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Amplitude Modulation
Ref.: Lathi – Chap. 4 (4.1-4.5)

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Baseband and Carrier Communication

 Modulation is a process that causes a shift in the


range of frequencies in a signal.

 Baseband Communications are communication


systems that do not use modulation.

 Carrier Communication are communication


systems that use modulation.

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Baseband Signals

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Baseband/Carrier Communication

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Amplitude Modulation
 Amplitude modulation is a type of carrier
communication

 Types of amplitude modulation:


1. DSB-SC
2. AM (DSB+C)
3. SSB-SC
4. SSB+C
5. QAM
6. VSB

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DSB-SC

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Double-sideband Suppressed Carrier
Amplitude Modulation (DSB-SC)

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DSB-SC

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DSB-SC (Why DSB? Why SC?)

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DSB-SC Demodulation

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DSB-SC Demodulation (Coherent
Detection)

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Difference between Modulator & Demodulator

 Difference between modulator and demodulator lies in input


signal and output filter.

 For modulator, input is message signal and output of


multiplier is passed through a band pass filter (centered at fc).

 For demodulator, input is DSB-SC signal and output of


multiplier is passed through a low pass filter.

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Example of DSB-SC Signal

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Example of DSB-SC Signal

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AM Modulators

 Multiplier Modulators

 Non-linear Modulators

 Switching Modulators

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Multiplier Modulators

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Non-linear Modulators

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Non-linear Modulators

 This is known as a balanced modulator (single balanced modulator)

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Switching Modulators

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Switching Modulators

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Switching Modulators

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Switching Modulators

 The lesson of the example is:

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Diode-bridge Switch (Switching Modulator)

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Ring Modulator (Switching Modulator)

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Ring (Switching) Modulator

 Here, wo(t)=2w(t)-1

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Home Task

 Try examples 4.2 and 4.3

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Amplitude Modulation (AM)
 Problem with DSB-SC Modulation :

 Alternative of DSB-SC :

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AM (DSB+C)

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Amplitude Modulation (AM)

 Alternative of DSB-SC = AM

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Amplitude Modulation (AM)

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Amplitude Modulation (AM)

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Envelope Detection for AM

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Envelope Detection for AM

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Envelope Detection for AM

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Home Task
 Try example 4.4

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Problem with Envelope Detection

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Problem with Envelope Detection=Low Power
Efficiency

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Problem with Envelope Detection=Low Power
Efficiency

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Demodulation of AM Signals

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Rectifier Detector

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Envelope Detector

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Limitations of DSB-SC and AM

 Both DSB-SC and AM have two sidebands (LSB/USB).

 So the modulated bandwidth is 2B Hz when the


message bandwidth is B Hz. This leads to lower
spectral efficiency.

 There are two ways to improve spectral efficiency:


1. SSB
2. QAM

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Bandwidth Efficient AM (SSB and QAM)

 SSB (single sideband AM) removes LSB or USB


and uses a bandwidth of B instead of 2B Hz for one
message.

 QAM (quadrature AM) sends two (instead of one)


messages over the same bandwidth of 2B Hz.

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SSB

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SSB-SC AM

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SSB-SC AM

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SSB-SC AM

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Example of SSB-SC AM

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SSB Modulation
 Three methods:

1. Phase shifting

2. Selective filtering

3. Weaver method

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Selective Filtering (SSB Modulation)

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Phase-shift method (SSB Modulation)

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Phase-shift method (SSB Modulation)

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Hilbert Transform

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SSB-SC Demodulation

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Home Task

 Study the detection of

SSB with a carrier (SSB+C)

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QAM

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Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)

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Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)

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Limitation of QAM

A

Therefore, QAM is susceptible to cross talk or co-channel interference.

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VSB

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Vestigial Sideband Amplitude
Modulation (VSB-AM)
 Generation of SSB signals is difficult (Limitation of SSB).

 Generation of DSB signals is simpler but requires twice the


bandwidth (Limitation of DSB).

 Compromise between SSB and DSB:  VSB.

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VSB

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VSB

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VSB

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Example of VSB Output Filter

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VSB in Broadcast TV

 TV baseband signal has B=4.5 MHz.

 For DSB, modulated bandwidth 2B will be 9 MHz (too large).

 For SSB, modulated bandwidth will be 4.5 MHz (but SSB generation
is difficult and expensive for TV signal).

 VSB for TV signal has modulated bandwidth of 6 MHz (<9 but >4.5).

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VSB in Broadcast TV

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Amplitude Modulation
(AM)

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