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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................... 5
1.1. PRIMAX DESIGN BACK CALCULATION METHODS ................................................................................................... 5
1.2. RECOMMENDED EDUCATIONAL LEVEL..................................................................................................................... 6
1.3. SOFTWARE LICENSES AND LIABILITIES..................................................................................................................... 6
2. RECEIPT ................................................................................................................................................................... 7
3. SAFETY..................................................................................................................................................................... 7
4. INSTALLATION ...................................................................................................................................................... 8
5. HOW TO START PRIMAX DESIGN: ................................................................................................................ 12
5.1. HOW TO MAKE A NEW DATABASE .......................................................................................................................... 15
5.2. HOW TO ATTACH SQL DATABASES TO THE PROGRAM ........................................................................................... 16
5.3.1 How to attach database files into the path: C:\ProgramData\Grontmij\Primax\Databases ............................... 17
6. DEFAULT SETUP OF USER INTERFACE ....................................................................................................... 19
6.1. CONTROL PANELS OF USER INTERFACE: ................................................................................................................. 20
7. SELECTION OF POINTS FOR CALCULATION ............................................................................................. 21
7.1. HOW TO SELECT A PROJECT INCLUDING ALL SUB-DIRECTORIES ............................................................................. 21
7.2. ROAD IDENTIFICATION DATA ................................................................................................................................. 22
7.3. MAIN DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................................... 22
7.4. PAVEMENT STRUCTURE ........................................................................................................................................ 26
7.5. TRAFFIC DETAILS ................................................................................................................................................... 29
7.6. WIDTH DETAILS ..................................................................................................................................................... 30
8. SETTING UP CALCULATION PARAMETERS ............................................................................................... 31
8.1. REINFORCEMENT LAYER E MODULI (STRENGTH) ................................................................................................... 31
8.2. TEMPERATURE CORRECTION OF ASPHALT E MODULI (NORMALIZATION) .............................................................. 32
8.3. TRAFFIC DETAILS ................................................................................................................................................... 33
8.4. WIDTH DETAILS ..................................................................................................................................................... 34
8.5. PAVEMENT DATA ................................................................................................................................................... 35
8.6. STRESS AND STRAIN CRITERIA ............................................................................................................................... 37
8.7. SECTIONING ........................................................................................................................................................... 39
9. CALCULATING IN PRIMAX DESIGN.............................................................................................................. 40
9.1. SECTIONING DUE TO PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION CHANGES, VARYING TRAFFIC AND VARYING WIDTH................... 40
9.2. SELECTION OF POINTS FOR CALCULATION ............................................................................................................. 42
9.3. STARTING CALCULATIONS ..................................................................................................................................... 43
9.4. SECTIONING OVERVIEW......................................................................................................................................... 48
10. SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................................................... 50
11. BACK-CALCULATION .................................................................................................................................... 50
11.1. THE METHOD OF EQUIVALENT THICKNESSES .................................................................................................... 50
11.2. PAVEMENT REACTIONS IN MET/BOUSSINESQ ANALYSIS ................................................................................... 51
11.3. SURFACE MODULUS .......................................................................................................................................... 52
11.4. NON-LINEAR SUBGRADE – DEVIATOR STRESS DEPENDENCY .............................................................................. 56

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11.5. NON-LINEAR SUBGRADE – DARWIN/MEPDG MODELLING ............................................................................. 58


11.6. DEPTH TO BEDROCK........................................................................................................................................... 61
11.7. LAYER E-MODULI ITERATION ............................................................................................................................ 63
11.8. BAKFAA ANALYSIS ......................................................................................................................................... 64
12. RESIDUAL LIFE AND OVERLAY DESIGN ................................................................................................. 65
12.1. DESIGN CRITERIA AND DESIGN LOAD ............................................................................................................... 65
12.1.1. Flexible Pavement Design Criteria ................................................................................................................... 65
12.1.2. Concrete Pavement Design Criteria ................................................................................................................ 68
12.1.3. Road Pavement Design Load ............................................................................................................................ 71
12.1.4. Airport Pavement Design Load ......................................................................................................................... 72
12.2. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT OVERLAY DESIGN ........................................................................................................... 75
12.2.1. Road Pavement Overlay Design ................................................................................................................... 75
12.2.2. Airfield Pavement Overlay Design ................................................................................................................ 77
12.3. RIGID PAVEMENT OVERLAY DESIGN ................................................................................................................. 79
13.3.1. E-moduli and Criteria ....................................................................................................................................... 79
13.3.2. Stress Calculation ............................................................................................................................................. 80
13. PAVEMENT CLASSIFICATION NUMBER .................................................................................................. 82
13.1. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT PCN ................................................................................................................................ 82
13.2. RIGID PAVEMENT PCN ...................................................................................................................................... 83
13.3. PCN HOMOGENIZATION AND REPORTING ......................................................................................................... 84
14. REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................................... 86
14.1. FIXATION OF A LAYER MODULI ......................................................................................................................... 87
14.2. HOW TO FIXATE E MODULI OF ONE OR MORE LAYERS ........................................................................................ 87
15. ICONS AND THEIR FUNCTIONALITIES .................................................................................................... 88
15.1. THE ICONS OF PRIMAX DESIGN ....................................................................................................................... 88
16. SUPPORT ............................................................................................................................................................ 89
16.1. CONTENTS OF A TRAINING PROGRAMME ............................................................................................................ 90
16.2. RESPONSIBLE PERSON FOR PRIMAX DESIGN SOFTWARE SUPPORT: .................................................................. 90

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

User manual: PRIMAX Design for roads

© Sweco Danmark A/S, Pavement Consultants, Kokbjerg 5, DK-6000 Kolding

This edition was first published in 2013


Updated version published in 2014
All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publishers.

The English version of the PRIMAX DESIGN user manual is the only authorised manual. Any other
translations of this manual are not valid and Sweco Danmark A/S cannot be held responsible for the contents
of such manuals.

Printed in Denmark by Sweco Danmark A/S

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DOCUMENT CHANGE RECORD

Issue Date Changes Approved


(e.g. change notes, amendments, software
function change)

1 1 March 2013 First issue of manual Jens


Pedersen

2 1 May 2014 Second issue of manual Jens


Pedersen

3 1 June 2015 Third issue of manual Jens


Pedersen

4 1 October Fourth issue of manual Henny


2015 Schøler

PLEASE NOTE:
If you have questions or any comments to this manual you are most welcome to contact
our support team, see last page of this manual.

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

1. Introduction
The present user manual is a brief instruction in how to use PRIMAX Design. If a more detailed instruction is
requested, kindly contact Sweco Danmark A/S. The help function can be activated in PRIMAX Design by
pressing the key F1. The installation procedure to be followed, when installing PRIMAX Design, appears
from section 4.

PRIMAX Design is the software applied for processing of data collected by the PRIMAX FWD. The analyses
and calculations made with the system provide road and airport authorities with valuable information about
road and airfield pavements allowing decision-makers to make the right decisions with regard to
reinforcement needs or maintenance strategies that will ensure safe roads and airfield pavements. The
present manual deals with PRIMAX Design for roads.

Results on site
PRIMAX Design is integrated in the data collection software of PRIMAX and allows the operator to analyse
deflection and load signals of any measured point on site. Calculations can be made on site after the
measuring session and if parameters are changed, recalculations can be made. Results can be printed out
per measuring point, section and project, specifying the calculation parameters applied.

Parameter setups for several projects


A large amount of parameter setups can be stored allowing selection of the best suited parameters for a
particular project. Setup parameters are split into several levels and combinations can be selected and
stored to be used again on projects with equal conditions.

Output roads
A design part (PRIMAX DESIGN) processes an advanced design of the road pavement, while the calculation
part (RoSy PLAN) is applied for calculation of maintenance options.

PRIMAX design can use information about traffic, construction and width provided that the data file with the
information complies with the description in Section 8.

1.1. PRIMAX Design back calculation methods


PRIMAX Design software can apply two different back-calculation methods.

a. The basic one is based on the theory of elasticity and the method of equivalent thickness, as framed
by J. M. Kirk and N. Odemark on the basis of Boussinesq´s equations.
This method can work with up to 4 layers.

The method is described in Section 10 “Background Theory – Pavement Design based on Theory of
Elasticity”, below.

b. The second one is using the BACKFAA program (Free software provided by FAA) to back-calculate
layer E moduli. BACKFAA can work with up to 10 layers.

For detailed information please contact FAA. See section 14 of this manual

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1.2. Recommended educational level


In order to gain full benefit from using PRIMAX Design Software, general professional training at the
engineering level or similar general knowledge about pavement structures, pavement material and
mathematical skills are recommend.

1.3. Software licenses and liabilities


The User’s liability
The User bears the risk and responsibility for any consequences, which may occur in connection with using
software and documentation.

The User bears the risk and responsibility for correct use of software and documentation and any local
adjustments made in connection with the use.

The User bears the risk and responsibility for any losses and restore of data.

The User bears the risk and responsibility for any local adjustments made in connection with the use of
software and documentation.

Limitation of Liability, Guarantee and Complaint


Sweco guarantees that the Software in essence functions in accordance with the documentation. Should the
software not function in accordance with the guarantee, Sweco shall be liable for the correction of the
Software, including making good defects, or if making good is not possible without extraordinary, efforts to
redeliver the software to the User.

Free of charge and without undue delay Sweco is liable to make good and correct any found defects that are
due to causes which can be related to the liability of Sweco.

Any claims shall be made in writing immediately after finding the defect and 6 months after delivery at the
latest.

Apart from the above-mentioned guarantee, Sweco does not grant any guarantees be it explicitly, implicitly,
or statutorily with regard to software, documentation or support.

Sweco is not liable for damage or loss caused by defects on or delay in delivery of software, documentation
or support, unless such damage or such a loss is due to wilful negligence and/or gross negligence on the
side of Sweco, or such damage or such loss are consequences of invariable rules of law regulating the
product liability caused by gross negligence on the side of Sweco.

Furthermore, Sweco disclaims any liability for the User’s operating loss, lost profit, loss of data or other
derived or indirect losses, irrespective of cause in connection with or as a consequence of delivery and
application of software, documentation, etc.

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If Sweco should be sentenced or should admit liability, the User’s total claim towards Sweco is, irrespective
of the number or extent of damages and losses, limited to an amount, which as a maximum corresponds to
the royalty that Sweco has received from the User for the latest 12-month period.

The software operates on the basis of the background theory given in this manual. Sweco cannot be held
responsible for any unskilled use of the software.

Sweco is not liability for damage or loss caused by other software on a User’s computer or caused by virus
infections to a User’s computer. If a User has purchased a computer from Sweco, the software will be
installed and Sweco guarantees that the computer is not infected when delivered to a User.

2. Receipt
When you receive your new PRIMAX Design software, we recommend you to check that you have received
the following parts:

 CD with backup-copy of PRIMAX Design


 User manuals for the software
 Dongle to insert in PC

If you have purchased a PC from Sweco, PRIMAX Design is already installed on this computer. In that case
you can start using the software right away.

If you have only purchased the software, you will have to install the software in your PC. Follow the
procedure described in the section Installation.

Be very careful with your dongle, because Sweco does not replace dongles free of charge. If you need to
purchase a new dongle you will have to purchase a new dongle and a new license.

3. Safety
We recommend you not to use the PC on which you have installed PRIMAX Design for other purposes than
what is the intention with this PC.

Should your PC be infected with virus, the PC and PRIMAX Design will not work properly.

Sweco is not liable for any maluse of PC or any infections on your PC. Recovery of PC and PRIMAX Design
software will be for your own account. Sweco can of course assist you.

Be aware that the results calculated with PRIMAX Design are very dependent on the input data and the
settings used for the calculations. This is typically data collected with a Falling Weight Deflectometer. If the
Falling Weight Deflectometer has not been maintained and calibrated as recommended by the manufacturer,
there is a risk that your input data will not be of a sufficient quality. We recommend quality assurance of data
and settings prior to any calculations.

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4. Installation
If you have purchased your PC from Sweco, the PRIMAX Design is already installed on the PC and you
need not install anything.

If you are familiar with the PRIMAX survey software you can go direct to section 6 from here.

If you have purchased a PC yourself and only received the software from Sweco, the software has to be
installed. Please follow below procedure:

Below the installation of PRIMAX Design software on a clean laptop without any programs installed is
described.

In case one or more of the required programs have already been installed on the laptop, not all below
windows will appear. Simply proceed in the manual until a window similar to the one on your laptop appears.

To install the FWD PRIMAX Design software,


insert the memory stick with the software in your
laptop.

From this memory stick, run the setup application


in the folder FWD-Primax SQL.

This application contains all installations required.

Figure 1: Folder FWD-Primax SQL

Click the button Accept for:


MICROSOFT.NET FRAMEWORK 4 (x86 andx64)

Figure 2: License terms

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Click the button Accept for:


MICROSOFT SQL SERVER 2008 EXPRESS
EDITION

Figure 3: License terms

Click Install and the software will be installed.

Figure 4: Installation

Check off (√) checkbox “I have read and accepted


the license terms”.

Click Install and the software will be installed:


MICROSOFT VISUAL C+ + 2010 RUNTIME
LIBRARIES WITH SERVICE PACK 1

Figure 5: License terms


Click Finish to finish the software installation. A time
window appears.

Figure 6: Installation

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Next window to appear is:


Primax Setup Wizard.

Click Next

Figure 7: Installation
The window Select Installation Folder
appears next:

Click Next

Figure 8: Installation
The window Confirm Installation appear:

Click Next and a time window will


appear

Figure 9: Installation

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Next program to install is:

GigEViewer Setup Wizard

Click Next

Figure 10: Installation


The window Ready to Install will appear:

Click Install
During installation the system asks: “Would you
also like to install the Filter driver?” Click Yes

Figure 11: Installation

The window Installation Complete will


appear:

Click Close to close the window. The


system will request Restart.

Click Yes

Figure 12: Installation

Upon successful installation a shortcut icon to the PRIMAX Design/data collection software will have
appeared on the desktop of your PC.

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5. How to start PRIMAX DESIGN:

1. Activate the icon Primax on your computer desktop.

A logon window appears.

When logging on for the first time, leave the fields


Server and Database unchanged (see in sections 5.2
and 5.3 how to operate with more databases).

Enter ID of Operator and Password. If more operators


work with the FWD, we recommend all operators to log
on with individual logons, see below how to create
personal logons and use more logons.

For the first logon:


Operator = cb
Password = cb
Figure 13: Log on to PRIMAX Design

Check off (√) checkbox Default layout the first time the PRIMAX Design/ data collection software is applied.

Click the button OK and PRIMAX Design/data collection program is ready.

If the entered Password is not correct,


a red warning cross will appear:

Figure 14: Error message

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You have the option of creating


your own logon account.
Click the button with 3 dots in the
window Logon to Primax
database, field Operator – see
figure 15.

Please note:
To restore Default layout, check
off (√)check box Default layout,
see figure 15

Figure 15: Checkbox default layout

A new window Manage operators


will open.
Click the button Add New
Mark a new empty field (will turn
light blue). Fill in contact details.
Initials can be max. 3 characters.
Click the button Save and Close
When logging on the next time,
select your personal logon
account by clicking the drop down
button.
Figure 16: How to add operators to a database.

Click File and then click Open


and the Window Logon to
PRIMAX database opens.

Figure 17: Changing databases

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In the window Log on to PRIMAX database, the


default database is the latest used one. In this
example Test Garage remont.
If this database is to be applied for calculation, go on
with the log-on procedure and the database Test
garage remont is ready.

Figure 18: Default database

To select another existing database, click the drop


down button next to Database.
All available databases are now listed, in this case
August 2014, Billund, Billund 2013, etc.
When clicking e.g. the database August 2014, it will
be highlighted and displayed as the active
database.

Go on with the log on procedure and the database


August 2014 is ready for data collection.

Figure 19 : Select database

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5.1. How to make a new database


A database in SQLEXPRESS has a limit of 10GB. If the amount of data exceeds this limit, a new database
must be created. Or a full SQL can be installed to function as a server.
If full SQL is installed, it is possible to select server in the field Server by clicking the arrow.
Working with more than one database can be of advantage with a small amount of data as well. Gathering
all data from a specific project in a separate database allows you to easily share raw data with a colleague,
the office or with the client.

In the window Log on to PRIMAX database, click the 3


dot button next to Database (fig. 20).
The window Manage databases appears (fig. 21).

Figure 20: Log on to PRIMAX database

Enter a name for the new


database in the window
Manage databases, e.g.
Airport.
Click the button Add New and
Airport appears in top row next
to Name.
In the field Info the text
Creating Airport, finished
appears and the database
Airport is now ready.
Close the window by clicking
the cross in upper right corner.
Figure 21: Create new database

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The window Logon to PRIMAX database appears


again.
Select the new database (as described in section
5).

Figure 22: Select new database

5.2. How to attach SQL databases to the program

In order to view the data in Version 4.0.1 and newer versions, the database must be copied into a given path
and afterwards attached to the program.

Example: C:\Primax\databases

Please Note:

Database files from previous versions, if any, must be renamed as illustrated below. Structure of filename:

PrimaxDB_xxxx.ldf and .mdf.

DB_Primax_Data.mdf renames to PrimaxDB_Copenhagen.mdf

DB_Primax_Data_Log.ldf renames to PrimaxDB_Copenhagen_Log.ldf

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5.3.1 How to attach database files into the path: C:\ProgramData\Sweco\Primax\Databases

Start PRIMAX Design / Data Collection Software,


and press the 3 dots next to the field Database.

Figure 23: Attach database files

Press the button Attach in


the next window.

The browser in figure 25


opens and the database to
be attached can be
selected.

Figure 24: Attach databse

The Database
PrimaxDB_Copenhagen.mdf
is now shown in the list.

Highlight the Database


PrimaxDB_Copenhagen and
press the button Open.

Figure 25: Open database

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The Database Copenhagen


appears in the list.

Figure 26: Database Copenhagen

Close the window, and the database now displays in


the drop-down list.

Select the database Copenhagen and data from


previous versions can be read in Version 4.0.1 and
newer versions of the software.

Figure 27: Select database

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6. Default setup of user interface

Figure 28: PRIMAX user interface with Sweco default settings

The user interface of PRIMAX DESIGN is flexible. The above interface is the Sweco default settings. This is
the interface you will see when opening PRIMAX DESIGN for the first time and if you are using a PRIMAX
FWD for data collection, PRIMAX DESIGN will be an integrated part of the data collection software.

Figure 29: Layout of PRIMAX Design user interface – selection layout

The interface is flexible and a user can setup the interface as he/she likes. The features can be moved
around as you like. The setting of the layout or skin you have selected is stored, when closing the software,
and will display the next time you open the software. You can save and load default and stored layouts by
clicking Layouts in the top menu.

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For Road design analysis the following layout can be selected:

Figure 30: PRIMAX Design layout – user interface

The above user interface forms the basis of the instructions in this manual.

6.1. Control panels of user interface:


The control panel consists of a number of icons. The control panels to the left are for the data collection
software and general icons. The control panel to the right is for PRIMAX DESIGN.
To activate/deactivate windows click the icons.

Figure 31: Icons PRIMAX Design control panel

Figure 32: Icons of PRIMAX Data Collection control panel (you see these if your PRIMAX Design is
integrated with the Data Collection software)

Figure 33: Icons of PRIMAX Data Collection and Design

Section 15 gives an overview with explanations to the icons.


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7. Selection of points for calculation

In the layout Design in the Project Navigator pane, all projects and all sub-directories can be filtered allowing
export/calculation of only one project or one of the sub-directories and not the entire database.

7.1. How to select a project including all sub-directories

Be sure to have selected


the relevant database.
In Project Navigator click
the button filter in the field
Project (the filter button
appears when mousing
over the field) and all
projects in the actual
Project Navigator Window outlined
database are displayed.

Click and highlight e.g.


Paris and the project Paris
including all sub-directories
are selected for calculation.

Figure 34: Selection of sub-directories

The data to be calculated


can be reduced further by
adding filters to any of the
columns shown.

Figure 35: Add filters

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7.2. Road identification data

Prior to any processing of a calculation with the software, enter information about the FWD measured
road(s). Data needed is:

1: Thickness of layers,
2: Traffic for which to design overlay
3: Width of the roads

All this data is linked together for each road through the window Main Details.

7.3. Main details

As a standard routine, the program creates a database with the name Default but new databases can be
created by clicking the little + sign.

Main details Window outlined

Figure 36: Main details window

To add road section, click the icon

and then the unique


identification for linking the measured
deflections with the database can be
entered.

Figure 37: Entering Main details. Open job window

The easiest way to get the main details right is to copy and paste from the Job window.

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How to copy from Job window

Click the icon to activate the window Job.

The correct values


can be found by
opening the project
in the data
collection and open
the window Job.

Job icon in upper left corner

Figure 38: Job window opens

NOTE : The right input can be copied from the window Job by double-clicking in the boxes to
select the full string and pressing the Ctrl+C at the same time, then the Box with the same
name is selected in the widow Main Details then press Ctrl+V.

As soon as the main details have been entered for all roads (remember to use the icon for each

road/section), click the Disk icon to store data.

7.3.1 Building Main details “Automatically”

Create the database by clicking the icon and enter the name.
Select the roads for which main details have to be processed as shown in below shown example.

Figure 39: Example on selection of roads for which to process main details
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Then click the Icon

Now you can create one set of standard design details consisting of structure, width and traffic details.

Figure 40: Load design details, the tab Pavement.

To the left an example of a pavement


structure is illustrated. Please refer to
section 9.1 to find details about the
various inputs.

In the field From Ch. Alignm. is


indicated that the pavement structure
section starts 50m before the first
measurement (lowest chainage) found
in the selected roads. See fig. 39.
In the field To Ch. Alignm. is indicated
that the pavement structure section will
end 50 m after the last measurement
(highest chainage). See fig 39.

Figure 41: Load design details, example of pavement structure

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To the left an example of width details.


Please refer to section 9.1 for further
information on the various inputs.

Figure 42: The tab Width, example of width details

To the left an example of traffic


details. Please refer to section 9.1 for
information on the various inputs.

Figure 43: The tab Traffic, example of traffic details

When all inputs have been entered about pavement structure, traffic and width, click the button OK.

PRIMAX Design will now process one Main detail for each of the selected roads as well as one pavement
structure section, one width section and one traffic section per selected road and lane.

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To the left an example of


the result of the above-
mentioned processing.

Figure 44: An example of the result of the processing of main details

7.4. Pavement structure

Figure 45: Main details window

Start by selecting the road in the Main details window to enter Pavement structures for the specific road.

Pavement Window outlined

Figure 46: Pavement window

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The software takes changes in pavement structure into consideration by checking the actual chainage
against the From and To chainages indicated in the window Pavement details.
All layers of a given section must have the same From ch. and To ch. An example of this is shown in
section 9 of this manual.

Click the icon to enter data


about one layer of one section of
the road at the time.
The section must be related to the
reference point indicated in Main
details in the field Chainage0.
Having entered one layer and
having described thickness and
layer type, the next layer can be
entered for the same section.
Figure 47: Entering pavement data. Data entered for one section.

Figure 48: Defining layer types


Click on the layer types in the drop down menu above to select these.

Please note:
Observe the following rules when using PRIMAX MET1 calculation method: The thickness of wearing course,
binder and bound base courses will be combined to one total thickness.

When using BAKFAA LET2 calculation method, up to 10 individual layers can be defined.

1 Please refer to section 11.2


2 Please refer to section 11.8

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For both methods holds that the E-modulus field must be filled in with a “seed” modulus and when using the
BAKFAA LET calculation method, fill in Interface Parameter.

1. At least one of the layers Wearing Course, Binder, or Bound Base must be defined as well as one
layer of the layer types under Unbound Base.

2. In addition to the above, a Subbase layer can be selected.

3. When PRIMAX MET calculation method is used, the following rule applies: If several layers are
falling under the layer type Unbound Base, the thicknesses of these layers will be added up to one
total thickness for Unbound Base.

4. When PRIMAX MET calculation method is used, the following rule applies: If several layers are
falling under the layer type Subbase, the thickness of these will be added together to one total
thickness for Subbase.

As soon as all layers have been defined for a subsection, then continue with the next subsection on the
same road or mouse-click to select another section (road) from the list in “Main details”.

Having finished entering pavement details, traffic flows of the individual road sections are entered. This data
is required for calculation of reinforcement needs for the measured road sections.

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7.5. Traffic details

Traffic Window outlined

Figure 49: Traffic window

Enter traffic details


required for calculation
of overlay design. Such
data is the number of
ESA (Equivalent
Standard Axles) per day
on the section in
question (a section can
be divided into smaller
subsections if the traffic
changes along the
section).

Figure 50: Entering traffic details

Click the icon to enter data in the assigned fields. Again, remember that data in the fields from and to
relates to the reference point in the field Chainage 0 in the window Main details.
An example of traffic data is shown in chapter 9.1.

Having finished entering data for a subsection, press the disk icon . Then continue with the next
subsection on the same section or select another section from Main details.

REMARKS: If the road width entered for the actual road section is wider than the lane width entered in
the setup option (see section 8.4), then the entered traffic will be divided by 2.
Motorways having 2 lanes in each direction are measured in the slow lanes. Enter the number of ESA in
these lanes and a lane width narrower than the lane width setup under section 8.4.

Having entered pavement and traffic data, continue entering the last data needed for reinforcement
calculation for the measured road sections, which is the width of each individual road section.

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7.6. Width details

Press the icon to


enter width data needed
for calculation of the Width Window outlined
overlay design.

Figure 51: Width window

The width is the total


width of the road section
in question (a road can
be divided into smaller
sections if the width is
changing along the
road).

Figure 52: Entering width details

Enter data in the assigned fields. Again, remember that the data in the fields from and to is related to the
reference point in Chainage 0 in the window Main detail.
An example of how to enter width data is shown in section 9.

Having finished entering data for a section, press the disk icon to save. Then continue with the next
section on the same road or select another road from Main details.

REMARKS Traffic entered will be divided by 2 if the road width entered for the actual road section is
more than the lane width entered in the setup option (see section 8.4). This means that for motorways with 2
lanes in each direction, measurement will normally be performed in the slow lanes. Enter the number of ESA
in these lanes and enter a lane width narrower than the lane width set up under section 8.4.

After having gone through all the steps from 7.1 to 7.6 and having FWD measurements which can be linked
to the road database through the same district numbers and road numbers, you can start processing back
calculation of E moduli and calculation of overlay using selected calculation parameters (see section 8).

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8. Setting up calculation parameters

The present PRIMAX Design version +4.1 allows the user to


set up and select his/her own design criteria, which best
represent the local conditions and material behaviour.

The parameters, which can be adjusted to local conditions,


are:
Figure 53: Opening design options
1. Allowable strain in asphalt layers
2. Allowable stress on unbound materials
3. Correction of asphalt stiffness

These are adjusted to a reference


temperature selected by the user and
entered in the window Design Options.
Furthermore, the user can change the load
characteristics, for which overlay is to be
calculated.
All the features mentioned above are found
under the icon Design Options .
See figure 53.
Having clicked the icon, the window Design
to the right displays (figure 54):

Figure 54: Design options window with tab menu to the


right. Clicking these allows various design options to be
entered

8.1. Reinforcement layer E moduli (strength)

Define E modulus for new asphalt for


reinforcement in the window to the right.
The E modulus must be the one that can be
expected for new asphalt material.
 It is possible to define a change in new
material E modulus if the thickness
exceeds a selected thickness. This
means, it is possible to calculate with a
lower stiffness for the upper part of the
reinforcement (wearing course and
binder course) and with a higher E
modulus for the “deeper” part of the
reinforcement (bound base material).

Figure 55: Open the window Design options, setup


strength of reinforcement layers

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8.2. Temperature correction of Asphalt E moduli (normalization)


The result of the back-calculation processed by PRIMAX Design is a set of pavement layer E moduli, as they
were on the day and time measured.

Therefore, users often want the E moduli corrected/normalised to a standard temperature.

The correction relationship can differ for different mixes, bitumen hardness or age of asphalt layers. To allow
users to take such factors into consideration and to have asphalt E moduli, which are not normalised, the
setup menu (Option window) has a feature for defining the relation between asphalt stiffness and
temperature.

Define E moduli for new asphalt for


reinforcement in the window to the right.

Click the tab Temp. corr.

By clicking the three dots …, new correction


formulas can be entered and existing ones be
changed.

Based on studies into various relations in


various countries, it was decided to make the
relation for temperature normalisation as a fifth-
grade polynomial.
Figure 56: Selection of formula for temperature
correction of asphalt E modulus

 Deriving a fifth-grade polynomial fitting the local conditions requires testing of asphalt stiffness related to
temperature within the temperature range in which FWD measurements are carried out.
 For this a number of points with intact asphalt pavement can be selected and FWD tests carried out at
various temperatures within the temperature range. At least at 10 different temperatures.
 All the measurements are then to be back-calculated using a correction factor = 1.
 This will result in a table with non-corrected asphalt E modulus at different temperatures.
 Select the reference temperatures and the corresponding asphalt E modulus.
 For any of the temperatures at which FWD testing was performed, the ratio between the reference
asphalt E modulus and the E modulus at the given temperature can then be calculated.
 This ratio is entered into a spread sheet, e.g. Excel. X is temperature and Y the ratio which must be
applied to correct the asphalt E modulus measured to E modulus at reference temperature. If a graphic
presentation is created in Excel and the Trend option is used with a fifth grade polynomial, Excel can
calculate the five values required for the design program.
 The five values are entered to their assigned fields along with the reference temperature, at which the
correction factor is 1.00. Finally the temperature range is entered, for which the correction/normalisation
is valid.
 The program can use the given relation even if the design temperature is different from the reference
temperature for the curve.
 In order to have asphalt E modulus without normalisation, the first four values in the polynomial must be
0 and the fifth value 1.00.

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8.3. Traffic details

The program now needs to know, how to


understand the traffic data entered in the
database.

Click the third tab Traffic to the right in the Click the item to open Design Options
window Design Options.

Figure 57: Entering setting for traffic

The value in the field traffic growth tells the


program that the number of standard axles per
day will grow by the indicated percentage per
year.

The value in the field Default traffic load tells the


program the number of standard axles to apply.
This provides that the program is set up to apply
this feature.

Figure 58: Setting up traffic

The value in the field Standard axle load tells the program the size of the design load.

The value in the field Impact factor tells the program to multiply the design load by the indicated factor to
allow for any extra deterioration caused by traffic due to uneven road surface, etc.

The value in the field Contact pres. tells the program the design standard wheel pressure on the road to be
applied for the calculation.

The value in the field Load plate radius tells the program the size of area on which the design contact is
applied.

This value should correspond to standard axle load and contact pressure.

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8.4. Width details

The program now needs to know, how to


understand the width data entered in the
database.

Click the tab Width to the right in the window Click the icon to open Design options
Design Options.

In the field Default width (fig. 60) the width to


be applied by the program appears, when
either click box two or three is activated.

The width entered in the field Lane width


(fig. 60) is used by the program to decide
whether the traffic entered for the lane can
be divided by two because the road is so
wide that the traffic in the two directions are
driving in individual wheel paths.

Figure 59: Setting width


If the width found in the database is smaller
or equal to the indicated value, then the
traffic used for design is the total number. If
the width value found in the database is
higher than the indicated, then the traffic
found in the database will be divided by two
when processing the overlay calculation.
Figure 60: Setting width

EXAMPLE: Where the width is wider than 5 meter, the traffic is driving in two individual wheel paths and the
traffic is divided by 2 (left part). When the road width is less than or equal to 5 meter, the traffic applied is the
total traffic (right part).

Lane
0
Width = 4.5 meter
Lane
0
Width = 5.5 meter

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8.5. Pavement data

The program now needs to know, how to


understand the pavement data entered in
the database.

Click the tab Pavement to the right in the Click the icon to open Design Options
Design option menu.

By clicking the three dots … in one of the


four fields, the construction box will open.

In the field Type the pavement type is


indicated. The code indicated in the field
Alias is applied for comparing the pavement
type with the type used at the time of
carrying out the measurement – note the
small letters as. In the above example the
program searches for the start of the
description and looks for the letters as. The
letters can be capital letters or small letters
or a combination.
Figure 61: Setting pavement

Figure 62: Setting pavement

The value in the field Min. thickn. 1st layer is the minimum thickness of first layer for which an individual E
modulus can be calculated. In case the thickness of first layer is thinner than the indicated thickness, the
thickness of the first layer will be added to the thickness of the second layer and an average E modulus is
calculated.
The value in the field Design Period is the number of years of the structural life of the pavement decided by
the user. If the actual structural life is shorter than this value, then the program calculates the necessary
thickness of a new asphalt surface required to obtain the desired structural life.

Values in the column Number indicate the layer numbers from top to bottom of the pavement structure.
1st layer is the bound layer
2nd layer is the unbound base layer
3rd layer is the subbase layer
4th layer is the subgrade which is assumed to be infinite

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Values in the column Thickness indicate the layer thicknesses of the layers which the program will use when
applying Default values. If no values are indicated, the thicknesses will be retrieved from the database.
This works with “PRIMAX design MET” calculation method only. For “BAKFAA LET” calculation method the
thickness of the individual layers must be defined in the database.

Values in the column E modulus indicate the layer moduli to be used as seed values for the back-calculation
from top to bottom of the pavement structure.
1st layer is the bound layer
2nd layer is the unbound base layer
3rd layer is the subbase layer
4th layer is the subgrade and the E modulus will be calculated directly from the measured deflections.
This works with “PRIMAX design MET” calculation method only. For “BAKFAA LET” calculation method the
thickness of the individual layers must be defined in the database.

The values in the column Eq. factor are correction factors applied to adjust the values to reality.
1st layer is the bound layer
2nd layer is the unbound base layer
3rd layer is the subbase layer
4th layer is the subgrade and the E modulus will be calculated directly from the measured deflections
This works with “PRIMAX design MET” calculation method only. For “BAKFAA LET” calculation method the
thickness of the individual layers must be defined in the database.

The values in the column Poisson´s ratio is the actual value assumed for the individual layers used in the
calculations.
1st layer is the bound layer
2nd layer is the unbound base layer
3rd layer is the subbase layer
4th layer is the subgrade and the E modulus will be calculated directly from the measured deflections
This works with “PRIMAX design MET” calculation method only. For “BAKFAA LET” calculation method the
thickness of the individual layers must be defined in the database.

The values in the column “Criteria” are the actual criteria applied for calculation of structural life of the layer
and for calculation of the strengthening if the structural life is shorter than the design period.
1st layer is the bound layer
2nd layer is the unbound base layer
3rd layer is the subbase layer
4th layer is the subgrade and the E modulus will be calculated directly on the basis of the measured
deflections.

The criteria can be changed by mouse-clicking in one of the boxes and clicking the three dots …

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8.6. Stress and strain criteria


To activate the stress and strain criteria window, select one of the criteria and mouse-click the three dots …
When the design program calculates, whether or not a road needs reinforcement, the calculations are based
on the calculated strain in the underside of the asphalt layers compared with the fatigue relations for the

asphalt set up in the program and/or


the calculated stress on the unbound
layers in the pavement structure
compared to the allowable stresses on
the same layers. If the actual stress
and/or strain values exceed the
allowable, then the program calculates
the overlay needed to bring the actual
stress/strain below the allowable
values.

Figure 63: Selection of design criteria

Figure 64: Allowable stress or strain criteria for a layer

To activate the stress and strain criteria window, select one of the criteria and mouse-click on the three dots
…, the window in Figure 64 displays.
The upper part describes the relation between traffic and allowable strain in the asphalt layers. The basic
values are in accordance with the Danish design criteria. In the lower right hand box the formula for the
calculation is shown. Examples of other criteria are shown in table 1 and table 2 below.
The allowable stress on unbound layers are described the same way, when this function has been selected
in the table on the left side.

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Literature commonly presents asphalt criteria as:

 PERMISSIBLE ( N )   6  ( N /10^6) B1  ( E / 3000MPa)C1


Unbound material criteria are presented as:

 Z , PERMISSIBLE ( N )   6  ( N / 10 6 ) C1 , or

 Z , PERMISSIBLE ( N )   6  ( E / 160MPa) B1  ( N / 10 6 ) C1
The tables below present a list of commonly used asphalt and unbound material design criteria.

Table 1 Design criteria for asphalt materials


Common Form Permissible
PRIMAX Design
Strain
Program Format
@ 1 million passages
6 C for C for Eref
6 (µstr) B1 C1 B
(µstr) E > Eref E ≤ Eref (MPa)
Asphalt Institute, 20% cracked area, VB = 10% 240 -0.25 -0.304 240 -0.304 -0.25 -0.25 1
Shell, Controlled Strain, VB = 10% 340 -0.4 -0.2 340 -0.2 -0.4 -0.4 1
Shell, Controlled Stress, VB = 10% 154 -0.4 -0.2 154 -0.2 -0.4 -0.4 1
Kirk, Danish Standard Base Course Materials 300 0 -0.178 300 -0.178 0 0 1
FAA 214 -0.2 -0.375 214 214 -0.2 -0.2 1

Table 2 Design criteria for unbound materials


Common Form, Permissible Strain @ 1
PRIMAX Design Program Format
million passages
Reliability 6 (µstr) B Limits (MPa) A (µstr) B C
Asphalt Institute, E≤160 478 -0.223 0
? 478 -0.223
RD<12.7mm E>160 478 -0.223 0
E≤160 890 -0.25 0
Shell original 50% 890 -0.25
E>160 890 -0.25 0
E≤160 664 -0.25 0
Shell revised 1 85% 664 -0.25
E>160 664 -0.25 0
E≤160 569 -0.25 0
Shell revised 2 95% 569 -0.25
E>160 569 -0.25 0
E≤160 669 -0.253 0
TRRL, RD<10.2mm 50% 669 -0.235
E>160 669 -0.253 0
E≤160 453 -0.253 0
TRRL, RD<10.2mm 85% 453 -0.235
E>160 453 -0.253 0
Kirk original, Den-mark, E≤160 0.12 MPa -0.307 1
? 560 -0.287
IRI<4m/km E>160 0.12 MPa -0.307 1.16
MMOPP, Denmark, E≤160 0.086MPa -0.25 1.06
>75% 543 -0.246
IRI<4m/km E>160 0.086MPa -0.25 1.06
E≤160 918 -0.0704 0
FAA > 12,000 coverages ? 918 -0.0704
E>160 918 -0.0704 0
E≤160 727 -0.123 0
FAA < 12,000 coverages ? 727 -0.123
E>160 727 -0.123 0

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8.7. Sectioning
Select the tab sectioning.

To activate this feature click on


tab Sectioning in Design
Options and mouse-click on
the 3 …

Figure 65: Select sectioning

This feature is applied for changing the criteria for


the statistical division of the roads measured based
on the calculated overlay thickness. The program
uses these values as described in section 9.4.

Figure 66: Active sectioning setup

The only values to concentrate on are displayed in the last line in the table.

The extra reinforcement value indicates that for a subsection, the program will calculate the overlay as the
mean value of the subsection + the indicated percentage of standard deviation.

The reinforcement interval shows the reinforcement per subsection rounded up or down to the nearest
multiplum of 5mm.

The field Min. reinf. indicates that if the calculated reinforcement for a subsection is less than the value in the
field Min. reinf. then this is to be interpreted as the subsection does not need reinforcement.

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9. Calculating in PRIMAX DESIGN

9.1. Sectioning due to pavement structure changes, varying traffic and varying width
While processing calculations with PRIMAX Design, the program needs to know the thickness of the layers
of the pavement structure as well as the traffic load expressed as ESAL in a given point in which deflection
measurements have been performed.

Below a sketch shows a particular road structure and the input to the database.

Figure 67 Pavement structure

The table below is an example of varying traffic on a particular road and belonging input in the database.

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Detailed input:
Ch. 0 Ch. 1700 Ch. 2256 Ch. 3579 Ch. 4500
ESAL
per
day 159 268 300 110

Figure 68: Traffic window

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The program uses either the ESAL value or, if the road or lane width exceeds a user-defined width (setup
parameter is normally 5 meters), the value is divided by two.
Below table illustrates a road with varying width and the database input.

Detailed input:
Ch. 0 Ch. 1150 Ch. 2256 Ch. 3000 Ch. 4500
From
Lane 4.5m to
width 4.5 m 6.5 m 6.5 m 5.5 m

Figure 69: Width

9.2. Selection of points for calculation

A brief instruction is given as


to how a calculation is run in
the PRIMAX Design program
and how the result is applied.

Select Project Navigator


Project navigator

Figure 70: Selecting points for calculation

For detailed information on Project Navigator, please refer to the PRIMAX Survey Manual.

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 Select points to be included in the calculation using the filter function. In the example above the filter is
set to Project “1054 1061”. If data is not filtered, the calculation process may be prolonged.
 Enter pavement thickness, traffic and width details for the selected roads as described in section 7 and
9.1.
 Set up the calculation parameters as described in section 8.

9.3. Starting calculations

When clicking the icon Design


Wizard, this window will
pop up with indication of how
many points have been
selected and how many drops
will be used.
Project navigator upper left
corner
Click the button Next to Click the icon Design Wizard:
continue. The window below
displays.

Figure 71: Starting the design wizard and selecting


points for calculation

In this window the basic design


settings are selected.

If more than one set of design


settings have been defined,
select the one to be used.

The database containing data


on width, pavement and traffic
should be selected, otherwise
Traffic source, Pavement
source and Width source must
be “Default data only”.

Figure 72: Selecting basic design settings

The check box “Fallback to lane 0” allows entering of data for Lane 0 only and reusing of this data if it is the
same for all lanes.

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Default Calculation type can be


either Road or Airport and refers
to calculation of residual life and
reinforcement in respect to traffic
loads.

Calculation Engine can be either


PRIMAX MET or BAKFAA LET
software.

After selection, click the button


Next to launch the back-
calculation process. The
calculation itself can take a while.

Figure 73: The calculation window

The back-calculation progress window displays (figure 72). When the button Restart appears, the calculation
process has finished.

Click the button Next to continue.

The results of the calculation are


shown graphically.
The shown sectioning is based
on the need for reinforcement
and bases on the methodology
described in section 9.4

Click the button Next to continue.

The button Restart can be used


to reset to original sectioning if a
manual sectioning has been
made (described below).

Figure 74: This window displays the results of the calculation such
as surface moduli, section, overlay and reinforcement per point

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In this window sectioning can be


changed. Select columns and drag with
mouse.

To insert new section click right mouse


button.

To delete a section mark a separator and


click right mouse button.

Having made the changes, click the


button Next to continue or restart to go
back to the original sectioning suggested
by the program.

Figure 75: Manual sectioning

Drag the lines from left and right in the window below the sectioning window to the chainage points you want
to zoom in on. A side scrollbar will appear below the graphs in the sectioning window.

The Box in the lower left side of the window shows which lane is active and how many lanes have been
calculated. In the figure the second lane of two lanes is shown.

Remember clicking the button Finish to


print a report if you did not choose “
Print report after calculation” in the
window “Basic Setting” (figure 72).

Figure 76: Calculation results

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How to create a standard report:

Click the icon


Reports/preview
to create a standard
report.

Select the report


“Evaluation.repx”
shown in Figure 77.

Figure 77: Selecting report

Click the button Open to create the report.

Figure 78: Page 1 of a report selected for the calculation

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Figure 79: Page 3 of report generated on the basis of calculation with


result per point

Figure 80: Page 5 of report generated on the basis of the calculation


showing suggested reinforcement

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9.4. Sectioning Overview

This note describes the methodology applied for identification of uniform subsections. The identification is
made with the program UNISECT written in BASIC. The program retrieves input from comma-separated files
and produces two output files, one identifying key data of uniform sections and one presenting data required
for result plots.

The Cumulated Difference Method


The basis for the program is the cumulated difference method, as described in the AASHTO Pavement
Design Guide, pp.
The main principle of the methodology is accumulation of the differences between the average response and
the actual values over a section. If a subsection has a uniformly higher average than the total section
average, the cumulated difference will increase - the opposite, if the subsection average is lower.
The original AASHTO manual states that a new subsection is identified when the cumulative difference curve
changes from a positive to a negative slope or vice versa. The problem with this definition is that it is
dependent of the total section - if only part of a series is considered, one can identify other subsections.

The Moving Average band


The problem of lengths of series is solved by changing the issue to identify straight lines within a band. The
band is established by creating two lines, one above, one below the cumulative difference curve, and it is
calculated on the basis of the moving n-point standard deviation of the actual point measurements. If there
are large variations in the measurements, the band grows wide. If the measurements are uniform, the band
grows narrow. The precise band width is found by multiplying the n-point standard deviation by a scaling
factor.
The sections are identified
mathematically by moving 60
through the band in both
directions, taking the 50
breakpoints as the mean of
the values found from the 40 Measurement
forward and backward run. Section mean+std.dev
The principle is illustrated 30 Lower band
in Figure 81. Middle
20 Upper band

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50

Figure 81: Principle of section identification

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Background Theory
Pavement Design
based on Theory of Elasticity

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10. Summary
This section describes the theoretical background and analysis methods applied in the PRIMAX Design
program.
Section 11 describes the application of the Method of Equivalent Thicknesses (MET) and Linear Elastic
Theory (LET) in the back-calculation of E-moduli and other critical pavement properties from Falling Weight
Deflectometer measurements.
Section 12 is deals with determination of residual life and design of rehabilitation overlays on flexible and
rigid pavements, both on highways and in airports.
Section 13 describes how the analysis of the officially reported Aircraft Classification Numbers (ACN) and
calculation of corresponding basic pavement reactions is developed into a comprehensive, traffic-
independent evaluation and reporting system for Pavement Classification Number (PCN)

11. Back-calculation

11.1. The Method of Equivalent Thicknesses


The mainstay in FWD back-calculation analysis is the Method of Equivalent Thicknesses, often abbreviated
to the acronym MET.
This method enables the user to calculate stresses, strains and deformations in pavements based on the
Boussinesq theory. MET converts the layered pavement to the infinite half-space required for the Boussinesq
calculations through a succession of transformations, converting a stiffer, overlying layer to an equivalent
thickness with the deformation characteristics of the underlying layer. The transformed layer has the same
load spreading effect as the original, stiffer layer.

The transformation
equation is:
ℎ𝑒
= ℎ1
3 𝐸1 1 − 22
×√ ×
𝐸2 1 − 21

Figure 82: Principle of Method of Equivalent Thicknesses, MET

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11.2. Pavement reactions in MET/Boussinesq analysis


Applying the above-mentioned transformation methodology allows calculation of the pavement deflections
used in the back-calculation process (cf. section 11.7) and the critical pavement reactions used in overlay
design.

Figure 83: Polar coordinates in Boussinesq analysis

Using the annotation of Figure 83, the Boussinesq equations for critical reactions are as follows:
Vertical deflection:
𝑃(1 + 𝜈)
𝑑𝑧 = (2(1 − 𝜈) + 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜑) (I)
2𝜋𝑅𝐸
Vertical strain:
𝑃(1 + 𝜈)
𝜀𝑧 = (3𝑐𝑜𝑠 3 𝜑 − 2𝜈𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑) ( II )
2𝜋𝑅2 𝐸
Horizontal radial strain:
𝑃(1 + 𝜈) 1 − 2𝜈
𝜀𝑟 = 2
(−3𝑐𝑜𝑠 3 𝜑 + (3 − 2𝜈)𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑 − ) ( III )
2𝜋𝑅 𝐸 1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑
Horizontal tangential strain:
𝑃(1 + 𝜈) 1 − 2𝜈
𝜀𝑡 = 2
(−𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑 + ) ( IV )
2𝜋𝑅 𝐸 1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑

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Vertical stress:
3𝑃
𝜎𝑧 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 3 𝜑 (V)
2𝜋𝑅2
Horizontal radial stress:
𝑃 1 − 2𝜈
𝜎𝑟 = 2
(3𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜑 + ) ( VI )
2𝜋𝑅 1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑
Horizontal tangential stress:
(1 − 2𝜈)𝑃 1
𝜎𝑡 = 2
(−𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑 + ) ( VII )
2𝜋𝑅 1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑
The Boussinesq equations are valid for an idealized point load. In order to make them work with a load
distributed uniformly over a circular load plate with radius a, it is necessary to apply corrections to the
calculation depth, z, determined from the previously defined equivalent depth, he:

z = f × he ( VIII )
Traditionally, correction factors between 0.8 and 1.0 have been applied, the lower values being used at the
greatest depths. It has, however, been found (ref.2) that a better agreement with linear elastic theory can be
obtained if the correction factor is expressed as a function of the ratio h e/a. The functions are specific for the
different critical reactions.
The correction factors are as follows:
Vertical deflection:

fdz = 0.8 + 0.53×(he/a)-1.06 ( IX )


Vertical strain:

fez = 0.8 + 0.81×(he/a)-1.51 (X)


Horizontal strain (both radial and tangential):

feh = (0.8 + 1.36×(he/a)-1.06)×(1-0.027×dtrue/dlayer) ( XI )


Stresses:

fsz = 0.8 + 0.74×(he/a)-1.23 ( XII )


In the horizontal strain factor, the additional terms are:
dtrue = true calculated deflection at interface
dlayer = calculated deflection at interface for constant E-modulus below actual level

11.3. Surface Modulus


When a pavement is subjected to FWD loading, the deflection at the surface is the sum of vertical
deformations in the pavement layers and the subgrade. These deformations are the integration of stress
divided by E modulus from the pavement surface to infinite depth.
To gain a quick impression of the properties of the pavement, common practice is to calculate the surface
modulus E0 at the different geophone radii.

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The surface modulus is the constant E modulus of an infinite half-space that under the applied load would
lead to the same deflection as measured on the actual pavement, where layers have different E moduli.
The relationship between deflection and surface modulus is defined by the following equations:
Surface Modulus Centre, radius r = 0
2 × (1 − 𝜈 2 ) × 𝑎 × 𝜎0
𝐸0 (0) = ( XIII )
𝑑0
Surface Modulus at Radius r > a
(1 − 𝜈 2 ) × 𝑎2 × 𝜎0
𝐸0 (𝑟) = ( XIV )
𝑟 × 𝑑𝑟
In these equations the following symbols are used:
 Poisson’s ratio, usually fixed at 0.35
a Load plate radius
0 Load plate stress
r Radius – distance load centre to geophone
dr Deflection at radius r

When the subgrade is sandy, the surface modulus tends to become constant with increasing distance to the
load centre. For clayey subgrades the surface modulus will increase with increasing distance to the load
centre – a steep increase can be an indication of bedrock close below the subgrade surface. The bedrock
will not deflect under the loading. In combination with the overlying subgrade “layer”, the system is
interpreted as a very stiff subgrade.

300

250
Sample surface moduli
Surface modulus (MPa)

200 Sandy subgrade type

150 Clayey subgrade type


or shallow bedrock
100

50

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Radius (mm)

Figure 84: Typical surface moduli

The surface modulus at a given distance, r, is actually equal to the combined E moduli of the pavement
materials below a depth, z, roughly corresponding to r.

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This is a result of the vertical stress distribution in the pavement, which can be described by the Boussinesq
equation for stress from a point load, P, on an infinite half-space:

3𝑃
𝜎𝑧 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 3 𝜑 ( XV )
2𝜋𝑅2

Figure 85: Parameters in Boussinesq maximum stress calculation

Differentiation of the Boussinesq equation shows that the maximum stress occurs at a depth:

𝑧 = √3⁄2 𝑟 = 1.225𝑟 ( XVI )

This corresponds to 𝜃 = 39° and a maximum stress:

3𝑃
𝜎𝑧,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = × 0.1859 ( XVII )
2𝜋𝑟 2
Figure 86 shows that the vertical stress above the level of maximum stress decreases rapidly, as opposed to
the variation below that level.
Figure 87 illustrates both the maximum stress angle and the effect of the rapidly decreasing stress on
deflection. Deflections are calculated with Linear Elastic Theory (LET) for a 100 MPa semi-infinite halfspace
under a 50 kN circular load with radius a = 150 mm. At distances greater than 1.5×a, the deflection within the
layer above the φ=60° line actually decreases.
This can be explained as a result of the orientation of the major principal stress, which in this area is more
horizontal than vertical. The result is that there is a mainly horizontal compression strain in the material.
Through Poisson’s ratio this again leads to a vertical tensile strain, causing expansion and thereby to a
reduction in deflection.

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When it is remembered that this decreasing stress in a real pavement is located chiefly in the stiff upper
pavement layers, thereby greatly reducing the compressive/tensile strains, it can be assumed that the
deflection measured at the pavement surface is equal to the deflection in the pavement at the maximum
stress level.

Figure 86 Stress distribution in a semi-infinite half-space at r>2a

Figure 87 Deflections in a semi-infinite half-space calculated with linear elastic theory, LET

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11.4. Non-linear subgrade – deviator stress dependency


Subgrade materials are mostly fine-grained, clayey soils, exhibiting cohesive properties.
A typical test series on an intact or remoulded specimen is shown Figure 88. Relevant load stresses in the
subgrade on correctly designed pavements will generally be below 0.1 MPa as demonstrated by Figure 89
and Figure 90.

Figure 88: Dynamic triaxial testing of clay specimen

A typical airport taxiway pavement, designed with the FAARFIELD program (ref.1), according to the
guidelines of FAA (ref.4), is shown in Figure 88 and the resultant vertical stress under the critical B777
aircraft loading in Figure 89.

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Figure 89: Typical heavy-duty airport taxiway pavement


Horizontal plane parallel to X-Y at Z = 1200

Normal Stress ZZ

-8.66
-8.88
-9.10
-9.33
-9.55
-9.77
-10.00
-10.22
-10.44
-10.67
-10.89
-11.11
-11.34
-11.56
-11.78
-12.01
-12.23
-12.46
-12.68
-12.90

Figure 90: Vertical stress in kPa at subgrade level under B777 loading

In pavement subgrade load analysis, the deviator stress can be replaced by the dynamic vertical stress,
since the dynamic horizontal stress components are negligible at the positions considered.
The deviator stress dependency relationship can then be transformed to the form below:

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𝐵
𝐸0 = 𝐴0 × (𝜎1,𝑚𝑎𝑥 ⁄0.1 𝑀𝑃𝑎) ( XVIII )
The term 1,max is a result of the considerations explained in section 11.2 that the stress at the surface of the
subgrade may not be the maximum stress. Selection of maximum subgrade stress is made as follows:

3𝑃
× 0.1859 for he < 1.225×r
2𝜋𝑟 2
𝜎1,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ( XIX )
3𝑃
𝑐𝑜𝑠 3 𝜃 for he ≥ 1.225×r
2𝜋𝑅2

The A0 and B constants can then be determined through regression on surface moduli and maximum
stresses at measurement radii that are so far from the load centre that influence from deformation of
pavement layers is negligible.

11.5. Non-linear subgrade – DARWIN/MEPDG modelling


In the development of the MEPDG (ref.5), which has been implemented as AASHTO’s official pavement
design tool, DARWIN (ref.3), the researchers realized that the deviator stress model (cf. section 0) was not
sufficient to fully describe the behaviour of subgrade materials under loading.
It was established that the confining pressure in dynamic triaxial testing had a positive, non-negligible effect
on the E-modulus. In the field, the weight of the pavement layers and the subgrade down to the level of
maximum vertical stress will create a static pressure similar to the triaxial cell confining pressure.
The models are based on a more comprehensive description of the stress state in the pavement, employing
octahedral stresses, as defined in Figure 91.
Mathematically, the two octahedral stresses are defined as:

𝜎𝑜𝑐𝑡 = 1⁄3 (𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 ) ( XX )

𝜏𝑜𝑐𝑡 = 1⁄3 √(𝜎1 − 𝜎2 )2 + (𝜎1 − 𝜎3 )2 + (𝜎2 − 𝜎3 )2 ( XXI )

Often the bulk stress, 𝜃, is used instead of 𝜎𝑜𝑐𝑡 :

𝜃 = 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 = 3 × 𝜎𝑜𝑐𝑡 ( XXII )

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Figure 91: Definition of octahedral planes and stresses

Two models have been suggested for the description of subgrade modulus:
Witczak & Uzan

𝜃 𝑘2 𝜎𝑑 𝑘3
𝐸𝑚 = 𝑘1 𝑝𝑎 ( ) ( ) ( XXIII )
𝑝𝑎 𝑝𝑎
Witczak-MEPDG

𝜃 𝑘2 𝜏𝑜𝑐𝑡 𝑘3
𝐸𝑚 = 𝑘1 𝑝𝑎 ( ) ( + 1) ( XXIV )
𝑝𝑎 𝑝𝑎

In these expressions pa is the atmospheric pressure ~0.1 MPa, included to make the expressions correct,
dimension wise.
The constant k2 is >0, accounting for the increased E-modulus with increased confining pressure, while k 3 is
<0 for typical fine-grained soils. The constant “1” in the Witczak-MEPDG expression has been added to
ensure that the model doesn’t predict unrealistically high E-moduli for low octahedral shear values.
In practical FWD analysis, it turns out that the Witczak-MEPDG model leads to an overestimation of the
stress sensitivity for subgrade materials.

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For the very low stresses at the measurement radii used for derivation of the subgrade – typically less than
0.02 MPa - the “1” term is dominant making the variation within the k 3 bracket of the Witczak-MEPDG
equation very small. To account for any variation in E modulus, the k3-value must necessarily become
numerically high typically 10 times greater than the B value determined in deviator stress dependency
analysis (cf. section 11.4).
One of the strengths of both the abovementioned Em dependency equations is the ability to take into account
the pressure applied by the weight of the pavement materials.
The models, as they are written out, are not clear as to the inclusion of dynamic stresses. This has to be
defined, when a model is applied in practical FWD analysis.
In setting up these expressions, the following assumptions are made:
 The static vertical stress at depth z is calculated on the basis of an average pavement material density.
 The earth pressure coefficient is 0.5. 𝜃static at depth z is therefore two times the vertical static stress.
 When there is no dynamic loading, oct = 0. All octahedral shear is therefore calculated on the basis of
the dynamic loading.
 Dynamic octahedral and bulk stresses are calculated on the basis of z, r and t, although these
stresses, strictly speaking, are not principal stresses except at the centreline.

The model used in the FWD analysis is then modified from the Witczak-MEPDG model to the following:
PRIMAX-MEPDG (after the PRIMAX FWD model range):

𝜃𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡 + 𝑝1 𝜃𝑑𝑦𝑛 𝑘2 𝜏𝑜𝑐𝑡,𝑑𝑦𝑛 𝑘3


𝐸𝑚 = 𝑘1 𝑝𝑎 ( ) ( + 𝑝2 ) ( XXV )
𝑝𝑎 𝑝𝑎

The PRIMAX constants, p1 and p2 and the exponent k2 are used as follows:
p1 accounts for the influence of the dynamic loading on an increase in E-modulus for constant octahedral
shear.
Typically a value of 0.5 is used
p2 is a constant that can be used to ensure that the model doesn’t predict unrealistically high E-moduli for
low octahedral shear values. In the FWD back-calculation analysis of subgrade modulus, the stresses
are at the lowest level that is likely to be used in modelling of the actual pavement structure, and the E-
moduli are known.
Typically p2 can therefore be set to 0.
k2 This exponent can theoretically be derived from analysis of deflections measured at different load
levels. In the automatized analyses it is a user input, typically a value of 0.5 is suggested.
If it is desired to determine parameters for the Witczak-MEPDG model, this can be done by analysing the
back calculated subgrade E-moduli near the load centre with the PRIMAX-MEPDG model, using a p2 value
of 1.

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11.6. Depth to bedrock


In some instances the deviator stress or MEPDG nonlinearity comes out at negative levels that are too high
(too negative) to be realistic, or the surface modulus plot shows a steep increase for large measurement
radii. Values of n or k2 that are lower than -0.5 may instead be taken as an indication that the subgrade is far
from being a semi-infinite half-space. On the contrary, the bedrock is close to the surface and seriously
affecting the deflections under the FWD loading.

450 0,9

400
Sample deflections and 0,8
surface moduli
350 0,7

300
Steep increase in 0,6
surface modulus for
Surface modulus (MPa)

large radii indicates

Deflection (mm)
250 shallow bedrock 0,5

200 0,4

150 0,3

100 0,2

50 0,1

0 0,0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Radius (mm)

Surface modulus Deflection

Figure 92 Typical deflections and surface modulus plot for shallow bedrock

It is then necessary to determine the depth to bedrock. This will be equal to the distance from the load
centre, where the measured deflection under FWD loading is zero. This could presumably be done by
analysing the outer deflections, plotted in Figure 92, but would involve user selection of regression type
(power, exponential, polynomial,…). Furthermore, actual measured deflection basins are rarely as smooth as
the Figure 92 example.
The Depth to bedrock is instead determined by plotting the measured deflections against the inverse of the
measurement radius, as shown in Figure 93.
Linear regression is then performed on the 3 points with the lowest x-value, corresponding to the outermost
measured points, and from this regression is determined the x-value where the surface deflection, y, is zero.
The zero-deflection radius is then found by inverting this x-value.

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The principle is illustrated in Figure 93.

1,2
Regression determines Bedrock depth
1,0
Regression on
3 lowest-x points:
Deflection (mm)

0,8
y = 226.5x - 0.0917
0,6 y = 0 for x = 1/r =0.000405

0,4

0,2
Bedrock equivalent depth = r = 2.47 m
0,0
0,000 0,001 0,002 0,003 0,004 0,005 0,006
1/Radius (1/mm)

Figure 93: Determination of depth to bedrock

The methodology described above assigns all nonlinear surface modulus variation to the presence of
bedrock close to the surface.
The subgrade is consequently considered linear, and characterization of the material by any of the models
described in sections 11.4 and 11.5 is not relevant.
The subgrade modulus can be determined from the measured deflection, d MEAS, at the radius of minimum
surface modulus, in this case approximately 95 MPa at r = 600 mm.
In MET analysis, the deflections at the depth of Maximum Deflection (φ=60°) and at the Bedrock equivalent
depth are calculated for an arbitrary E-value, ECALC, in a linear halfspace. The difference is the MET-
calculated surface deflection, dCALC, when bedrock is considered. Noting that the deflections are linear
functions of 1/E (sect. 11.2), the correct subgrade modulus, Em, can be determined as:
𝑑𝐶𝐴𝐿𝐶
𝐸𝑚 = 𝐸𝐶𝐴𝐿𝐶 × ( XXVI )
𝑑𝑀𝐸𝐴𝑆
For LET analysis, the determination of depth to bedrock and subgrade modulus is an integrated iterative
process, analysing the deflection at the 3 outer points and at the radius of minimum surface modulus
simultaneously with both Em and Depth to Bedrock as independent variables.
In practice, the solution presented in Figure 93 only comes up with the correct result for large depths and thin
pavements.
In practice, it is necessary to compensate for shallow depth and the effective thickness of the pavement
layers above the subgrade “layer” with the Em E-modulus.
Linear Elastic analysis has shown that this compensation can be determined from the following values:
 hDTB,APP The Apparent Depth To Bedrock from the analysis presented in Figure 93
 he,LAYERS, SUB The Equivalent Thickness of the pavement Layers above the Subgrade layer relative
to that layer’s E-modulus

From these values are calculated the correction factor:


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𝐶𝐷𝑇𝐵,𝑇𝑅𝑈𝐸/𝐶𝐴𝐿𝐶 = 0.566 × (0.187 + 0.279 × ℎ𝐷𝑇𝐵,𝐴𝑃𝑃 )


( XXVII )
× (−0.771 − 0.198 × ℎ𝑒,𝐿𝐴𝑌𝐸𝑅𝑆,𝑆𝑈𝐵 )

The true (estimated) depth to bedrock is then calculated as:

ℎ𝐷𝑇𝐵,𝑇𝑅𝑈𝐸 = 𝐶𝐷𝑇𝐵,𝑇𝑅𝑈𝐸/𝐶𝐴𝐿𝐶 × ℎ𝐷𝑇𝐵,𝐴𝑃𝑃 ( XXVIII )

Since the determination of hDTB,APP involves the E-moduli of the pavement layers, which in turn can only be
calculated after the depth to bedrock has been determined, the process must be iterative, the first
approximation being made on the basis of seed moduli.

11.7. Layer E moduli iteration


Once the subgrade modulus has been determined, either as a nonlinear, stress-dependent function or a
constant value on shallow bedrock, the E-moduli of the remaining layers of the structure can be calculated.
This is done iteratively, comparing the differences between measured and calculated deflections at the load
centre and at least 2 other geophone positions inside the radius of minimum surface modulus.
Figure 94 and Table 3 illustrate the iteration process. The subgrade is described by the deviator stress model
(section 11.4) with an n-value of -0.4. The Em value will therefore increase with reduced stress, which can be
seen in Table 3 as the E moduli – and thereby load spreading effect – of the layers 1-3 increase through the
iterations.

E-modulus/Deflection Iteration
Radius (mm)
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
0,0
-0,2 Measured
Deflection (mm)

-0,4 Iteration1
-0,6 150 mm Asphalt Iteration2
-0,8 Iteration3
-1,0 Iteration4
-1,2

Figure 94: E modulus/deflection iteration

Table 3 E moduli and RMS in iterations


Iteration E1 E2 E3 Em RMS
No. MPa MPa MPa MPa -
1 2500 300 125 61 0.1517
2 3200 380 160 64 0.0703
3 3700 440 190 66 0.0403
4 4100 480 210 68 0.0030

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11.8. BAKFAA Analysis


The Federal Aviation Administration has developed the BAKFAA program (ref.13), which works along the
principles described above, using strictly linear elastic analysis.
The program back-calculate E moduli for structures with up to 10 layers, which makes it possible for the user
to model non-linear subgrade behaviour.
Layers can be identified as “changeable” for E modulus iteration, or fixed.
Figure 95 shows the analysis of a structure with a fairly thin asphalt layer on an aggregate base and sand
sub-base.
The asphalt and sub-base moduli have been fixed, whereas the other layers were set as changeable.

Figure 95: Screen dump from BAKFAA program


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12. Residual Life and Overlay Design

12.1. Design Criteria and Design Load


12.1.1. Flexible Pavement Design Criteria
Design criteria are the rules that govern the dimensions of the pavement in order to ensure that it will perform
satisfactorily during the design period, given the actual material properties, environmental conditions and
projected traffic loading.
Criteria are separated into 2 types:
 Structural criteria:
Criteria that relates to a condition, where a certain amount of the pavement’s structural capacity has
been lost – e.g. cracking of the asphalt layer.
 Functional criteria:
Criteria that relates to a condition, where the surface condition of the pavement has deteriorated to an
unacceptable level – e.g. a rut depth that entails risk of aquaplaning.
The criteria are based on deterioration models that link pavement performance indicators to traffic-induced
critical stresses or strains in the pavement layers. Typically the relationship between number of applications
and deterioration development is derived from laboratory testing that has only little in common with the field
deterioration.
The indicators are not necessarily directly linked to the critical values, as exemplified below:
 Asphalt pavement deterioration is typically initiated as longitudinal cracking, which intuitively should be a
result of transverse strain in the bottom of the asphalt layer.
Deterioration models, however, use the maximum strain, irrespective of transverse/longitudinal
direction, since current understanding of the cracking mechanism tends to see it as a result of energy
dissipation in the material, which is better described by the maximum strain.
The laboratory testing used to derive the constants in the deterioration model is typically 4-point bending
tests taking the decline in E-modulus to 50 % of the initial value as limiting condition.
 Development of roughness or rutting is linked to maximum vertical strain or the ratio between maximum
vertical stress and E-modulus in the pavement layers. This is intuitively logical with respect to the
rutting, but as for roughness the linkage is less obvious.
The laboratory testing is typically repeated triaxial loading, taking a 2 % permanent vertical deformation
as limiting condition.
Literature commonly presents asphalt criteria on the form:

 PERMISSIBLE ( N )   6  ( E / 3000MPa) B1  ( N / 106 )C1 ( XXIX )


Unbound materials’ criteria are similarly presented as:
 Z , PERMISSIBLE ( N )   6  ( N / 10 6 ) C1
, or ( XXX )

 Z , PERMISSIBLE ( N )   6  ( E / 160MPa ) B1  ( N / 10 6 ) C1 ( XXXI )

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RoSy Design and PRIMAX Design uses the form below for flexible pavement criteria:

Figure 96 RoSy Design flexible design criteria input form

In Primax Design the same Allowable strain criteria is expressed as shown in figure 97.

Figure 97 PRIMAX Asphalt strain criteria input form

In PRIMAX Design the allowable stress on unbound layers shown in figure 90 is expressed as shown in
figure 98.

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Figure 98: PRIMAX Unbound base stress criteria input form

The tables below present a list of commonly used asphalt and unbound materials design criteria.

Table 4 Design criteria for asphalt materials


Common Form,
PRIMAX Design
Permissible Strain
Program Format
@ 1 million passages
6 A =6 C for C for Eref
B1 C1 B
(µstr) (µstr) E > Eref E ≤ Eref (MPa)
Asphalt Institute, 20% cracked area,
240 -0.25 -0.304 240 -0.304 -0.25 -0.25 3000
VB = 10%
Shell, Controlled Strain, VB = 10% 340 -0.4 -0.2 340 -0.2 -0.4 -0.4 3000
Shell, Controlled Stress, VB = 10% 154 -0.4 -0.2 154 -0.2 -0.4 -0.4 3000
Kirk, Danish Standard Base Course 3000
300 0 -0.178 300 -0.178 0 0
Materials
FAA 214 -0.2 -0.375 214 214 -0.2 -0.2 3000

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Table 5 Design criteria for unbound materials


Common Form, Permissible Strain
PRIMAX Design Program Format
@ 1 million passages
Limits
Reliability 6 (µstr) B A (MPa) B C
(MPa)
Asphalt Institute, E≤160 0.064 -0.228 0.94
? 478 -0.223
RD<12.7mm E>160 0.065 -0.228 1.06
E≤160 0.118 -0.255 0.94
Shell original 50% 890 -0.25
E>160 0.118 -0.255 1.06
E≤160 0.088 -0.255 0.94
Shell revised 1 85% 664 -0.25
E>160 0.088 -0.255 1.06
E≤160 0.076 -0.255 0.94
Shell revised 2 95% 569 -0.25
E>160 0.075 -0.255 1.06
E≤160 0.089 -0.24 0.94
TRRL, RD<10.2mm 50% 669 -0.235
E>160 0.089 -0.24 1.06
E≤160 0.060 -0.24 0.94
TRRL, RD<10.2mm 85% 453 -0.235
E>160 0.060 -0.24 1.06
Kirk original, Den- E≤160 0.12 -0.307 1.00
? 689 -0.285
mark, IRI<4m/km E>160 0.12 -0.307 1.16
MMOPP, Den-mark, E≤160 0.086 -0.25 1.06
>75% 561 -0.240
IRI<4m/km E>160 0.086 -0.25 1.06
FAA > 12,000 E≤160 0.118 -0.077 0.93
? 918 -0.0704
coverages E>160 0.118 -0.077 1.01
FAA < 12,000 E≤160 0.091 -0.133 0.94
? 727 -0.123
coverages E>160 0.091 -0.133 1.06

12.1.2. Concrete Pavement Design Criteria


Rigid pavements reduce the stresses and strains in the underlying layers to levels, where deformation of
these layers contribute only insignificantly to the deterioration of the pavement.
Rigid pavement fatigue life is therefore calculated only on the basis of the deterioration of the concrete slabs.
This deterioration is evidenced by a gradual decrease of the E-modulus of the slabs, which then leads to
reductions in the bearing capacity and residual life.
Permissible number of load repetitions, N, is linked to the critical tensile stress, t, and the bending tensile
strength, traditionally termed “Modulus of Rupture”, MR, by the Portland Cement association.
The relationship between the stress ratio, t, /MR, and permissible number of load applications is given in
Table 6.
At t/MR = 0.50, an infinite number of load applications is allowed.

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Table 6 Stress ratio and permissible number of load applications


t/MR N t/MR N
0.51 400,000 0.63 14,000
0.52 300,000 0.64 11,000
0.53 240,000 0.65 8,000
0.54 180,000 0.66 6,000
0.55 130,000 0.67 4,500
0.56 100,000 0.68 3,500
0.57 75,000 0.69 2,500
0.58 57,000 0.70 2,000
0.59 42,000 0.71 1,500
0.60 32,000 0.72 1,100
0.61 24,000 0.73 850
0.62 18,000 0.74 650

The tabulated values can also be expressed as criterion equations:

𝑁 = 6,56 × 1011 × 10−12,2×𝜎𝑡/𝑀𝑅 ( XXXII )


𝜎𝑡
= −0,0823 𝐿𝑜𝑔10 (𝑁) + 0.971 ( XXXIII )
𝑀𝑅
The FWD back-calculation results provide the E-modulus of the concrete slab. In order to assess the residual
life under the applied design load, it is necessary to derive the MR-value that corresponds to the E-modulus.
Structures design standards and Euro codes present the following set of relationships:

Table 7 Relationships between PCC design parameters. E moduli and strength parameters in MPa.
Description Symbol Relationship
Characteristic strength fck
Mean cylinder compressive strength fcm = fck + 8 MPa
Mean cube compressive strength fck,cube = 1,2 x fck + 0,7 MPa
Mean uniaxial tensile strength fctm = 0.30 x fck0.67
Mean E-modulus*) Ecm = 22.000 x (fcm/10)0,3
Modulus of Rupture MR, fctm,fl = max[(1,6-h/1000) x fctm; fctm]
for element height h h = thickness in mm
)
Note * This equation does not match the sample data from the Euro code reported in
Table 8. This is likely because it describes mean values, not characteristic values. It is, however,
parallel to the traditional square-root equation for design (characteristic) values documented in
Figure 99

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Table 8 Sample data from Euro code with calculated MR


fck 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
fcm 20 24 28 33 38 43 48 53 58
fck,cube 15 20 25 30 37 45 50 55 60
fctm 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.6 2.9 3.2 3.5 3.8 4.1
Ecm 17,000 20,000 22,000 23,000 25,000 26,000 27,000 28,000 28,000
MR @ h=300mm 2.1 2.5 2.9 3.4 3.8 4.2 4.6 4.9 5.3

PCC E-modulus vs. Compressive Strength


40.000

35.000
E-modulus (MPa)

30.000

25.000

20.000
E = 3,940 MPa x (fcm/1 MPa)0.5
15.000
20 30 40 50 60
Mean compressive cylinder strength (MPa)
Table Eurocode Equation
Equation-8500 MPa Square Root Approx.

Figure 99 Square root relationship between fcm and E corresponding to

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Table 8

Using the equation complex of Table 7, except for the E-modulus, where the Figure 99 relationship is used, a
calibrated relationship between E-modulus and MR can be developed to match the PCA/FAARFIELD fix
point. The development of the relationship is shown in Figure 100, leading to the equation:

MR = 6.25 x 10-8 MPa x (E/1 MPa)1.776 ( XXXIV )

Calibrated E-MR Relationship


8,0
Modulus of Rupture MR (MPa)

7,0 MR = 6.25×10-8MPa×(E/1MPa)1.776
6,0 R2=0.995
5,0
4,0
3,0
2,0
1,0
0,0
15.000 20.000 25.000 30.000 35.000
E-modulus (MPa)

Calculated points Eurocode points

Figure 100 Calibrated relationship between E-modulus and MR, satisfying MR=4,83MPa for
E=27,600MPa

This relationship can then be used in combination with the criterion equations ( XXXII ) and ( XXXIII )
presented in the beginning of the section.

12.1.3. Road Pavement Design Load


In road pavement design, all traffic is traditionally converted to a single, representative design axle load,
often terms Equivalent Standard Axle Load, ESAL.
This conversion is done according to a power law, so that the number of ESAL loads, N ESAL, corresponding
to the number NP at the axle load P is calculated as:

𝑃 𝐵
𝑁𝐸𝑆𝐴𝐿 = 𝑁𝑃 × ( ) ( XXXV )
𝐸𝑆𝐴𝐿
The exponent B is generally set to 4, a result that emerged from the AASHO Road Test (ref.8).
This test was performed on pavements with considerable bound layer thicknesses and therefore more
influenced by the fatigue exponents of these materials, which tend to be lower than for unbound materials.
On roads where the bound layers are thin, the B-exponent may go up to 4.5.

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12.1.4. Airport Pavement Design Load


For airport pavements, the situation is more complex, since the track widths of airplanes vary considerably,
from the 5-7 m of typical short-haul airplanes such as the B737 and A 320 series to 10-11 m for wide-body
airplanes.
The deterioration effect between these two groups is therefore not overlapping in the upper layers of the
pavement, and only moderately so at the subgrade level.
It is therefore necessary to consider the deterioration effect across the airplanes’ direction of movement, and
determine the track or tracks where the deterioration effect of the traffic is highest.
This is done by determining E moduli (default tabular or average or design moduli) for the actual pavement
section, e.g. a taxiway, and then calculate the cumulative deterioration effect of the traffic mix on the section.
At the track(s) with maximum deterioration effect is determined the equivalent passage number(s) of a
design aircraft. These passage numbers and the design aircraft are then used in the residual life and overlay
design analyses.
The taxiway example below illustrates the process. Using default material properties, the pavement structure
and corresponding FAA design criteria is described in Table 9.

Table 9 Pavement and design criteria


E Poisson's Thick- Allowable Fatigue
modulus Ratio ness strain at Exponent
[MPa] - [mm] 106 pass. -

Layer 1 1500 0.35 300 -0.000246 2.67

Layer 2 400 0.35 300 0.000918 14.20

Layer 3 150 0.35 600 0.000918 14.20

Subgrade 50 0.35 - 0.000918 14.20

The taxiway needs to be strengthened due to a projected increase in traffic. The future critical traffic on the
taxiway has the following composition.
Table 10 Traffic mix on taxiway
Aircraft Gear Type Gross Load Tire Pressure Strut distance Annual
Standard (MPa) (m) passages
(ton)
B-737-800 D 79 1.41 5.20 15,000
A-320 D 68 1.21 7.55 20,000
MD-83 D 73 1.34 5 10,000
B-757 2D 114 1.24 7.3 1,200
A-330 2D 209 1.38 10.55 4,800
A-340 2D 254 1.38 10.55 3,600
B-777-200 B 3D 137 1.48 11 2,400
B787-8 2D 220 1.52 10.46 4,000
B-747-400 body 2D 396 1.38 3.75 1,200
B-747-400 wing 2D 396 1.38 11 1,200
A-380 body 3D 562 1.36 12.46 1,200
A-380 wing 2D 562 1.36 5.26 1,200

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Since it is a taxiway, wander will be limited, and a transverse standard deviation of 1,8 m is assumed for all
aircraft. Fatigue analysis, using the FAA criteria (Table 9) then leads to the maximum deterioration levels in
16 strips across the taxiway, shown in Table 11.

Table 11 Design life consumption


Airplane Passages Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4
B-737-800 15,000 0.0064 0.0087 0.000059 0.000045
A-320 20,000 0.0051 0.0012 0.0000073 0.0000054
MD-83 10,000 0.004 0.0024 0.00012 0.000017
B-757 1,200 0.00031 0.000016 0.000000091 0.000032
A-330 4,800 0.0037 0.048 0.00021 0.00029
A-340 3,600 0.0028 0.035 0.00015 0.00021
B-777-200 B 2,400 0.0018 0.021 0.000045 0.0067
B787-8 4,000 0.0032 0.083 0.00046 0.025
B-747-400 1,200 0.00087 0.0069 0.000046 0.0039
A-380 1,200 0.00093 0.022 0.00012 0.0023
Maximum annual design
0.013 0.18 0.00092 0.032
life consumption

The maximum design life consumption values shown in the bottom line of Table 11 do not match the sum of
the rows above, since the maximum deterioration effect of the different airplanes occurs at different
distances from the centreline.
The cumulative life consumption per lane strip is listed in Table 12 and illustrated together with the equivalent
number of passes of the A-330 reference airplane in Figure 101.

Figure 101 Cumulative design life consumption of projected annual traffic in terms of A-330 reference
airplane passes.

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Table 12 Layer relative design life consumption


Layer Strip center distance from centerline
No. 0.25 0.75 1.25 1.75 2.25 2.75 3.25 3.75 4.25 4.75 5.25 5.75 6.25 6.75 7.25 7.75
1 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.08 0.87 0.61 1.00 0.26 0.52 0.75 0.30 0.82 0.25 0.08 0.01 0.00
2 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.12 0.10 0.00 0.05 0.08 0.01 0.89 0.15 1.00 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00
3 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.06 0.14 0.16 0.08 0.04 0.01 0.87 0.10 1.00 0.07 0.13 0.00 0.00
4 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.13 0.08 0.08 0.04 0.00 0.01 0.34 1.00 0.67 0.15 0.01 0.00 0.00

From Table 11 it is obvious that if the assumed E moduli are representative for the actual taxiway, the base
course layer (#2) will be overloaded by the projected traffic, with the design life expiring in less than 6 years.
Figure 101 indicates that HWD bearing capacity measurements should be made in four lanes, approximately
±3.25m and ±5.75m from the centreline. The number of design aircraft passes to be applied in the two lanes
can be determined by combining information from Table 12 with the layer maximum number of reference
airplane passes from figure Figure 101, as shown in Table 13.

Table 13 Determination of lane design aircraft passes


Layer Ref.Airpl. Strip centre & relative design Design Strip centre & relative design Design
No. passes for life consumption for Ref.Airpl. life consumption for Ref.Airpl.
rel. life measurement lanes ±3.25m passes for measurement lanes ±5.75m passes for
cons. Max. In Max. In
=1.00 2.75 3.25 3.75 Max. layer 5.25 5.75 6.25 Max. layer
1 3.6E+03 0.614 1.000 0.257 1.000 3.6E+03 0.30 0.82 0.25 0.82 3.0E+03
2 3.9E+03 0.000 0.052 0.083 0.083 3.2E+02 0.15 1.00 0.10 1.00 3.9E+03
3 4.5E+03 0.161 0.077 0.041 0.161 7.3E+02 0.10 1.00 0.07 1.00 4.5E+03
4 1.3E+05 0.076 0.038 0.004 0.076 9.9E+03 1.00 0.67 0.15 1.00 1.3E+05

Overlay thickness in the four lanes can then be determined by designing for a 20 year period with the annual
number of passages shown in bold, of the A-330 reference airplane without any wander (standard deviation
s = 0).

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12.2. Flexible Pavement Overlay Design

12.2.1. Road Pavement Overlay Design


Road pavement overlay design is based on the number of design axles, often termed Equivalent Standard
Axle Loads (ESALS) which the pavement is to carry during the design period. This number of loads is termed
NESALS, and is used to determine the permissible stresses or strains according to the selected criteria (Table
4 and

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Table 5) and the proper criterion equations ( XXIX ), ( XXX ) or ( XXXI ).


Once these permissible values have been determined, it is a straightforward procedure to calculate under
the ESAL the actual critical stresses or strains in the pavement – in the bottom of the asphalt layer and in the
top of the unbound layers and subgrade – and successively increase the overlay thickness until the
calculated critical values are lower than the permissible values.
The calculated strain history during an axle passage will typically look like Figure 102, with the axle moving in
the X-direction.

Critical unbound strain


Compression

Critical asphalt strain


Tension
EpsilonXasph EpsilonYasph EpsilonZunbd

Figure 102 Calculated asphalt and unbound layer strains during axle passage

Figure 103 and Table 14 below illustrate the overlay calculation procedure, when only asphalt and subgrade
strains are considered.

Figure 103 Determining overlay by incremental increases

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Table 14 Incremental overlay increase to achieve design life of 20 million ESALS

1st increment 2nd increment 3rd increment Permissible

Overlay thickness 50 mm 100 mm 150 mm

Strain bottom AC 180 µstr 173 µstr 152 µstr 156 µstr

Strain Subgrade 273 µstr 237 µstr 190 µstr 195 µstr

Permissible loads 6,000,000 10,000,000 21,000,000 20,000,000

12.2.2. Airfield Pavement Overlay Design


Airfield pavement overlay design is based on the number of design aircraft, determined as described in
section 0 that the pavement is to carry during the design period. This number of loads is termed NAIRCRAFT.
Determining the critical strains is, however, not so straightforward as with the axle passage on roads, since
the passage of a design aircraft bogie passage will create more than one stress or strain peak, as shown in
Figure 104.

Compressive

Tensile Peak strain 1 Peak strain 2

EpsilonX1 EpsilonY1
EpsilonX2 EpsilonY2
EpsilonX1+2 EpsilonY1+2

Figure 104 Calculated asphalt layer strain during design aircraft 2D bogie passage

The longitudinal (X) 1+2 strains go through two cycles of compressive-tensile-compressive variation, while
the transverse 1+2 strain remains tensile throughout the passage. On the basis of this observation, and in
analogy to the design axle passage on a road pavement it is chosen to design airport flexible pavement
asphalt layers for the two calculated peak strains (3 peaks if a 3D bogie is used as design load).
In the design process it is then simpler to compare allowable number of design loads, N AIRCRAFT, to the
equivalent allowable number of passages, NEQUIVALENT, at the actual peak strains determined according to the
selected criteria (Table 4) and the criterion equation ( XXIX ).
Denoting N1 and N2 as the allowable number of passages at Peak Strain 1 and 2, respectively, the
equivalent allowable number of bogie passages can be calculated as:

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1 1 1
= + (2D bogie) ( XXXVI )
𝑁𝐸𝑄𝑈𝐼𝑉𝐴𝐿𝐸𝑁𝑇 𝑁1 𝑁2

Peak strain values and corresponding values of N1, N2 and NEQUIVALENT are then calculated for successive
increments of overlay thickness as described in section 12.2.1 until NEQUIVALENT ≥ NAIRCRAFT. For a 3D design
aircraft bogie the term for NEQUIVALENT is just extended to:
1 1 1 1 ( XXXVII
= + + (3D bogie)
𝑁𝐸𝑄𝑈𝐼𝑉𝐴𝐿𝐸𝑁𝑇 𝑁1 𝑁2 𝑁3 )

For the unbound layers and subgrade the calculation of NEQUIVALENT becomes slightly more complicated,
since the critical stress or strain in these layers does not exhibit the compressive-tensile-compressive
variation seen in the asphalt layers.
Instead a typical variation under a 2D bogie passage will look like Figure 105.

Figure 105 Calculated unbound layer strain during design aircraft 2D bogie passage

It is intuitively clear that the fatigue effect of this strain history is less than if MIN is zero. The strain history is
therefore converted to an equivalent history of two separate peaks, each reverting to zero, as shown in
Figure 106.

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Figure 106 Determining equivalent unbound layer strain during design aircraft 2D bogie passage

The conversion steps are as follows:


 The maximum strain history is split into two sections, the first “Front Extended Sum” containing the first
peak and remaining constant at MIN level during the second peak, which is described by an overlay
“Rear Delta Sum” section.
 The fatigue effect of the “Rear Delta Sum” section is assumed independent of the start strain level – this
may therefore be set to 0 and the overlay strain history appended to the “Front Extended Sum”, which
during the constant strain phase is not causing any damage.
 The “Front Extended Sum” history can then be truncated to an ordinary passage history with peak strain
MAX, preceding the “Rear Delta Sum” with peak strain .

Denoting NMAX and N as the allowable number of passages at MAX and , respectively, the equivalent
allowable number of bogie passages can be calculated as:
1 1 1
= + (2D bogie) ( XXXVIII )
𝑁𝐸𝑄𝑈𝐼𝑉𝐴𝐿𝐸𝑁𝑇 𝑁𝜀𝑀𝐴𝑋 𝑁∆𝜀

Peak strain values and corresponding values of NMAX, N and NEQUIVALENT are then calculated for
successive increments of overlay thickness as described in section 12.2.1 until NEQUIVALENT ≥ NAIRCRAFT.

For a 3D design aircraft bogie equation ( XXXVIII ) is expanded similarly. For this load type the MAX will
typically be the middle peak, and there will then be two  overlay peaks. The equation then becomes:
1 1 2
= + (3D bogie) ( XXXIX )
𝑁𝐸𝑄𝑈𝐼𝑉𝐴𝐿𝐸𝑁𝑇 𝑁𝜀𝑀𝐴𝑋 𝑁∆𝜀

12.3. Rigid Pavement Overlay Design

13.3.1. E-moduli and Criteria


Rigid Pavement overlay design is performed similarly to Flexible Pavement Overlay design for asphalt
layers, applying the design criteria defined by equations ( XXXII ) and ( XXXIII ) and the E modulus/MR
relationship described by equation ( XXXIV ).
Back calculation of PCC pavement E moduli yields higher spread of the Concrete E-moduli due to the low
deflections analysed, which increases the effect of measurement (im)precision. Unrealistically high E moduli

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are “normalized” to standard PCC E moduli, typically 27,600 MPa, and the foundation modulus of subgrade
reaction (k value) is adjusted so that the surface deflection in the load centre is kept constant.
The k value is determined from the modified Westergaard interior deflection equation (ref. 10):
𝑃 𝑎 𝑎
𝛿𝑖 = 2
× {1 + 0.159 × [ln ( ) − 0,673] × ( )2 } ( XL )
8𝑘𝑙 2𝑙 𝑙

In this equation the factors are as follows:


P is the load in Newton,
h is the slab thickness in mm
l is the radius of relative stiffness:

4 𝐸ℎ3
𝑙=√ ( XLI )
12(1 − 𝜈 2 )𝑘

E is the E-modulus in MPa (=N/mm2).


k is the Winkler foundation soil support value in N/mm3.
  is Poisson’s ratio.
a is load radius
Overlay material can be either Asphalt concrete, typically with an E modulus of 3,000 MPa or 27,600 MPa for
PCC.

13.3.2. Stress Calculation


Stress is calculated with the Westergaard interior stress equation for Poisson’s Ratio = 0.15 (ref.12):
0.316𝑃 𝑙
𝜎𝑖 = 2
[4𝑙𝑜𝑔10 ( ) + 1.069] ( XLII )
ℎ 𝑏
In this equation the factors are as follows:
P is the load in Newton,
h is the slab thickness in mm
l is the radius of relative stiffness:

4 𝐸ℎ3
𝑙=√ ( XLIII )
12(1 − 𝜈 2 )𝑘

E is the E-modulus in MPa (=N/mm2).


k is the Winkler foundation soil support value in N/mm3.

 is Poisson’s ratio.
For both interior and edge loading:
2
𝑏 = √1.6𝑎2 + ℎ2 − 0.675ℎ ( XLIV )

𝑎 is load radius
For 𝑎 > 1.724ℎ use 𝑏 = 𝑎

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The Westergaard equation can only calculate the stress under the center of a wheel load. The effect of
neighboring wheels in dual or bogie gears is accounted for by an equation complex based on multiple
regression analysis of stresses calculated with the ISLAB2000 Finite Element program (ref.11).

Figure 107: Notation of PCC stress calculations

Using the notation shown in Figure 107 the effect of the load, when moved away from an interior slab
analysis point can be determined by multiplying the maximum stress, when the load is placed at the
calculation point, with a correction factor determined by the directional angle, φ, the distance, r and the radius
of relative stiffness, l:

f = A2(φ)×(l/(r+l))2+A1(φ)×(l/(r+l))+A0(φ) ( XLV )

The constants A2, A1 and A0 are all functions of the angle, φ, on the form:

Ai= Ai,0+Ai,1× φ ( XLVI )

The stress at the slab edge for loads positioned away from the edge can be calculated by the same type of
correction.
The maximum stress, when the load is positioned at the edge is calculated with the modified Westergaard
edge stress equation for Poisson’s Ratio = 0.15 (ref. 10):

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13. Pavement Classification Number


The ACN-PCN system is a classification system that makes it possible to quickly determine whether it is safe
to operate a specific aircraft on a given airfield. The system classifies pavements by assigning a Pavement
Classification Number (PCN), including a simple subgrade strength indicator to the pavement. Any aircraft
with an Aircraft Classification Number (ACN) of equal or lesser magnitude may safely operate on that
pavement

13.1. Flexible Pavement PCN


The Flexible Pavement PCN methodology is closely tied to FAA's CBR design method, and described
thoroughly a.o. in Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 3 (ref.7). The basic definition of the Pavement
Classification Number (PCN) for flexible pavements is done by the following set of equations:

PCN (in 1000 kilo) = 2 × DSWL


DSWL is the Derived Single Wheel Load (in 1000 kilo) that fulfils the equation:

DSWL DSWL
t  ( XLVII )
C1  CBR C2  pS

In this equation, the following applies:

t is the pavement reference thickness in centimetres


C1 = 0.5695
C2 = 32.035
CBR is entered in percent (i.e. CBR 10% as "10")
ps = 1.25 MPa (contact pressure of DSWL)

The definition has its roots back in the time when the majority of airplanes had only single-wheel main gear,
whereby the PCN value simply becomes the (approximate) weight in tons of the airplane.
The reference thickness is the actual thickness of the pavement, designed according to the FAA CBR design
methodology.
For practical purposes, the equation complex above is not operational, and unit-wise it is mathematically
incorrect. It can, however, be shown that for flexible pavements that fulfil the PCN requirements, the
permissible vertical stress on the subgrade under the DSWL load is given by the equation:

−0.07
𝐸𝑚 𝑁
𝜎𝑃𝐸𝑅𝑀 = 0.00122 × ( )×( ) ( XLVIII )
1𝑀𝑃𝑎 10,000

The term (N/10,000)-0.07 allows the user to determine PERM for traffic levels differing from the definition traffic
of 10,000 coverages.

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For a pavement point with known layer thicknesses and E moduli, the PCN value can then be determined by
adjusting a uniformly distributed single wheel load with contact pressure 1.25 MPa until the calculated stress
on the subgrade matches PERM calculated by the equation given above.

13.2. Rigid Pavement PCN


Rigid pavement PCN is determined for the mid-slab loading case, in agreement with the methodology
outlined in ref.9. Critical stress is calculated with the Westergaard equation for interior loading, see section
13.3.2.
For PCC materials with the “standard” FAA E modulus 27,600 MPa, the allowable PCN stress is 2.75 MPa.
This allowable stress has its roots in conversions between metric and US customary units, as shown in Table
15, which indicates that the PCN load corresponds to 75,000 load repetitions according to the Portland
Cement Association (PCA) criterion.

Table 15 Basic definition of PCN allowable stress, US customary and Metric units

US Metric

E 4,000,000 psi 27,600 MPa

MR 700 psi 4.83 MPa

 400 psi 2.75 MPa


PCN

Ratio 0.57 0.57

N 75,000 75,000
PCA

E moduli determined from FWD testing rarely come out with a value of exactly 27,600 MPa. An adjusted
Modulus of Rupture, MRADJUSTED, is then calculated by entering the actual E-modulus into equation ( XXXIV ),
and the allowable tensile stress is then calculated as 0.57 × MRADJUSTED or:

PERM = 3.56 x 10-8 MPa x (EACTUAL/1 MPa)1.776 ( XLIX )

The PCN value can then be determined by adjusting a uniformly distributed single wheel load with contact
pressure 1.25 MPa until the calculated tensile stress according to equation ( XLII ) matches PERM calculated
by the equation given above.

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13.3. PCN Homogenization and Reporting


Pavements with the same PCN value but different subgrade classification A - D can sustain an equal number
of passes of any single-wheel main gear aircraft, but this is not the case for aircraft with dual wheel or bogey
main gear configurations, where the acceptable gear load decreases with the subgrade CBR or k-value.
Point PCN values must instead be converted to allowable weight of a selected Design Aircraft on the specific
point.
Conversion between point PCN and allowable airplane weight is done according to regression formulae
derived from FAA tabulated ACN values, as shown in Figure 108 and Figure 109.

Airbus 319 Dual Wheel Gear (D) flexible


ACN = 0.258xW^(1.1238-0.00645xCBR) R2=0.991
60
50 ACN @ CBR 15%

40 ACN @ CBR 10%


ACN

30 ACN @ CBR 6%
20 ACN @ CBR 3%
10 Equation @ CBR 15%
0 Equation @ CBR 10%
30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Equation @ CBR 6%
Airplane Weight (ton)

Figure 108 ACN for A319 D-type gear for variation of Weight (ton) and CBR

Boeing 747 4 Wheel Bogie (2D) rigid


ACN =0.0214×W^1.390-0.000589×k) R2=0.988
100
ACN@ k 150
80
ACN@ k 80
60
ACN

ACN@ k 40
40
ACN@ k 20
20
Equation @ k 150
0
Equation @ k 80
150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Equation @ k 40
Airplane Weight (ton)

Figure 109 ACN for B747 2D-type gear for variation of Weight (ton) and k-value

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Characteristic allowable weight on a branch for the PCN Design Aircraft is then calculated by statistical
methods, and a PCN value for the branch is then back-calculated from this weight according to the
predominant subgrade class for the branch.
The resultant PCN value is only marginally affected by the choice of design aircraft, as shown in Table 16.

Table 16 Example of statistical PCN calculation for a rigid pavement branch and
different gear configurations, subgrade class A is the dominant class

PCN Class Embraer 195 Airbus A310 Boeing 777


D Gear 2D Gear 3D Gear

ton ton ton


74 B 98.9 178.3 301.9
39 B 55.9 123.4 190.9
68 C 87.6 158.9 256.2
23 A 39.6 110.9 178.1
49 C 66.9 134.7 209.7
24 A 43.8 127.1 220.8
38 B 53.7 118.7 180.7
24 A 42.7 122.9 209.3
46 C 62.3 128.5 197.7
24 A 45.0 132.1 234.7
24 A 44.2 128.7 225.3
33 B 48.0 111.9 169.4
41 A 66.2 154.1 269.4
22 A 35.9 98.0 147.8
17 A 33.8 116.5 207.2
15 percentile 40 112 178
PCN ##/R/A/W/T 24 26 26

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14. References

1. “FAARFIELD”, Standard Thickness Design Software accompanying AC 150/5320-6E Airport


Pavement Design and Evaluation, Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, D.C., USA.
2. Busch, C., “Composite Polymer Grid Reinforced Asphalt Overlays on PCC Slab Pavements – Design
and Performance Prediction”, Report No. 64, Institute of Roads, Transport and Town Planning,
Technical University of Denmark, 1991
3. DARWIN, “AASHTO MEPDG-1, Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide”, Interim Edition: A
Manual of Practice, AASHTO, 2008
4. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5320-6E, Airport Pavement Design and Evaluation, U.S. Department of
Transportation, 9/30/2009
5. MEPDG, “Guide for Mechanistic-Empirical Design of New and Rehabilitated Pavement Structures”,
Final Report, NCHRP, March 2004
6. Packard, Robert G., "Design of Concrete Airport Pavement", Portland Cement Association, 1973
7. "Aerodrome Design Manual, Part3, Pavements, Second Edition", ICAO, Montreal, Quebec, Canada,
1983
8. “The AASHO Road Test: History and Description of the Project “, Highway Research Board's Special
Report 61A, 1961.
9. “A Guide to Airfield Pavement Design and Evaluation”, Directorate of Civil Engineering Services,
Department of the Environment, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, United Kingdom, 1989
10. Ioannides, A.M., Thompson, M.R. and Barenberg, E.J., “Westergaard Solutions Reconsidered”,
Transportation Research Record 1043, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council,
Washington, D.C. 1984
11. ISLAB 2000 - an extension and improvement of the ILLI-SLAB and ILSL2 programs, ERES
Consultants, Champaign, Illinois, 2000
12. Westergaard, H.M., “Stresses in Concrete Runways of Airports”, Proc., 19th Annual Meeting, HRB,
National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1939
13. “BAKFAA” - Computer Program for Backcalculation of Airport Pavement Properties, Federal Aviation
Administration, Washington, D.C., USA. (http://www.airporttech.tc.faa.gov/naptf/download/index1.asp)

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14.1. Fixation of a Layer Moduli

Calculation with fixed E moduli

Normally, PRIMAX DESIGN expects that the E moduli of the layers will grow lower from the top layer down
to the bottom layer of a pavement structure. However, this is not the case with semi-rigid structures, which
have cement stabilized layers below the asphalt layer.

In order to handle such cases PRIMAX DESIGN has a feature that allows fixing of the E moduli of one or
more layers in a structure, however not the subsoil E modulus. This means that the fixed layers will not
change E moduli in the calculation process.

14.2. How to fixate E moduli of one or more layers


In order to fixate the E moduli of one or more layers during back-calculation, go to section 4.5 and insert a
minus-sign in front of the layer E moduli that needs to be fixed.

Figure 110: Fixating E moduli

In the above example the unbound base layer E modulus will be fixed (locked) to 450 MPa. And only the
other layers will be allowed to vary during the back-calculation processing.

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15. Icons and their functionalities

15.1. The Icons of PRIMAX Design


The icons of PRIMAX Design. PRIMAX Design is integrated in the Data Collection Software. Below you see
the icons of the Design Software

Setting up calculation criteria:


The present version of PRIMAX Design allows the user to set up and select
Design Options
his/her own design criteria, which best represent the local conditions and
material behaviour.
Road identification data:
Main District, road number, road name, chainage 0 is entered in main details.
Details As a standard routine, the program creates a database with the name
“Default”

Pavement structure details:


Pavement Pavement structures can be entered for the road selected in the window
Main details.

Traffic details:
Enter traffic details required for calculation of overlay design. Such data is
Traffic
the number of ESA per day on the road section in question (a road can be
divided into smaller sections if the traffic changes along the road).

Width details:
Width The width is the total width of the road section in question (a road can be
divided into smaller sections if the width is changing along the road

The Design Wizard assists you in getting through all the points necessary to
start a calculation. A window will pop up with indication of how many points
Wizard
have been selected and how many drops will be used. Clicking the icon
NEXT will start the procedure and lead you through the required steps.

Enter data:
Add
Click this icon to enter data in the various windows.

Save data:
Save
Click this icon to save data

Create a job:
Job
Click this icon to create a new measuring job.

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16. Support

Our design experts are ready to help you, if you have problems regarding interpretation / calculation of FWD
data. When purchasing our design software, a 6 month free support is granted and takes effect from date of
finalised training in use of the design software. Software support comprises support for entering of input data,
alteration of setups in software and how to retrieve results.

Sweco grants Support to the User with the following reservations:


Support does not comprise requests for services resulting from or in so far as it concerns reasons which
cannot be ascribed to the liability of Sweco. Such services are invoiced separately to the User according to
spent time at the normal hourly rates of Sweco and paid outlays. Sweco offers continuous support packages.
If you would like to learn more about this, you are welcome to write to our support on email
primaxsupport@Sweco.dk.

The User shall give Sweco access to the User’s staff and the User’s equipment on which the Software shall
be applied, and with the highest privileges/authorisations that the User’s employees have.

The User shall supervise and control and understand and ensure correct use of the Software and the
Documentation. Moreover, the User shall carry through procedures for the protection of information and
implementation of backup facilities including cases of defects in the Software or malfunction in the User’s
equipment.

The User shall document and immediately report any defects in the Software to Sweco.

You are welcome to contact our experts if you need assistance in applying PRIMAX Design or in using the
results on e-mail, primaxsupport@Sweco.dk.

If it is not possible to solve a problem by e-mail or over the phone, we provide the option of creating remote
access to your computer and help you in this way using the Team Viewer facility allowing our expert to take
over your computer and in collaboration with you solve the problem.

Training courses
We provide training courses in the use of PRIMAX Design and how to interpret and calculate collected data.
A training course is normally 3-5 days. The participants are introduced to the software and how to use it.

When buying PRIMAX Design, a customer is offered to purchase a basic training course in use of the
program. It is, however, also possible to purchase supplementary training courses. Courses can take place
at our premises in Kolding or at your premises.

Persons to work with PRIMAX Design and to interpret and analyse data collected, must be capable of
acquiring, receiving and understanding a standard training program so that these persons will be capable of
using the software and understanding results obtained. It is entirely the responsibility of the client to see to it
that employees pointed out for training are able to acquire, receive and understand a standard training
program. Training is conducted in the English language.

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16.1. Contents of a training programme


The back calculation expert receive knowledge of possibilities in the system to enable the client to make a
successful back calculation based on the collected FWD/HWD data.

OBS! This will NOT include back ground theory witch we assume the participant(s) already have in place

The training in back- and forward-calculation includes:

o Installation of the software


o Introduction to the calculation
o Validation of FWD/HWD data
o Import of the FWD/HWD data
o Temperature correction
o Entering of data
o How to run a calculation
o Description of the output from the system
o Reports and printout from PRIMAX Design

Target group: pavement engineers and persons with similar skills

16.2. Responsible person for PRIMAX Design software support:

Jens P. Pedersen
Pavement Design Expert
Phone: +45 8228 1490
Mobile: +45 2723 1490
Email : primaxsupport@sweco.dk

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