for table condi­
• contraceptive method based on
ments: cruet . glass container for
body temperature: sympto-thermal
wine or spirits: decanter • container
method • contraceptive met.hod of
made from a piece of paper twisted at
avoiding intercourse when conception
the ends: twist • earthenware pot or
is most likely: rhythm method . time
j ar: crock • sealed container filled
when a woman is least likely to con­
with objects representative of the cur­
ceive: safe period � see also steril­
rent time, buried for future discovery:
time capsule • batter-proof con
tainer: fl ight case • perforated con­ contract • adjective: contractual,
tainer for sweet-smelling substances: contractural e contract drawn u p by
pomander � see also basket, lug­ deed: covenant • contract for peri­

gage odic work: account • apprentice's

contract: indenture • subordinate

containing . combining form: ·fer
(e.g. aquifer), fercus (e.g. auriferous), contract: su bcontract " contract
-ous (e.g. dangerous) binding in honour only: gentleman's
agreement . weakening flaw in a
contaminate . contaminate food
contract: loophole . clause in a con­
or drink: adu lterate, doctor . con­
tract stipulating exceptions: savin g
tamination of the environment: pollu­
clause • clause freeing a party from
obligations under stated conditions:
context • out of context: in vacuo escape clause . clause allowing for
continent . large continent of the price increases: escalator clause
geological past: su perconti nent • document recording a contract:
e supposed original single continent: deed , memorandum . detailed text
Pangaea • subsequent land mass in of a contract: small print • thing
the southern hemisphere: Gondwana given or done in return for another's
. subsequent land mass in the north· contracted act: consideration e lm·
ern hemisphere: Laurasia . contin­ tial sum paid to validate a contract:
ent round the South Pole: Antarctica deposit • security for the completion
• continent round the North Pole: Arc­ of a contract: pledge • changed cir­
tic • continent lying east of Europe: cumstances making performance im­
Asia • continent running east from possible: force majeure • payment at
co ntradiction I cookery

early termination of contract: sever­ cooked • lightly cooked (of pasta Of,
a nce pay • performance of a con­ vegetables): al d ente • very lightly!
tractual obligation ordered by a court: cooked (of meat): saignant . lightly!
s pecific performa nce . enter into a cooked (of meat): rare . cooked gen-;
contract: engage . release from COll­ tly in their own juice (of vegetables): ,
tractual obligation: discharge • per­ sweated • fried and then stewed: !
son securing and negotiating con­ b raised • cooked by dipping into a�
tracts for a performer or creative hot oil or sauce: fondue • simmered ,
artist: agent in or over a little liquid: poached ;
• partly cooked by boiling:
contradiction • apparent contra­
• parboiled and then fried: sauteed 1
diction used for rhetorical effect:
oxym oron • self-contradictory: in­ cookery • adjective: c u l i nary :
consistent • expression acknowledg • type of cookery: cuisine • high

ing that one is contradicting the per­ quality cooking: haute cUIsine
son specified: pace • style of cookery emphasizing presen­
tation and fresh ingredients: no uvelle
contrast • contrast of light and
cuisine • cookery as a school subject:
shade: chiaroscuro • volume con­
food tech nology, home econom ics,
trasts in a musical piece: dynamics
domestic science • device with a
control • control from a distance: small burner for keeping dishes hot at
remote contro l . controlling influ­ the table: chafi n g dish • heated food
ence stifling initiative: d ead hand trolley: hostess trol ley • constituent
• state economic and social control: of a dish: i n g redient • device extract-
d i rigisme • control of former de­ ing juice: j u icer . liquidizing and
pendencies by economic or political chopping device: blender, food pro-
pressure: neoco l o n i a l i sm • control cessor • device for whipping liquids:
panel: console, fa scia . loss of con­ whisk • waxed paper for cookery:
trol of one's bodily movements: ataxia g reaseproof paper • denoting cook-
. lass of control of one's bodily func­ ware usable in the oven or on the hob:
tions: i n continence • absence of any flameproof • enamel cooking pot
control: a n a rchy • noisy and hard to with lid and handle: b i l l y, b i l lycan
control: o bstrepero u s • easy to con­ • small metal cooking pot: skillet
trol: b i d d a b l e, pliable, tracta b l e . large metal cooking pot: ca u l d ron
• take control o f: commandeer • large metal cooking pot for field use:
• bring under control: subdue, subj u ­ dixie . large covered cooking pot:
gate • enter and take control of: oc­ casserole • small pot for cooking
cupy • free from control: dereg u late and serving food: cocotte, ramekin
• remove from a position of control: • saucepan cooking food in an upper
override .. see also power compartment by means of hot water
convent • adjective: conventual held in a lower compartment: bain
.. see also monastery marie, double boiler, double sauce­
pan • airtight saucepan for fast cook­
convince • person hard to con­
ing: pressure cooker • broad-bladed
vince: sceptic • easily convinced:
serving utensil: sl ice • blunt wooden
cred ulous, g u l l i b l e
blade: spatula • hand-held crushing
cook • senior cook: chef • assistant implement: pestle • strong dish for
cook: commis • chef's tall white hat: this: mortar . large cooking stove:
toque • denoting a first-class cook: ra nge • circular iron cooking plate:
cordon bleu griddle • spike for cooking pieces of
83 cooperation I corpse

food: skewer, spit • grill frame of c o py ri gh t • infringement of copy­

parallel bars: gridiron . cooking ap­ piracy . out
right: of copyright: in
pliance with a rotating spit: rotisserie the public domain
• heating area on the flat top of a
coral • ridge of coral in the sea: reef
cooker: hob, hotplate • partially
• circular coral reef or group of is­
cook by boiling: parboil • cook at just
lands: atoll
below boiling point: simmer, poach,
coddle • denoting a gentle heat for cord . cord holding a whistle etc. :
cooking: slow . denoting a strong la nyard . cord round a Scout's neck­
heat for cooking: fast • immerse ve­ erchief: woggle
getables briefly in boiling water: cork • spiral device for extracting
blanch • fry lightly and then stew: corks: corkscrew
braise • pour juice over cooking
meat: baste . liquid remaining after
corn • hand mill for grinding corn:
cooking: liquor
q uern • beat corn from the ears:
cooperation • positive. cooper­
ation: synergy • passive cooperation: cornea • combining form: kerato­
conn ivance • covert cooperation: • inflammation of the cornea: kera­
col lusion • in close cooperation: titis • corneal surgery: keratoplasty
concerted, in concert corpse . combiningform: (e.g.
copper . combining forms: cha lc-, necropolis, literally 'city of the dead)
cu pr- • adjectives: cupric, cuprous • embalmed corpse wrapped in ban­
• greenish surface colour of oxidized dages: mummy • corpse used for
copper: verdigris • prehistoric era in medical research: cadaver • corpse
which copper and stone tools were revived by witchcraft: zombie . re­
used: chalcolithic animated corpse supposed to drink

copy • exact copy: dupl icate, fac­ blood from living persons: vampire
simile, diplomatic copy • exact gen­ • corpse-like: cadaverous • dissec­
etic copy: clone • copy passed off as tion of a corpse to establish the cause
the original: forgery • copy taken on of death: post-mortem, autopsy, nec­
paper laid over. a raised design: rub­ ropsy • preservation of a corpse by
bing . copy made by drawing round injecting chemicals: embalmment
a shaped piece of card etc.: stencil • deep-freezing of corpses: cryo nics
• copying the work of another and • wrapping for a corpse: shroud,
claiming it as one 's own: plagiarism, windi ng-sheet • container for a
pi racy • copying of a rival product corpse: coffin . watch kept over a
after detailed examination: reverse corpse before disposal: wake • place
engineeri ng . text spoken for copy­ for storing corpses: mortuary,
ing down: dictation • original from morgue • destruction of a corpse by
which copies may be made: master fire:cremation . fire for burning a
• issue of a stated number of copies: corpse: pyre • burial of a corpse: in­
l i m ited ed ition • in three identical terment • rotting of a corpse: decom­
copies : in tri pl icate • in four identi­ position • fear of corpses: necropho­
cal copies: in quadruplicate . copy­ bia • sexual intercourse with
ing machine using stencils and fluid corpses: necrophilia • dig up a
ink: duplicator . copying process corpse: exhume • cut up a cadaver
using dry powder: xerography for internal study: d issect . denot­
• colour copying process using ing a corpse that has not
diazonium: diazo, dyeline i ncorrupt
cor rect I cow 84

correct • combining form: ortho- cotton • cotton seed capsule: boll

• conventionally correct: o rthodox • cotton-separating machine: gin
• correctable: corri g i b l e � see also fa bric
corset • light elastic corset: fo unda­ cough • adjective: tussive • re-

tion garment, g i rd l e , rol l-on peated coughing interspersed with

rasping gasps: whoo p i n g cough
cosmetics • cosmetic improving
• coughed-up mixture of saliva and
facial skin: face mask, face pack
mucus: sputum • medicine for
• cosmetic making the skin firm and
coughs: expectorant
smooth: toner • cosmetic removing
dead skin cells: exfo l i a n t • cosmetic council • adjective: conci l i a r
used for outlines: l i ner • eyelash cos­ • council o f cardinals: consistory
metic: mascara • cosmetic giving a count • population count: census
warm colour to the cheeks: b l usher • counting device with beads on
• red cosmetic: rouge • thin stick of wires: a bacus
cosmetic: pencil • flesh-toned stick to
counterpoint • adjective: contra­
cover blemishes: concea ler • cos­
p u ntal . counterpoint sung above a
metic applied by a rotating ball: rol l ­
melody: descant
on • fine brush for applying cos­
metics: wa n d • small case containing country • adjectives: rural, rustic,
cosmetics and a mirror: com pact, pastoral, bucolic • person coming to
va nity case • cosmetic treatment of live in a foreign country: i m m i g ra nt
the hands: m a n i c u re • cosmetic • person leaving his or her country:
treatment of the feet: pedicure e m i g rant • person leaving his or her
• actors' make-up: greasepaint country to escape war, persecution,
• testing of cosmetics on rabbits: etc. : refugee • person living outside
D ra ize testi ng his native country: ex patriate • un­

critical loyalty to one's country:

cosmology • theory that the uni­
verse began with an explosion of
dense matter: big bang theory • the­ county • administrative capital of a
ory that the universe has always county: cou nty town • sovereign's
maintained an average density: representative in a county: Lord Lieu­
steady state theory � see also cre­ tenant • chief executive of the Crown
ation in a county: she rriff

Cossack • Cossack commander: court martial • barrister advising

hetman • squatting Cossack dance: this: judge a dvocate • official con­

kazachoc trolling army and RAF courts martial:

Judge Advocate General
cost • costs of materials and manu­
facture, excluding overheads: prime courtroom • courtroom section for
cost • cost of producing one further judges or magistrates: bench • sec·

item: marg i n a l cost • general run­ tion for the jury or a witness: box
ning costs: overheads • involving • section for the accused: dock • area
acceptable costs: economic, econom­ for the lawyers and court officials:
ical • denoting an asset or activity wel l � see also lawcou rt
that earns back its original cost: self­ cow • male cow: bull • castrated
l i q u idating • pay part of the cost: bull: bul lock, ox (pl. oxe n ) , steer
subsid ize • progressive write-off of • young cow: calf • young female
an asset's purchase price: amortiza­ cow: heife r • cow's mammary gland:
tion udder • cow's partly digested food:
85 cowardice I c ricket

cud • fine parchment made from calf­ creditworthiness: white information

skin: vellum � see also cattle • company assembling data for credit
cowardice . symbol of cowardice: credit agency, credit refer­
white feather ence agency
cowboy • South American cowboy: crescent • crescent-shaped: lu nate
gaucho • cowboy's leather
cricket' . wooden cross-piece con­
overtrousers: chaparaj os,
necting a pair of stumps: bail . stick
. cowboys' exhibition of skills: rodeo
supporting the bails: stump . set of
• cowboy film or story: western
bails and stumps: wicket • pitch be­
crab . male crab: cock • female tween the two wickets: wicket . line
crab: hen . astrological term: can­ where the batsmen stands: crease,
cer popping crease • lines between
crack • full of fine cracks: crazed which the ball must be delivered: re­
. small cracks on an old painting's turn creases . spell at batting: in­
surface: craquelure nings . lengthy innings by a pair of
craftsman • barrelmaker:
cooper batsmen: stand • batsman's vigorous
• craftsman in brazier
brass: stroke: drive • batsman's stroke
• skilled furniture maker: cabinet­ sending the ball to the side: pull
maker • craftsman in gold: gold­ • batsman's stroke slightly deflecting
sm ith • person shoeing horses: the ball: snick • glancing stroke giv­
blacksm ith, farrier • person working ing the ball spin: slice • hit gaining
iron by hand: blacksm ith • mender one run: single • batsman's innings
of shoes: cobbler • craftsman in sil­ score of zero: duck • batsman sent in
ver: silversm ith • skilled carver and at the end of a day's play: nightwatch­
builder in stone: mason, stonemason man . sequence of six balls bowled
• maker of stringed instruments: lu­ from one end of the pitch: over . re­
thier, lutist . woodworker making volving motion imparted to the ball:
stairs, doors, etc. : joiner spin • bowled ball's striking the
ground: pitch • distance from the
crane • crane with a movable
batsman at which the ball pitches:
pivoted arm: derrick • crane moving
length • denoting a ball pitching too
on rails: tralJeliing crane • crane' s
projecting a r m : jib . movable beam
close to the batsman: ove rpitched
• denoting a ball pitching close to the
supporting a crane: ga ntry
bowler: sh ort • sideways deviation of
cream . thin cream with little milk
a bowled ball: swi ng • batsman's ob­
fat:single cream • thick cream with
struction of the ball: leg before
much milk fat: double cream • thick
wicket • side of the field behind the
cream obtained by heating milk: clot­
batsman: leg side • side of the field
ted cream • double cream with
facing the batsman: off side • field
added yoghurt: creme fraiche
furthest from the batsman: outfield
• cream of liquidized fruit or veget­
• denoting a fielding position there:
ables: puree
deep • denoting a fielding position
creation . combining form: -geny opposite the stumps: square • area
(e.g. orogeny) • creation of matter around the wicket: infield • fielder
throughout time: conti nuous cre­ placed immediately behind the wicket
ation � see also cosmology of the batsman receiving the bowling:
credit • estimate of a person's wicketkeeper • denoting fielding
creditworthiness: credit rati ng positions near the batsman: short
• positive information o n a person's • denoting fielding positions very
c ricket I c ri m i n a l 86

near the batsman: s i l ly • fielding i m p l i cate • bribe someone to commit

positions behind the batsman: s l i p s an unlawful act: suborn • person or
• scoring unit: run • run awarded for organization acting as a cover for il­
a ball not struck: bye, extra • run legal activities: front • person who
awarded for a ball striking the bats­ encourages others to commit crimes
man: leg bye • run awarded for a ball in order to denounce them: agent pro­
bowled out of the batsman's reach: vocate u r (pl. agents provocateurs)
wide • over in which no runs are • inducement to commit a crime
scored: m a i d e n over • ball reaching offered by an agent provocateur: en­
the batsman without touching the tra pment • incriminating item added
ground: fu l l toss, fu l l pitch • ball to someone's belongings: p l a nt • in­
pitching immediately under the bat: tention to commit a crime: m a l i ce
yorker • ball illegally delivered: aforethoug ht, mens rea • charge
no-ball • bowler's style of action: de­ someone with a serious crime: i n d ict
l ivery • trophy competed for annu­ • person responsible for a crime: cul­
ally by England and Australia: the prit • defence showing one was else­
Ashes • match that is part of a series where when the crime was commit­
between two national teams: test ted: alibi • facts justifying or
m a tch, Test . large white screen excusing a crime: exten uation • po­
placed behind the bowler: sight lice coordination office for investiga­
screen • netted strip of ground for tion of a major crime: i n cident room
practice: net • cricketer's genital • householders' vigilance to discour­
shield: box . end a team's innings: age crime: neighbourhood watch
d i s m iss • team's second innings . study of crime: cri m i n o logy . civil
played immediately after its first: wrongdoing, other than breach of con­
fo llow-o n . announce an early close tract: tort • severe response to un­
to an innings: declare • end of a desirable activity: crackdown
day's play: close • denoting a game
criminal • criminal beneath the age
between major county sides: first
of legal responsibility: juvenile d e l i n ­
class • denoting a county not in­
quent . criminal aged 14-17: young
volved in these games: m i n or
offender • criminal aged 18-20:
cricket' . shrill sound made by a yo ung adult offender • violent crim­
cricket's rubbing its legs together: inal: thug • violent troublemaker:
stri d u lation hoodlum, hooligan • criminal who
crime • adjective: nefarious betrays other criminals to the police:
. minor juvenile crime: d e l i n q uency g rass, i nfo rmer • convicted criminal
• crime triable by a magistrate: sum­ who reoffends: rec id ivist • group of
mary offe nce • professional negli­ criminals: fa m i ly, gang, ring . trader
gence or dishonesty: m a l p ractice in stolen goods: fence • criminal's
• crime motivated by sexual jealousy: apparently innocent activities: cover,
crime passionnel (pl. crimes front • criminal's admission of guilt:
passion nels) . denoting a crime pun­ confession • criminal's evidence
ishable by death: capital . facts and against his accomplices: Queen's (or
circumstances constituting a crime: K i ng's) evi dence • criminal's assist­
corpus del icti • involvement in ant: acco m p l i ce . person assisting a
crime: compl icity . deliberate hin­ criminal in planning or committing a
drance of the police: obstruction crime: accessory before the fact
• police re-enactment of a crime: re­ • person assisting a criminal after the
construction • establish complicity: crime has been committed: accessory
87 criticism I cruel
....... ................ .............................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... .......... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .

after the fact • criminal act: actus powder a crop: d ress . aerial pow­
reus . criminal intent: mens rea dering of crops: crop dusting . sub­
• in the criminal act: in flagrante de­ stance added to the soil to improve
licto . criminal cooperation: collu­ cropping: fertil izer • science of crop
sion, conn ivance, conspiracy • be­ production: agronomy
tray a criminal to the authorities:
croquet • croquet stick: hammer
denounce • make someone appear to
• small metal arch: hoop • winning
be a criminal: incriminate • group
post: peg • strike another player's
assembled for identification of a sus­
ball with one ' s own: roquet . stroke
pect: identity parade • science used
driving two touching balls in different
in criminal investigations: forensics directions: split shot • send another
• centre housing young offenders:
player's ball through a hoop: peel
commun ity home . electronic moni­
• ball that has passed all the hoops:
toring of convicted criminals: elec­ rover • win the game by hitting the
tronic ta gging . picture of a wanted
peg:peg out
criminal composed of standard elem ­
ents: identikjtTM • unpaid social work cross cruci-
. combining form:
• cross with a loop at the top: ankh
required of a convicted offender: com­
• cross bearing a figure of Christ: cru­
mun ity service . scientific study of
criminals: crimi nology .. see also cifix . cross with equal arms: G reek
execution, punishment cross • cross with the lowest arm
longer: Lati n cross • Latin cross
criticism • considered critical as­ with the arms in a circle: Celtic cross
sessment: evaluation • published
. Greek cross with each arm con­
critical assessment: review . literary tinued at a right angle:fylfot, swas­
analysis regarding a text as having no tika . X-shaped cross: St Andrew's
fixed meaning: decon struction, post­ cross • T-shaped cross: St Antho ny'S
structuralism . humorous criticism cross, tau cross • cross-shaped: cru­
of public mores: satire • witheringly ciform • person carrying a proces­
scathi n g • criticize severely:
critical: sional cross: crucifer
lambaste, pan, rebuke • criticize
crossbow • arrow for a crossbow:
with the benefit of hindsight: second­
guess • person or institution held to bolt
be above criticism: sacred cow crossword puzzle • blank space
to be filled with a letter: light • hint
crop • crop grown for sale: cash
of the word required: clue
crop • crop grown to protect or en­
rich the soil: cover crop • crop crow • adjective: corvine
grown to attract pests from another
crowd • disorderly crowd: melee,
crop: trap crop • crop grown between
mob, rabble . crowd-control device
main crops: catch crop • crop grown
ejecting a powerful jet of water: water
in the spaces between another crop:
cannon • irritant gases used in
intercrop • crop grown for sale: cash crowd control: tear gas, CS gas
crop • denoting an unharvested
crop: standing • cultivation of a sin­ crown • adjective: coronal . noble­
man's crown: coronet • pope's
gle crop throughout a particular area:
monoculture • successive cultiva­ crown: tiara . jewelled headband:

tion of different crops: crop rotation d iadem, tiara

• area of growing crops flattened to cruel • wantonly cruel: VICIOUS
form a pattern: crop circle • spray or • taking pleasure in cruelty: sadistic
cry I custom 88
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................ ......
. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

cry • high-pitched complaining cry: currency • currencies of other

whine • soft complaining cry: whim­ countries: fore i g n exchange • value

per • cry made on discovery: e u reka of currency as stated upon it: face
value, n o m i n a l value . value of a
crystal • crystal that is the mirror
currency in terms of the goods it can
image of another: en antiomorph
buy: purchasing power • former sys­
Cuba • slow Cuban dance: h a ba­ tem defining a currency's value in
n e ra terms of gold: gold standard • nom­

cucumber • small pickling cucum­ inal parity of one currency with an­

ber: gherkin other: exchange rate • value of one

currency in terms of another: val uta
cu lture • person having no cultural • denoting a currency with freely
interests: p h i l i stine • highly intelli­ changing value: floati n g • denoting
gent and cultured: sophisticated currency with a stable value: h a rd
• derived from, or knowing about, . alter a currency's international
many cultures: cos m o po l itan . cul­ value: revalue, devalue • pound's
ture at odds with established norms: value for European Union agriculture
counterculture, s u bcu lture . study purchases: green pound
of Western culture: h u m a n ities
• study of different cultures: ethnol­
current . air or water current be­
hind a propeller or jet engine: slip­
ogy • study of human culture: an­
t h ropology • study of ancient cul­ stream • subsurface current running
contrary to the surface current:
tures: a rchaeology . amalgamation
undercurrent, undertow
of diferent cultures: syncretis m
• cultural coexistence: p l u ra l i s m curry • mild curry marinaded in
• acquisition of a culture: yoghurt: korma • hot spicy curry:
i n c u lturation . cultural ambience madras . very hot spicy curry: vin­
evoked by the decor etc. of a restaur­ daloo • dried fish served with cur­
ant, pub, or amusement park: theme ries: Bombay duck

cup • small coffee cup: dem itasse curtain • border concealing curtain
• large two-handled cup passed round fittings: pel met • curtain hung in a
at feasts: loving cup • eucharistic drooping curve: swag
cup: chalice • cup used for reserva­
curve • adjective: sinuous • curve
tion of the Sacrament: ciborium
formed by a rope suspended at both
• cup used by Christ at the Last Sup­
ends: cate n a ry • part of a curve: arc
per: Holy Grai l , sangra i l
• curving inwards: con cave • curv­
cupboard • cupboard to hang ing outwards: convex
clothes in: wardrobe • heated cup­
cushion • church kneeling cushion:
board for drying clothes: airing cup­
hassock, kneeler • cushion to be
board . lockable cupboard: locker
placed at random: scatter cushion
• strong locked cupboard for valu­
• substance for stuffing cushions:
ables: safe
Cupid • Greek name: Eros
custard . custard of egg, sugar,
cure • adjectives: sanative, thera­ milk, and flour: creme patissiere
peutic • creme patissiere with ground al­
monds: frangipane
curling • mark aimed at: tee • ses­

sion of play in one direction: end custom . established custom: i n sti­

• captain of a curling team: skip tuti on, usage • traditional customs
39 customer I Cyprus

of a community: fo lklore o forbidden cut o combining forms for surgical

by social custom: taboo terms: -tome (e.g. craniotome). -tomy
(e.g. lobotomy) o make surface cuts:
customer 0 regular customer: pat­
sca rify 0 cut deeply: lacerate 0 cut
ron o made to a customer's specifica­
up for study: d issect 0 cut with a
bespoke, custom-built
sweeping stroke: slash 0 part by cut­
customs 0 customs permit for im­ ting: sever 0 cut off ends or edges:
port of a motor vehicle: carnet 0 cus­ crop, pare, prune, trim o cut into zig­
toms charge on imported goods: duty zag edges: pink o very hot cutting
o customs certificate for duty paid: flame: thermic lance � see also sur­
docket 0 customs form permitting g ical cutti ng
export of goods or removal from a
cutlery 0 box for a set of cutlery:
bonded warehouse: shipping bill canteen
• route through customs for those
with nothing to declare: g reen chan­ cylinder 0 cylinder on which thread
nel 0 route through customs for
etc. is wound: reel, spool o hollow

those with items to declare: red chan­ metal cylinder supporting a bridge:

nel 0 group of states allowing free pontoon

trade between themselves: customs Cyprus o adjective: Cypriot o polit­
union 0 evasion of customs controls: ical union of Cyprus with Greece:
smuggling enosis
dagger • small slim dagger: p o n i a rd samba • squatting Cossack dance:
• short tapering dagger: stiletto kazac hoc • Country and Western I

• dagger's handle: h i l t dancing performed in a row: l i n e dan­

dam . l ow dam i n a river: w e i r • ad­ cing • slow Cuban dance: habanera
justable dam: barrage • French high-kicking dance: cancan
• Greek folk dance performed in a
damage • deliberate damage: sabo­
line: syrtaki • swaying Hawaiian
tage, van d a l i s m • damage severely:
dance: h u l a hula . fast Hungarian
mangle . damage beyond the possi­
dance: csardas • dramatic dance of
bility of repair: write off
southern India: Kathakali • Italian
damp • cold and damp: dank
whirling dance: tarante l l a • Italian
• ground moisture absorbed into a
and Spanish leaping dance: saltare l l o
Wall: rising d a m p
. lively Polish dance: mazu rka • vig­
dance • art dancing that ignores the orous Scottish dance: H i g h land fl i n g
rules of classical ballet: modern • fast Scottish dance: reel • slow
dance • sailor's dance: hornpipe Scottish dance: strathspey • South
• traditional English dance: country American dance music with elements
dance . traditional English out­ of j azz and rock: salsa . fast South
door dance: morris dance . after­ American dance: paso doble . lively
noon dance at which tea is served: tea South American dance: ta ngo
dance • energetic street dance: • lively Spanish dance: bolero
b reak-d ance . lively dance in triple • Spanish solo dance: cachucha
time: jig • slow 18th-century dance: • Spanish courtship dance: fa ndan­
m i nuet • interweaving country go • Spanish dance with castanets:
dance: hay • country dance for four flamenco • West Indian backward­
couples: square dance • solo dance: bending dance: limbo • dance about
pas seul • dance for two people: pas
excitedly: cavort • series of steps for
de deux . dance with voluntary ex­
a dance: choreography, fi gure • in­
change of partners: excuse-me
formal gathering for country dancing:
• dance performed in a long line, one
barn dance • person who announces
behind the other: conga _ erotic dan­
the steps in a barn dance: caller
cing to popular music: go-go d a n c i n g
• group of dancers performing to­
• Middle Eastern woman's erotic solo
gether: ensemble . number of parti­
dance: belly dance • synchronized
cipants needed for a square or coun­
ballroom dancing: sequence dancing
try dance: set • public dance hall:
• ballroom dance with slow and quick
palais, palais de danse � see also
steps: foxtrot • ballroom dance with
partners side-by-side: veleta • ball­

room dance with pronounced hip dancer • dancer's tights: m a i l lot

movements: rumba • ballroom dance • tubular garment covering a rehears­
in triple time: waltz • fast foxtrot: ing dancer's legs: leg warmers • dan­
q u ickstep • fast Bohemian dance: cer's leap or sitting posture with one
polka • lively Brazilian dance: leg forward and one back, both at
91 Dane I death

right angles to the trunk: spl its � see dawn . adjective: auroral
also bal let day • adjective: diurnal • day before:
Dane • part of England under Dan­ eve • day in which hours of daylight
ish rule: Oanelaw • tax levied by the and darkness are equinox
Anglo-Saxons to repel the Danes: . longest or shortest solstice
Oanegeld • important day: red-letter day • first

danger • serious danger: peril day of the Roman month: calends

• each day: per diem • period of
. hidden danger: pitfall . danger in­
herent in a job: occupational hazard morning twilight: dawn • part of the
• remove from a dangerous place: day given over to work: working day
• part of the day when many are com­
evacuate . person so moved: evac­
uee muting: drive time • period of even­
ing twilight: dusk . happening in a
Dante • adjectives: Oa ntea n, Oant­
daily cycle: circadian . process by
which the equinoxes occur slightly
dark • shining in the dark: luminous earlier each year: precession
• night that i s never completely dark:
daylight • right to enjoy daylight in
white night
one's windows, unobstructed by sub­
darts . tail of a dart: flighl . hit on sequent building: ancient lig hts
a part of the board where scores are
deacon • adjective:diaconal . of­
doubled: double • group of games
counting as a unit towards a match:
fice of deacon: diaconate • deacon's
set . line behind which the thrower
over-vestment: dal matic
stands: hockey, oche dead end . deadlock in argument

data • denoting data gathered over a or discussion: impasse, sta lemate

• road with no exit at its far end: cul­
long longitudinal • grid for
data display: matrix � see also elec­ de-sac
tronic data deaf • progressive deafness due to
date' • post-date
give a later date to: bone growth in the ear: otosc lerosis
. latest possible date: terminus ante • surgical opening made in the inner
quem • earliest possible date: ter­ ear to relieve deafness: fenestration
minus a q uo, terminus post quem • teaching the deaf to communicate by
• out of date: obsolete, passe lip-reading and speech: oralism
• going out of. date: obsolescent dealer • dealer i n ship's supplies:
• with no date set: sine die chandler • dealer in candles: chand­
date2 . date with a person one has ler • dealer in cheap and shoddy
not met before: blind date goods: cheapjack

dating • dating of timber structures dean • adjective: deca nal • dean's

from the tree rings they contain: den­ residence: deanery
drochronology • dating of geological death . combining form: mori-,
eras: chronostratigraphy, geochron­ necr-, -thanasia • death viewed as a
ology • dating of objects from
statistical OCcurrence: fatality, mortal­
carbon-14 decay: carbon dati ng, ity • number of deaths caused by an
radiocarbon dating . dating system event: to ll . causing death: fatal, le­
derived from the birth of Christ:
thal, mortal, te rminal • connected
Christian E ra, Common Era • mis­
with death: macabre • bound to die:
taken dating: parachronism
mortal • die before another does: pre­
daughter • adjective: filial decease • Christian ceremonies
death I debt 92

over a dying person: last rites • gurg­ • ratio o f deaths t o living population:'
ling of dying person: death rattle death rate • number of deaths from a l
• struggling of a dying person: throes par.ticular cause: m o rtal ity rate�
• at the point of death: mori b u n d , i n • equivalence of birth and death .

extre m i s • denoting a condition that zero population growth • after-�

will end in death: term i n a l • revive death: posth umous . movement of'
someone apparently dead: resuscitate the soul to a different body after i
• experience at the brink of death: death: tra n s m i g ration . the use of'
near-death experience • ghostly magic to summon up the dead: necro- \.
image of a person seen near their time m a n cy • supposed communication
of death: wraith • death inflicted to with the dead by mediums: spiritual­
end incurable suffering: euthanasia ism • meeting of persons wishing to
• death-blow: coup de grace (pl. contact the dead by spiritualism: se­
coups de grace) . unexplained death a n ce • person returning from the �

of a sleeping baby: cot death, s u d d e n dead: reve n a n t • psychological urge

i nfa nt death syn d rome • death of to self-destruction: death i n stinct ·

body tissue: gan grene, mortificati o n , . life after death: afte rlife, the other
world • rebirth of the soul in a new
necros is • stiffness o f joints after
body: rei ncarnation • never-dying:
death: rigor m o rtis • decaying flesh
i m m orta l • all dead: extinct • study
of a dead animal: carrion • cessation
of death and dying: thanatology
of vital functions as proof of death:
• Christian day for general commem­
c l i n ical death • bell rung at death:
oration of the dead: All Souls' Day
knell • date of death: obit • plaster
� see also fu n e ra l
cast of a dead person' s face: death
mask • newspaper announcement of debate . advantage in debate: h i g h
a person's death: obituary • govern­ ground . subject t o debate: moot
ment office where deaths are re­ • question on procedure: po int of
corded: reg i ste r office • insurance o rde r . debater's acknowledgement
sum payable at death: reversion of an opponent's point: touche . mo­
• total money and property owned by tion to end a debate: closure
a dead person: estate • medical
debt • debt not legally recoverable:
examination to find the cause of a per­
debt of h o n o u r • debt overdue for re­
son's death: post-m o rtem • special­
payment: a r rears . debt repayable
ist conducting this examination: path­ soon: floati n g debt • debt with a dis­
ologist • official statement of cause, tant, or no, repayment date: fu nded
date, and place of death: death certifi­ debt • money owed by a company:
cate o official investigating the cause account payable, l i a b i l ity . money
of a person's death: coroner • the in­ owed to a company: accou nts receiv­
quiry a coroner conducts: i n q uest able • total owed by a state: national
• service for the dead: fu nera l , re­ debt . debt of gratitude: o b l i gation
q u iem . lament for the dead: d i rge, • denoting a debt not yet repaid: out­
threnody • poem lamenting the dead: sta n d i n g • denoting a debt repayable
elegy • recently dead: deceased on demand: u nfu nded . denoting a
• show sorrow at a death: mourn debt impossible to recover: bad • de­
• reminder o f death's inevitability: noting a debt whose recovery is un­
memento m o ri . picture of Death likely: dou btfu l . legal permission
leading all to the grave: dance of for late repayment: mo ratori um
death , d a n se macabre • person • debtor's asset forfeited if repayment
over-interested in death: ghoul is not achieved: pledge, secu rity
3 decay I decoration

• money paid to service a debt: inter­ ing on decayed matter: sap rophyte
est . (of) a person who cannot pay off • decay slowly through neglect: moul­
his debts: bankrupt, em barrassed, i n­ der
solvent . failure to repay a debt: de­
d eceive . easily deceived: credu­
fault . demand repayment of a debt:
lous, g u l l i ble • intent to deceive:
' d u n • payment of a debt: liquidatio n ,
mala fides . deliberate deception for
redempti on, satisfaction • payment
financial gain: frau d • instance of de­
of a debt by instalments: amortization
liberate deception: hoax • deceptive
• company's issue of shares to pay off
behaviour: false pretences • decep­
debts: reca pitalization • money
tive appearance: illusion • deception
raised for gradual repayment of a
effected by making a true statement
debt: sinking fu n d • further time
seem like a deception: double bl uff
granted to repay a debt: indu lgence,
• ploy designed to conceal one's true
roll-over • easing a debtor's position
intentions: blind
I by modifying the repayment demands:
restructuring • cancellation of a decision • ability t o make one's
debt: remission • abandon ftttempts own decisions: free will • not finally
to recover a debt: write off . free of decided: open . denoting a decision
debt: unencum bered , u ngeared supported by all present: u n a n imous
• seizure of a debtor's goods: attach­ • right to reject a decision made by
ment, distrai nt, di stress, executio n , others: veto • state of indecision:
sequestrati o n • court order seizing a q u andary • wavering indecision:
debtor's assets: Ma reva i nj u nction vaci llation
• right t o hold these until the debt is
decline • moral or cultural decline:
paid: lien • seizure of a debtor's
money or wages: garnish ment, at­
tachment of earnings . person ap­ decompose • able to be decom­
pointed to dispose of the assets of an posed by sunlight: photodegradable
insolvent person or business: admin­ • able to be decomposed by bacteria:
istrator • agree t o release a debtor biodegradable
for a smaller payment: compound decoration • additional decoration:
• terminate gas etc. supply until bills tri m • decoration of thin strips of
are paid: d iscon n ect • potential in­ shiny metal foil: tinsel . decoration
debtedness through business commit­ of plaited straw: corn dolly . hang­
ments: exposure . potential indebt­ ing decoration turning in the air: mo­
edness through falling values of bile . decoration of a manuscript: iI­
mortgaged property: negative equ ity I u m i nation • carved o r coloured
. ratio of corporate debt to share decoration of shells: scri mshaw
value: geari ng, leverage • assess­ • decoration of wood or leather with a
ment of a person or firm's likelihood heated point: pokerwork, pyrography
of paying its debts: credit rating, • cloth items decorating a room: soft
creditworthiness • organization
furnish i ngs . flags and streamers:
making such assessments: credit ref­ b u nting . crinkly paper for decor-
erence agency .. see also loan ations: crepe paper • decorative
decay . combining form: sapr- lights: i l l u m i nations • decorative
• decay of teeth or bones: caries strip of cloth hung over a window etc.:
• decay of a part of the body: mortifi­ va lance . decorative design of inter­
cation, necrosis • decayed organic twining branches etc. : ara besque
matter in the soil: humus • plant liv- • denoting metal inlaid with gold or
decrease I dentist 94

silver: dam ascened • gelatinous so­ paedics . adjustment of tooth and

lution used in interior decoration: jaw irregularities: o rthodontics
size • merely decorative: cosmetic
degre� • bachelor's degree: bacca-
decrease . decrease in value: de­ l a u reate . degree next above bach­
p reciation • decrease the apparent elor in certain universities: l i centiate
importance of: downplay, downrate • doctor's degree: doctorate . degree
deduction . deduction from wages awarded to a candidate who was il at
ordered by a lawcourt: garnishment, the time of the examination: aeg rotat
attachment of earnings • denoting a • denoting a degree conferred when
deduction derived from observation the graduand is elsewhere: in
or experience: a posteriori • denot­ a bsentia
ing a deduction derived from theoret­
delay • adjective: d i l atory • delay
ical concepts: a priori
by non-cooperation: stonewa l l
deep . combining form: bath- (e.g. • delay b y making lengthy speeches:
bathyscaphe) . region of especially fi l i b u ster
deep sea: trench . not deep: shallow
delusion • visual delusion: hallu­
deer • adjective: cervine • female
cination . delusions of being perse­
deer: doe, h i n d . male deer: buck,
cuted: paranoia • delusions caused
hart, stag • young deer: fawn
by alcoholism: d e l i ri u m tremens
. deer's short tail: scut . small tail­
less deer: roe • male roe: roebuck demand • final demand, made with
• small deer with a doglike bark: threats of sanctions: ultimatum
muntjac . stag's branched horns: • when demand is low: off-peak
antlers . antler's sharp point: tine . failure to satisfy demand: shortfa l l
. soft skin covering a growing antler: Demeter • Latin name: Ceres
velvet • deer's annual period of sex­
demolition . completely destroy a
ual activity: rut • produce offspring:
building: raze • structure of a gutted
fawn . deer's track: slot • deer's
building: shell • fragments of a de­
false hoof: dewclaw • disembowel a
molished building: ru bble • heavy
deer: gra l loch • deer's entrails as
beam used to knock down walls: bat­
food: n u m bles . deer meat: venison
tering ram
. leg and loin of venison: haunch
defeat • defeat soundly: troun ce, demon • combining form: demono­
va n q u i sh . defeat and drive back: • adjective: demoniac, demoniacal,
rout • admit defeat: concede demonic • demon attending a witch:
fam i l i a r, fa m i l i a r spi rit • worship of
defecation • inability to control
demons: demono latry • control by a
defecation: i n continence • bedrid­
demon: possession • expulsion of
den person's receptacle for urine and
demons: exorci sm • study of demons:
faeces: bed pan
defence • defence of one's conduct:
apologia . defence of a theory: demonstration • silent static dem­
apo logetics • uncompromising de­ onstration: v i g i l
fence of a position: sta nd • defensive
dentist • dentist who corrects the
mound before a trench: para pet . de­
position of teeth: o rthodontist • den­
fensive mound behind a trench: para­
tist dealing with the structures
around the teeth: periodontist . den­
deformity • medical treatment of tist's assistant who cleans teeth: hy­
bone and muscle deformities: o rtho- g i e n i st • dentist's small drill: bur
95 d epart I device
. .. . . . . . ... ... . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .

depa rt • depart secretly or illegally: desire • desire another's property:

a bscon d . departure from the nor­ covet • gratify a base desire: pander
mal or expected: aberration desk . large desk for two facing per­
depression • atmospheric depres- sons: partners' desk • denoting a
sion: cyclone • tiredness and depres­ desk with a sliding flexible cover: roll­
sion occurring after a viral infection: top
chronic fatigue syndrome • drug al­ despair . despair at imagined lack
leviating depression: of progress: accidie, demotivation
depth • combining form: bathy- destruction • covert destruction:
• instrument measuring the depth of sa botage • destruction of revered
seas or lakes: bathymeter • manned objects or ideas: iconoclasm • ma­
chamber for deep-sea observations: licious or purposeless destruction:
bathysphere vandalism • period of massive de­
deputy . combiningforms: pro- (e_g_ struction: apocalypse • destruction
proconsul) , vice- (e.g. vice-president) of all life: biocide • destruction of a
. person deputizing for another: sur­ race: genocide • total destruction:

rogate eradication, extirpation, holocaust

descent . line of descent: blood deta iI • detail needing attention:
l ine, stock • step in a line of descent: loose end • subtle detail: m i nutiae,
generation • denoting direct des­ nicety, punctilio, quiddity, techn ical­
cent: lineal . denoting descent by a ity • (over-)attentive to detail: me­
parallel line: collateral • denoting ticulous, punctilious, pedantic, petti­
the male line of descent: patrilineal fogging • in detail: in extenso
• denoting the female line of descent: • give more detail: elaborate

matri li neal • person from whom one detection • device detecting mov­
is descended: ancestor, progen itor ing objects by reflected radio waves:
• one's descendants: posterity, pro­ radar • device detecting underwater
geny • theory of universal descent objects by reflected sound pulses:
from a single couple: monogenesis, sonar
monogeny detective . detective employed by
descri ption • precise and detailed members of the public: private detect­
description: specification • short ive, private i nvestigator • follow and
but thorough description: profile observe secretly: shadow . system­
• misrepresentation of complex ideas atic shadowing: surveillance
by oversimplified descriptions: re­ detergent • denoting a biodegrad­
ductionism able detergent: soft • denoting a de­
desert • group of people travelling tergent operating by enzymes: bio­
across a desert: caravan • inn for logical
these people: caravan serai • desert
development . steady and consist­
place with water: oasis . dust-Iaden
ent development: continu ity . pro­
desert wind: simoom
gressive development of living organ­
design • engraved or incised design: isms over the centuries: evolution
intaglio . design identifying a • developing earlier than usual: pre­
company's products: logo cocious . highly developed: soph is­
designer • designer of buildings: ticated
architect • designer of fashion device • denoting a device seem­
clothes: couturier • designer of ingly capable of intelligent action:
roads, bridges, etc.: civil engi neer smart • device performing a specific
devil I dig 96

function within a larger apparatus: ary of synonyms and antonyms:

unit saurus • dictionary in which the
devil • adjectives: diabolic, diabol­ definition precedes the headword
ical • devil's divided foot: cloven here): reverse d ictionary • person
hoof • worship of the devil: d iabol­ who compiles dictionaries: lexicog-
ism, satan ism • control by the devil: rapher
possession die • cut out with a die: stamp >

diagram • block diagram: histo­ diet • adjectives: dietary, dietetic ;

gram • diagram laid out like a tree: • major diet element: macronutrient I
dendrogram • diagram showing re­ • organic compound essential to a bal-
lationships in a family: family tree, anced diet: vitami n • denoting a
genealogy, ped igree • diagram vegetable wholefood diet: macrobiotic '
showing relationships between sets: • disease caused by absence of fresh i
Ven n diagram • diagram of a se­ fruit and vegetables from the diet:
quence of events: flow chart scu rvy _ study of diets and nutrition:
d ial • denoting a dial with a moving dietetics, nutrition • postulated nu­
pointer: analogue • denoting a dial tritional requirement: recommended
with a changing numerical display: dietary allowance . diet expert: diet­
digital . pointer on an instrument itian, nutritionist
dial: needle difference • adjective: differential
d ialect • popular dialect: argot, pat­ • subtle diference: nuance • amount
ois . dialect of a particular social of difference: differential • difference
class: sociolect • study of dialects: in brightness in a picture: contrast
dialecto logy • tell the difference between: d iffer­

dialogue • adjective: d ialogic


diameter . diameter of wire, knit­ different . combining forms: allo­

ting needles, and gallge
(e.g. allopathy). hetero-, vari- . radic­
ally different from anything preced­
• inner diameter of a gun barrel: bore,
calibre, gauge ing: novel • having many different
colours: motley, pied, variegated
diamond • adjective: d iamantine • including things of different types:
• inferior diamond, used for cutting:
heterogeneous • group or area dif­
bort ferent from its surroundings: enclave
Diana • Greek name: Artemis • cause to seem different: differenti­
diary • electronic diary: personal or­ ate
ganizer • loose-leaf diary: FilofaxTM , difficult . combiningform: dys- (e.g.
personal organizer • person keeping dyslexia) . difficult question: conun­
a diary: diarist drum, poser • temporary difficulty
dictator • adjective: dictator- due to mechanical failure: technical
ial . title of a German dictator: fUh­ hitch • in great difficulties: in
rer • title of an Italian dictator: duce extremis • avoid a difficulty: obviate
• title of a Spanish dictator: caud illo • quick and innovative in overcoming
• small group exercising dictatorial difficulties: resourceful
powers: j u nta dig excavate . dig be­
. dig out:
dictionary • adjective: lexical neath: undermine . dig up: unearth
• small dictionary at the back of a . dig up a corpse: exh ume • spade­
book: glossary, vocabulary . dic­ depth of soil: spit • dig two spits
tionary of places: gazetteer • diction- deep: dou ble-dig
37 d i g estion I disagreement

digestion • adjective:
peptic • hav­ able to the host country: persona non
ing good digestion:eupeptic . digest­ g rata (pl_ personae non gratae) • dip­
ive passage through the body: alimen­ lomat's spell of duty at a particular lo­
tary canal • part of this between cation: posti ng, to u r, tou r of d uty
stomach and anus: intesti ne, gut • diplomat's report: dispatch • diplo­
. muscular movement o f the alimen­ mat's residence: embassy, legation
tary canal: peristalsis • build-up of • official letter between diplomats:
gas in the alimentary canal: flatu­ note • draft or amendment to a diplo­
lence • bodily organs of digestion: matic document: protocol . ne goti­
digestive system ations brokered by a diplomat travel­
dilemma • inescapable dilemma: ling between two estranged parties:
catch-22, double bind sh uttle di plomacy • rule of diplo­
matic procedure: protocol • easing of
dinner • adjective: prandial • after-
diplomatic tension: detente . pres­
dinner: postprandial
sure placed on another state by re­
dinosaur • dinosaur with a very strictions on trade or social inter­
long neck and tail: d i plodocus action: sanctions • deliberate
• dinosaur with large verti�al plates risk-taking in international diplo­
on its back: stegosaurus • dinosaur macy: adventurism, bri n kmanship
with short armlike front legs: bra­ • diplomatic policy o f seeking t o re­
chiosaurus • upright

carnivorous gain lost territory: revanchism dip­
dinosaur: tyrannosaurus lomatic policy of preventing another
diocese • adjective: d i ocesan state's expansion: contai nment • dip­

• bishop in charge of a diocese: d io­ lomatic policy of seeking control over

cesan • diocesan assembly: synod other nations: i m perialism • diplo­
. Anglican parish's contribution to macy enforced by displays of military
diocesan funds: q u ota strength: gunboat d i plomacy, power
Dionysus . Latin name: Bacchus politics, sabre-rattling • immunity
. female follower of Dionysus: mae­ to local law enjoyed by diplomats and
nad • staff carried by Dionysus' fol­ their property: extraterritoriality,
lowers: thyrsus extraterritorial rights • host govern­
ment's order to a diplomat to leave:
diplomacy • state's senior diplomat
expUlsion . order a diplomat to re­
resident in a foraign country: ambas­
turn home: recall
sador • diplomat with full powers of
decision: pleni potentiary • diplomat d i rection • combining forms:
on a special assignment: emissary -ward s (e. g. eastwards), -ways (e.g.
• ambassador's deputy: charge sideways) . designed to operate in a
d'affai res • ambassador's assistant particular direction: directional
attache • diplomatic representative: . change direction suddenly: swerve,
envoy, m i n i ster • minister and staff: veer
legation • group of diplomats sent director !* director of a group of or­
for a special purpose: mission • dip­ chestral musicians: conductor . dir­
lomatic courier: Queen's (or King's) ector of a brass band: bandmaster
Messenger • army officer serving at
an embassy: m i litary attache • Com­ d isability . physical or mental dis-

monwealth embassy: high commis­ ability: handicap

sion • diplomat acceptable to the disagreement • minor disagree­
host country: persona grata (pl_ per­ ment: contretemps (pl. same) . pro­
sonae gratae) . diplomat not accept- longed and bitter disagreement: feud,
disappointing I disease 98

strife • causing disagreement: con­ classism • discrimination on

tentious, controversial, divisive grounds of skin colour: col our bar
• without disagreement: unani­ • discrimination against individuals:
mously, nem. con. victir;nization • discrimination

dis app ointing • disappointing out· against the overweight: fattism . dis­
come: anticlimax, bathos, damp crimination against those
squib physical disabilities: ableism • dis­

disar m am ent • total abandonment crimination on grounds of race: ra­

of a certain weapon: zero option cism . discrimination on grounds of

• denoting disarmament undertaken sex: sexism • barrier to advance­

by some states only: u n i lateral ment tacitly imposed upon certain
groups: glass ceiling • discrimin­
disaster • large, sudden and violent
ation in favour of those thought to be
disaster: cataclysm • natural disas·
unfairly treated: positive discrimin­
ter: act of God
ation, reverse d iscrimination, af­
disc • disc thrown by an athlete: dis­
fi rmative action . discrimination in
cus . metal or plastic disc used in·
favour of those who are thought to be
stead of money: token • disc used to
superior: elitism . freedom from dis­
store visual images: videodisc
crimination: equal opportun ity
d isc jockey • radio disc jockey who
is deliberately offensive or provoca·
discussion . academic discussion:

tive: shock jock sym posium . public discussion of a

topic: ventilation • discussion involv­
discharge • combining forms:
ing three or more persons at different
-rrhoea (e.g. diarrhoea), -rrhagia (e.g.
sites using telecommunications: tele­
menorrhagia) . vaginal discharge at
conference • strange object provok­
the onset of labour or menstruation:
ing discussion: conversation piece
show • discharge of gas, radiation,
• discuss without coming to the true
or semen: emission
point at issue: beat about the bush
disci p line • strict disciplinarian:
martinet, stickler . person practis­ disease . combining forms: -itis
ing severe self-discipline: ascetic (e.g. conju nctivitis), nos(o)-, patho-,
-pathy (e. g. neuropathy) , -osis (e.g.
disco n tent • cause political or
psychosis) • adjective: morbid
emotional discontent: desta bil ize
• causes of a disease: aetiology
d i scontinue . d iscontinue tempor­
• germ causing a disease: bacillus,
arily: put into abeyance • discon­
pathogen • organism transmitting a
tinue meetings of a parliament with­
disease from one host to another: vec­
out dissolution: prorogue
tor • person or animal unaffected by
d iscourage . discouraging factor: a disease but transmitting it to others:
disincentive . numbing discourage­
carrier . time between infection and
ment: demotivation
appearance of symptoms: latent
discovery • method of discovery by period, incu bation period . denot­
trial and error: heuristic • faculty of ing a disease with no assignable
making fortunate discoveries: seren­ cause: non-specific • characteristic
d ipity . cry uttered on making a dis­ indicator of a disease: symptom • de­
covery: eureka noting a disease too mild to show
discrimination • discrimination clear symptoms: subclin ical • indica­
on grounds of age: ageism . discrim­ tion of a disease: symptom, stigma
ination on grounds of social class: • disease indicated by a particular set
.. ············ .. ············· disease I disease
...... ................................... ......................................... .......

of symptoms: syndrome • group of • study of tissue changes caused by

symptoms indicating a particular dis­ disease: histopathology • study of
ease: syndrome • symptom accom­ the treatment of disease: therapeutics
panying a disease, but not caused by • denoting a disease occurring in the
it: epiphenomenon • denoting a dis­ course of another: intercurrent . de­
ease having recognizable symptoms: noting a disease characterized by
clin ical • denoting a disease without brief but severe attacks: acute • de­
recognizable symptoms: occult noting a long-lasting disease: chronic
• symptom that only doctors can de­ • denoting an uncured disease that
tect: sign • denoting the stage of a currently shows no symptoms: dor­
disease before symptoms appear: pre­ mant • denoting a disease starting in
clin ical . disease identification from hospital: nosocomial . run-down
symptoms: diag nosis . temporary state of a sufferer of a chronic disease:
abatement of a disease: re mission cachexia • denoting a disease passed
• patient's decline after a period of re­ on by physical contact: contag ious
covery: relapse • (sudden) recur­ • denoting a disease passed on
rence of a disease: flare, recrudes­ through the environment: infectious
cence • regional outbrellk of a • denoting a contagious or infectious
disease: epidemic • denoting a dis­ disease: communicable . denoting a
ease breaking out throughout a coun­ disease contracted through sexual ac­
try or the world: pandemic . denot­ tivity: venereal • disease caused by
ing a highly infectious or harmful poor diet: deficiency disease . de­
disease: virulent • denoting a disease noting a disease causing little or no
expected to end in death: term inal pain: indolent . denoting a disease
• deadly disease spreading rapidly: causing progressive deterioration of
plague • denoting a disease whose organs or tissues: degenerative . de­
outbreaks must be reported: notifi­ noting a disease growing steadily
able • denoting a disease regularly worse: progressive • denoting a dis­
found at a place: endemic . denoting ease caused by antibodies naturally
a disease passed from one generation produced by the sufferer to attack
to the next: hered itary, vertical . de­ other germs: autoimmune . denot­
noting a disease affecting all the body: ing a psychologically caused disease:
general ized . disease's chief bodily psychosomatic • denoting a disease
location: focus • expected course of a often or only found in a certain region
disease:prognosis • turning point of or people: endem ic . denoting a dis­
a disease:crisis . secondary disease ease with no known external cause:
aggravating an existing one: com pli­ essential, idiopathic • systematic
cation . pass on a disease: communi­ description of diseases: nosography
cate, transmit • person associating • scientific classification of diseases:
with someone having a contagious nosology • preventing disease:
disease: contact • objects likely to prophylactic • study and practice of
carry infection: fomites • caused by disease prevention: preventive medi­
or involving disease: pathological cine • substance developing bodily
• study of causes and effects of dis­ immunity to a disease: vacci ne • test
ease: pathology • study of the causes for the presence of a disease: screen
of diseases: aetiology • study and • sudden attack of a disease: seizure
treatment of the diseases of children: • place or time of isolation for in­
paediatrics . study of the incidence comers thought to carry infectious
and control of diseases: epidemiology diseases: quarantine • regain
diseased I d iver 100

strength after a disease's cure: conva­ dispute . protracted and complex

lesce • person with an obsessive fear dispute: wrangle • confrontation to
of disease: hypochond riac • suicide resolve a dispute: showdown
of a victim of an incurable disease, disrespect . disrespectful to reli­
using lethal drugs supplied by a doc­ gion: impious . rudely disrespectful:
tor for this purpose: assisted suicide insolent . disrespectful joking: lev­
diseased • combining form: -otic ity
(e.g. neurotic) dissolution • combining form:
disentangle • disentangle by care­ -lysis (e.g. dialysis) . able to be dis­
ful combing or unknotting: tease out solved: sol uble

disgrace • public disgrace: igno­ distance . combining forms: apo-,

tel( e)- (e.g. television) • distance
mi ny, obloquy, opprobrium . mark
of disgrace: stigma round something: ci rcumference
• distance one can see: eyeshot, visi­
dish • shallow stemmed dish: cou pe bil ity . point where an orbiting ob­
. large covered dish for serving soup:
j ect is furthest from the earth: a pogee
tureen • small heatproof dish or cas­
• point where an orbiting object is fur­
serole: cocotte thest from the moon: apolune • in­
dishonest • craftily dishonest: slip­ strument measuring miles travelled:
pery • dishonest person: rogue, milometer
scoundrel • dishonest activities: distant • distant person or thing:
g raft, sl eaze, skulduggery outlier . far distant spot: u ltima
disinfection • disinfection by Thule . alleged ability to move dis­
gases: fumigation tant objects: telekinesis
disintegration . combining form: distinction . subtle distinction: ni­
-lysis • destruction of cells or tissues cety, nua nce . over-subtle distinc­
by their own enzymes: autolysis tion: hair-splitti ng, quibble

dislike . person or thing particu­ disuse • temporary disuse: abey­

larly disliked: anathema, biUe noire, ance
pet hate ditch • ditch dug for battlefield shel­
dismiss . dismiss with dishonour ter:trench • ditch round a castle etc.:
from the armed forces: cashier • dis­ moat • hidden ditch separating gard­
miss from a job: terminate employ­ ens from parkland: ha-ha
ment d iver . diver's waterproof rubber

disobey • openly disobey: flout

suit: drysuit • diver's permeable rub­
• defiant disobedience: insubordin­ ber suit: wets uit • diver not using a
rubber suit: skin diver • diver's
ation • incitement t o disobey those
in authority: sedition compressed-air apparatus: scuba,
aqualung • diver's drowsy state from
disorder . violent disorder: may­ breathing air under pressure: n itro­
hem gen narcosis • diver's enclosed ves­
display . freestanding supermarket sel for deep-sea observations: bathy­
display: gondola . display tank for scaphe, bathysphere • diver's
underwater life: aquarium • display air-filled open-bottomed chamber: div­
tank for undersea life: oceanari u m ing bell . diver's signal rope: lifeline
. speaker's large pad o f paper: fl i p • controlled reduction of ambient
chart • display ostentatiously: flaunt pressure when a diver returns to the
• self-dramatizing: histrionic surface: decompression . room for
.01 d ivide I doctor
••••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••u••••••••••••••••••••• • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ••••••••••

this: decompression chamber doctor • combining form: iatro­

.• painful condition suffered by a diver • doctor in charge of health services:
after sudden reduction of ambient medical officer • doctor who admin­
pressure: the bends, caisson dis­ isters anaesthetics: anaesthetist
ease, decompression sickness • doctor specializing in childbirth: ob­

:livide • combining form: -sect (e.g.

stetrician • doctor concentrating on
dissect) • tending to divide or be div­ diagnosis and medication: physician
• family doctor: general practitioner
ided: fissiparous • divide into two:
bi sect • divide into mutually hostile • doctor qualified to perform oper­
units: Balkan ize ations: surgeon • doctor treating
animals: vet, veterinary surgeon
divided . combining form: schizo­ . j unior hospital doctor: house of­
(e.g. schizophrenia) fi cer, houseman • hospital doctor as­
divination • combining form: sisting a consultant: registrar . hos­
-mancy (e.g. rhabdomancy) . Roman pital doctor recelvmg specialist
official augur,
interpreting omens: training: senior registrar • doctor in
haruspex � see also fortu ne-telling charge of a particular branch of medi­

. combiningform: s chiz(o)­
cine at a hospital: co nsu ltant
• group of hospital doctors: fi rm
• radical division: dichotomy • div­
• doctor visiting his patients by plane:
ision into opposing factions: pol ariza­
tion, schism flying doctor • doctor temporarily
replacing another: locum • person
divorce • denoting a form of divorce with some medical training, but not
requiring no apportionment of blame:
fully qualified: paramedic • unquali­
no-fault • spouse initiating a divorce
fied doctor: quaCk, empiriC • Indian
action: applicant • spouse against
or Muslim traditional doctor: hakim
whom a divorce action is brought: re­ • person believed by some peoples to
spondent • person cited in a divorce
have magical healing powers:
action as having committed adultery
cine man, shaman, witch doctor
with the partner being sued:
• doctor's room for seeing patients:
co-respondent • court's provisional
consu ltin g roo m • doctor's tour of
divorce ruling: decree nisi • court's
bedridden patients: round • general
final divorce ruling: decree a bsolute
practitioner's consulting rooms: sur­
• divorced person� d ivorcee • paren­
gery • general practitioner's client
tal rights of divorcees: custody • fi­
base:practice . this run by several
nancial support to be given by a for­
group practice • consulting
mer spouse after divorce: mainten­
rooms of a group practice: health cen­
ance • state agency enforcing child
maintenance payments: Child Sup­ tre • general practitioner controlling
his own budget: fu ndholder . area
port Agency • court order enabling
spouses to remain married but live list of doctors taking NHS patients:

apart:judicial separation, legal sep­ panel • doctor's non-NHS clients:

aration private practice • resources avail­
able to a doctor: armamentarium
d izziness • causing dizziness: ver­
• doctor's device for hearing the chest
organs: stethoscope • doctor's de­
dock • dock that can be emptied of vice for seeing inside the ear: auri­
water: dry dock • submarine's scope, otoscope • doctor's device
covered dock: pen • dock worker: for inspectng the retina: ophthal mo­
stevedore scope • doctor's small hammer for
docum ent I document

testing reflexes: plexor, plessor . document showing ownership of a c

. shield against X-rays worn by doc­ property:title deed . summary of,
tors etc.: apron • proj ects under­ this: abstract of title • document re- ,
taken by a doctor: caseload • doc­ cording the transfer of ownership of a ,
tor's ability to put patients at their p
pro erty: conveyance, g rant • docu- :
ease: bedside manner . doctor's as­ ment recording the waiving of a right i
sessment of symptoms or treatment: or claim: waiver . document record­
opinion • doctor's seeking o f a spe­ ing hours worked: time sheet . docu-
cialist's opinion: referral • doctor's ment showing a vehicle's ownership:
order for a medicine to be made or is­ registration document, log book
sued: prescription • doctor's negli­ • documen t giving the details of an in­
gence or dishonesty: malpractice surance contract: policy • document
• oath (formerly) taken by trainee doc­ listing transactions on a financial ac­
tors: H i p pocratic oath . come to ' a count: statement • state document
doctor for treatment: present • visit permitting foreign travel: passport
to a doctor: consu ltation • document ensuring safe travel over
document • archived document: a specified area: safe conduct
munim ent • handwritten document: • document authorizing specified po­
man uscri pt • document written en­ lice activity: warrant • official state­
tirely by its hologra p h
author: ment of cause, date, and place of
• document signed b y its author: a uto­ death: death certificate • document

graph • standard document: pro used to supply evidence: source • de­

forma • document on the World Wide noting a document whose ownership

Web: web page • identity docu­ can be changed: negotiable . subsid­
ments: papers . document contain­ iary part of a document kept by its is­
ing a sworn statement: affidavit suer:cou nterfoil • thin-paper copy of
. legal document: instrument • legal a document: flimsy . draft a docu­
document authorizing entry and ment: d raw up, make out . draft or
search of premises: search warrant amendment to a diplomatic document:
• formal delivery of a legal document: protocol • produce a legal document
service • mutual disclosure of docu­ in its final form: engross • exact
ments by parties to a lawsuit: discov­ wording of a document: tenor . pre­
ery • legal document recording own­ sentation of a document for consid­
ership or a contract: deed, eration: submission . document ac­
memorandum • appendix to a legal companying a letter: enclosure . set
document: sched ule . deed signed of documents on a particular topic:
by one person only: deed poll . legal dossier • additional statement on a
document disposing of one's assets document, modifying its effect: en­
after death: will • document promis­ dorsement . piece of stamped wax
ing a payment: bond, prom issory etc. authenticating a document: seal
note • document ordering payment: • document's abbreviated title: short
draft • document acknowledging pay­ title • abbreviated version of a docu­
ment: receipt • document entitling ment: precis, summary • place an of­
the holder to specified goods or ser­ ficial document on record: enter, fi le
vices: warrant • document proving • obscure language of official docu­
identity or qualifications: credentials ments: officialese . work involving
• bank document underwriting speci­ documents: paperwork . counterfeit
fied loans on another bank to be taken a document: forge • electronic trans­
out by the bearer: letter of credit fer of documents: fax
103 doer I door

doer o combiningforms: -ee (e.g. ab­ o guard preventing a dog biting: muz­
sentee), -eer (e.g. auctioneer) , -ent zle o let a dog off the leash: slip
(e.g. aperient) , -er (e. g. writer) , -ete o dog's small shelter: kennel 0 person
(e.g. athlete), -ist (e.g. plagiarist), -or in charge of trained dogs: dog hand­
(e.g. actor), -ress (e. g. actress), -rix Ier o details of a dog's previous com­
(e.g. executrix) petitive achievements: form 0 estab­
lishment for boarding or breeding
dog o combining form: cyno- (e.g.
dogs: kennels
cynopodous) o adjective: canine o fe­
male dog: bitch o male dog: dog doing o combining form: -ent (e.g.
o young dog: pup, puppy o give birth a perient)
to dogs: pup, whel p 0 small pet dog: doll 0 soft black doll with fuzzy hair:
lapdog 0 dog in poor condition or golliwog
showing aggression: cur o dog of un­ domain o combining form: -dom
certain breed: mongrel • large police (e.g. fiefdom)
dog: Alsatian, German shepherd dog
dome 0 small dome: cupola
o hunting dog: hound o heavy hunt­
o pointed dome, bulging in the middle:
ing dog: bloodhound, mastiff 0 small
onion dome 0 dome surfaced by
hound used to hunt hare �: beagle
many small triangles: geodesic dome
o set of hound s: pack 0 person in o wall supporting a dome: drum, tam­
charge of this: master o dog trained
bour o corner support for a dome:
to lead the blind: g u ide dog • dog
squinch • denoting a dome
trained to assist the deaf: hearing dog
costructed from struts following the
o dog trained to stand rigid when
shortest route between two points on
scenting game: pointer, setter 0 dog a sphere: geodesic
trained to fetch shot game: retriever,
gun dog 0 dog formerly trained to
dominance o political dominance:
rescue snowbound travellers: St Ber­
nard 0 competition for retrievers: done 0 something done and unalter­
field trial 0 racing dog: greyho und, able: fait accom pli
whippet o wolflike North American donkey 0 male jackass
wild dog: coyote 0 Arctic sledge dog: o female donkey: jenny o offspring of
husky 0 Asian stray mongrel: pye­ a male donkey and female horse: mule
dog 0 Australiap wild dog: dingo o offspring of a male horse and female
o Russian wolfhound: borzoi o Scot­ donkey: hinny
tish sheepdog: collie 0 competition door 0 glazed outside door : French
for sheepdogs: trials o very small win dow . denoting a door linking
large-eyed dog: chihuahua o long dog two rooms: intercommunicating
with short legs: dachshund o large o access panel in a floor or ceiling:
black-and-tan dog: Dobermann pins­ trapdoor o peephole in a door: judas,
cher 0 front part of a dog's face: muz­ spyhole 0 angled slats on a door:
zle 0 dog's inner eyelid: haw 0 erect­ louvres 0 folding section of a door:
ile hairs along a dog's back: hackles leaf 0 sloping board at the foot of an
o kind of fever suffered by dogs: d is­ outside door: weatherboard 0 handle
tem per 0 inflammation of a dog's ear: etc. on a door: door fu rn iture 0 orna­
canker 0 dog's disease causing mad­ mental doorplate for the fingers:
ness and death: ra bies 0 dog's sense fi ngerplate 0 door catch: latch, snib
of smell: nose 0 strap restraining a o slotted metal plate as door-fastening:
dog: lead, leash 0 chain controlling a hasp 0 strip sealing a door's edges
dog by neck pressure: choke chain against draughts etc.: weatherstrip
door j a m b I drawing 104 1

• support across the top of a door: lin­ in extreme conditions: theatre of

tel . door's side post: jamb . slab at cruelty � see also play
the foot of a door: sill, threshold
d raughts . remove an opponent's
• wall's side surface beside a window:
threatening piece: h uff
reveal . angled reveal: embrasure
• heavy object to keep a door open: d rawing • combining form: -graphy

doorstop • attendant at the main (e.g. photography) • adjective:

door of a public building: porter, con­ graphic • drawing of things actually

cierge • go canvassing or selling before the artist: l ife d rawi ng . satir­
from door to door: doorstep ical drawing: caricature, cartoon
• drawing showing exact detail and
door jamb • inside face of a door
jamb: scuncheon . plate set into a
scale: technical drawing . drawing
showing enough detail to serve as
door jamb to receive the bolt or lock
when closed: striker plate an instruction: working drawi ng
• drawing o f a mechanism showing its
doorman • doorman at an hotel or parts as if separated by an explosion:
theatre: commissionaire . doorman exploded view • drawing of a mech­
at a block of flats: concierge • door­ anism with parts of its casing re­
man at a college or large public build­ moved to show inner workings: cut­
ing: porter away • drawing of an imagined slice
double • combining forms: di- (e.g. taken through a building, mechanism
dibasic), d iplo-, zygo- (e.g. zygotic) etc.: section, cross section • draw­
• double vision: diplopia ing of a vertical aspect of a building:

dough • dough of durum wheat and

elevation . drawing of a floor layout
of a building: plan • expert in tech­
water: pasta • work dough: knead
• substance added to dough to make it
nical drawing: draug htsman
• drawing-based arts: graphic arts
rise: leaven, yeast • become aerated
• system of drawing to show depth:
by the leaven: prove, rise • denoting
pers pective • perspective system
dough that is heavy through having
failed to rise: sad • fermenting
using three axes 1200 apart: isometric
system • system using lines conver­
dough left over from a previous bak­
ing: sourdough ging at the horizon: li near perspec­
tive • drawing of a three-dimensional
downwards . combining forms: object: stereogram • preliminary
cata- (e.g. catadromous), de- (e.g. version of a drawing: draft, rough,
descend) sketch • drawing made absent­
draft • first draft: rough, rough mindedly: doodle . drawings done
copy for a publication: artwork, graphics
drain • manhole for drain clearance: . line indicating an object's general

i nspection chamber . pit filled with shape: outl ine . shade an area with
hatch • hatching
• drain
hardcore: soa kaway close parallel lines:
through: leach done in two directions: cross­
hatch ing • shade a n area by many
drainage • drainage ditch: dyke
small dots: stipple • the re­
• area drained by a particular river
presentation of light and shade in a
etc.: catchment area
drawing: chiaroscuro • denoting
dra m a • drama abandoning realism drawings made in sight of the items
to emphasize the irrationality of depicted: l ife . denoting a drawing
human life: theatre of the absurd done without instruments: freehand
• drama exploring human behaviour • instrument for drawing arcs: com-
105 d ream I drug

pass, compasses, pair of com­ cinal powers: potion • drink poured

passes • instrument for copying a out in offering to a god: l i bation
drawing larger or smaller: panto­ • drink taken in honour of a person or

graph • case for unfolded drawings: thing: toast • single act of drinking:
portfolio draught .set of drinks for all mem­
dream . combining form: oneir(o)­ bers of a group: ro u n d .small mat
• adjective: oneiric • unpleasant
for a drinking glass: coaster • small
dream: nig htmare .erotic dream stick for stirring drinks: swizzle stick
causing an involuntary ejaculation of .drinking party: symposi u m .nau­
semen: wet dream • interpretation of sea after heavy drinking: han gover
dreams: oneiromancy .denoting a .denoting a region where alcoholic
dream consciously controlled by the drinks cannot be purchased: d ry .. see
dreamer: lucid .dreamlike sequence also cockta il, spirits, wine
of images: phantasmagoria drive .drive animals: herd, d rove
• drive out: oust • person employed
drill .hand-cranked drill: brace
• sharp end of a drill: bit • adjustable
to drive a private or hired motor car:
holder for the bit: chuck chauffeur, driver
drink • drink taken to stimulate the driving licence • cumulative value

appetite: aperitif • carbonated water: assigned to ,driving misdemeanours:

soda • concentrate of sweetened pena lty poi nts • official note of these
fruit juice: squash • mixed drink: on the licence: endorsement
cocktai l • mixed drink with fruit d rop • cover with drops: spatter
juices etc.: cup • drink made from • rain in fine drops: drizzle
the juice of pressed fruit: crush
.drink from sugar syrup: j u lep drought .area suffering severe
• drink from fermented honey: drought and erosion: dust bowl
mead .drink from fermented pear­ d rug .combining forms: pharm­
JUlce: perry • drink of a seasoned aco·, narco- .drug inducing abor­
raw egg: prairie oyster • draught tion: abortifacient .drug taken by
cider and lager: snakebite • iced asthmatics to widen the bronchi:
drink: frappe, granita .drink with bronchodilator .drug narrowing
lemon or lime juice: sour • soft drink blood vessels: vasocon strictor
sold in concentrated form: cordial • drug widening blood vessels: vaso­
.weaken a drink by adding other li­ di lator .calming drug: depressant
quid: dil ute • denoting an undiluted • drug relieving depression: anti·
drink: neat, straight .denoting a depressant • enlivening drug:
drink that is not effervescent: sti ll stimulant .drug preventing or mod­
• strengthen a drink with alcohol: for­ erating epileptic fits: anticonvulsant
tify • add alcohol surreptitiously to a .drug reducing fever: antipyretic,
drink: spike • warm and spice a febrifuge • drug slowing the heart
drink: mull .denoting a drink with and reducing blood pressure: beta
low alcohol content: light .denoting blocker .drug relieving itching:
a drink that has lost its fizz: flat antipruritic • drug improving the
• short drink taken after a long one: memory: nootropic • drug that dulls
chaser .drink taken to aid diges­ the nerves: neuroleptic .drug that
tion: digestif • strong sweet alcoholic eases pain: analgesic • drug that
drink taken after a meal: liqueur prevents pain being felt: anaesthetic
• bedtime drink: nightca p • pre­ • drug given to prevent rejection of
pared drink with magical or medi- a transplanted organ: i m m uno-
drug I d uty 106

suppressor • drug that sharpens the drugs: with drawal • sudden and com­
senses: stimulant . drug stimulating plete deprivation of addictive drugs:
sexual desire: aphrodisiac • drug in­ cold turkey • clear the body of drug
ducing sleep: sedative • drug redu­ residues: detoxify • terrorism associ­
cing tension or anxiety: sedative, ated with the drugs trade: narcoter­
tranquillizer • drug increasing urin­ rorism
ation: diuretic . drug decreasing drum • bowl-shaped pitched drum:
urination: antidiuretic . drug induc­ kettledrum, timpani (pI, only) • drum
ing vomiting: emetic • drug prevent­ with resonating strings across its
ing vomiting: a ntiemetic • study of underside: snare d rum . drum in a
medical drugs and their action: Latin American band: bongo .jazz
pharmacology • denoting a cheaper drum beaten with the hands: tom-tom
unbranded form of a proprietary • Indian drum: tabla • drum-like in­
drug: generic • place where medi­ strument with loose discs in the sides:
cinal drugs are dispensed: pharmacy tambourine . thin stick with wire
• official list of medical drugs, with in­ bristles used on drums: brush
structions for preparation and dos­ drunk • slightly drunk: ti psy . per­
ages: pharmacopoeia • soporific or son who is frequently drunk: a lco­
mood-changing drug: narcotic • de­ holic, drunkard
noting a drug producing hallucin­
dry . combining form: xero- . dry
ations: psychedelic, hallucinogenic
completely by heating: parch • dry
• drug affecting the user's mental
food to preserve it: dessicate • de­
state: psychotropic . denoting an il­
noting plants or animals adapted to a
legal , or addictive drug: dangerous
very dry environment: xerophilous
• denoting a strong and addictive
drug: hard • denoting a drug not duck . female duck: duck • male
likely to cause addiction: soft • de­ duck: d rake • young duck: duckling
noting a fashionable artificial drug: duel • duellist's attendant: second
designer . denoting a drug that af­ duke • adjective: ducal • duke who
fects a person's mental state: psycho­ is also a royal prince: roya l duke
tropiC • drug producing muscle con­ . duke's wife or widow: duchess
tractions: convu lsant • drug-induced • duke's territory: duchy
stupor: narcosis • hormonal drug
dummy .jointed dummy used by
used by athletes to improve perform­
artists: lay figure .jointed dummy
ance: steroid • inject a drug directly used by artists and to teach anatomy:
into a vein: mainline • drug­
impregnated material attached to the
skin for gradual absorption: patch dung . combining form: copro-
• dung-eating: coprophagous • dung
. solvent whose fumes are inhaled by
drug abusers: i nhalant • inhalation of seabirds sold as a fertilizer: guano
of adhesive fumes: gl ue-sniffi ng Dutch • Dutch mayor: burgomaster

• sell illegal drugs: peddle • person • piece of land reclaimed from the sea:
doing this: peddler . legal restric­ polder
tion on use or possession of a drug: duty . adjective: deontic • moral or
control • diminution of bodily re­ legal duty: obligation • fulfilment of
sponse to a drug with continued use: duty: observance • failure to per­
tolerance • inability to do without a form a duty: dereliction • beyond the
drug: add iction, dependency • pro­ call of duty: supererogatory • study
gressive deprivation of addictive of duty: deontology . avoid one's
107 dwarf I dynamo

duty: sh irk • free from a duty: ex­ dye: saffron • dye indicating acidity
empt, exonerate . free from obliga­ or alkalinity: litmus • denoting a dye
tions: footloose that does not run or fade: fast • de­
• dwarf plant or tree as culti­ noting a dye not affected by light:
vated in Japan: bonsai lig htfast • make a dye permanent: fix
• dyeing method using wax to keep
. dwelling o f monks or
nuns: abbey, monastery, nunnery, the dye from some parts of the mater­

priory • makeshift dwelling: biv­ ial: batik

ouac, shack, sha nty dynamo • dynamo generating an al­
dye . red food dye: coch ineal ternating current: alternator . rotat­
• orange-yellow food colouring and ing coil in a dynamo: armature
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

each other • adjectives: mutual, the earth's crust: tectonic • inner

reciprocal part of the earth: mantle • inmost
eagle • adjective: aquiline . �oung part of the earth: core • regions of
eagle: eaglet • eagle's nest: eyrie the earth's crust and atmosphere in­
habited by living organisms: bio­
ear . combining forms: aur-, ot(o)­
sphere • this regarded ecologically:
• adjectives: aural, auricular • in­
ecosphere • study of the earth's at­
flammation of the ear: otitis • exter­
mosphere, climate, and weather: me­
nal stucture of the ear: auricle, pinna
teorology • thick part of the crust,
• lower fleshy part o f the external ear:
forming major land masses: continen­
lobe • tube leading to the eardrum:
tal crust • thin part of the crust, be­
outer ear . membrane of the middle
neath ocean basins: oceanic crust
ear: eardrum • structure of the inner
. rigid crust section: plate . equilib­
ear: labyrinth • inflammation of this:
rium of the crust: isostasy • hot li­
labyri nthitis • spiral tube in �he
quid beneath the earth's crust:
inner ear: cochlea • progresslve
magma • major movement of the
deafness due to bone growth in the
earth's crust: convu lsion • study of
ear: otoscl erosis . surgical opening
the earth's crust: tectonics • theory
made in the inner ear to relieve deaf­
of crustal structure: plate tectonics
ness : fenestration • ringing or buzz­
• rigid outer casing of the earth: litho­
ing in the ears : tinnitus • study of the
sphere • dense interior of the earth:
ear and its diseases: otology • study
barysphere, core • supposed ori­
of diseases of the ear and throat: oto­
ginal single continent: Pangaea
laryngology . study and treatment
. supposed subsequent land mass in
of diseases of the ear, nose, and throat:
the southern hemisphere: Gon dwana
otorh inolaryngology • boxer's de­
• supposed subsequent land mass in
formed ear: cauliflower ear . droop­
the northern hemisphere: Laurasia
ing ears on an animal: lop ears
• half of the earth: hemisphere • im­
• plastic surgery on the ears:
agined circle joining the earth's poles:
otoplasty . for two ears: binaural
long itude, meridian • imagined
• doctor's device for seeing inside the
circle round the earth equidistant
ear:au riscope, otoscope . drainage
from its poles: equ ator • imagined
tube in the eardrum: grommet . ring
worn in a pierced ear to prevent its
. line parallel to the equator: latitude,
parallel • range of longitudes using a
closing: sleeper
common time: time zone . longitude
earnings • enforced repayment of a opposite to that of Greenwich, at
debt from wages :garn ishment, at­ which the date changes: Date Line,
tachment of earnings . accounting I nternational Date Line . hot zone
term for earnings gained from service
centred on the equator: torrid zone,
industries: invisible tropics . moderate zone north and
earth • combining
form: geo- . ad­ south of this: tempe rate zone • cold
jectives: terrestrial, terrene • outer zone about either of the poles: frigid
part of the earth: crust • denoting zone • general physical study o f the
109 earth moving I eclipse

earth and its atmosphere: earth sci­ eat . eat in small amounts: n ibble
ence • chemical study of the earth: • (of an animal) eat high-growing
geochemistry • study of the surface vegetation: browse • (of an animal)
of the earth: geomorphology . study eat grass: graze • fit to eat: edible
of the structure of the earth: geology • unfit to eat: inedible • become unfit

• physics of the earth: geophysics to eat: spoil • pathological refusal to

• mathematics of the shape of the eat, due to a desire to lose weight: an­
earth: geodesy • region round the orexia ne rvosa
earth governed by its own magnetic
eating • combining forms:
field: magnetosphere • study of the
-phagous, -phagy, -vo rous • eating
earth's magnetism: geomagnetics
all foods: omn ivorous • eating a lot:
• denoting the earth's natural heat:
voracious • eating corpses: ne­
geothermal • denoting an astronom­
crophagous • eating dung: copro­
ical system centred on the earth: geo­
phagous • fish-eating: piscivorous
centric • beyond the earth: extrater­
. eating grasses and cereals: gramin­
restrial � see also world
ivorous • insect-eating: in sectivor­
earth movi ng . powerful tractor ous • meat-eating: carn ivorous
pushing a broad blade: bulldozer • nut-eating: nucivorous • plant­
• wheeled machine levelling the eating: herbivorous • eating wood:
ground : grader xylophagous • eating no meat or
earthquake • combining form: fish: vegetarian . eating no animal
seismo- • adjective: seismic flesh or products: vegan • eating

• minor earthquake: tremor . minor only fruit: fru itarian . person or ani­
earthquake preceding the main shock: mal feeding on its own species: canni­
foreshock • minor earthquake fol­ bal • psychologically induced refusal
lowing the main shock: aftershock to eat: anorexia ne rvosa . psycho­
• tremor on the moon's surface: logically induced desire to overeat:
moonquake • starting point of an bulimia nervosa . substance added
earthquake: focus • surface point to plants or found naturally in them,
directly above an earthquake's centre: discouraging animals or micro­
epicentre . scale for earthquake in­ organisms from eating them:
tensities: Richter scale • instrument antifeedant
recording and measuring earth­
eccentric • eccentric person: crank
quakes: seismograph, seismometer
• eccentric minority: lu natic fri nge
. record made by this: seismogram
• exceptionally large ocean wave echo • adjective: echoic • record of

caused by an earthquake or volcano: water depth made by reflected sound:

tidal wave, tsunami • study of earth­ echogram • location of obj ects by re­
quakes: seismol ogy flected sound: echolocation • echo­
east . adjective: oriental free: anechoic
eclipse • adjective: ecl i ptic • denot­
east Asia • adjective: oriental
ing an eclipse obscuring the whole
Easter • adjective: paschal • Fri­
disc: total • denoting an eclipse ob­
day before Easter: Good Fri day • Sat-
scuring no more than part of the disc:
urday before Easter: Holy Saturday
partial . denoting a total eclipse in
• Sunday after Easter: Low Sunday
which the edges of the eclipsed body
easy • easy to do: plain sailing remain visible: annular • area
• make easy: facilitate shaded by a total eclipse: umbra
ec o log y I economy 110

• area shaded by a partial eclipse: • state-controlled element in a mixed

pen um bra economy: public sector • district for
ecology . combining form: eco­ which special economic provision is
• preservation of the natural environ­ made: special deve lopment area
• dynamic economy in East Asia: tiger
ment: conservation . deliberate de­
struction of the natural environment: economy • general economic fac­
ecocide • cropping just short of long­ tors: macroeconomics • economic
term depletion: maximum sustain­ study of single factors: microeconom­
able yield . denoting practices that ics • open an economy to competitive
do not permanently impair the eco­ trading: demonopol ize • economic
logical balance: sustainable • bio­ system allowing unrestricted competi­
logical community regarded as eco­ tion: free enterprise, free market
logically self-sufficient: ecosystem . economic system taxing imports to
• number of persons and animals a re­ protect home manufactures: protec­
gion can support without environ­ tionism . economic system control­
mental degradation: carrying cap­ ling imports and the export of capital:
acity • product labelling to indicate siege economy • government eco­
ecological soundness: eco-Iabelling nomic policy of non-intervention:
• tourism intended to increase eco­ laissez-fai re • economic plan:
logical awareness: ecoto u rism budget • economic plan in which in­
• sabotage committed for ecological come equals expenditure: balanced
reasons: ecotage • violence justi­ budget • excess of expenses over in­
fied by ecological concerns: come: deficit • economic control via
ecoterroro rism the money supply: monetarism • fi­
nancing of government expenditure
economy • economic system in
by borrowing: deficit fi nancing
which all major factors are centrally
• government expenditure thus fi­
controlled: command economy, man­
nanced: deficit spending • general
aged economy, planned economy
reduction in prices: deflation • per­
• economic system led by free oper­

ation of market forces: free-enterprise ceived need for a commodity: demand

• denoting an economy governed by
system, free-market economy,
supply-side economy • free-market consumer demand: demand-led . de­
economic system with state provision noting an economy suffering demand­
for those unable to sell their labour: led inflation: overheated • increase
social market economy . economic in economic activity: expansion, re­
system where businesses are privately covery • period of rapid economic
owned: capitalism, private enterprise growth: boom • denoting an econ­
. economic system in which the state omy unlikely to expand further: ma­
controls production and the use of ture • highest level of economic ac­
capital: state capitalism . economic tivity: peak • temporary decline in
system with means of production in economic activity: recession • sharp
state or popular ownership: col lectiv­ and prolonged decline in economic ac­
ism, soci alism • economic system tivity: slump . severe and prolonged
with state control of industries and decrease of economic activity: depres­
services: communism, state social­ sion . low level of economic activity:
ism • denoting an economic system trough • regular alternation of boom
containing a balance of the above: and slump: business cycle, trade
mixed • capitalist element in a cycle • general increase in prices
mixed economy: private sector with a decrease in the purchasing
111 eczema I education

power of money: inflation • high in­ mater • person or institution offer­

flation and unemployment coupled ing intensive preparation for examin­
with low demand: stagflation • total ations: crammer • organized series
value of goods and services produced: of lessons: course • intensive course
g ross domestic product • this plus of study: crash course • machine
income from foreign investments: glVmg programmed instruction:
gross national product . difference teaching machine • independent
between a state's income and expend­ unit of study: module • programme
iture: balance of payments . denot­ of study: curricu lum, syl labus • cur­
ing income from service industries: riculum imposed upon state schools:
invisible • ratio between export and national curriculum . course alter­
import prices: terms of trade • dif­ nating between instruction and prac­
ference between the value of a state's tical experience: san dwich course
imports and exports: balance of trade • course given during the summer
. excess value of imports over ex­ holidays: summer course, summer
ports: trade deficit . excess value of school • denoting a course aimed at
exports over imports: trade surplus theoretical competence: pure • de­
. financial exploitation of dependent noting a course aimed at practical
states: colonialism . use of math­ utility: applied • denoting a course
ematics to explain an economic sys­ embracing several subject-areas:
tem: econometrics � see also infla­ cross-curricu lar • denoting a course
tion consisting of a series of independent
eczema • steroid used tq treat this: study units: modular . denoting an
hydrocortisone optional course: elective • denoting a
course revising or updating previ­
edge • adjective: peri pheral . hav­
ously acquired skills: refresher • ser­
ing a jagged edge: serrated
ies of lectures etc. on a topic of cur­
edit • edit to remove offensive mater­ rent public interest: teach-in . fixed
ial: bowdlerize, expurgate stage in the national curriculum: Key
education • basic education: Stage • school mathematics courses
grounding . education of both sexes stressing heuristics and set theory:
together: co-ed ucation • denoting new maths . full-time education for
education aimed at personal fulfil­ those beyond school age but not at a
ment: li beral . denoting education university: further education . edu­
for those with learning difficulties: re­ cation at university level: hig her edu­
medial • denoting school education cation . part-time adult education:
for the under-elevens: primary • de­ continuing education • woman em­
noting school education for the over­ ployed to educate children at home:
elevens: secondary • denoting edu­ governess . day-long release of em­
cation at university level: tertiary ployees for education: day release
• education through questioning and • extended release of employees for

clarification: maieutics • education full-time education: block release

through independent study: open • education conducted by post: cor­
learn ing . official assessment of a respondence course, d istance learn­
child's special educational needs: ing • education in household skills:
statement • educational require­ domestic science • work done by a
ments of those with learning difficul­ student while learning: cou rsework
ties etc.: special needs • institution • assessment of progress throughout
at which one was educated: alma study: continuous assessment
eel I election 112

o certificate of completed studies: dip­ priestly script using simplified hiero­

loma glyphs: hieratic 0 ancient Egyptian
eel 0 young eel: elver 0 eel split and script used by the laity, a simplified
cooked: spitchcock form of hieratic: demotic 0 ancient
Egyptian god of the dead: Osiris o an­
effect o mutual effect: interplay cient Egyptian embalmed corpse:
o indirect effect: knock-on mummy o ancient Egyptian funeral
efficiency 0 analysis of workplace urn: Canopic jar, Canopic vase 0 an­
efficiency: operational research 0 in­ cient Egyptian goddess of fertility:
creased efficiency by subdivision of Isis '0 ancient Egyptian god of
tasks: d ivision of labour 0 smoothly mummification: Anubis • ancient

efficient: slick 0 designed for effi­ Egyptian god of the sky: Horus o an­
ciency rather than appearance: utili­ cient Egyptian sun-god: Amun
tarian o ancient Egyptian tomb: mastaba
effort 0 requiring much effort: la­
o ancient Egyptian beetle-shaped gem:
borious 0 make great effort: strive, scara b o study o f ancient Egyptian
struggle culture: Egyptology 0 former vice­
roy of Egypt: Khed ive o Egyptian
egg o combining forms: 00-, ovi­ peasant: fellah (pl. fellahin) 0 Egyp­
o frog or fish eggs: spawn o egg­ tian boat: fell ucca o hot Egyptian
shaped: oviform, ovo id • producing wind: khamsin 0 Egyptian irrigation
young by means of eggs: oviparous device of a bucket on a pole: shadoof
o set of eggs: cl utch o sit on eggs:
brood 0 (of young) emerge from an eight o combining form: oct-
egg: hatch 0 keep eggs warm for o eight-sided figure: octagon • denot­
hatching: incu bate 0 artificially con­ ing eight parts: octu ple 0 one of eight
trolled hatching environment: hatch­ offspring born at a birth: octuplet
ery o study and collecting of birds' o ensemble of eight musicians, or
eggs: oology o recently hatched ani­ music for them: octet
mal: hatch ling o denoting an egg eighty 0 person in his or her eight­
boiled so that the yolk is dry: hard­ ies: octogenarian
boiled 0 denoting an egg boiled so
that the yolk is runny: soft-boiled elaborate 0 pretentiously elabor­
o dish of fried beaten eggs: omelette ate: g randiose
o light dish of stiffly beaten egg elbow 0 prod with the elbow: nudge
whites: souffle 0 Chinese egg dish: o inflammation of elbow tendons: ten­
foo yong 0 test eggs for freshness: nis el bow
candle 0 simmer an egg: coddle
election o adjectives: elective, elect­
o hardboiled egg fried in sausage
meat: Scotch egg oral • election campaign: hustings
o election for all constituencies: gen­
egg-shaped o adjectives: ova l , eral election 0 election for one con­
ovate, ovoid stituency: by-election o denoting a
Egyptian 0 ancient Egyptian ruler: constituency won by a small majority:
Pharaoh o territorial division of an­ marginal o denoting a constituency
cient Egypt: nome o ancient Egyp­ won by a large majority: safe 0 ma­
tian temple gateway: pylon o ancient nipulation of constituency boundar­
Egyptian picture-writing: hiero­ ies: gerrymandering o denoting an
g lyphs 0 oval plaque for hieroglyphs: election won by a simple majority:
cartouche • ancient Egyptian first past the post . election system
113 electricity I electricity

distributing seats proportionately to charge: capacitor, condenser • na­

each party's national share of the poll: tional electricity supply network:
proportional representation • per­ grid, national g rid • tall support for
son seeking election: candidate grid cables: pylon • person repairing
• propose or enter a candidate: nom­ electric power lines: l i nesman
inate • list of candidates: slate • equipment reducing grid voltages to

• ideal set of election candidates: domestic levels: su bstation . appar­

dream ticket • part of a county or atus changing alternating-current
borough returning a single parliamen­ voltages: transformer • sudden in­
tary candidate: division, constitu­ crease in voltage or current: surge
ency • area for local election pur­ • electric supply failure: blackout,
poses: ward • money paid in by an outage • interruption of electricity
election candidate: deposit • refuse supply to prevent generator overload:
constituency support to one's previ­ l oad-shedding . terminate an elec­
ous candidate: deselect • solicit tric supply: cut off • complete closed
votes at an election: canvass, elec­ path for electric current: circuit . ef­
tioneer . politician's mobile head­ fect of a sudden electrical discharge
quarters for use in election cam­ upon a person or animal: electric
paigns: battlebus • election meeting: shock, shock • electric shocks ad­
hustings • official conducting an ministered to treat mental illness:
election: returning officer . person electroconvulsive therapy • light­
supervising the conduct of an elec­ sensitive electric cell: electric eye,
tion: scruti neer . official announce­ photoelectric cell • difference in po­
ment of an election result: declaration tential causing an electric current:
• study of voting at elections: pseph­ electromotive force • substance
ology � see also vote transmitting electricity: conductor
electricity • combining form: • substance that does not transmit

electro- (e. g. electroplate) • electri­ electricity: insulator . device sup­

city supply: power • make electri­ pressing unwanted electrical waves:
city: generate . device converting filter • flow of electricity: cu rrent
mechanical energy into electricity: • maximum electric power demand:

dynamo, generator • electric gener­ peak load • electrical contact set

ator using permanent magnets: mag­ against a moving part: brush • de­
neto • electrical conductor wound vice with pins making an electrical
round a magnet: winding . denoting connection: plug • single-pronged

electricity generated by water power: electric plug: jack plug . device re­
hydroelectric • electric charge gen­ ceiving an electric plug: socket • de­
erated by friction: triboelectricity vice making or breaking an electric
• stationary eleGtric charge produced circuit: switch • wall plate around an
by friction: static electricity • elec­ electric switch: escutcheon • switch
tric potential produced by mechanical controlling a whole system: master
stress: piezoelectricity • producing switch • set of electrical switches:
electricity by temperature differences: gang . switch operated by a sprung
thermoelectric • device converting lever: tumbler . switches and fuse
solar radiation into electricity: solar boxes where the electrical supply en­
battery, solar ce l l . device convert­ ters a house: consumer unit
ing quantitative physical changes into • sprung electrical connection clip:
an electric s ignal, or vice versa: trans­ crocodile clip • device varying an
ducer . device storing an electric electric light's brightness: dimmer
electric circuit I electronic data 114

• electrical appliances such as televi­ off an electric current: circuit-breaker

sions and hi-fi: brown goods • elec­ • degree to which a substance opposes
trical appliances such as refrigerators the passage of an electric current:
and washing machines: white goods resistance • muscle or nerve sti­
electric circuit • electric circuit
mulation by electric current: electro­
serving several power points: ring cir­ therapy • chemical decomposition by
cuit, ri ng main . denoting an inter­ electric current: electro lysis
rupted electric circuit: open • com­ electric light • thin wire giving
plete an electric circuit: close . wire light in an electric light bulb: filament
used to do this: jumper • connect or • glass container for an electric light
disconnect an electrical circuit: trip filament: envelope • electric light
• conductor by which electicity enters
bulb with translucent glass: pearl
or leaves an object: electrode . tem­ bulb • electric light fitting with two
porary electrical connection: patch small projecting pins: bayonet fitting
• board with sockets for this: patch­
• device receiving an electric light fit­
board • unwanted electrical connec­ ting: socket
tion, creating a false circuit: short cir­
cuit • aerial short circuit between electric wire • electric wire:
two exposed conductors: flashover cable, lead . long-distance electric
• circuit's resistance to alternating cable: transmission l i ne • national
current: impedance . denoting cir­ network of these: grid • electric wire
cuits etc_ which the current enters in providing heat: element • electric
turn: in series . denoting circuits wire providing light: fi lament • elec­
etc_ which the current enters simul­ tric wire running to the ground: earth
taneously: in parallel • thin wire • ducting for electric cable: shaft
breaking an overloaded electric cir­ • towerlike structure carrying cables
cuit: fuse above the ground: pylon
electric current • complete closed electrode • positively charged elec­
path for electric current: circuit • dif­ trode: anode • negatively charged
ference in potential causing an elec­ electrode: cathode • electrode device
tric current: electromotive force used to generate electric current: cell
• sudden increase in electric current:
electronic data • electronic data
surge • denoting an electric current
having frequent and regular reverses gathering: data capture • denoting
of direction: a lternating • denoting data in a form a computer can pro­
an electric current flowing in one dir­ cess: machine-readable • basic data
ection: direct • apparatus converting unit: word • identifying character
direct into alternating current: in­ appended to a data item: tag • part of
verter • apparatus converting alter­ a computer record allocated to a par­
nating into direct current: rectifier ticular data item: field • connected
• instrument controlling an electric set of data items: record • data stored
current by varying the resistance: under a particular name: file • group
rheostat • instruments measuring of records processed together: batch
electric currents: ammeter, galvan­ • field identifying a record: key
ometer • maximum current taken by • data's consistency and freedom from

a device: load ing • change an alter­ corruption: integ rity . device dis­
nating current to direct: commutate playing data on a screen: visual dis­
• electrode device used to generate play unit • data shown on a com­
electric current: cell • device cutting puter screen: display • section of
U5 electronic data I electronic data

stored data displayable onscreen at unauthorized access to data: hack

one time: page • steady rolling up or • destroy data in a computer's mem­
down through displayed data: scroll­ ory: delete, erase • cancel a deletion:
ing • printout of computer data: unde lete . destroy data by entering
hardcopy . onscreen display of data: new data in its place: overwrite • pre­
soft copy • electronic data sorting: vent this: write-protect • small data
data processing • operate on data by loss due to disk flaw: dropout . make
means of a program: process • de­ data available to several users simul­
fined structure for data processing, taneously: multicast . data path be­
storage, or display: fo rmat . com­ tween computer components: bus
puter part storing memory
data: • high speed data connection: local
• flat plate for data storage: disk bus • rules for electronic
• copy data t o a storage location: save transmision of data between devices:
• copy or transfer data: read • trans­ protocol . standard signals regulat­
fer data to the memory: load, write ing data transfer: handshaki n g . de­
• send data to an intermediate store: noting the transfer of data as a single
spool • compact data for storage: sequence of bits: serial • continuous
compress • immediate access to the flow of data: stream • denoting sys­
data sought: d i rect access • access tems processing data as it is gener­
to data requiring file readthrough: se­ ated: real-time • single scan through
quential access • time taken to find a set of data: pass • block of data
stored data: seek time • discovery of transmitted across a network: packet
a sought data item: hit • re-express • separate data into such units:
data for use with a different program packetize • mode of data transmis­
or system: convert • hierarchic ar­ sion by packets: packet switching
rangement of data: nesti ng • copy • rules governing electronic transmis­
data to a second location: back-up, sion of data: protocol • total of the
dump . duplicate storage of data: digits in an item of electronic data:
mi rroring • copy data from one com­ checksum • alter data to minimize
puter system to another: down load storage space: compress • restore
• transfer data to a larger computer such data to a machine-readable state:
system: upload • obtain electronic decom press . denoting data com­
data: interrogate, retrieve . struc­ pression discarding inessential infor­
tured data held in a computer: mation: lossy . microchip com­
database . corpus of data formed pressing and decompressing data:
from several databases: databank co dec • data link allowing simultan­
• company's management database: eous updates: hot link . long-distance
data warehouse • creating new data­ transmission of computerized infor­
bases from existing database material: mation: telematics • study of elec­
data mining _ database structured to tronic data processing for storage and
recognize relations between stored retrieval: information science, infor­
items: relational database . restore mation tech nology, i nfo rmatics
a database to its previous state: roll­ • introduce errors to a program or
back • browser program acessing a database: corrupt • error or fault
large database: navigator • storage causing loss of data: hard erro r
device allowing data access from any • piece o f computer code that can cor­
available disk: jukebox • denoting rupt or destroy data: virus • legal
data on free access: unprotected • re­ controls over use of electronic data:
strict access to data: protect • gain data protection
elec tron i c mail I emotion 116

electronic mail . processing elec­ rutting male elephants: m ust • ele­

tronic mail: messaging • abusive phant's long projecting tooth: tusk
electronic-mail message: flame . elephant driver: mahout . seat on
electronics . electronic aviation elephant's back: howdah
equipment: avionics • electronic cir­ eleven • combining form: hendeca-

cuit formed on a small piece of semi­ • eleven-sided figure: hendecagon,

conducting material: integrated cir­ · u ndecagon . verse of eleven syl-
cuit . integrated circuit containing lables: hendecasyllable
all the functions of a computer's cen­ elf • elf said to do housework:
tral processing unit: microprocessor brownie • elf in Irish folklore: lepre-
• electronic keyboard able to produce chaun . elf in German folklore: ko-
many different types of pitched sound: bold
synthesizer . electronic device at­
elm • fungal disease of elm trees:
tached for monitoring purposes: tag
Dutch elm d i sease
• electronic remote control of ma­
embarrass • embarrassment at
chines: teleoperation • restore an

electronic signal to intelligible form: one' s appearance or actions: self­

descramble • semiconductor used in consciousness • embarrassing re­
electronics: transistor • denoting
mark or act: betise, faux pas, gaffe
• avoiding embarrassment: discreet
technology based on solid semicon­
ductors: solid-state • minor printed emblem . Celtic three-legged em-
circuit board: daug hterboard . semi­ blem: triskelion • Nazi emblem:
conducting wafer in an integrated cir­ swastika • company emblem: logo
cuit: chip, mi croch i p . denoting an em broidery . piece of embroidery
electron emitted at high temperat­ done as a specimen of skill: sampler
ures: therm ionic • technology com­ . ornamental embroidery with draw­
bining electronics and mechanics: ing out of threads: d rawn-th read­
mechatronics work . embroidery with parts cut
elegance . stylish elegance: chic out: cutwo rk • embroidery worked
• over-elaborate elegance: chichi over canvas: needlepoint . canvas
. simple and elegant: clean . slim embroidery of diagonal stitches: petit
and elegant: svelte • elegant bodily point . thin twisted embroidery
movements: deportment yarn, or the embroidery made with it:
crewel • small loop of twisted thread:
element • chemical element pres­
picot • embroidery stitch forming
ent or required in minute amounts:
X: cross-stitch • circular frame hold-
trace element . radioactive form of
ing embroidery taut: tambour
an element: isotope, radioisotope
• smallest particle of a chemical elem­ em bryo . membrane surrounding
ent that can participate in chemical the embryo: chorion • outermost

reactions: atom • table of the chem­ layer of embryonic tissue: ectoderm

ical elements arranged by atomic • innermost layer of embryonic tis­

number: periodic table • vertical col­ sue: endoderm . test-tube develop-

umn in this: g roup • horizontal row ment of embryos: ectoge nesis
in this: period emigration • emigration of intellec-

elephant • adjective:
elephantine tuals: bra i n d rain • emigrants from a
• young elephant: calf • prehistoric particular nation: d iaspora
elephant: mam moth . savage ele­ emotion • violent emotional attack:
phant living apart from the herd: hysteria, pa roxysm . feeling emo­
rogue elephant • frenzied state of tion: passible, sentimental • show-
117 emperor I enough

ing no emotion: im passive, self­ ology • time of j udgement then:

contro lled • emotional shock: doom sday
trauma • emotional tension: stress enemy • adjective: inimical . per­
• emotional release in response to a
son voluntarily assisting enemy occu­
moving work of art: catharsis • attri­ pying forces: collaborator, quisling
bution of human emotions to animals
and things: pathetic fall acy energy • tiny discrete amount of en­

ergy: quantum (pl. quanta) . energy

em peror • adjective: im perial . em­ derived from renewable non-nuclear
peror of Germany: Kaiser • emperor sources: alternative energy . energy
of Japan: M i kado . emperor of Rus­
derived from movement: kinetic en­
sia: Tsar ergy • emission of energy as electro­
empire . adjective: im perial magnetic waves or moving particles :
employee • employee's improper
behaviour: m iscond uct . list of em­ engagement . man engaged to be
ployees and their wages: payroll married: fiance . woman engaged to
• temporary or permanent discharge be married: fiancee
of workers: lay-off • rate at which
engineer • engineer designing and
employees leave and are replaced: building roads etc.: civil engineer
turnover . loss of employees due to
resignation and retirement: natural English • combining form: Anglo­

wastage, wastage • English-speaking: anglophone

employment • short experience of engraving • adjective: glyptic . en­

' graving using a waxed plate: etching,
employment arranged fo r school­
leavers: work expe rience • out of em­ cerography • etching technique
ployment: unwaged using resin and varnish to produce
shaded areas: aquatint . engraving
em pty • empty-headed: vaca nt, without acid: d ry point • engraving
by incised lines: line engraving • en­
enamel • decorative enamel inlay: graving effect achieved by many small
champleve • decorative enamels sep­ dots: stipple • engraved or incised
arated by wire: cloisonne design: i ntaglio • engraving from a
enclosure • enclosure for keeping
plate partly roughened and partly
birds: avia ry • trackside enclosure smooth: mezzotint • engrave a de­
where competitors assemble: pad­ sign on metal: chase • steel engrav­
ing tool: burin • art of gem engrav­
ing: glyptography • black compound
end • combining forms: tel ( e ) - (pur­ set in engraved metal: niello .. see
pose, e.g. telelology). acro- (tip, e.g. also illustration
acronym) • ftnai outcome: denoue­
enjoy • enjoy without hurrying: sa­
ment • disappointing end or out­
come: anticlimax . put an end to: vour
scotch • bring to a gradual end: enlarge • enlarge by internal
wind up • ending point: term inus ad stretching: distend
enlightenment • theological term
endless • endlessly: ad infi nitum in Buddhism or Hinduism: n i rvana
end of the world • theological enough • be enough: suffi ce
study of the end of the world: eschat- . more than enough: superfl uous
enquiry I entrails 118

enquiry • denoting a process o f en­ simultaneously: one-man band I

quiry conducted by negation: apo­ • medieval singer: m i n strel, trouba- I

phatic • denoting a process of en­ dour • performer in popular enter­

quiry conducted by affirmation: tainment: artiste • performer in
cataphatic highbrow entertainment: artist
ensemble • ensemble of two per­ • pair of entertainers working to­
formers, or the music for them: duo gether: double act
• ensemble

o f three performers, or the entertainment entertainment
trio •
• enter­
music for them: ensemble of industry: show business
four performers, or the music for tainment consisting of different kinds
them: quartet • ensemble of five per­ of act: variety • entertainment of
formers, or the music for them: q uin­ singing to a recorded accompaniment:
tet • ensemble o f s i x performers, or
karaoke • entertainment by taking
the music for them: sextet • ensem­
one's clothes off: striptease • enter­
ble of seven performers, or the music
tainment using sound and lighting
for them: se ptet • ensemble of eight
effects upon an architectural back- '
performers, or the music for them:
ground: son et l u m iere . light the­
octet • ensemble of instruments of a
atrical entertainment with topical
single type: choir • small ensemble
satire:revue • popular variety enter- I
playing early music: consort • small
tainment: m usic hall • variety enter- �
ensemble playing popular music:
tainment with topical satire: revue 1

• theatrical Christmas show: panto- 1
combo, g roup arrangement of a
piece of music for ensemble or orches­
mime • comic entertainment based
tral use: orchestration • play several
on vigorous horseplay: slapstick
instruments in an ensemble: double
• military entertainment with demon-
enter • impossible t o enter: impene­ strations of skill: tattoo • public i
trable entertainment or social activities q
entertainer . very famous enter­ available at night: nightl ife • enter- \'

tainer: megastar • entertainer tell­ tainment with two items: double bill
ing j okes: comedian (fem. comedi­ • entertainment with an educational
enne) • denoting a comedian purpose: edutain ment, infotainment
entertaining a live audience: sta nd­
enthUsiast • extreme enthusiast: ·
up • male entertainer impersonating
fanatic, monoman iac, zealot • en­
a woman: d rag queen • entertainer ·
thusiast for some activity: fancier
twisting his or her body: contortion­
• foolishly enthusiastic: gung-ho
ist • entertainer demonstrating skill
• vigorous enthusiasm: verve, zest
in escaping: escapologist • enter­
• stimulate enthusiasm: motivate
tainer performing elaborate gymnas­
• showing little enthusiasm:
tic feats: acrobat • entertainer walk­
ing a tightrope: funambul ist warm
• entertainer passing a sword blade entire • combining forms: pan- (e.g.
down his or her throat: sword­ pan-Islamic)
swallower . entertainer seeming to
entity • some further unspecified en- "
make his or her voice come from a
tity: tertium quid
dummy: ventri loquist • mUSICIan
who entertains in the street: busker entrails • take o u t entrails: disem-

• musician making snakes sway to his bowel, eviscerate • eviscerate a :

or her tunes: snake charmer deer: gralloch • eviscerate a fish:
• busker playing several instruments clea n , gut • eviscerate a fowl: draw
119 e nvironment I essence

environment • combining form: equipment . equipment in a speci­

eco- • social environment: milieu fied area of expertise: armament­
• environmentally aware: green . in­ arium . complete equipment: pan­
creased environmental awareness: oply • miscellaneous equipment:
green revo l ution . watch for threats paraphernalia • setting up equip­
to the environment: doo mwatch ment for use: i nsta llation
• presence of harmful substances in
erase • erase data from an elec­
the environment: pollution • ani­
tronic medium: wipe • impossible to
mal's or plant's natural environment:
erase: indeli ble
habitat • happening in its natural en­
vironment: in vivo • study of the Eros • Latin name: Cupid
interaction of living organisms and erosion • landscape levelling
their environment: eco logy . revers­ through erosion: planation • proj ect­
ing environmental damage: ing wall or fence to limit sea's erosion
remediation of coast: groyne • minimization of
enzyme . combining forms: zym-, erosion by ploughing along contours:
-ase • mixture of enzymes used in al­ contour plou g h i ng
coholic fermentation: zymase
error • error in logic: fa llacy
epi lepsy • adjective: epi leptic • grammatical error: solecism
• serious form of epilepsy: g rand mal
• error alleged to reveal subconscious
. minor form of epilepsy: petit mal feelings: Freudian Slip . capable of
• causing epilepsy: epileptogenic error: fa llible • incapable of error:
• epileptic fit: seizure • violent
foolproof, i nfa l l i ble • correct
movements in epileptic fitS: convul­ someone's mistaken impression: u n­
sions . person suffering from epi­ d eceive • list of errors in a book etc.:
lepsy: epileptic • drug preventing or corrigenda, errata . opaque fluid to
moderating epileptic fits: anticonvul­ obliterate written errors: co rrection
sant fl uid
epoch . adjective: epochal
escape . person who entertains
equal • combining form: equi-, iso­ audiences by demonstrating his or
(e. g. isosceles) . with sides of equal her skill in escaping from confine­
length: eq u i lateral . equal in power ment: esca pologist • place for escap­
or importance: equipollent • equal­ ing or hiding: bolt-hole
ity of pay or status: pa rity • person of
escort • female escort for young
equal status: peer • on an equal
basis: pari passu • other things woman: cha perone, duenna • male
being equal: ceteris paribus escort for older woman: gigolo
equality . adjective: egalitarian Eskimo . Eskimo inhabitant of the
equation • equations sharing un­ islands off Alaska: Aleut • Eskimo
knowns with identical values: simul­ inhabitant of northern Canada or
taneous equations . move to the Greenland: Inuit . Eskimo canoe:
other side of an equation: trans pose kayak . Eskimo ice-house: ig loo
• Eskimo sledge-dog: husky, mala­
. quantity to be found by solving an
equation: unknown m ute . command to this: mush!
equator . adjective: eq uatorial essay . academic essay: d isserta­
equinox • adjective: equi noctial tion, paper, memoir, thesis
• progressively earlier occurrence of essence • denoting things having
the equinoxes: precession the same essence: consubsta ntial
esse ntial I evolution 120

essential • essential oil of rose evasion . evasive talk: circum locu­

petals: attar . not essential: extrin- tion, equivocation
sic evening . period of evening twi­
estate • estatemanager: land light: dusk
agent, (in Scotland) factor • colonial
event · • important event: occasion,
estate growing sugar, coffee, etc.: plan­
land mark, milestone . summer out­
tation • plantation owner or man­
door fund-raising event: fete • event
ager: planter • enclosed pasture and
inexplicable by scientific laws: mir­
woodland round a country mansion:
acle • number participating in an
event: turnout . person seeing an
estimate • one who provides a de­ event take place: witness • place
tailed estimate of the cost of a pro­ where an event is held: ven ue . pos­
posed building project: qu antity sur­ sible sequence of events: contingency,
veyor • estimate unknown results by scenario • series of events, each trig­
analogy with those already observed: gered by its predecessor: chain reac­
extrapolate tion • first of a series of events:
ethics . theory that acts are j usti­ opener • related events adding sig­
fied solely by their usefulness, or the nificance to that under consideration:
pleasure they create: util itaria nism context • wisdom after the event:
• theory that moral truths exist inde­ hin dsight
pendently of any knowledge of them: ever . for ever: ad infinitum
objectivism • theory that moral
every • combining form: pan- (e.g.
truths are culturally determined: rela­
tivism • theory that several moral pansexual)
systems may coexist: ethical plural­ everywhere . combining forms:
ism • theory that pleasure is the omni-, per • found everywhere:
highest good: hedonism . ethics of omni present, pervasive, ubiqu itous
medical and biological research: bio­ evidence • adjective: evidential
ethics • imagined unchanging and • evidence given under oath: depos­
universal system of ethical principles: ition • lying evidence: perj u ry . evi­
natural law • abandonment of ethical dence given by an accused person
standards: anomie against his accomplices: Queen's (or
etiquette . required by etiquette: King's) evidence . denoting legally
de rigueu r • subtlepoint of etiquette: acceptable evidence: admissible
nicety • denoting evidence proving guilt:
Europe . combining form: Euro­ damning . denoting evidence con­
. European main­
(e.g. Eurocentric) sistent with, but not proving, the ac­
land as viewed from Britain: the cusation: circumstantial • object

Continent shown in court as evidence: exhibit

European U nion • bureaucrat of evil • wishing to do evil: malevolent,

the European Union: Eu rocrat . per­ malicious, malign, nefarious

son unenthusiastic about the Euro­ • averting evil: apotropaic . declare
pean Union: Eurosceptic • official to be evil: denounce • portray as
monetary unit of the European Union: evil: demon ize
ecu • proposed single currency for evolution • evolution of one species
the European Union: Eurocurrency
to resemble another: mimicry
evaporate . liable to rapid evapor­ • major evolutionary change: macro­
ation: volati le evolution • Darwinian model of evo-
121 examination I exercise
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

lution: natural selection, survival of excavation . refiling of excav­

the fittest ations with waste material: landfill
• refill an excavation with the mater­
examination . combining forms:
ial dug from it: backfill
-opsy (e.g. biopsy) , -scopy (e.g. en­
doscopy) • examination of financial exceedingly . combining forms:
accounts: audit . examination of a super- (e.g. supersensitive), u ltra­
substance to determine its constitu­ (e. g. ultra-polite)
ents: qual itative analysis • examin­ excessive . excessive supply: glut
ation of a substance to determine the • use of more words than are needed:

proportion of its constituents: quanti­ pleonasm

tative analysis • spoken academic excessively • combining forms:
examination: oral, viva, viva voce hyper-, over- (e.g. overfull), pleo­
• practice examination: mock • oral • excessively critical: hypercritical

examination of an applicant: inter­ exchange • mutual exchange: reci-

view • school-leaving examination in proc ity
certain countries: bacca laureate •
excitement thrill of excitement:
e level of a music examination: grade
• person taking an examination: can­
excrement • combining forms:
didate • supervisor of per\,ons taking
copro-, scato- (e.g. scatology) . eat­
a written examination: i nvigilator
ing excrement: coprophagous . ex­
• denoting an examination question
crement of seabirds sold as a fertil­
offering several possible answers:
izer: guano • receptacle for
mu lti ple-choice • set of examination
bedridden persons' excreta: bedpan
questions: paper • instruction on an
execution • execution as a punish-
examination paper: rubric . candi­
date's completed examination paper: ment: death penalty . official order
script . examiner ensuring consist­ for this: death warrant . chair for
ent marking: moderator . examin­ execution by electric shock: electric
ation grade denoting a fail: unclassi­ chair . apparatus for execution by
hanging: gallows, gibbet • appar­
fied • medical examination of a
autopsy, atus for execution by strangling: gar­
corpse: post-mortem
rotte • French beheading machine:
• medical examination of tissue from
guil lotine • platform for public exe­
a living body: biopsy • body examin­
cutions: scaffold . post for display of
ation by touch: pal pation . machine
executed persons: g i bbet
examining the ' body by radiation,
exercise • exercises for fitness and
ultrasound, etc.: scanner • image
produced by such a machine: scan strength: physical training . exer­
• theological examination of a heretic:
cises for strength and good appear­
inqu isition . mental examination of ance: call isthenics . exercises in­
one's thoughts: introspection creasing bodily oxygen intake:
aerobics • aerobics performed in
example • perfect example: arche­ water: aquarobics . exercises using
type, epitome, ne plus ultra, para­ counterbalanced muscles: isometrics
gon, prototype, qui ntessence • exercise of gentle running: jogging
• prime example: byword • example • exercise of raising the prone body by
to be imitated: object lesson, para­ arm pressure: press-up • exercise of
digm, pattern, role model . example raising oneself to an overhead bar:
cited to justify similar action: prece­ pull-up • Chinese exercise systems:
dent . cite as an example: adduce t'ai chi ch'uan, qigong . system of
exhaust I explosive 122

exercise based on Hindu principles: empirical . experienced at second

yoga . series of exercises: circuit hand: vicarious
• exercise course with physical obs­
experiment • experimental ideas
tacles to be negotiated: assault
in th� arts, or the people practising
course • session of vigorous physical
them: avant-garde • experiments
exercise: workout • exercise involv­
performed on living animals: vivisec­
ing alternate slow and fast work: fart­
tion . procedures of a scientific ex­
lek, wind sprint . preliminary exer­
periment: protocol • exact repetition
cises: limbering up, warm-up
of an experiment: re plication • sam­
• concluding exercises: cooldown,
ple for experimentation: specimen
• bacteria etc. grown for experimenta­
exhaust • purifier of vehicle ex­
tion: culture • item analogous to
haust gases: catalytic converter
those experimented upon, and ob­
exhaustion • inexplicable persist­ served for comparison: control
ent exhaustion: chronic fatigue syn­
drome, myalgic encephal itis expert . combining forms: -ician
(e. g. statistician), -ist . expert in a
exhibition • exhibition showing
stated field: boffi n, buff . person
work from various periods in an art­
competent in several fields: generalist
ist's life: retrospective • item assem­
• aesthetic expert: connoisseur • ex­
bled at the exhibition venue: installa­
pert in church law: canonist • panel
tion . exhibition preview for invited
of experts: brains trust • group of ex­
guests: private view, vern issage
perts advising those in power: think
• temporary housing for an exhib­
tank . non-expert: layman
ition: pavi lion
explanation • provisional explan­
existence • combining form: onto­

(e.g. ontology) • existing situation: ation: hypothesis . explanation of a

status quo . having no physical ex­ difficult word in a text: gloss • ex­
istence: in corporeal . no longer ex­ planation harder to understand than
isting: defunct the problem: ig notum per ignotius
expect • disconcert by an unex- explode • make explode: detonate
pected act: wrong-foot explosive • nitroglycerine explo­
expel • combiningform: -fuge (e.g. sive: dynamite • explosive made of
febrifuge) . expel someone from a nitroglycerine and nitrocellulose: gel­
property: evi ct • expel a foreigner: ignite . powerful odourless plastic
deport explosive: Semtex ™ • explosive

expense • minor expenses: inciden­ made of saltpetre, sulphur, and char­

tals • basic expense of keeping a firm coal: gunpowder . explosive mater­
running: oncost, operati ng ex­ ial in a missile's warhead: payload
penses, overheads • expensive­ • explosive charge to propel a rocket:
looking: sumptuous propellant • explosive railway warn­
experience • experience in hand­ ing device: detonator • denoting am­
ling tricky social or business situ­ munition containing explosive: l ive
ations: savoir fa ire • denoting some­ • device activating an explosive: det­
one experienced in coping with onator, fuse . hole bored to take ex­
modern urban life: streetwise • a plosive: blast hole, shot hole
short but unpleasant experience: • sharp-ended bar drilling blast holes:
mauvais quart d'heure • derived j u m per • explosive situation: powder
from experience rather than logic: keg, tinderbox
123 extent I eyelid
. . . . . . . . . . . . ........................ . . . . ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... .... ................. . .. ........ ............. . .

extent • extent of one's operations • opaqueness of the lens, giving

or power: ambit blurred vision: cataract • adjust­

ment of the lens to focus: accommo­

extermination • extermination of
dation . dark specks floating before
an entire nation or people: genocide,
the eyes: muscae volitantes • in­
flammation of the eye: ophthalmia,
external . combining forms: ecto­ ophthalmitis . yellowing of the eye:
(e.g. ectogenesis), exo- (e. g. exoskel­ jaund ice • rapid involuntary eye
eton), out- (e.g. outbu ildings) movement: nystagmus • denoting

extra . combiningforms: super- (e.g. eyes with poor sight: dim • medical
su persensitive), ultra- (e. g. ultra­ specialist for vision problems: ocul ist,
polite) optician • assessment of eyesight
and correction of its defects: optom­
extreme . combining form: ultra­
etry • study and treatment of eye dis­
(e.g. ultramicroscopic)
eases: ophthalmology . device for
eye . combining forms: ocul-, inspecting the retina: ophthalmo­
ophthalmo- . adjectives: ocular, oph­ scope • for or by one eye: mo nocu­
thalmic, optic • eye with a streaked lar . for or by two eyes: binocular
or opaque white iris: wall eye • white • double vision: diplopia . look dir­
outer layer of the eye: sclera . trans­ ectly into someone's eyes: make eye
parent layer at the front of the eye: co ntact • visible to the naked eye:
cornea • coloured area round the macrosco pic • small cup for wash­
pupil: i ris • dark opening at the cen­ ing the eyes: eyebath • Arab eye
tre of an eye: pupil • transparent tis­ make-up: kohl • horse's eye-screen:
sue filling the eyeball: vitreous hu­ blinker . eye tooth: canine . an eye
mour . light-sensitive area at the for an eye: lex talionis
back of the eye: retina • inflamma­
eyebrow . adjective: supercil iary
tion of the retina: retinitis • retinal
cell responding to bright light and eyelash • adjective: ciliary • eye-
colour: cone • retinal cell respond­ lash cosmetic: mascara
ing to dull light: rod • point on the eyelid . combining form: blephar­
retina insensitive to light: blind spot • adjectives: ciliary, pal pebral • inner
• mucous membrane covering the eye: eyelid in certain animals: nictitating
conjunctiva • inflammation of this: mem brane, third eyelid . this in
conjunctivitis . lack of eye pigmen­ dogs or cats: haw . drooping of the
tation: albinism . distortion of the upper eyelid: ptosis • inflammation
eye, giving partly unfocused images: of the eyelid: blepharitis • inflamed
astigmatism • increased pressure in swelling on the edge of an eyelid: sty,
the eye, causing blindness: gla ucoma stye
fabric • woven fabric: textile • fab­ silk or nylon fabric: chiffon • fine
rics in standard lengths: piece goods crisp lustrous silk: taffeta • fiJ;le soft
• strong fabric for belts etc. : webbing silk fabric: sarsanet • glossy silk fab­
• thick fabric for carpets and uphol­ ric: satin • closely woven silk, cotton
stery: moq uette • high quality cloth­ or nylon with a soft pile on one side:
ing fabric: broadcloth • fabric made velvet • kind of linen with an in­
from fine smooth wool: worsted woven pattern: damask • smooth

• wide-meshed fabric: fishnet hard-wearing linen fabric: holland

• printed fabric for curtains and up­ • cotton or linen fabric woven with a
holstery: chi ntz • fabric with woven diamond pattern: diaper • strong
pictures or designs: tapestry . fabric rough cotton or linen: huckaback
made of two or more different yarns: • heavy cotton waterproofed with oil:
union • thin transparent fabric: oilskin • heavy printed cotton fabric:
gauze • denoting a thin transparent cretonne • printed puckered cotton
fabric: diaphanous, sheer, translu­ fabric: seersucker • hard-wearing

cent • denoting a loosely woven fab­ blue cotton fabric: denim, jean
ric: open • denoting a fabric faced on • coarse twilled cotton or linen: drill

both sides: reversible • denoting an • thick ribbed cotton fabric: cordu roy

undyed fabric: natu ral . denoting a . fine twilled cotton: chino . strong
fabric with warp and weft of different untwilled cotton: duck • unbleached
colours: shot • denoting a fabric cotton: calico • thin loosely woven
washed with abrasives: stonewashed cotton: cheesecl oth . smooth twil­
• denoting a fabric not needing iron­ led cotton or worsted: gaberdene
ing: d rip-d ry • denoting a fire­ • cotton fabric woven with stripes or

resistant fabric: flameproof, non­ checks: dim ity . cotton fabric with
fl ammable • denoting fabric with a bold checks: gingham . napped cot­
worn surface: threadbare • long­ ton fabric: f1annellette • light

napped fabric: plush • towelling fab­ flannellette: winceyette • light cotton

ric with long uncut loops: terry . fab­ fabrics: jaconet, muslin • fine trans­
ric with a surface of diagonal ridges: lucent cotton muslin: organdie
twi ll . such a ridge: wale • fabric . light cotton with a corded surface:
woven from flax: l i nen • fine trans­ poplin • soft ribbed cotton fabric:
parent cotton or linen: lawn • coarse cand lewick • cotton got up to resem­
fabric woven from flax or hemp: sack­ ble satin: sateen . coarse thick­
cloth . fabric with a glittering metal­ napped woollen fabric: duffel • fine
lic thread: lu rex • fabric with gold or woollen suiting: barathea • tartan
silver threads: lame • textile re­ twilled wool: plaid • rough woollen
inforced by embedded glass filaments: fabric in a speckled weave: tweed
fi breg lass, glass fibre • thin silk or • soft napped woollen fabric: flan­
crepe fabric: georgette • silk fabric nel • strong twilled woollen fabric:
with a rippled effect: moire, moire , serge • twilled worsted or cotton:
watered • thin stiff transparent silk gaberd i n e • strong fabric of wool
fabric: organza . light transparent and cotton or linen: wincey . coarse
125 face I fair

hemp or flax fabric: canvas . coarse facil ity • basic physical facilities:

jute or hemp fabric: hessian • strong infrastructure

rough hessian: scrim • coarsely
facing • combining form: -ward (e.g.
woven fabric used as a floor-covering: southward) • lying facing down­
drugget • fabric or yarn from angora wards: prone • lying facing upwards:
goat hair: mohair • tufty velvety fab­ supine
ric: chenille • fabric used for dress­
fact • adjective: factual . an un­
ing wounds: lint • elasticated polyur­
ethane material: elasta ne • synthetic alterable fact: fait accompli, don nee
• unpleasant fact about oneself: home
resin used to make synthetic textile
fibres: polyester • cellulose used to truth • basic facts about a subject: ru­
make synthetic textile fibres: rayon d iments . facts known only by re­
• synthetic polymer used to make syn­
port: hearsay • in actual fact: de
thetic textile fibres: nylon • recycled facto • assume as a fact: posit
fabric: mungo • piece of fabric cover­ factor • key factor: determ inant
ing the head: kerchief • strip of fab­ faeces • combining form: copro­
ric worn inside an open-necked shirt: • piece of faeces: stool • small round
cravat • strip of fabric inserted to en­ piece of animal faeces : pel let • eating
large or strengthen a garment: gusset faeces: coprophagous, scatopha­
• soft fabric used to pad a garment:
gous • discharge faeces from the
wadding • triangular piece of fabric: body: defecate, evacuate . such an
gore . strip of gathered fabric: frill event: movement, bowel movement
• side of fabric intended for display:
• discharge of liquid faeces: d iarrhoea
right side • fabric scraps for stuffing • difficulty in discharging faeces: con­
cushions etc. : flock . raised threads stipation • pipe taking excrement
on a fabric surface: nap, pile • small and waste water down the side of a
hole in fabric for a lace: eyelet . edge building: soil stack • underground
on fabric to prevent unravelling: selv­ pipe for excrement and waste water:
edge . shop selling fabrics: drapery sewer • system of sewers: sewerage
• fabric sample: swatch • wrap in
• contents of a sewer: sewage • tank
several layers of fabric: swathe in which sewage is left to decompose:
face • adjective: facial . facial fea­ septic tan k . excrement in a septic
tures: physiognomy • appearance of tank: septage • empty the contents
facial skin: complexion • facial of a chamber pot: slop out • un­
wrinkle: crow's-foot • red facial pim­ healthy interest in excrement and ex­
ples during adolescence: acne . in­ cretion: scatology
voluntary facial twitch: tic • denot­ failure • total failure: fiasco • fail­
ing an expressive face: mobile . with ure to fulfil an obligation: default
an unexpressive face: deadpan, in­ • proof against failure: fail-safe
scruta ble, poker-faced • disease • safety mechanism activated by ma­
causing facial swelling: mumps chine failure: fai l-safe
• solid representation of a face: mask
fair' • permanent outdoor fair­
• cosmetic improving facial skin: face
ground: amusement park • revolv­
mask, face pack • picture of
ing fairground ride: merry-go-round
someone's face composed from photo­
• fairground ride with a sharply twist­
graphs of others: photofit
ing railway track: roller coaster
faced . combining forms: -hedral • fairground wheel: Ferris wheel
(e.g. decahedral), -hedron (e.g. deca­ • fairground sideshow in which
hedron; pl. -hedra) motorcyclists ride up the inner side of
a large vertical cylinder: Wall of • genealogy of a group of gods: the­

Death • tall spiral slide: helter- ogony • study of family history: ge­
skelter • electric bumper car: nealogy • state payment to a family
dodgem on low income: family credit • pro­
longed and sometimes violent ill-will
fa ir' • adjectives: equ itable, eve n­
betwe en families: feu d , vendetta
handed, just • anger at unfair treat­
• valuable passed on in the family:
ment: indig nation • set right an un­
fair situation: redress heirloom
fantasy • fantasy world: Cockaigne,
fall . fall controlled by gravity only:
cloud cuckoo land, Shangri-La, Uto­
free fall
pia, Xanadu • person living in a fan­
fa lse . combining form: pseud(o)­ tasy world: Walter Mitty
• false
fruit: pseudocarp • writings fare • cheap fare: saver • system of
whose authorship is falsely assigned: reduced travel fares on offer to those
pseudepigrapha booking well in advance: Apex
fame • someone or something enjoy­
farm • large cattle farm in Canada or
ing brief fame: n i ne days' wo nder USA: ranch • agricultural holding
fam ily • adjective: fam ilial . nar­ smaller than a farm: smallholding
rowest family unit, consisting of a • denoting a farm devoted to milk pro­

couple and their own children: n u­ duction: dairy . farm store: barn
clear family • wider family unit, also • farm store with a roof but no walls:

including grandparents, uncles, etc. : Dutch barn • farm store for grain or
extended family • member of one's silage: silo . neat cuboid pile of hay
extended family: kin, kindred or straw bales: rick, stack • animals
• group of interrelated families: clan kept on a farm for profit: livestock
. within the family: domestic . as a • number of livestock on a farm:

family: en famille • female side of a headage � see also agricu lture

family: d istaff side • male side of fashion • current fashion: vogue
a family: spear side • female head • demanded by fashion: de rigueur
of a family: materfamilias (pl. • indicating or setting the fashion: dir­
matresfamilias) . male head of a ectional • person or organization
family: paterfam ilias (pl. patres­ able to influence fashion: taste maker
fam il ias) . family descent: l ineage • wealthy and fashionable people: gl it­
• reversion to earlier generations: terati, haut monde, high society,
throwback • person's nearest living smart set, social ites, society . ac­
relative: next of kin • descendant of a ceptability among the urban young:
notable family: scion . line of des­ street credibility • out of fashion:
cent: stock • family system having demode, outmoded, out of date
male heads: patriarchy • family sys­ • deliberate abandonment of current
tem having female heads: matriarchy fashions: reacti o n
• denoting a family system counting
fast' • combining form: tachy- (e.g.
descent through the female line:
tachyg raphy)
matril i neal • denoting a family sys­
tem counting descent through the fast' • Christian fast before Christ­

male line: patri l i neal • diagram mas: Advent • Christian fast before
showing relationships in a family: Easter: Lent • Muslim month-long
fam ily tree, genealogy, ped igree, fast: Ramadan � see also Lent
stemma • this showing the descent fastener • steel band secured by a
of Christ from Jesse: Jesse tree screw: Jubilee cli pTM • short wooden
127 fat I feeling

or plastic rod on coats etc.: toggle dark: nyctophobia . fear o f death:

• ornamental toggle with a braided necrophobia • fear of England or the
loop: frog English: Anglophobia . fear of for·
fat • combining forms: li po-, seb(o)­ eigners: xe nophobia o fear of
• metabolic formation of fat: heights: acrophobia • fear of homo­
lipogenesis • cosmetic surgery tech­ sexuals: homophobia o fear of the
nique for sucking fat out from under new or unfamiliar: neophobia • fear
the skin: l i posuction . denoting a of pain: algophobia • fear of public
gland etc. containing or secreting fat places: agoraphobia • fear of
or grease: sebaceous • containing spiders: a rachnophobia • fear of
little or no fat: non-fat • excessively strangers: xenophobia • fear of tech­
fat obese • bodily fat disappearing nology: cyberphobia, techno­
at adolescence: pu ppy fat • hard phobia • fear of the number thir­
white fat round the kidneys: suet teen: triskaidekaphobia • fear of
• fat used for making pastry: shorten­ water: hyd rophobia . fear of wo­
i ng . pig's fat used in cooking: lard men: gynaecophobia, gynophobia
• rendered fat used in candles and • thrill of fear: fri sson • fearful ap­

soap: tal low . melt down fat: render prehension: foreboding

• melt down fat to separnte impur·
feast • adjective: festal • seventh
ities: clarify day after a Church feast: octave
fate . fate in Hindu and Buddhist
feather . fancy feather: plume
thought: • fate in Islamic
• bird's flight feather: pinion . pull
thought:kismet • deserved fate:
the feathers from bird' s carcass:
father • combining form: patr(i)­
fee • initial fee paid to a barrister: re­
• adjective: paternal • being

someone's father: patern ity • denot­

tainer . further fee paid to a barris­
ter: refresher • fee paid to a celebrity
ing the period during which a father's
child is born: paternity • medical
attending an event: appearance
test to establish fatherhood: paternity money . fee paid to recompense
test • killing one's father: patricide someone doing 'unpaid' work: honor­
arium • percentage fee on business
fault . minor personal fault: foi ble,
transacted: commission • fee paid to
peccad illo • fault-finding: ca ptious,
a n author etc. for copies or recordings
carping, niggling
sold or performances given: royalty
faulty . combining form: dys- (e.g. • legal concept of a 'reasonable' fee for
dysentery), mal- (e. g. malfunction) unpriced goods or services: quantum
Faunus • Greek name: Pan meruit
favour . curry favour: ingratiate feeling . combining form: -pathy
o neself • preferential treatment • feeling that something is about to
given to relatives or friends: nepo­ happen: premonition . friendly feel­
tism ings: goodwi l l • instinctive feeling:
fear . combiningform: -phobia . ex­ i ntuition • widely held feeling:
treme or irrational fear: phobia • un· groundswell • general but unspoken
controllable fear: panic • fear of cats: feeling: undercurrent . general feel­
ailurophobia . fear of computers: ing of contentment: euphoria . feel­
cyberphobia • fear of confined ing of listlessness and apathy: leth­
spaces: claustrophobia • fear of argy . strong feeling of guilt or
corpses: necrophobia • fear of the regret: re morse • feeling of sickness
felloW I fever 128

or revulsion: nausea 0 general feel­ o pretended sword-thrust: feint

ing of unease: dysphoria, malaise _ 0 sword blade from middle to point:
o general feeling of inadequacy: infer­ foible o sword blade from middle to
iority complex o rousing intense feel­ hilt: forte 0 blunted fencing sword:
ings: emotive 0 provoked by feelings epee o light blunt-edged fencing
rather than logic: emotive, subjective sword : foi l o light tapered fencing
o conveyance of feeling in art or sword: sa bre o knob fixed to a foil
music: expression 0 bodily move­ point: button o sword-length fencing
ments or posture taken to indicate stick: single stick o fencer's face­
thoughts and feelings: body language cover: mask o fencer's chest·
o ability to share another's feelings: protector: plastron o fencer's ac­
empathy o establishment of a close knowledgement of an opponent's hit:
relationship based on shared feelings: touche 0 Japanese fencing: ke ndo
bonding o able to feel: sentient fermentation 0 combining form:
o that can be felt: palpable 0 abnor­ zym- 0 enzyme mix used in fermen­
mal physical sensation: paraesthesia tation: zymase 0 study of fermenta­
o lack of feeling or concern: apathy tion: zym urgy
o unable to feel: numb
fern 0 fern's compound leaf: frond
fellow • fellow-countryman: com­ o study of ferns: pteridology
patriot 0 fellow sailor: messmate,
shi pmate
ferret o male ferret: buck, hob o fe­
male ferret: g i l l 0 young ferret: kit
female o combining forms: gyn-,
fetus 0 body fluid surrounding a
-ess (e. g. authoress) . -ette (e. g. suffra­
fetus: amn iotic fl uid o membrane
gette) , -trix (e.g. executrix) o female
surrounding a fetus: amnion, amni­
chromosome: X chromosome 0 med­
otic membrane, caul o cord attach­
ical study of the female body and its
ing a fetus to the placenta: umbilical
illnesses: gynaecology o female
cord 0 denoting a fetus able to sur­
members of a family: d istaff side
vive outside the womb: viable � see
o female principle in Chinese philoso­
also birth, childbirth
phy: yin o female demon seducing
sleeping men: succubus o denoting feudalism 0 feudal duty: fealty
descent through the female line: o feudal lord: seigneur o feudal sub­
matril i neal j ect: liege, vassal o tied tenant: vil­
lein 0 tied labourer: serf 0 grant of
feminine 0 feminine part of a man's
freehold land: feoffment
personality according to Jungian
psychology: anima fever o combining form: febri- o ad­
jective: febrile 0 mosquito-borne
fence 0 fence of pointed stakes: pal­
fever: malaria 0 tropical fever with
i ng • defensive fence of close-set
acute joint pains: dengue o tropical
stakes: palisade o movable fence sec­
fever infecting the liver and kidneys:
tion: hurdle o openwork fencing: lat­
yellow fever 0 infectious fever with
tice o fencing of stakes interwoven
red spots on the chest and abdomen:
with branches: wattle o temporary
typhoid o typhoid-like fever: paraty- I
board fence: hoarding o pointed
phoid 0 infectious fever with delir­
wooden fencing stake: picket
ium and a purple rash: typhus
o fenced area: compound
o fever following childbirth: puer­
fencing o attacking move: lunge, peral fever o fever from exposure to
pass 0 quick evasive movement: excessive heat: heatstroke, sunstroke
volte 0 quick return thrust: riposte o children's fever with a bright red
129 few I film
..................................... ............. ....................................................... .................. . . . . ....... ..........

rash: scarlet fever, scarlatina mountain and valley pasture: trans­

• children's fever with a raised pink humance
rash: measles • mild form of mea­ fifty • denoting a fiftieth anniver­
sles: German measles 0 children's sary: golden
fever with swelling of the salivary
fight • confused general fight: melee,
glands: mumps • denoting a fever re­
curring every second day: tertian scrimmage • short confused fight:
• denoting a fever recurring every
scuffle, skirmish, tussle • fight be­
tween two persons: single combat
third day: quartan • denoting a fever
• arranged fight between two persons:
with fluctuating body temperatures:
remittent • abatement of a fever:
duel . fighting in a war: action
• ready to fight: pugnacious
defervescence • drug reducing
fever: antipyretic, febrifuge • sudden file • sharp metal rod as a file for
feeling of cold followed by sweating papers: spike . computer file listing
and a sharp temperature increase: other files: directory . computer file
rigor • disturbed mental state caused having no internal hierarchy: flat file
by fever: delirium • kind of fever suf­ • computer file giving font and layout
fered by dogs: distemper settings: style sheet • computer file
containing data representing sound:
few • combining form: m igo- . rule
wavetable • search directions for a
by a select few: oligarchy • intended
file: path • description of a file's
only for the socially select: exclusive
• intended for a small number of ex­
whereabouts: path name • suffix to a
perts: esoteric • market controlled
file name: extension, file extension
• denoting a file a computer can run:
by a few traders: oligopoly
executable • begin access to a com­
fibre • natural fibres used for mats,
puter file: open • text stored in a file :