You are on page 1of 14

Exam #2 Results

 Class Average = 77 (Great Job!)

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 1

Exam #2 Results
 4 Perfect Scores!

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 2

1
Ch 6: Chemical Equilibrium
 What is Equilibrium?
 Equilibrium Constant, K
 Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures
 Activity
 Heterogeneous Equilibria
 Applications of Equilibrium Constant
 Solving Equilibrium Problems
 Le Chatelier’s Principle - very important
 Equilibria Involving Real Gases

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 3

What is Equilibrium?

Equilibrium is the phenomenon that occurs when


the rate of the forward reaction equals
the rate of the reverse reaction.
Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 4

2
What is Equilibrium?
At equilibrium, the concentrations of all reactants
and products remain constant with time.

Example
Forward Rxn
H2(g) + I2(g) 2 HI(g)
Reverse Rxn

Forward Rxn: Product = HI


Reverse Rxn: Products = H2 and I2

[HI] = constant; [H2] = constant; [I2] = constant

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 5

What is Equilibrium?

Notice how the concentrations of products for the


forward and reverse reactions are not necessarily equal
at equilibrium!
Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 6

3
Equilibrium Characteristics
What does equilibrium look like in a chemical system?
N2O4 2 NO2
colorless brown

Equilibrium

Closed system reaches the same equilibrium concentrations


whether the reaction starts with the N2O4 or the NO2!
Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 7

The Equilibrium Constant


aA + bB cC + dD

[C]c x [D]d
Equilibrium
Constant
K=
[A]a x [B]b
Characteristics
Exponents are coefficients from balanced chemical equation.
Units for K will vary depending upon coefficients.

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 8

4
The Equilibrium Constant
cC + dD aA + bB

Equilibrium [A]a x [B]b


Constant K=
[C]c x [D]d
Characteristics
Reversing the reactants and products inverts the equilibrium
expression. Thus,

1
Kforward =
Kreverse

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 9

Law of Mass Action


K is constant despite different initial and equilibrium
concentrations of reactants and products!

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 10

5
Manipulation of Equilibrium Eqns
Equilibrium equations can be reversed, scaled or
combined.
Forward: [C]c x [D]d
K1 K1 =
[A]a x [B]b
aA + bB cC + dD

Reverse: [A]a x [B]b


K2 K2 =
cC + dD aA + bB [C]c x [D]d

By defn: K1 x K2 = 1

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 11

Manipulation of Equilibrium Eqns


Equilibrium equations can be reversed, scaled or
combined.

[PCl5]
K K1 =
[PCl3] x [Cl2]
PCl3 + Cl2 PCl5

Scaled: [PCl5]
2

K K2 = 2 2
2 PCl3 + 2 Cl2 2 PCl5 [PCl3] x [Cl2]

When stoichiometry is scaled, the Example


resulting K is raised to the power of
the scale factor K2 = (K1)2
Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 12

6
Subtraction of Equilibrium Eqns
Equilibrium equations can be reversed, scaled or
combined.

Equation #1 K1 Equation #1 K1

- Equation #2 K2 + Equation #2 K2

Equation #3 K3 = K1 Equation #3 K3 = K1 x K2
K2

Subtraction Addition

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 13

K and the Reaction Quotient, Q


What is the relationship between Q and K?

aA + bB cC + dD

Reaction Quotient vs. Equilibrium Constant

[C]c x [D]d [C]c x [D]d


Q= K=
[A]a x [B]b [A]a x [B]b

Holds whether at Holds at


equilibrium or not! equilibrium only!

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 14

7
Q vs K
What is the relationship between Q and K?

aA + bB cC + dD

[C]c x [D]d
When Q = K =
[A]a x [B]b

Equilibrium occurs

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 15

Q vs K
What is the relationship between Q and K?

aA + bB cC + dD

[C]c x [D]d
When Q = K = Equilibrium occurs
[A]a x [B]b

WHEN Forward rxn


[A] and [B] >>> [C] and [D] Q<K proceeds

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 16

8
Q vs K
What is the relationship between Q and K?

aA + bB cC + dD

[C]c x [D]d
When Q = K = Equilibrium occurs
[A]a x [B]b

WHEN
Reverse rxn
[C] and [D] >>> [A] and [B] Q>K
proceeds

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 17

Q vs K
aA + bB cC + dD

When Q < K reaction proceeds to the right

When Q = K equilibrium occurs

When Q > K reaction proceeds to the left

Thus, knowing K and calculating Q for any given state


helps us predict which way a chemical reaction
will proceed!
Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 18

9
Equilibrium Equations for Gases
Equilibrium equations for gaseous reactions can be
written in terms of concentrations or
partial pressures.

Why? Recall… PV = nRT


n
P= RT
V

P= M (RT)

Pressure is proportional to molar concentration.

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 19

Equilibrium and Partial Pressure


Equilibrium expressions can be written in terms of
the partial pressures of the gases instead of their
molar concentrations

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

2
PNH
3 In text, Kp denotes
K= equilibrium constant
P x PH3 expressed in terms
N2 2
of partial pressures

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 20

10
Heterogeneous Equilibria
How can we express the equilibrium constant when
the reactants and products are in different phases?

Si3N4(s) + 4 O2(g) 3 SiO2(s) + 2 N2O(g)

Rule #1. Express gases as partial pressures


Rule #2. Express solute in solution as molar conc.
Rule #3. Express pure solids/liquids as “1”.
Rule #4. Products multiplied in the numerator
reactants multiplied in the denominator

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 21

Heterogeneous Equilibria
How can we express the equilibrium constant when
the reactants and products are in different phases?

Si3N4(s) + 4 O2(g) 3 SiO2(s) + 2 N2O(g)

P2 x 13
Rule #1. Express gases as partial pressures N2O
K=
Rule #2. Express solute in solution as molar conc. P4 x 1
O2
Rule #3. Express pure solids/liquids as “1”.
Rule #4. Products multiplied in the numerator P2
N2O
reactants multiplied in the denominator K=
P4
O2

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 22

11
What To Study and Know…
• Know how to write equilibrium expressions

• Know how to calculate K and mathematically


manipulate K

• Be able to calculate Q (via conc or partial


pressures) and relate Q to K

• Be able to calculate K for gases in equilibrium

• Know how to express heterogeneous equilibria

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 23

PRS Question
2 SO2 + O2 2SO3 K = 7.0 x 1025

Calculate K for SO3 SO2 + 0.5 O2

[1] 3.5 x 1025 [3] 1.2 x 10-13

[2] 7.0 x 10-25 [4] 1.4 x 10-26

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 24

12
PRS Question
2 SO2 + O2 2SO3 K = 7.0 x 1025

Calculate K for SO3 SO2 + 0.5 O2

To solve this problem:

1st: Kreverse = 1 Kreverse = 1.4 x 10-26

Kforward

2nd: Molar ratio is half, so take the square root of Kreverse


K = 1.2 x 10-13 Answer = #3
Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 25

PRS Question
Which reaction will tend to proceed farthest toward
completion?

[1] H2 + Br2 2 HBr K = 1.4 x 10-21

[2] 2NO N2 + O2 K = 2.1 x 1030

[3] 2BrCl Br2 + Cl2 K = 0.145

Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 26

13
PRS Question
Which reaction will tend to proceed farthest toward
completion?

[1] H2 + Br2 2 HBr K = 1.4 x 10-21

[2] 2NO N2 + O2 K = 2.1 x 1030

[3] 2BrCl Br2 + Cl2 K = 0.145

K= [Products]
[Reactants]
Week 9 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 27

14