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Exam #2 Results

4 Perfect Scores!

1

Ch 6: Chemical Equilibrium

What is Equilibrium?

Equilibrium Constant, K

Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures

Activity

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Applications of Equilibrium Constant

Solving Equilibrium Problems

Le Chatelier’s Principle - very important

Equilibria Involving Real Gases

What is Equilibrium?

the rate of the forward reaction equals

the rate of the reverse reaction.

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 4

2

What is Equilibrium?

At equilibrium, the concentrations of all reactants

and products remain constant with time.

Example

Forward Rxn

H2(g) + I2(g) 2 HI(g)

Reverse Rxn

Reverse Rxn: Products = H2 and I2

What is Equilibrium?

forward and reverse reactions are not necessarily equal

at equilibrium!

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 6

3

Equilibrium Characteristics

What does equilibrium look like in a chemical system?

N2O4 2 NO2

colorless brown

Equilibrium

whether the reaction starts with the N2O4 or the NO2!

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 7

aA + bB cC + dD

[C]c x [D]d

Equilibrium

Constant

K=

[A]a x [B]b

Characteristics

Exponents are coefficients from balanced chemical equation.

Units for K will vary depending upon coefficients.

4

The Equilibrium Constant

cC + dD aA + bB

Constant K=

[C]c x [D]d

Characteristics

Reversing the reactants and products inverts the equilibrium

expression. Thus,

1

Kforward =

Kreverse

K is constant despite different initial and equilibrium

concentrations of reactants and products!

5

Manipulation of Equilibrium Eqns

Equilibrium equations can be reversed, scaled or

combined.

Forward: [C]c x [D]d

K1 K1 =

[A]a x [B]b

aA + bB cC + dD

K2 K2 =

cC + dD aA + bB [C]c x [D]d

By defn: K1 x K2 = 1

Equilibrium equations can be reversed, scaled or

combined.

[PCl5]

K K1 =

[PCl3] x [Cl2]

PCl3 + Cl2 PCl5

Scaled: [PCl5]

2

K K2 = 2 2

2 PCl3 + 2 Cl2 2 PCl5 [PCl3] x [Cl2]

resulting K is raised to the power of

the scale factor K2 = (K1)2

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 12

6

Subtraction of Equilibrium Eqns

Equilibrium equations can be reversed, scaled or

combined.

Equation #1 K1 Equation #1 K1

- Equation #2 K2 + Equation #2 K2

Equation #3 K3 = K1 Equation #3 K3 = K1 x K2

K2

Subtraction Addition

What is the relationship between Q and K?

aA + bB cC + dD

Q= K=

[A]a x [B]b [A]a x [B]b

equilibrium or not! equilibrium only!

7

Q vs K

What is the relationship between Q and K?

aA + bB cC + dD

[C]c x [D]d

When Q = K =

[A]a x [B]b

Equilibrium occurs

Q vs K

What is the relationship between Q and K?

aA + bB cC + dD

[C]c x [D]d

When Q = K = Equilibrium occurs

[A]a x [B]b

[A] and [B] >>> [C] and [D] Q<K proceeds

8

Q vs K

What is the relationship between Q and K?

aA + bB cC + dD

[C]c x [D]d

When Q = K = Equilibrium occurs

[A]a x [B]b

WHEN

Reverse rxn

[C] and [D] >>> [A] and [B] Q>K

proceeds

Q vs K

aA + bB cC + dD

helps us predict which way a chemical reaction

will proceed!

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 18

9

Equilibrium Equations for Gases

Equilibrium equations for gaseous reactions can be

written in terms of concentrations or

partial pressures.

n

P= RT

V

P= M (RT)

Equilibrium expressions can be written in terms of

the partial pressures of the gases instead of their

molar concentrations

2

PNH

3 In text, Kp denotes

K= equilibrium constant

P x PH3 expressed in terms

N2 2

of partial pressures

10

Heterogeneous Equilibria

How can we express the equilibrium constant when

the reactants and products are in different phases?

Rule #2. Express solute in solution as molar conc.

Rule #3. Express pure solids/liquids as “1”.

Rule #4. Products multiplied in the numerator

reactants multiplied in the denominator

Heterogeneous Equilibria

How can we express the equilibrium constant when

the reactants and products are in different phases?

P2 x 13

Rule #1. Express gases as partial pressures N2O

K=

Rule #2. Express solute in solution as molar conc. P4 x 1

O2

Rule #3. Express pure solids/liquids as “1”.

Rule #4. Products multiplied in the numerator P2

N2O

reactants multiplied in the denominator K=

P4

O2

11

What To Study and Know…

• Know how to write equilibrium expressions

manipulate K

pressures) and relate Q to K

PRS Question

2 SO2 + O2 2SO3 K = 7.0 x 1025

12

PRS Question

2 SO2 + O2 2SO3 K = 7.0 x 1025

Kforward

K = 1.2 x 10-13 Answer = #3

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 25

PRS Question

Which reaction will tend to proceed farthest toward

completion?

13

PRS Question

Which reaction will tend to proceed farthest toward

completion?

K= [Products]

[Reactants]

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 27

14

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