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Networks

Xianjun Ni

Abstract—The application of neural networks in the data mining training time. But its advantages such as high affordability to

has become wider. Although neural networks may have complex the noise data and low error rate, the continuously advancing

structure, long training time, and uneasily understandable and optimization of various network training algorithms,

representation of results, neural networks have high acceptance ability

especially the continuously advancing and improvement of

for noisy data and high accuracy and are preferable in data mining. In

this paper the data mining based on neural networks is researched in various network pruning algorithms and rules extracting

detail, and the key technology and ways to achieve the data mining algorithm, make the application of the neural network in the

based on neural networks are also researched. data mining increasingly favored by the overwhelming

majority of users. In this paper the data mining based on the

Keywords—Data mining; neural networks, data mining process, neural network is researched in detail.

implementation.

II. NEURAL NETWORK METHOD IN DATA MINING

I. INTRODUCTION

There are seven common methods and techniques of data

and the extensive applications of database management

system, the data volume stored in database increases rapidly

mining which are the methods of statistical analysis, rough set,

covering positive and rejecting inverse cases, formula found,

fuzzy method, as well as visualization technology. Here, we

and in the large amounts of data much important information is focus on neural network method.

hidden. If the information can be extracted from the database Neural network method is used for classification, clustering,

they will create a lot of potential profit for the companies, and feature mining, prediction and pattern recognition. It imitates

the technology of mining information from the massive the neurons structure of animals, bases on the M-P model and

database is known as data mining. Hebb learning rule, so in essence it is a distributed matrix

Data mining tools can forecast the future trends and activities structure. Through training data mining, the neural network

to support the decision of people. For example, through method gradually calculates (including repeated iteration or

analyzing the whole database system of the company the data cumulative calculation) the weights the neural network

mining tools can answer the problems such as “Which connected. The neural network model can be broadly divided

customer is most likely to respond to the e-mail marketing into the following three types:

activities of our company, why”, and other similar problems. (1) Feed-forward networks: it regards the perception

Some data mining tools can also resolve some traditional back-propagation model and the function network as

problems which consumed much time, this is because that they representatives, and mainly used in the areas such as prediction

can rapidly browse the entire database and find some useful and pattern recognition;

information experts unnoticed. (2) Feedback network: it regards Hopfield discrete model

Neural network is a parallel processing network which and continuous model as representatives, and mainly used for

generated with simulating the image intuitive thinking of associative memory and optimization calculation;

human, on the basis of the research of biological neural (3) Self-organization networks: it regards adaptive

network, according to the features of biological neurons and resonance theory (ART) model and Kohonen model as

neural network and by simplifying, summarizing and refining. representatives, and mainly used for cluster analysis.

It uses the idea of non-linear mapping, the method of parallel At present, the neural network most commonly used in data

processing and the structure of the neural network itself to mining is BP network. Of course, artificial neural network is

express the associated knowledge of input and output. Initially, the developing science, and some theories have not really taken

the application of the neural network in data mining was not shape, such as the problems of convergence, stability, local

optimistic, and the main reasons are that the neural network has minimum and parameters adjustment. For the BP network the

frequent problems it encountered are that the training is slow,

may fall into local minimum and it is difficult to determine

Xianjun Ni is with the Department of Computer Science and Technology,

Shandong Institute of Education P. R. China, he is an associate Professor now training parameters. Aiming at these problems some people

and his research area is: Data Mining (phone: +86-13688601208; e-mail: adopted the method of combining artificial neural networks and

nixianjun@gmail.com).

381

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 39 2008

Artificial neural network has the characteristics of Data option is to select the data arrange and row used in this

distributed information storage, parallel processing, mining.

information, reasoning, and self-organization learning, and has 3) Data preprocessing

the capability of rapid fitting the non-linear data, so it can solve Data preprocessing is to enhanced process the clean data

many problems which are difficult for other methods to solve. which has been selected.

4) Data expression

III. DATA MINING PROCESS BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK Data expression is to transform the data after preprocessing

Data mining process can be composed by three main phases: into the form which can be accepted by the data mining

data preparation, data mining, expression and interpretation of algorithm based on neural network. The data mining based on

the results, data mining process is the reiteration of the three neural network can only handle numerical data, so it is need to

phases. The details are shown in Fig. 1. transform the sign data into numerical data. The simplest

method is to establish a table with one-to-one correspondence

between the sign data and the numerical data. The other more

complex approach is to adopt appropriate Hash function to

generate a unique numerical data according to given string.

Although there are many data types in relational database, but

they all basically can be simply come down to sign data,

discrete numerical data and serial numerical data three logical

data types. Fig. 3 gives the conversion of the three data types.

The symbol “Apple” in the figure can be transformed into the

corresponding discrete numerical data by using symbol table or

Hash function. Then, the discrete numerical data can be

quantified into continuous numerical data and can also be

encoded into coding data.

data preparation, rules extracting and rules assessment three

phases, as shown in Fig. 2.

network

B. Rules Extracting

There are many methods to extract rules, in which the most

A. Data Preparation commonly used methods are LRE method, black-box method,

Data preparation is to define and process the mining data to the method of extracting fuzzy rules, the method of extracting

make it fit specific data mining method. Data preparation is the rules from recursive network, the algorithm of binary input and

first important step in the data mining and plays a decisive role output rules extracting (BIO-RE), partial rules extracting

in the entire data mining process. It mainly includes the algorithm (Partial-RE) and full rules extracting algorithm

following four processes. (Full-RE).

1) Data cleaning

C. Rules Assessment

Data cleansing is to fill the vacancy value of the data,

eliminate the noise data and correct the inconsistencies data in Although the objective of rules assessment depends on each

the data. specific application, but, in general terms, the rules can be

assessed in accordance with the following objectives.

382

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 39 2008

(1) Find the optimal sequence of extracting rules, making it relation between the input and output in training set, and can

obtains the best results in the given data set; give the membership of the recognition pattern in data mining.

(2) Test the accuracy of the rules extracted; Fuzzy clustering Kohonen networks achieved fuzzy not only in

(3) Detect how much knowledge in the neural network has output expression, but also introduced the sample membership

not been extracted; into the amendment rules of the weight coefficient, which

(4) Detect the inconsistency between the extracted rules and makes the amendment rules of the weight coefficient has also

the trained neural network. realized the fuzzy.

IV. DATA MINING TYPES BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK V. KEY TECHNIQUES AND APPROACHES OF IMPLEMENTATION

The types of data mining based on neural network are

A. Effective Combination of Neural Network and Data

hundreds, but there are only two types most used which are the

Mining Technology

data mining based on the self-organization neural network and

on the fuzzy neural network. The technology almost uses the original ANN software

package or transformed from existing ANN development tools,

A. Data Mining Based on Self-Organization Neural the workflow of data mining should be understood in depth, the

Network data model and application interfaces should be described with

Self-organization process is a process of learning without standardized form, then the two technologies can be effectively

teachers. Through the study, the important characteristics or integrated and together complete data mining tasks. Therefore,

some inherent knowledge in a group of data, such as the the approach of organically combining the ANN and data

characteristics of the distribution or clustering according to mining technologies should be found to improve and optimize

certain feature. Scholars T. Kohonen of Finland considers that the data mining technology.

the neighboring modules in the neural network are similar to

B. Effective Combination of Knowledge Processing and

the brain neurons and play different rules, through interaction

Neural Computation

they can be adaptively developed to be special detector to

detect different signal. Because the brain neurons in different Evaluating whether a data mining implementation algorithm

brain space parts play different rules, so they are sensitive to is fine the following indicators and characteristics can be used:

different input modes. T Kohonen also proposed a kind of (1) whether high-quality modeling under the circumstances of

learning mode which makes the input signal be mapped to the noise and data half-baked; (2) the model must be understood by

low-dimensional space, and maintain that the input signal with users and can be used for decision-making; (3) the model can

same characteristics can be corresponding to regional region in receive area knowledge (rules enter and extraction) to improve

space, which is the so-called self-organization feature map the modeling quality. Existing neural network has high

(S0FM). precision in the quality of modeling but low in the latter two

indicators. Neural network actually can be seen as a black box

B. Data Mining Based on Fuzzy Neural Network for users, the application restrictions makes the classification

Although neural network has strong functions of learning, and prediction process can not be understood by users and

classification, association and memory, but in the use of the directly used for decision-making. For data mining, it not

neural network for data mining, the greatest difficulty is that the enough to depend on the neural network model providing

output results can not be intuitively illuminated. After the results because that before important decision-making users

introduction of the fuzzy processing function into the neural need to understand the rationale and justification for the

network, it can not only increase its output expression capacity decision-making. Therefore, in the ANN data mining

but also the system becomes more stable. The fuzzy neural knowledge base should be established in order to accede

networks frequently used in data mining are fuzzy perception domain knowledge and the knowledge ANN learning to the

model, fuzzy BP network, fuzzy clustering Kohonen network, system in the data mining process. That is to say, in the ANN

fuzzy inference network and fuzzy ART model. In which the data mining, it is necessary to use knowledge method to extract

fuzzy BP network is developed from the traditional BP knowledge from the data mining process and realize the

network. In the traditional BP network, if the samples belonged inosculation of the knowledge processing and neural network.

In addition, in the system an effective decision and explanation

to the first k category, then except the output value of the first

mechanism should also be considered to be established to

k output node is 1, the output value of other output nodes all is improve the validity and practicability of the ANN data mining

0, that is, the output value of the traditional BP network only technology.

can be 0 or 1, is not ambiguous. However, in fuzzy BP

networks, the expected output value of the samples is replaced C. Input/Output Interface

by the expected membership of the samples corresponding to Considering that the method of using neural network tools or

various types. After training the samples and their expected neural network software package to obtain data is laggard, then

membership corresponding to various types in learning stage a good interface with relational database, multi-dimensional

fuzzy BP network will have the ability to reflect the affiliation database and data warehouse should be established to meet the

needs of data mining.

383

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 39 2008

VI. CONCLUSION

At present, data mining is a new and important area of

research, and neural network itself is very suitable for solving

the problems of data mining because its characteristics of good

robustness, self-organizing adaptive, parallel processing,

distributed storage and high degree of fault tolerance. The

combination of data mining method and neural network model

can greatly improve the efficiency of data mining methods, and

it has been widely used. It also will receive more and more

attention.

REFERENCES

[1] S Lawrence, C Lee Giles. Accessibility of Information on the Web [J].

Nature, 1999, 400(3): 107-109.

[2] Guan Li, Liang Hongjun. Data warehouse and data mining.

Microcomputer Applications. 1999, 15(9): 17-20.

[3] Adriaans P, Zantinge D. Data mining [M]. Addision_Wesley Longman,

1996.

[4] Chen Rong, BP arithmetic and its structure optimization tactics. Journal of

Autoimmunization. 1997, 23(1), 43-49.

[5] G Towell, J W Shavlik. The extraction of refined rules from

knowledge-based neural networks [J]. Machine Learning, 1993(13):

71-101.

[6] Yang Kun, Liu Dayou. Agents: properties and classifications. Computer

Science [J]. 1999, 26(9): 30-34.

[7] H Lu, R Setiono, H Liu. Effective Data Mining Using Neural Network.

IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 1996, 8(6):

957-961.

[8] David Hand, Principles of Data Mining [M]. Massachusetts Institute of

Technology, 2001.

[9] Feng Jiansheng. KDD and its applications, BaoGang techniques. 1999(3):

27-31.

[10] Wooldrldge M J. Agent-Based software engineering. IEEE Transactions

on Software Engineering [J]. 1999,144 (1): 26-27.

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