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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................... 5

1.1. PRIMAX DESIGN BACK CALCULATION METHODS ................................................................................................... 5

1.2. RECOMMENDED EDUCATIONAL LEVEL..................................................................................................................... 6

1.3. SOFTWARE LICENSES AND LIABILITIES..................................................................................................................... 6

2. RECEIPT ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

3. SAFETY..................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4. INSTALLATION ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

5. HOW TO START PRIMAX DESIGN: ................................................................................................................ 12

5.1. HOW TO MAKE A NEW DATABASE .......................................................................................................................... 15

5.2. HOW TO ATTACH SQL DATABASES TO THE PROGRAM ........................................................................................... 16

5.3.1 How to attach database files into the path: C:\ProgramData\Grontmij\Primax\Databases ............................... 17

6. DEFAULT SETUP OF USER INTERFACE ....................................................................................................... 19

6.1. CONTROL PANELS OF USER INTERFACE: ................................................................................................................. 20

7. SELECTION OF POINTS FOR CALCULATION ............................................................................................. 21

7.1. HOW TO SELECT A PROJECT INCLUDING ALL SUB-DIRECTORIES ............................................................................. 21

7.2. ROAD IDENTIFICATION DATA ................................................................................................................................. 22

7.3. MAIN DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................................... 22

7.4. PAVEMENT STRUCTURE ........................................................................................................................................ 26

7.5. TRAFFIC DETAILS ................................................................................................................................................... 29

7.6. WIDTH DETAILS ..................................................................................................................................................... 30

8. SETTING UP CALCULATION PARAMETERS ............................................................................................... 31

8.1. REINFORCEMENT LAYER E MODULI (STRENGTH) ................................................................................................... 31

8.2. TEMPERATURE CORRECTION OF ASPHALT E MODULI (NORMALIZATION) .............................................................. 32

8.3. TRAFFIC DETAILS ................................................................................................................................................... 33

8.4. WIDTH DETAILS ..................................................................................................................................................... 34

8.5. PAVEMENT DATA ................................................................................................................................................... 35

8.6. STRESS AND STRAIN CRITERIA ............................................................................................................................... 37

8.7. SECTIONING ........................................................................................................................................................... 39

9. CALCULATING IN PRIMAX DESIGN.............................................................................................................. 40

9.1. SECTIONING DUE TO PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION CHANGES, VARYING TRAFFIC AND VARYING WIDTH................... 40

9.2. SELECTION OF POINTS FOR CALCULATION ............................................................................................................. 42

9.3. STARTING CALCULATIONS ..................................................................................................................................... 43

9.4. SECTIONING OVERVIEW......................................................................................................................................... 48

10. SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................................................... 50

11. BACK-CALCULATION .................................................................................................................................... 50

11.1. THE METHOD OF EQUIVALENT THICKNESSES .................................................................................................... 50

11.2. PAVEMENT REACTIONS IN MET/BOUSSINESQ ANALYSIS ................................................................................... 51

11.3. SURFACE MODULUS .......................................................................................................................................... 52

11.4. NON-LINEAR SUBGRADE – DEVIATOR STRESS DEPENDENCY .............................................................................. 56

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11.6. DEPTH TO BEDROCK........................................................................................................................................... 61

11.7. LAYER E-MODULI ITERATION ............................................................................................................................ 63

11.8. BAKFAA ANALYSIS ......................................................................................................................................... 64

12. RESIDUAL LIFE AND OVERLAY DESIGN ................................................................................................. 65

12.1. DESIGN CRITERIA AND DESIGN LOAD ............................................................................................................... 65

12.1.1. Flexible Pavement Design Criteria ................................................................................................................... 65

12.1.2. Concrete Pavement Design Criteria ................................................................................................................ 68

12.1.3. Road Pavement Design Load ............................................................................................................................ 71

12.1.4. Airport Pavement Design Load ......................................................................................................................... 72

12.2. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT OVERLAY DESIGN ........................................................................................................... 75

12.2.1. Road Pavement Overlay Design ................................................................................................................... 75

12.2.2. Airfield Pavement Overlay Design ................................................................................................................ 77

12.3. RIGID PAVEMENT OVERLAY DESIGN ................................................................................................................. 79

13.3.1. E-moduli and Criteria ....................................................................................................................................... 79

13.3.2. Stress Calculation ............................................................................................................................................. 80

13. PAVEMENT CLASSIFICATION NUMBER .................................................................................................. 82

13.1. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT PCN ................................................................................................................................ 82

13.2. RIGID PAVEMENT PCN ...................................................................................................................................... 83

13.3. PCN HOMOGENIZATION AND REPORTING ......................................................................................................... 84

14. REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................................... 86

14.1. FIXATION OF A LAYER MODULI ......................................................................................................................... 87

14.2. HOW TO FIXATE E MODULI OF ONE OR MORE LAYERS ........................................................................................ 87

15. ICONS AND THEIR FUNCTIONALITIES .................................................................................................... 88

15.1. THE ICONS OF PRIMAX DESIGN ....................................................................................................................... 88

16. SUPPORT ............................................................................................................................................................ 89

16.1. CONTENTS OF A TRAINING PROGRAMME ............................................................................................................ 90

16.2. RESPONSIBLE PERSON FOR PRIMAX DESIGN SOFTWARE SUPPORT: .................................................................. 90

_____________________________________________________________________________________

II Sweco Danmark A/S, Pavement Consultants

www.pavement-consultants.com

E-mail: primaxsupport@sweco.dk

Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

Updated version published in 2014

All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be

reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted

in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publishers.

The English version of the PRIMAX DESIGN user manual is the only authorised manual. Any other

translations of this manual are not valid and Sweco Danmark A/S cannot be held responsible for the contents

of such manuals.

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E-mail: primaxsupport@sweco.dk

Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

(e.g. change notes, amendments, software

function change)

Pedersen

Pedersen

Pedersen

2015 Schøler

PLEASE NOTE:

If you have questions or any comments to this manual you are most welcome to contact

our support team, see last page of this manual.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

IV Sweco Danmark A/S, Pavement Consultants

www.pavement-consultants.com

E-mail: primaxsupport@sweco.dk

Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

1. Introduction

The present user manual is a brief instruction in how to use PRIMAX Design. If a more detailed instruction is

requested, kindly contact Sweco Danmark A/S. The help function can be activated in PRIMAX Design by

pressing the key F1. The installation procedure to be followed, when installing PRIMAX Design, appears

from section 4.

PRIMAX Design is the software applied for processing of data collected by the PRIMAX FWD. The analyses

and calculations made with the system provide road and airport authorities with valuable information about

road and airfield pavements allowing decision-makers to make the right decisions with regard to

reinforcement needs or maintenance strategies that will ensure safe roads and airfield pavements. The

present manual deals with PRIMAX Design for roads.

Results on site

PRIMAX Design is integrated in the data collection software of PRIMAX and allows the operator to analyse

deflection and load signals of any measured point on site. Calculations can be made on site after the

measuring session and if parameters are changed, recalculations can be made. Results can be printed out

per measuring point, section and project, specifying the calculation parameters applied.

A large amount of parameter setups can be stored allowing selection of the best suited parameters for a

particular project. Setup parameters are split into several levels and combinations can be selected and

stored to be used again on projects with equal conditions.

Output roads

A design part (PRIMAX DESIGN) processes an advanced design of the road pavement, while the calculation

part (RoSy PLAN) is applied for calculation of maintenance options.

PRIMAX design can use information about traffic, construction and width provided that the data file with the

information complies with the description in Section 8.

PRIMAX Design software can apply two different back-calculation methods.

a. The basic one is based on the theory of elasticity and the method of equivalent thickness, as framed

by J. M. Kirk and N. Odemark on the basis of Boussinesq´s equations.

This method can work with up to 4 layers.

The method is described in Section 10 “Background Theory – Pavement Design based on Theory of

Elasticity”, below.

b. The second one is using the BACKFAA program (Free software provided by FAA) to back-calculate

layer E moduli. BACKFAA can work with up to 10 layers.

For detailed information please contact FAA. See section 14 of this manual

______________________________________________________________________________________

Page 5 Sweco Danmark A/S, Pavement Consultants

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

In order to gain full benefit from using PRIMAX Design Software, general professional training at the

engineering level or similar general knowledge about pavement structures, pavement material and

mathematical skills are recommend.

The User’s liability

The User bears the risk and responsibility for any consequences, which may occur in connection with using

software and documentation.

The User bears the risk and responsibility for correct use of software and documentation and any local

adjustments made in connection with the use.

The User bears the risk and responsibility for any losses and restore of data.

The User bears the risk and responsibility for any local adjustments made in connection with the use of

software and documentation.

Sweco guarantees that the Software in essence functions in accordance with the documentation. Should the

software not function in accordance with the guarantee, Sweco shall be liable for the correction of the

Software, including making good defects, or if making good is not possible without extraordinary, efforts to

redeliver the software to the User.

Free of charge and without undue delay Sweco is liable to make good and correct any found defects that are

due to causes which can be related to the liability of Sweco.

Any claims shall be made in writing immediately after finding the defect and 6 months after delivery at the

latest.

Apart from the above-mentioned guarantee, Sweco does not grant any guarantees be it explicitly, implicitly,

or statutorily with regard to software, documentation or support.

Sweco is not liable for damage or loss caused by defects on or delay in delivery of software, documentation

or support, unless such damage or such a loss is due to wilful negligence and/or gross negligence on the

side of Sweco, or such damage or such loss are consequences of invariable rules of law regulating the

product liability caused by gross negligence on the side of Sweco.

Furthermore, Sweco disclaims any liability for the User’s operating loss, lost profit, loss of data or other

derived or indirect losses, irrespective of cause in connection with or as a consequence of delivery and

application of software, documentation, etc.

______________________________________________________________________________________

Page 6 Sweco Danmark A/S, Pavement Consultants

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

If Sweco should be sentenced or should admit liability, the User’s total claim towards Sweco is, irrespective

of the number or extent of damages and losses, limited to an amount, which as a maximum corresponds to

the royalty that Sweco has received from the User for the latest 12-month period.

The software operates on the basis of the background theory given in this manual. Sweco cannot be held

responsible for any unskilled use of the software.

Sweco is not liability for damage or loss caused by other software on a User’s computer or caused by virus

infections to a User’s computer. If a User has purchased a computer from Sweco, the software will be

installed and Sweco guarantees that the computer is not infected when delivered to a User.

2. Receipt

When you receive your new PRIMAX Design software, we recommend you to check that you have received

the following parts:

User manuals for the software

Dongle to insert in PC

If you have purchased a PC from Sweco, PRIMAX Design is already installed on this computer. In that case

you can start using the software right away.

If you have only purchased the software, you will have to install the software in your PC. Follow the

procedure described in the section Installation.

Be very careful with your dongle, because Sweco does not replace dongles free of charge. If you need to

purchase a new dongle you will have to purchase a new dongle and a new license.

3. Safety

We recommend you not to use the PC on which you have installed PRIMAX Design for other purposes than

what is the intention with this PC.

Should your PC be infected with virus, the PC and PRIMAX Design will not work properly.

Sweco is not liable for any maluse of PC or any infections on your PC. Recovery of PC and PRIMAX Design

software will be for your own account. Sweco can of course assist you.

Be aware that the results calculated with PRIMAX Design are very dependent on the input data and the

settings used for the calculations. This is typically data collected with a Falling Weight Deflectometer. If the

Falling Weight Deflectometer has not been maintained and calibrated as recommended by the manufacturer,

there is a risk that your input data will not be of a sufficient quality. We recommend quality assurance of data

and settings prior to any calculations.

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

4. Installation

If you have purchased your PC from Sweco, the PRIMAX Design is already installed on the PC and you

need not install anything.

If you are familiar with the PRIMAX survey software you can go direct to section 6 from here.

If you have purchased a PC yourself and only received the software from Sweco, the software has to be

installed. Please follow below procedure:

Below the installation of PRIMAX Design software on a clean laptop without any programs installed is

described.

In case one or more of the required programs have already been installed on the laptop, not all below

windows will appear. Simply proceed in the manual until a window similar to the one on your laptop appears.

insert the memory stick with the software in your

laptop.

in the folder FWD-Primax SQL.

MICROSOFT.NET FRAMEWORK 4 (x86 andx64)

______________________________________________________________________________________

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

MICROSOFT SQL SERVER 2008 EXPRESS

EDITION

Figure 4: Installation

the license terms”.

MICROSOFT VISUAL C+ + 2010 RUNTIME

LIBRARIES WITH SERVICE PACK 1

Click Finish to finish the software installation. A time

window appears.

Figure 6: Installation

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Primax Setup Wizard.

Click Next

Figure 7: Installation

The window Select Installation Folder

appears next:

Click Next

Figure 8: Installation

The window Confirm Installation appear:

appear

Figure 9: Installation

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

Click Next

The window Ready to Install will appear:

Click Install

During installation the system asks: “Would you

also like to install the Filter driver?” Click Yes

appear:

system will request Restart.

Click Yes

Upon successful installation a shortcut icon to the PRIMAX Design/data collection software will have

appeared on the desktop of your PC.

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Server and Database unchanged (see in sections 5.2

and 5.3 how to operate with more databases).

work with the FWD, we recommend all operators to log

on with individual logons, see below how to create

personal logons and use more logons.

Operator = cb

Password = cb

Figure 13: Log on to PRIMAX Design

Check off (√) checkbox Default layout the first time the PRIMAX Design/ data collection software is applied.

a red warning cross will appear:

______________________________________________________________________________________

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

your own logon account.

Click the button with 3 dots in the

window Logon to Primax

database, field Operator – see

figure 15.

Please note:

To restore Default layout, check

off (√)check box Default layout,

see figure 15

will open.

Click the button Add New

Mark a new empty field (will turn

light blue). Fill in contact details.

Initials can be max. 3 characters.

Click the button Save and Close

When logging on the next time,

select your personal logon

account by clicking the drop down

button.

Figure 16: How to add operators to a database.

and the Window Logon to

PRIMAX database opens.

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

default database is the latest used one. In this

example Test Garage remont.

If this database is to be applied for calculation, go on

with the log-on procedure and the database Test

garage remont is ready.

down button next to Database.

All available databases are now listed, in this case

August 2014, Billund, Billund 2013, etc.

When clicking e.g. the database August 2014, it will

be highlighted and displayed as the active

database.

August 2014 is ready for data collection.

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

A database in SQLEXPRESS has a limit of 10GB. If the amount of data exceeds this limit, a new database

must be created. Or a full SQL can be installed to function as a server.

If full SQL is installed, it is possible to select server in the field Server by clicking the arrow.

Working with more than one database can be of advantage with a small amount of data as well. Gathering

all data from a specific project in a separate database allows you to easily share raw data with a colleague,

the office or with the client.

dot button next to Database (fig. 20).

The window Manage databases appears (fig. 21).

database in the window

Manage databases, e.g.

Airport.

Click the button Add New and

Airport appears in top row next

to Name.

In the field Info the text

Creating Airport, finished

appears and the database

Airport is now ready.

Close the window by clicking

the cross in upper right corner.

Figure 21: Create new database

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

again.

Select the new database (as described in section

5).

In order to view the data in Version 4.0.1 and newer versions, the database must be copied into a given path

and afterwards attached to the program.

Example: C:\Primax\databases

Please Note:

Database files from previous versions, if any, must be renamed as illustrated below. Structure of filename:

______________________________________________________________________________________

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

and press the 3 dots next to the field Database.

the next window.

opens and the database to

be attached can be

selected.

The Database

PrimaxDB_Copenhagen.mdf

is now shown in the list.

PrimaxDB_Copenhagen and

press the button Open.

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appears in the list.

the drop-down list.

previous versions can be read in Version 4.0.1 and

newer versions of the software.

______________________________________________________________________________________

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

The user interface of PRIMAX DESIGN is flexible. The above interface is the Sweco default settings. This is

the interface you will see when opening PRIMAX DESIGN for the first time and if you are using a PRIMAX

FWD for data collection, PRIMAX DESIGN will be an integrated part of the data collection software.

The interface is flexible and a user can setup the interface as he/she likes. The features can be moved

around as you like. The setting of the layout or skin you have selected is stored, when closing the software,

and will display the next time you open the software. You can save and load default and stored layouts by

clicking Layouts in the top menu.

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

The above user interface forms the basis of the instructions in this manual.

The control panel consists of a number of icons. The control panels to the left are for the data collection

software and general icons. The control panel to the right is for PRIMAX DESIGN.

To activate/deactivate windows click the icons.

Figure 32: Icons of PRIMAX Data Collection control panel (you see these if your PRIMAX Design is

integrated with the Data Collection software)

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

In the layout Design in the Project Navigator pane, all projects and all sub-directories can be filtered allowing

export/calculation of only one project or one of the sub-directories and not the entire database.

the relevant database.

In Project Navigator click

the button filter in the field

Project (the filter button

appears when mousing

over the field) and all

projects in the actual

Project Navigator Window outlined

database are displayed.

Paris and the project Paris

including all sub-directories

are selected for calculation.

can be reduced further by

adding filters to any of the

columns shown.

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Prior to any processing of a calculation with the software, enter information about the FWD measured

road(s). Data needed is:

1: Thickness of layers,

2: Traffic for which to design overlay

3: Width of the roads

All this data is linked together for each road through the window Main Details.

As a standard routine, the program creates a database with the name Default but new databases can be

created by clicking the little + sign.

identification for linking the measured

deflections with the database can be

entered.

The easiest way to get the main details right is to copy and paste from the Job window.

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

can be found by

opening the project

in the data

collection and open

the window Job.

NOTE : The right input can be copied from the window Job by double-clicking in the boxes to

select the full string and pressing the Ctrl+C at the same time, then the Box with the same

name is selected in the widow Main Details then press Ctrl+V.

As soon as the main details have been entered for all roads (remember to use the icon for each

Create the database by clicking the icon and enter the name.

Select the roads for which main details have to be processed as shown in below shown example.

Figure 39: Example on selection of roads for which to process main details

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

Now you can create one set of standard design details consisting of structure, width and traffic details.

structure is illustrated. Please refer to

section 9.1 to find details about the

various inputs.

indicated that the pavement structure

section starts 50m before the first

measurement (lowest chainage) found

in the selected roads. See fig. 39.

In the field To Ch. Alignm. is indicated

that the pavement structure section will

end 50 m after the last measurement

(highest chainage). See fig 39.

______________________________________________________________________________________

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

Please refer to section 9.1 for further

information on the various inputs.

details. Please refer to section 9.1 for

information on the various inputs.

When all inputs have been entered about pavement structure, traffic and width, click the button OK.

PRIMAX Design will now process one Main detail for each of the selected roads as well as one pavement

structure section, one width section and one traffic section per selected road and lane.

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the result of the above-

mentioned processing.

Start by selecting the road in the Main details window to enter Pavement structures for the specific road.

______________________________________________________________________________________

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The software takes changes in pavement structure into consideration by checking the actual chainage

against the From and To chainages indicated in the window Pavement details.

All layers of a given section must have the same From ch. and To ch. An example of this is shown in

section 9 of this manual.

about one layer of one section of

the road at the time.

The section must be related to the

reference point indicated in Main

details in the field Chainage0.

Having entered one layer and

having described thickness and

layer type, the next layer can be

entered for the same section.

Figure 47: Entering pavement data. Data entered for one section.

Click on the layer types in the drop down menu above to select these.

Please note:

Observe the following rules when using PRIMAX MET1 calculation method: The thickness of wearing course,

binder and bound base courses will be combined to one total thickness.

When using BAKFAA LET2 calculation method, up to 10 individual layers can be defined.

2 Please refer to section 11.8

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For both methods holds that the E-modulus field must be filled in with a “seed” modulus and when using the

BAKFAA LET calculation method, fill in Interface Parameter.

1. At least one of the layers Wearing Course, Binder, or Bound Base must be defined as well as one

layer of the layer types under Unbound Base.

3. When PRIMAX MET calculation method is used, the following rule applies: If several layers are

falling under the layer type Unbound Base, the thicknesses of these layers will be added up to one

total thickness for Unbound Base.

4. When PRIMAX MET calculation method is used, the following rule applies: If several layers are

falling under the layer type Subbase, the thickness of these will be added together to one total

thickness for Subbase.

As soon as all layers have been defined for a subsection, then continue with the next subsection on the

same road or mouse-click to select another section (road) from the list in “Main details”.

Having finished entering pavement details, traffic flows of the individual road sections are entered. This data

is required for calculation of reinforcement needs for the measured road sections.

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required for calculation

of overlay design. Such

data is the number of

ESA (Equivalent

Standard Axles) per day

on the section in

question (a section can

be divided into smaller

subsections if the traffic

changes along the

section).

Click the icon to enter data in the assigned fields. Again, remember that data in the fields from and to

relates to the reference point in the field Chainage 0 in the window Main details.

An example of traffic data is shown in chapter 9.1.

Having finished entering data for a subsection, press the disk icon . Then continue with the next

subsection on the same section or select another section from Main details.

REMARKS: If the road width entered for the actual road section is wider than the lane width entered in

the setup option (see section 8.4), then the entered traffic will be divided by 2.

Motorways having 2 lanes in each direction are measured in the slow lanes. Enter the number of ESA in

these lanes and a lane width narrower than the lane width setup under section 8.4.

Having entered pavement and traffic data, continue entering the last data needed for reinforcement

calculation for the measured road sections, which is the width of each individual road section.

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enter width data needed

for calculation of the Width Window outlined

overlay design.

width of the road section

in question (a road can

be divided into smaller

sections if the width is

changing along the

road).

Enter data in the assigned fields. Again, remember that the data in the fields from and to is related to the

reference point in Chainage 0 in the window Main detail.

An example of how to enter width data is shown in section 9.

Having finished entering data for a section, press the disk icon to save. Then continue with the next

section on the same road or select another road from Main details.

REMARKS Traffic entered will be divided by 2 if the road width entered for the actual road section is

more than the lane width entered in the setup option (see section 8.4). This means that for motorways with 2

lanes in each direction, measurement will normally be performed in the slow lanes. Enter the number of ESA

in these lanes and enter a lane width narrower than the lane width set up under section 8.4.

After having gone through all the steps from 7.1 to 7.6 and having FWD measurements which can be linked

to the road database through the same district numbers and road numbers, you can start processing back

calculation of E moduli and calculation of overlay using selected calculation parameters (see section 8).

______________________________________________________________________________________

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

set up and select his/her own design criteria, which best

represent the local conditions and material behaviour.

are:

Figure 53: Opening design options

1. Allowable strain in asphalt layers

2. Allowable stress on unbound materials

3. Correction of asphalt stiffness

temperature selected by the user and

entered in the window Design Options.

Furthermore, the user can change the load

characteristics, for which overlay is to be

calculated.

All the features mentioned above are found

under the icon Design Options .

See figure 53.

Having clicked the icon, the window Design

to the right displays (figure 54):

right. Clicking these allows various design options to be

entered

reinforcement in the window to the right.

The E modulus must be the one that can be

expected for new asphalt material.

It is possible to define a change in new

material E modulus if the thickness

exceeds a selected thickness. This

means, it is possible to calculate with a

lower stiffness for the upper part of the

reinforcement (wearing course and

binder course) and with a higher E

modulus for the “deeper” part of the

reinforcement (bound base material).

strength of reinforcement layers

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The result of the back-calculation processed by PRIMAX Design is a set of pavement layer E moduli, as they

were on the day and time measured.

The correction relationship can differ for different mixes, bitumen hardness or age of asphalt layers. To allow

users to take such factors into consideration and to have asphalt E moduli, which are not normalised, the

setup menu (Option window) has a feature for defining the relation between asphalt stiffness and

temperature.

reinforcement in the window to the right.

formulas can be entered and existing ones be

changed.

various countries, it was decided to make the

relation for temperature normalisation as a fifth-

grade polynomial.

Figure 56: Selection of formula for temperature

correction of asphalt E modulus

Deriving a fifth-grade polynomial fitting the local conditions requires testing of asphalt stiffness related to

temperature within the temperature range in which FWD measurements are carried out.

For this a number of points with intact asphalt pavement can be selected and FWD tests carried out at

various temperatures within the temperature range. At least at 10 different temperatures.

All the measurements are then to be back-calculated using a correction factor = 1.

This will result in a table with non-corrected asphalt E modulus at different temperatures.

Select the reference temperatures and the corresponding asphalt E modulus.

For any of the temperatures at which FWD testing was performed, the ratio between the reference

asphalt E modulus and the E modulus at the given temperature can then be calculated.

This ratio is entered into a spread sheet, e.g. Excel. X is temperature and Y the ratio which must be

applied to correct the asphalt E modulus measured to E modulus at reference temperature. If a graphic

presentation is created in Excel and the Trend option is used with a fifth grade polynomial, Excel can

calculate the five values required for the design program.

The five values are entered to their assigned fields along with the reference temperature, at which the

correction factor is 1.00. Finally the temperature range is entered, for which the correction/normalisation

is valid.

The program can use the given relation even if the design temperature is different from the reference

temperature for the curve.

In order to have asphalt E modulus without normalisation, the first four values in the polynomial must be

0 and the fifth value 1.00.

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understand the traffic data entered in the

database.

Click the third tab Traffic to the right in the Click the item to open Design Options

window Design Options.

program that the number of standard axles per

day will grow by the indicated percentage per

year.

program the number of standard axles to apply.

This provides that the program is set up to apply

this feature.

The value in the field Standard axle load tells the program the size of the design load.

The value in the field Impact factor tells the program to multiply the design load by the indicated factor to

allow for any extra deterioration caused by traffic due to uneven road surface, etc.

The value in the field Contact pres. tells the program the design standard wheel pressure on the road to be

applied for the calculation.

The value in the field Load plate radius tells the program the size of area on which the design contact is

applied.

This value should correspond to standard axle load and contact pressure.

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understand the width data entered in the

database.

Click the tab Width to the right in the window Click the icon to open Design options

Design Options.

be applied by the program appears, when

either click box two or three is activated.

(fig. 60) is used by the program to decide

whether the traffic entered for the lane can

be divided by two because the road is so

wide that the traffic in the two directions are

driving in individual wheel paths.

If the width found in the database is smaller

or equal to the indicated value, then the

traffic used for design is the total number. If

the width value found in the database is

higher than the indicated, then the traffic

found in the database will be divided by two

when processing the overlay calculation.

Figure 60: Setting width

EXAMPLE: Where the width is wider than 5 meter, the traffic is driving in two individual wheel paths and the

traffic is divided by 2 (left part). When the road width is less than or equal to 5 meter, the traffic applied is the

total traffic (right part).

Lane

0

Width = 4.5 meter

Lane

0

Width = 5.5 meter

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understand the pavement data entered in

the database.

Click the tab Pavement to the right in the Click the icon to open Design Options

Design option menu.

four fields, the construction box will open.

indicated. The code indicated in the field

Alias is applied for comparing the pavement

type with the type used at the time of

carrying out the measurement – note the

small letters as. In the above example the

program searches for the start of the

description and looks for the letters as. The

letters can be capital letters or small letters

or a combination.

Figure 61: Setting pavement

The value in the field Min. thickn. 1st layer is the minimum thickness of first layer for which an individual E

modulus can be calculated. In case the thickness of first layer is thinner than the indicated thickness, the

thickness of the first layer will be added to the thickness of the second layer and an average E modulus is

calculated.

The value in the field Design Period is the number of years of the structural life of the pavement decided by

the user. If the actual structural life is shorter than this value, then the program calculates the necessary

thickness of a new asphalt surface required to obtain the desired structural life.

Values in the column Number indicate the layer numbers from top to bottom of the pavement structure.

1st layer is the bound layer

2nd layer is the unbound base layer

3rd layer is the subbase layer

4th layer is the subgrade which is assumed to be infinite

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Values in the column Thickness indicate the layer thicknesses of the layers which the program will use when

applying Default values. If no values are indicated, the thicknesses will be retrieved from the database.

This works with “PRIMAX design MET” calculation method only. For “BAKFAA LET” calculation method the

thickness of the individual layers must be defined in the database.

Values in the column E modulus indicate the layer moduli to be used as seed values for the back-calculation

from top to bottom of the pavement structure.

1st layer is the bound layer

2nd layer is the unbound base layer

3rd layer is the subbase layer

4th layer is the subgrade and the E modulus will be calculated directly from the measured deflections.

This works with “PRIMAX design MET” calculation method only. For “BAKFAA LET” calculation method the

thickness of the individual layers must be defined in the database.

The values in the column Eq. factor are correction factors applied to adjust the values to reality.

1st layer is the bound layer

2nd layer is the unbound base layer

3rd layer is the subbase layer

4th layer is the subgrade and the E modulus will be calculated directly from the measured deflections

This works with “PRIMAX design MET” calculation method only. For “BAKFAA LET” calculation method the

thickness of the individual layers must be defined in the database.

The values in the column Poisson´s ratio is the actual value assumed for the individual layers used in the

calculations.

1st layer is the bound layer

2nd layer is the unbound base layer

3rd layer is the subbase layer

4th layer is the subgrade and the E modulus will be calculated directly from the measured deflections

This works with “PRIMAX design MET” calculation method only. For “BAKFAA LET” calculation method the

thickness of the individual layers must be defined in the database.

The values in the column “Criteria” are the actual criteria applied for calculation of structural life of the layer

and for calculation of the strengthening if the structural life is shorter than the design period.

1st layer is the bound layer

2nd layer is the unbound base layer

3rd layer is the subbase layer

4th layer is the subgrade and the E modulus will be calculated directly on the basis of the measured

deflections.

The criteria can be changed by mouse-clicking in one of the boxes and clicking the three dots …

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

To activate the stress and strain criteria window, select one of the criteria and mouse-click the three dots …

When the design program calculates, whether or not a road needs reinforcement, the calculations are based

on the calculated strain in the underside of the asphalt layers compared with the fatigue relations for the

the calculated stress on the unbound

layers in the pavement structure

compared to the allowable stresses on

the same layers. If the actual stress

and/or strain values exceed the

allowable, then the program calculates

the overlay needed to bring the actual

stress/strain below the allowable

values.

To activate the stress and strain criteria window, select one of the criteria and mouse-click on the three dots

…, the window in Figure 64 displays.

The upper part describes the relation between traffic and allowable strain in the asphalt layers. The basic

values are in accordance with the Danish design criteria. In the lower right hand box the formula for the

calculation is shown. Examples of other criteria are shown in table 1 and table 2 below.

The allowable stress on unbound layers are described the same way, when this function has been selected

in the table on the left side.

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Unbound material criteria are presented as:

Z , PERMISSIBLE ( N ) 6 ( N / 10 6 ) C1 , or

Z , PERMISSIBLE ( N ) 6 ( E / 160MPa) B1 ( N / 10 6 ) C1

The tables below present a list of commonly used asphalt and unbound material design criteria.

Common Form Permissible

PRIMAX Design

Strain

Program Format

@ 1 million passages

6 C for C for Eref

6 (µstr) B1 C1 B

(µstr) E > Eref E ≤ Eref (MPa)

Asphalt Institute, 20% cracked area, VB = 10% 240 -0.25 -0.304 240 -0.304 -0.25 -0.25 1

Shell, Controlled Strain, VB = 10% 340 -0.4 -0.2 340 -0.2 -0.4 -0.4 1

Shell, Controlled Stress, VB = 10% 154 -0.4 -0.2 154 -0.2 -0.4 -0.4 1

Kirk, Danish Standard Base Course Materials 300 0 -0.178 300 -0.178 0 0 1

FAA 214 -0.2 -0.375 214 214 -0.2 -0.2 1

Common Form, Permissible Strain @ 1

PRIMAX Design Program Format

million passages

Reliability 6 (µstr) B Limits (MPa) A (µstr) B C

Asphalt Institute, E≤160 478 -0.223 0

? 478 -0.223

RD<12.7mm E>160 478 -0.223 0

E≤160 890 -0.25 0

Shell original 50% 890 -0.25

E>160 890 -0.25 0

E≤160 664 -0.25 0

Shell revised 1 85% 664 -0.25

E>160 664 -0.25 0

E≤160 569 -0.25 0

Shell revised 2 95% 569 -0.25

E>160 569 -0.25 0

E≤160 669 -0.253 0

TRRL, RD<10.2mm 50% 669 -0.235

E>160 669 -0.253 0

E≤160 453 -0.253 0

TRRL, RD<10.2mm 85% 453 -0.235

E>160 453 -0.253 0

Kirk original, Den-mark, E≤160 0.12 MPa -0.307 1

? 560 -0.287

IRI<4m/km E>160 0.12 MPa -0.307 1.16

MMOPP, Denmark, E≤160 0.086MPa -0.25 1.06

>75% 543 -0.246

IRI<4m/km E>160 0.086MPa -0.25 1.06

E≤160 918 -0.0704 0

FAA > 12,000 coverages ? 918 -0.0704

E>160 918 -0.0704 0

E≤160 727 -0.123 0

FAA < 12,000 coverages ? 727 -0.123

E>160 727 -0.123 0

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

8.7. Sectioning

Select the tab sectioning.

tab Sectioning in Design

Options and mouse-click on

the 3 …

the statistical division of the roads measured based

on the calculated overlay thickness. The program

uses these values as described in section 9.4.

The only values to concentrate on are displayed in the last line in the table.

The extra reinforcement value indicates that for a subsection, the program will calculate the overlay as the

mean value of the subsection + the indicated percentage of standard deviation.

The reinforcement interval shows the reinforcement per subsection rounded up or down to the nearest

multiplum of 5mm.

The field Min. reinf. indicates that if the calculated reinforcement for a subsection is less than the value in the

field Min. reinf. then this is to be interpreted as the subsection does not need reinforcement.

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9.1. Sectioning due to pavement structure changes, varying traffic and varying width

While processing calculations with PRIMAX Design, the program needs to know the thickness of the layers

of the pavement structure as well as the traffic load expressed as ESAL in a given point in which deflection

measurements have been performed.

Below a sketch shows a particular road structure and the input to the database.

The table below is an example of varying traffic on a particular road and belonging input in the database.

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Detailed input:

Ch. 0 Ch. 1700 Ch. 2256 Ch. 3579 Ch. 4500

ESAL

per

day 159 268 300 110

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The program uses either the ESAL value or, if the road or lane width exceeds a user-defined width (setup

parameter is normally 5 meters), the value is divided by two.

Below table illustrates a road with varying width and the database input.

Detailed input:

Ch. 0 Ch. 1150 Ch. 2256 Ch. 3000 Ch. 4500

From

Lane 4.5m to

width 4.5 m 6.5 m 6.5 m 5.5 m

to how a calculation is run in

the PRIMAX Design program

and how the result is applied.

Project navigator

For detailed information on Project Navigator, please refer to the PRIMAX Survey Manual.

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

Select points to be included in the calculation using the filter function. In the example above the filter is

set to Project “1054 1061”. If data is not filtered, the calculation process may be prolonged.

Enter pavement thickness, traffic and width details for the selected roads as described in section 7 and

9.1.

Set up the calculation parameters as described in section 8.

Wizard, this window will

pop up with indication of how

many points have been

selected and how many drops

will be used.

Project navigator upper left

corner

Click the button Next to Click the icon Design Wizard:

continue. The window below

displays.

points for calculation

settings are selected.

settings have been defined,

select the one to be used.

on width, pavement and traffic

should be selected, otherwise

Traffic source, Pavement

source and Width source must

be “Default data only”.

The check box “Fallback to lane 0” allows entering of data for Lane 0 only and reusing of this data if it is the

same for all lanes.

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either Road or Airport and refers

to calculation of residual life and

reinforcement in respect to traffic

loads.

PRIMAX MET or BAKFAA LET

software.

Next to launch the back-

calculation process. The

calculation itself can take a while.

The back-calculation progress window displays (figure 72). When the button Restart appears, the calculation

process has finished.

shown graphically.

The shown sectioning is based

on the need for reinforcement

and bases on the methodology

described in section 9.4

to reset to original sectioning if a

manual sectioning has been

made (described below).

Figure 74: This window displays the results of the calculation such

as surface moduli, section, overlay and reinforcement per point

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changed. Select columns and drag with

mouse.

button.

click right mouse button.

button Next to continue or restart to go

back to the original sectioning suggested

by the program.

Drag the lines from left and right in the window below the sectioning window to the chainage points you want

to zoom in on. A side scrollbar will appear below the graphs in the sectioning window.

The Box in the lower left side of the window shows which lane is active and how many lanes have been

calculated. In the figure the second lane of two lanes is shown.

print a report if you did not choose “

Print report after calculation” in the

window “Basic Setting” (figure 72).

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Reports/preview

to create a standard

report.

“Evaluation.repx”

shown in Figure 77.

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

result per point

showing suggested reinforcement

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

This note describes the methodology applied for identification of uniform subsections. The identification is

made with the program UNISECT written in BASIC. The program retrieves input from comma-separated files

and produces two output files, one identifying key data of uniform sections and one presenting data required

for result plots.

The basis for the program is the cumulated difference method, as described in the AASHTO Pavement

Design Guide, pp.

The main principle of the methodology is accumulation of the differences between the average response and

the actual values over a section. If a subsection has a uniformly higher average than the total section

average, the cumulated difference will increase - the opposite, if the subsection average is lower.

The original AASHTO manual states that a new subsection is identified when the cumulative difference curve

changes from a positive to a negative slope or vice versa. The problem with this definition is that it is

dependent of the total section - if only part of a series is considered, one can identify other subsections.

The problem of lengths of series is solved by changing the issue to identify straight lines within a band. The

band is established by creating two lines, one above, one below the cumulative difference curve, and it is

calculated on the basis of the moving n-point standard deviation of the actual point measurements. If there

are large variations in the measurements, the band grows wide. If the measurements are uniform, the band

grows narrow. The precise band width is found by multiplying the n-point standard deviation by a scaling

factor.

The sections are identified

mathematically by moving 60

through the band in both

directions, taking the 50

breakpoints as the mean of

the values found from the 40 Measurement

forward and backward run. Section mean+std.dev

The principle is illustrated 30 Lower band

in Figure 81. Middle

20 Upper band

10

0

0 10 20 30 40 50

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

Background Theory

Pavement Design

based on Theory of Elasticity

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10. Summary

This section describes the theoretical background and analysis methods applied in the PRIMAX Design

program.

Section 11 describes the application of the Method of Equivalent Thicknesses (MET) and Linear Elastic

Theory (LET) in the back-calculation of E-moduli and other critical pavement properties from Falling Weight

Deflectometer measurements.

Section 12 is deals with determination of residual life and design of rehabilitation overlays on flexible and

rigid pavements, both on highways and in airports.

Section 13 describes how the analysis of the officially reported Aircraft Classification Numbers (ACN) and

calculation of corresponding basic pavement reactions is developed into a comprehensive, traffic-

independent evaluation and reporting system for Pavement Classification Number (PCN)

11. Back-calculation

The mainstay in FWD back-calculation analysis is the Method of Equivalent Thicknesses, often abbreviated

to the acronym MET.

This method enables the user to calculate stresses, strains and deformations in pavements based on the

Boussinesq theory. MET converts the layered pavement to the infinite half-space required for the Boussinesq

calculations through a succession of transformations, converting a stiffer, overlying layer to an equivalent

thickness with the deformation characteristics of the underlying layer. The transformed layer has the same

load spreading effect as the original, stiffer layer.

The transformation

equation is:

ℎ𝑒

= ℎ1

3 𝐸1 1 − 22

×√ ×

𝐸2 1 − 21

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

Applying the above-mentioned transformation methodology allows calculation of the pavement deflections

used in the back-calculation process (cf. section 11.7) and the critical pavement reactions used in overlay

design.

Using the annotation of Figure 83, the Boussinesq equations for critical reactions are as follows:

Vertical deflection:

𝑃(1 + 𝜈)

𝑑𝑧 = (2(1 − 𝜈) + 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜑) (I)

2𝜋𝑅𝐸

Vertical strain:

𝑃(1 + 𝜈)

𝜀𝑧 = (3𝑐𝑜𝑠 3 𝜑 − 2𝜈𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑) ( II )

2𝜋𝑅2 𝐸

Horizontal radial strain:

𝑃(1 + 𝜈) 1 − 2𝜈

𝜀𝑟 = 2

(−3𝑐𝑜𝑠 3 𝜑 + (3 − 2𝜈)𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑 − ) ( III )

2𝜋𝑅 𝐸 1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑

Horizontal tangential strain:

𝑃(1 + 𝜈) 1 − 2𝜈

𝜀𝑡 = 2

(−𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑 + ) ( IV )

2𝜋𝑅 𝐸 1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑

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Vertical stress:

3𝑃

𝜎𝑧 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 3 𝜑 (V)

2𝜋𝑅2

Horizontal radial stress:

𝑃 1 − 2𝜈

𝜎𝑟 = 2

(3𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜑 + ) ( VI )

2𝜋𝑅 1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑

Horizontal tangential stress:

(1 − 2𝜈)𝑃 1

𝜎𝑡 = 2

(−𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑 + ) ( VII )

2𝜋𝑅 1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑

The Boussinesq equations are valid for an idealized point load. In order to make them work with a load

distributed uniformly over a circular load plate with radius a, it is necessary to apply corrections to the

calculation depth, z, determined from the previously defined equivalent depth, he:

z = f × he ( VIII )

Traditionally, correction factors between 0.8 and 1.0 have been applied, the lower values being used at the

greatest depths. It has, however, been found (ref.2) that a better agreement with linear elastic theory can be

obtained if the correction factor is expressed as a function of the ratio h e/a. The functions are specific for the

different critical reactions.

The correction factors are as follows:

Vertical deflection:

Vertical strain:

Horizontal strain (both radial and tangential):

Stresses:

In the horizontal strain factor, the additional terms are:

dtrue = true calculated deflection at interface

dlayer = calculated deflection at interface for constant E-modulus below actual level

When a pavement is subjected to FWD loading, the deflection at the surface is the sum of vertical

deformations in the pavement layers and the subgrade. These deformations are the integration of stress

divided by E modulus from the pavement surface to infinite depth.

To gain a quick impression of the properties of the pavement, common practice is to calculate the surface

modulus E0 at the different geophone radii.

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The surface modulus is the constant E modulus of an infinite half-space that under the applied load would

lead to the same deflection as measured on the actual pavement, where layers have different E moduli.

The relationship between deflection and surface modulus is defined by the following equations:

Surface Modulus Centre, radius r = 0

2 × (1 − 𝜈 2 ) × 𝑎 × 𝜎0

𝐸0 (0) = ( XIII )

𝑑0

Surface Modulus at Radius r > a

(1 − 𝜈 2 ) × 𝑎2 × 𝜎0

𝐸0 (𝑟) = ( XIV )

𝑟 × 𝑑𝑟

In these equations the following symbols are used:

Poisson’s ratio, usually fixed at 0.35

a Load plate radius

0 Load plate stress

r Radius – distance load centre to geophone

dr Deflection at radius r

When the subgrade is sandy, the surface modulus tends to become constant with increasing distance to the

load centre. For clayey subgrades the surface modulus will increase with increasing distance to the load

centre – a steep increase can be an indication of bedrock close below the subgrade surface. The bedrock

will not deflect under the loading. In combination with the overlying subgrade “layer”, the system is

interpreted as a very stiff subgrade.

300

250

Sample surface moduli

Surface modulus (MPa)

or shallow bedrock

100

50

0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

Radius (mm)

The surface modulus at a given distance, r, is actually equal to the combined E moduli of the pavement

materials below a depth, z, roughly corresponding to r.

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This is a result of the vertical stress distribution in the pavement, which can be described by the Boussinesq

equation for stress from a point load, P, on an infinite half-space:

3𝑃

𝜎𝑧 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 3 𝜑 ( XV )

2𝜋𝑅2

Differentiation of the Boussinesq equation shows that the maximum stress occurs at a depth:

3𝑃

𝜎𝑧,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = × 0.1859 ( XVII )

2𝜋𝑟 2

Figure 86 shows that the vertical stress above the level of maximum stress decreases rapidly, as opposed to

the variation below that level.

Figure 87 illustrates both the maximum stress angle and the effect of the rapidly decreasing stress on

deflection. Deflections are calculated with Linear Elastic Theory (LET) for a 100 MPa semi-infinite halfspace

under a 50 kN circular load with radius a = 150 mm. At distances greater than 1.5×a, the deflection within the

layer above the φ=60° line actually decreases.

This can be explained as a result of the orientation of the major principal stress, which in this area is more

horizontal than vertical. The result is that there is a mainly horizontal compression strain in the material.

Through Poisson’s ratio this again leads to a vertical tensile strain, causing expansion and thereby to a

reduction in deflection.

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When it is remembered that this decreasing stress in a real pavement is located chiefly in the stiff upper

pavement layers, thereby greatly reducing the compressive/tensile strains, it can be assumed that the

deflection measured at the pavement surface is equal to the deflection in the pavement at the maximum

stress level.

Figure 87 Deflections in a semi-infinite half-space calculated with linear elastic theory, LET

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Subgrade materials are mostly fine-grained, clayey soils, exhibiting cohesive properties.

A typical test series on an intact or remoulded specimen is shown Figure 88. Relevant load stresses in the

subgrade on correctly designed pavements will generally be below 0.1 MPa as demonstrated by Figure 89

and Figure 90.

A typical airport taxiway pavement, designed with the FAARFIELD program (ref.1), according to the

guidelines of FAA (ref.4), is shown in Figure 88 and the resultant vertical stress under the critical B777

aircraft loading in Figure 89.

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Horizontal plane parallel to X-Y at Z = 1200

Normal Stress ZZ

-8.66

-8.88

-9.10

-9.33

-9.55

-9.77

-10.00

-10.22

-10.44

-10.67

-10.89

-11.11

-11.34

-11.56

-11.78

-12.01

-12.23

-12.46

-12.68

-12.90

Figure 90: Vertical stress in kPa at subgrade level under B777 loading

In pavement subgrade load analysis, the deviator stress can be replaced by the dynamic vertical stress,

since the dynamic horizontal stress components are negligible at the positions considered.

The deviator stress dependency relationship can then be transformed to the form below:

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𝐵

𝐸0 = 𝐴0 × (𝜎1,𝑚𝑎𝑥 ⁄0.1 𝑀𝑃𝑎) ( XVIII )

The term 1,max is a result of the considerations explained in section 11.2 that the stress at the surface of the

subgrade may not be the maximum stress. Selection of maximum subgrade stress is made as follows:

3𝑃

× 0.1859 for he < 1.225×r

2𝜋𝑟 2

𝜎1,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ( XIX )

3𝑃

𝑐𝑜𝑠 3 𝜃 for he ≥ 1.225×r

2𝜋𝑅2

The A0 and B constants can then be determined through regression on surface moduli and maximum

stresses at measurement radii that are so far from the load centre that influence from deformation of

pavement layers is negligible.

In the development of the MEPDG (ref.5), which has been implemented as AASHTO’s official pavement

design tool, DARWIN (ref.3), the researchers realized that the deviator stress model (cf. section 0) was not

sufficient to fully describe the behaviour of subgrade materials under loading.

It was established that the confining pressure in dynamic triaxial testing had a positive, non-negligible effect

on the E-modulus. In the field, the weight of the pavement layers and the subgrade down to the level of

maximum vertical stress will create a static pressure similar to the triaxial cell confining pressure.

The models are based on a more comprehensive description of the stress state in the pavement, employing

octahedral stresses, as defined in Figure 91.

Mathematically, the two octahedral stresses are defined as:

𝜃 = 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 = 3 × 𝜎𝑜𝑐𝑡 ( XXII )

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Two models have been suggested for the description of subgrade modulus:

Witczak & Uzan

𝜃 𝑘2 𝜎𝑑 𝑘3

𝐸𝑚 = 𝑘1 𝑝𝑎 ( ) ( ) ( XXIII )

𝑝𝑎 𝑝𝑎

Witczak-MEPDG

𝜃 𝑘2 𝜏𝑜𝑐𝑡 𝑘3

𝐸𝑚 = 𝑘1 𝑝𝑎 ( ) ( + 1) ( XXIV )

𝑝𝑎 𝑝𝑎

In these expressions pa is the atmospheric pressure ~0.1 MPa, included to make the expressions correct,

dimension wise.

The constant k2 is >0, accounting for the increased E-modulus with increased confining pressure, while k 3 is

<0 for typical fine-grained soils. The constant “1” in the Witczak-MEPDG expression has been added to

ensure that the model doesn’t predict unrealistically high E-moduli for low octahedral shear values.

In practical FWD analysis, it turns out that the Witczak-MEPDG model leads to an overestimation of the

stress sensitivity for subgrade materials.

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For the very low stresses at the measurement radii used for derivation of the subgrade – typically less than

0.02 MPa - the “1” term is dominant making the variation within the k 3 bracket of the Witczak-MEPDG

equation very small. To account for any variation in E modulus, the k3-value must necessarily become

numerically high typically 10 times greater than the B value determined in deviator stress dependency

analysis (cf. section 11.4).

One of the strengths of both the abovementioned Em dependency equations is the ability to take into account

the pressure applied by the weight of the pavement materials.

The models, as they are written out, are not clear as to the inclusion of dynamic stresses. This has to be

defined, when a model is applied in practical FWD analysis.

In setting up these expressions, the following assumptions are made:

The static vertical stress at depth z is calculated on the basis of an average pavement material density.

The earth pressure coefficient is 0.5. 𝜃static at depth z is therefore two times the vertical static stress.

When there is no dynamic loading, oct = 0. All octahedral shear is therefore calculated on the basis of

the dynamic loading.

Dynamic octahedral and bulk stresses are calculated on the basis of z, r and t, although these

stresses, strictly speaking, are not principal stresses except at the centreline.

The model used in the FWD analysis is then modified from the Witczak-MEPDG model to the following:

PRIMAX-MEPDG (after the PRIMAX FWD model range):

𝐸𝑚 = 𝑘1 𝑝𝑎 ( ) ( + 𝑝2 ) ( XXV )

𝑝𝑎 𝑝𝑎

The PRIMAX constants, p1 and p2 and the exponent k2 are used as follows:

p1 accounts for the influence of the dynamic loading on an increase in E-modulus for constant octahedral

shear.

Typically a value of 0.5 is used

p2 is a constant that can be used to ensure that the model doesn’t predict unrealistically high E-moduli for

low octahedral shear values. In the FWD back-calculation analysis of subgrade modulus, the stresses

are at the lowest level that is likely to be used in modelling of the actual pavement structure, and the E-

moduli are known.

Typically p2 can therefore be set to 0.

k2 This exponent can theoretically be derived from analysis of deflections measured at different load

levels. In the automatized analyses it is a user input, typically a value of 0.5 is suggested.

If it is desired to determine parameters for the Witczak-MEPDG model, this can be done by analysing the

back calculated subgrade E-moduli near the load centre with the PRIMAX-MEPDG model, using a p2 value

of 1.

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In some instances the deviator stress or MEPDG nonlinearity comes out at negative levels that are too high

(too negative) to be realistic, or the surface modulus plot shows a steep increase for large measurement

radii. Values of n or k2 that are lower than -0.5 may instead be taken as an indication that the subgrade is far

from being a semi-infinite half-space. On the contrary, the bedrock is close to the surface and seriously

affecting the deflections under the FWD loading.

450 0,9

400

Sample deflections and 0,8

surface moduli

350 0,7

300

Steep increase in 0,6

surface modulus for

Surface modulus (MPa)

Deflection (mm)

250 shallow bedrock 0,5

200 0,4

150 0,3

100 0,2

50 0,1

0 0,0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

Radius (mm)

Figure 92 Typical deflections and surface modulus plot for shallow bedrock

It is then necessary to determine the depth to bedrock. This will be equal to the distance from the load

centre, where the measured deflection under FWD loading is zero. This could presumably be done by

analysing the outer deflections, plotted in Figure 92, but would involve user selection of regression type

(power, exponential, polynomial,…). Furthermore, actual measured deflection basins are rarely as smooth as

the Figure 92 example.

The Depth to bedrock is instead determined by plotting the measured deflections against the inverse of the

measurement radius, as shown in Figure 93.

Linear regression is then performed on the 3 points with the lowest x-value, corresponding to the outermost

measured points, and from this regression is determined the x-value where the surface deflection, y, is zero.

The zero-deflection radius is then found by inverting this x-value.

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1,2

Regression determines Bedrock depth

1,0

Regression on

3 lowest-x points:

Deflection (mm)

0,8

y = 226.5x - 0.0917

0,6 y = 0 for x = 1/r =0.000405

0,4

0,2

Bedrock equivalent depth = r = 2.47 m

0,0

0,000 0,001 0,002 0,003 0,004 0,005 0,006

1/Radius (1/mm)

The methodology described above assigns all nonlinear surface modulus variation to the presence of

bedrock close to the surface.

The subgrade is consequently considered linear, and characterization of the material by any of the models

described in sections 11.4 and 11.5 is not relevant.

The subgrade modulus can be determined from the measured deflection, d MEAS, at the radius of minimum

surface modulus, in this case approximately 95 MPa at r = 600 mm.

In MET analysis, the deflections at the depth of Maximum Deflection (φ=60°) and at the Bedrock equivalent

depth are calculated for an arbitrary E-value, ECALC, in a linear halfspace. The difference is the MET-

calculated surface deflection, dCALC, when bedrock is considered. Noting that the deflections are linear

functions of 1/E (sect. 11.2), the correct subgrade modulus, Em, can be determined as:

𝑑𝐶𝐴𝐿𝐶

𝐸𝑚 = 𝐸𝐶𝐴𝐿𝐶 × ( XXVI )

𝑑𝑀𝐸𝐴𝑆

For LET analysis, the determination of depth to bedrock and subgrade modulus is an integrated iterative

process, analysing the deflection at the 3 outer points and at the radius of minimum surface modulus

simultaneously with both Em and Depth to Bedrock as independent variables.

In practice, the solution presented in Figure 93 only comes up with the correct result for large depths and thin

pavements.

In practice, it is necessary to compensate for shallow depth and the effective thickness of the pavement

layers above the subgrade “layer” with the Em E-modulus.

Linear Elastic analysis has shown that this compensation can be determined from the following values:

hDTB,APP The Apparent Depth To Bedrock from the analysis presented in Figure 93

he,LAYERS, SUB The Equivalent Thickness of the pavement Layers above the Subgrade layer relative

to that layer’s E-modulus

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( XXVII )

× (−0.771 − 0.198 × ℎ𝑒,𝐿𝐴𝑌𝐸𝑅𝑆,𝑆𝑈𝐵 )

Since the determination of hDTB,APP involves the E-moduli of the pavement layers, which in turn can only be

calculated after the depth to bedrock has been determined, the process must be iterative, the first

approximation being made on the basis of seed moduli.

Once the subgrade modulus has been determined, either as a nonlinear, stress-dependent function or a

constant value on shallow bedrock, the E-moduli of the remaining layers of the structure can be calculated.

This is done iteratively, comparing the differences between measured and calculated deflections at the load

centre and at least 2 other geophone positions inside the radius of minimum surface modulus.

Figure 94 and Table 3 illustrate the iteration process. The subgrade is described by the deviator stress model

(section 11.4) with an n-value of -0.4. The Em value will therefore increase with reduced stress, which can be

seen in Table 3 as the E moduli – and thereby load spreading effect – of the layers 1-3 increase through the

iterations.

E-modulus/Deflection Iteration

Radius (mm)

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

0,0

-0,2 Measured

Deflection (mm)

-0,4 Iteration1

-0,6 150 mm Asphalt Iteration2

-0,8 Iteration3

-1,0 Iteration4

-1,2

Iteration E1 E2 E3 Em RMS

No. MPa MPa MPa MPa -

1 2500 300 125 61 0.1517

2 3200 380 160 64 0.0703

3 3700 440 190 66 0.0403

4 4100 480 210 68 0.0030

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The Federal Aviation Administration has developed the BAKFAA program (ref.13), which works along the

principles described above, using strictly linear elastic analysis.

The program back-calculate E moduli for structures with up to 10 layers, which makes it possible for the user

to model non-linear subgrade behaviour.

Layers can be identified as “changeable” for E modulus iteration, or fixed.

Figure 95 shows the analysis of a structure with a fairly thin asphalt layer on an aggregate base and sand

sub-base.

The asphalt and sub-base moduli have been fixed, whereas the other layers were set as changeable.

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12.1.1. Flexible Pavement Design Criteria

Design criteria are the rules that govern the dimensions of the pavement in order to ensure that it will perform

satisfactorily during the design period, given the actual material properties, environmental conditions and

projected traffic loading.

Criteria are separated into 2 types:

Structural criteria:

Criteria that relates to a condition, where a certain amount of the pavement’s structural capacity has

been lost – e.g. cracking of the asphalt layer.

Functional criteria:

Criteria that relates to a condition, where the surface condition of the pavement has deteriorated to an

unacceptable level – e.g. a rut depth that entails risk of aquaplaning.

The criteria are based on deterioration models that link pavement performance indicators to traffic-induced

critical stresses or strains in the pavement layers. Typically the relationship between number of applications

and deterioration development is derived from laboratory testing that has only little in common with the field

deterioration.

The indicators are not necessarily directly linked to the critical values, as exemplified below:

Asphalt pavement deterioration is typically initiated as longitudinal cracking, which intuitively should be a

result of transverse strain in the bottom of the asphalt layer.

Deterioration models, however, use the maximum strain, irrespective of transverse/longitudinal

direction, since current understanding of the cracking mechanism tends to see it as a result of energy

dissipation in the material, which is better described by the maximum strain.

The laboratory testing used to derive the constants in the deterioration model is typically 4-point bending

tests taking the decline in E-modulus to 50 % of the initial value as limiting condition.

Development of roughness or rutting is linked to maximum vertical strain or the ratio between maximum

vertical stress and E-modulus in the pavement layers. This is intuitively logical with respect to the

rutting, but as for roughness the linkage is less obvious.

The laboratory testing is typically repeated triaxial loading, taking a 2 % permanent vertical deformation

as limiting condition.

Literature commonly presents asphalt criteria on the form:

Unbound materials’ criteria are similarly presented as:

Z , PERMISSIBLE ( N ) 6 ( N / 10 6 ) C1

, or ( XXX )

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RoSy Design and PRIMAX Design uses the form below for flexible pavement criteria:

In Primax Design the same Allowable strain criteria is expressed as shown in figure 97.

In PRIMAX Design the allowable stress on unbound layers shown in figure 90 is expressed as shown in

figure 98.

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The tables below present a list of commonly used asphalt and unbound materials design criteria.

Common Form,

PRIMAX Design

Permissible Strain

Program Format

@ 1 million passages

6 A =6 C for C for Eref

B1 C1 B

(µstr) (µstr) E > Eref E ≤ Eref (MPa)

Asphalt Institute, 20% cracked area,

240 -0.25 -0.304 240 -0.304 -0.25 -0.25 3000

VB = 10%

Shell, Controlled Strain, VB = 10% 340 -0.4 -0.2 340 -0.2 -0.4 -0.4 3000

Shell, Controlled Stress, VB = 10% 154 -0.4 -0.2 154 -0.2 -0.4 -0.4 3000

Kirk, Danish Standard Base Course 3000

300 0 -0.178 300 -0.178 0 0

Materials

FAA 214 -0.2 -0.375 214 214 -0.2 -0.2 3000

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Common Form, Permissible Strain

PRIMAX Design Program Format

@ 1 million passages

Limits

Reliability 6 (µstr) B A (MPa) B C

(MPa)

Asphalt Institute, E≤160 0.064 -0.228 0.94

? 478 -0.223

RD<12.7mm E>160 0.065 -0.228 1.06

E≤160 0.118 -0.255 0.94

Shell original 50% 890 -0.25

E>160 0.118 -0.255 1.06

E≤160 0.088 -0.255 0.94

Shell revised 1 85% 664 -0.25

E>160 0.088 -0.255 1.06

E≤160 0.076 -0.255 0.94

Shell revised 2 95% 569 -0.25

E>160 0.075 -0.255 1.06

E≤160 0.089 -0.24 0.94

TRRL, RD<10.2mm 50% 669 -0.235

E>160 0.089 -0.24 1.06

E≤160 0.060 -0.24 0.94

TRRL, RD<10.2mm 85% 453 -0.235

E>160 0.060 -0.24 1.06

Kirk original, Den- E≤160 0.12 -0.307 1.00

? 689 -0.285

mark, IRI<4m/km E>160 0.12 -0.307 1.16

MMOPP, Den-mark, E≤160 0.086 -0.25 1.06

>75% 561 -0.240

IRI<4m/km E>160 0.086 -0.25 1.06

FAA > 12,000 E≤160 0.118 -0.077 0.93

? 918 -0.0704

coverages E>160 0.118 -0.077 1.01

FAA < 12,000 E≤160 0.091 -0.133 0.94

? 727 -0.123

coverages E>160 0.091 -0.133 1.06

Rigid pavements reduce the stresses and strains in the underlying layers to levels, where deformation of

these layers contribute only insignificantly to the deterioration of the pavement.

Rigid pavement fatigue life is therefore calculated only on the basis of the deterioration of the concrete slabs.

This deterioration is evidenced by a gradual decrease of the E-modulus of the slabs, which then leads to

reductions in the bearing capacity and residual life.

Permissible number of load repetitions, N, is linked to the critical tensile stress, t, and the bending tensile

strength, traditionally termed “Modulus of Rupture”, MR, by the Portland Cement association.

The relationship between the stress ratio, t, /MR, and permissible number of load applications is given in

Table 6.

At t/MR = 0.50, an infinite number of load applications is allowed.

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t/MR N t/MR N

0.51 400,000 0.63 14,000

0.52 300,000 0.64 11,000

0.53 240,000 0.65 8,000

0.54 180,000 0.66 6,000

0.55 130,000 0.67 4,500

0.56 100,000 0.68 3,500

0.57 75,000 0.69 2,500

0.58 57,000 0.70 2,000

0.59 42,000 0.71 1,500

0.60 32,000 0.72 1,100

0.61 24,000 0.73 850

0.62 18,000 0.74 650

𝜎𝑡

= −0,0823 𝐿𝑜𝑔10 (𝑁) + 0.971 ( XXXIII )

𝑀𝑅

The FWD back-calculation results provide the E-modulus of the concrete slab. In order to assess the residual

life under the applied design load, it is necessary to derive the MR-value that corresponds to the E-modulus.

Structures design standards and Euro codes present the following set of relationships:

Table 7 Relationships between PCC design parameters. E moduli and strength parameters in MPa.

Description Symbol Relationship

Characteristic strength fck

Mean cylinder compressive strength fcm = fck + 8 MPa

Mean cube compressive strength fck,cube = 1,2 x fck + 0,7 MPa

Mean uniaxial tensile strength fctm = 0.30 x fck0.67

Mean E-modulus*) Ecm = 22.000 x (fcm/10)0,3

Modulus of Rupture MR, fctm,fl = max[(1,6-h/1000) x fctm; fctm]

for element height h h = thickness in mm

)

Note * This equation does not match the sample data from the Euro code reported in

Table 8. This is likely because it describes mean values, not characteristic values. It is, however,

parallel to the traditional square-root equation for design (characteristic) values documented in

Figure 99

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fck 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

fcm 20 24 28 33 38 43 48 53 58

fck,cube 15 20 25 30 37 45 50 55 60

fctm 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.6 2.9 3.2 3.5 3.8 4.1

Ecm 17,000 20,000 22,000 23,000 25,000 26,000 27,000 28,000 28,000

MR @ h=300mm 2.1 2.5 2.9 3.4 3.8 4.2 4.6 4.9 5.3

40.000

35.000

E-modulus (MPa)

30.000

25.000

20.000

E = 3,940 MPa x (fcm/1 MPa)0.5

15.000

20 30 40 50 60

Mean compressive cylinder strength (MPa)

Table Eurocode Equation

Equation-8500 MPa Square Root Approx.

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Table 8

Using the equation complex of Table 7, except for the E-modulus, where the Figure 99 relationship is used, a

calibrated relationship between E-modulus and MR can be developed to match the PCA/FAARFIELD fix

point. The development of the relationship is shown in Figure 100, leading to the equation:

8,0

Modulus of Rupture MR (MPa)

7,0 MR = 6.25×10-8MPa×(E/1MPa)1.776

6,0 R2=0.995

5,0

4,0

3,0

2,0

1,0

0,0

15.000 20.000 25.000 30.000 35.000

E-modulus (MPa)

Figure 100 Calibrated relationship between E-modulus and MR, satisfying MR=4,83MPa for

E=27,600MPa

This relationship can then be used in combination with the criterion equations ( XXXII ) and ( XXXIII )

presented in the beginning of the section.

In road pavement design, all traffic is traditionally converted to a single, representative design axle load,

often terms Equivalent Standard Axle Load, ESAL.

This conversion is done according to a power law, so that the number of ESAL loads, N ESAL, corresponding

to the number NP at the axle load P is calculated as:

𝑃 𝐵

𝑁𝐸𝑆𝐴𝐿 = 𝑁𝑃 × ( ) ( XXXV )

𝐸𝑆𝐴𝐿

The exponent B is generally set to 4, a result that emerged from the AASHO Road Test (ref.8).

This test was performed on pavements with considerable bound layer thicknesses and therefore more

influenced by the fatigue exponents of these materials, which tend to be lower than for unbound materials.

On roads where the bound layers are thin, the B-exponent may go up to 4.5.

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For airport pavements, the situation is more complex, since the track widths of airplanes vary considerably,

from the 5-7 m of typical short-haul airplanes such as the B737 and A 320 series to 10-11 m for wide-body

airplanes.

The deterioration effect between these two groups is therefore not overlapping in the upper layers of the

pavement, and only moderately so at the subgrade level.

It is therefore necessary to consider the deterioration effect across the airplanes’ direction of movement, and

determine the track or tracks where the deterioration effect of the traffic is highest.

This is done by determining E moduli (default tabular or average or design moduli) for the actual pavement

section, e.g. a taxiway, and then calculate the cumulative deterioration effect of the traffic mix on the section.

At the track(s) with maximum deterioration effect is determined the equivalent passage number(s) of a

design aircraft. These passage numbers and the design aircraft are then used in the residual life and overlay

design analyses.

The taxiway example below illustrates the process. Using default material properties, the pavement structure

and corresponding FAA design criteria is described in Table 9.

E Poisson's Thick- Allowable Fatigue

modulus Ratio ness strain at Exponent

[MPa] - [mm] 106 pass. -

The taxiway needs to be strengthened due to a projected increase in traffic. The future critical traffic on the

taxiway has the following composition.

Table 10 Traffic mix on taxiway

Aircraft Gear Type Gross Load Tire Pressure Strut distance Annual

Standard (MPa) (m) passages

(ton)

B-737-800 D 79 1.41 5.20 15,000

A-320 D 68 1.21 7.55 20,000

MD-83 D 73 1.34 5 10,000

B-757 2D 114 1.24 7.3 1,200

A-330 2D 209 1.38 10.55 4,800

A-340 2D 254 1.38 10.55 3,600

B-777-200 B 3D 137 1.48 11 2,400

B787-8 2D 220 1.52 10.46 4,000

B-747-400 body 2D 396 1.38 3.75 1,200

B-747-400 wing 2D 396 1.38 11 1,200

A-380 body 3D 562 1.36 12.46 1,200

A-380 wing 2D 562 1.36 5.26 1,200

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

Since it is a taxiway, wander will be limited, and a transverse standard deviation of 1,8 m is assumed for all

aircraft. Fatigue analysis, using the FAA criteria (Table 9) then leads to the maximum deterioration levels in

16 strips across the taxiway, shown in Table 11.

Airplane Passages Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4

B-737-800 15,000 0.0064 0.0087 0.000059 0.000045

A-320 20,000 0.0051 0.0012 0.0000073 0.0000054

MD-83 10,000 0.004 0.0024 0.00012 0.000017

B-757 1,200 0.00031 0.000016 0.000000091 0.000032

A-330 4,800 0.0037 0.048 0.00021 0.00029

A-340 3,600 0.0028 0.035 0.00015 0.00021

B-777-200 B 2,400 0.0018 0.021 0.000045 0.0067

B787-8 4,000 0.0032 0.083 0.00046 0.025

B-747-400 1,200 0.00087 0.0069 0.000046 0.0039

A-380 1,200 0.00093 0.022 0.00012 0.0023

Maximum annual design

0.013 0.18 0.00092 0.032

life consumption

The maximum design life consumption values shown in the bottom line of Table 11 do not match the sum of

the rows above, since the maximum deterioration effect of the different airplanes occurs at different

distances from the centreline.

The cumulative life consumption per lane strip is listed in Table 12 and illustrated together with the equivalent

number of passes of the A-330 reference airplane in Figure 101.

Figure 101 Cumulative design life consumption of projected annual traffic in terms of A-330 reference

airplane passes.

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Layer Strip center distance from centerline

No. 0.25 0.75 1.25 1.75 2.25 2.75 3.25 3.75 4.25 4.75 5.25 5.75 6.25 6.75 7.25 7.75

1 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.08 0.87 0.61 1.00 0.26 0.52 0.75 0.30 0.82 0.25 0.08 0.01 0.00

2 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.12 0.10 0.00 0.05 0.08 0.01 0.89 0.15 1.00 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00

3 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.06 0.14 0.16 0.08 0.04 0.01 0.87 0.10 1.00 0.07 0.13 0.00 0.00

4 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.13 0.08 0.08 0.04 0.00 0.01 0.34 1.00 0.67 0.15 0.01 0.00 0.00

From Table 11 it is obvious that if the assumed E moduli are representative for the actual taxiway, the base

course layer (#2) will be overloaded by the projected traffic, with the design life expiring in less than 6 years.

Figure 101 indicates that HWD bearing capacity measurements should be made in four lanes, approximately

±3.25m and ±5.75m from the centreline. The number of design aircraft passes to be applied in the two lanes

can be determined by combining information from Table 12 with the layer maximum number of reference

airplane passes from figure Figure 101, as shown in Table 13.

Layer Ref.Airpl. Strip centre & relative design Design Strip centre & relative design Design

No. passes for life consumption for Ref.Airpl. life consumption for Ref.Airpl.

rel. life measurement lanes ±3.25m passes for measurement lanes ±5.75m passes for

cons. Max. In Max. In

=1.00 2.75 3.25 3.75 Max. layer 5.25 5.75 6.25 Max. layer

1 3.6E+03 0.614 1.000 0.257 1.000 3.6E+03 0.30 0.82 0.25 0.82 3.0E+03

2 3.9E+03 0.000 0.052 0.083 0.083 3.2E+02 0.15 1.00 0.10 1.00 3.9E+03

3 4.5E+03 0.161 0.077 0.041 0.161 7.3E+02 0.10 1.00 0.07 1.00 4.5E+03

4 1.3E+05 0.076 0.038 0.004 0.076 9.9E+03 1.00 0.67 0.15 1.00 1.3E+05

Overlay thickness in the four lanes can then be determined by designing for a 20 year period with the annual

number of passages shown in bold, of the A-330 reference airplane without any wander (standard deviation

s = 0).

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Road pavement overlay design is based on the number of design axles, often termed Equivalent Standard

Axle Loads (ESALS) which the pavement is to carry during the design period. This number of loads is termed

NESALS, and is used to determine the permissible stresses or strains according to the selected criteria (Table

4 and

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Once these permissible values have been determined, it is a straightforward procedure to calculate under

the ESAL the actual critical stresses or strains in the pavement – in the bottom of the asphalt layer and in the

top of the unbound layers and subgrade – and successively increase the overlay thickness until the

calculated critical values are lower than the permissible values.

The calculated strain history during an axle passage will typically look like Figure 102, with the axle moving in

the X-direction.

Compression

Tension

EpsilonXasph EpsilonYasph EpsilonZunbd

Figure 102 Calculated asphalt and unbound layer strains during axle passage

Figure 103 and Table 14 below illustrate the overlay calculation procedure, when only asphalt and subgrade

strains are considered.

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Strain bottom AC 180 µstr 173 µstr 152 µstr 156 µstr

Strain Subgrade 273 µstr 237 µstr 190 µstr 195 µstr

Airfield pavement overlay design is based on the number of design aircraft, determined as described in

section 0 that the pavement is to carry during the design period. This number of loads is termed NAIRCRAFT.

Determining the critical strains is, however, not so straightforward as with the axle passage on roads, since

the passage of a design aircraft bogie passage will create more than one stress or strain peak, as shown in

Figure 104.

Compressive

EpsilonX1 EpsilonY1

EpsilonX2 EpsilonY2

EpsilonX1+2 EpsilonY1+2

Figure 104 Calculated asphalt layer strain during design aircraft 2D bogie passage

The longitudinal (X) 1+2 strains go through two cycles of compressive-tensile-compressive variation, while

the transverse 1+2 strain remains tensile throughout the passage. On the basis of this observation, and in

analogy to the design axle passage on a road pavement it is chosen to design airport flexible pavement

asphalt layers for the two calculated peak strains (3 peaks if a 3D bogie is used as design load).

In the design process it is then simpler to compare allowable number of design loads, N AIRCRAFT, to the

equivalent allowable number of passages, NEQUIVALENT, at the actual peak strains determined according to the

selected criteria (Table 4) and the criterion equation ( XXIX ).

Denoting N1 and N2 as the allowable number of passages at Peak Strain 1 and 2, respectively, the

equivalent allowable number of bogie passages can be calculated as:

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1 1 1

= + (2D bogie) ( XXXVI )

𝑁𝐸𝑄𝑈𝐼𝑉𝐴𝐿𝐸𝑁𝑇 𝑁1 𝑁2

Peak strain values and corresponding values of N1, N2 and NEQUIVALENT are then calculated for successive

increments of overlay thickness as described in section 12.2.1 until NEQUIVALENT ≥ NAIRCRAFT. For a 3D design

aircraft bogie the term for NEQUIVALENT is just extended to:

1 1 1 1 ( XXXVII

= + + (3D bogie)

𝑁𝐸𝑄𝑈𝐼𝑉𝐴𝐿𝐸𝑁𝑇 𝑁1 𝑁2 𝑁3 )

For the unbound layers and subgrade the calculation of NEQUIVALENT becomes slightly more complicated,

since the critical stress or strain in these layers does not exhibit the compressive-tensile-compressive

variation seen in the asphalt layers.

Instead a typical variation under a 2D bogie passage will look like Figure 105.

Figure 105 Calculated unbound layer strain during design aircraft 2D bogie passage

It is intuitively clear that the fatigue effect of this strain history is less than if MIN is zero. The strain history is

therefore converted to an equivalent history of two separate peaks, each reverting to zero, as shown in

Figure 106.

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Figure 106 Determining equivalent unbound layer strain during design aircraft 2D bogie passage

The maximum strain history is split into two sections, the first “Front Extended Sum” containing the first

peak and remaining constant at MIN level during the second peak, which is described by an overlay

“Rear Delta Sum” section.

The fatigue effect of the “Rear Delta Sum” section is assumed independent of the start strain level – this

may therefore be set to 0 and the overlay strain history appended to the “Front Extended Sum”, which

during the constant strain phase is not causing any damage.

The “Front Extended Sum” history can then be truncated to an ordinary passage history with peak strain

MAX, preceding the “Rear Delta Sum” with peak strain .

Denoting NMAX and N as the allowable number of passages at MAX and , respectively, the equivalent

allowable number of bogie passages can be calculated as:

1 1 1

= + (2D bogie) ( XXXVIII )

𝑁𝐸𝑄𝑈𝐼𝑉𝐴𝐿𝐸𝑁𝑇 𝑁𝜀𝑀𝐴𝑋 𝑁∆𝜀

Peak strain values and corresponding values of NMAX, N and NEQUIVALENT are then calculated for

successive increments of overlay thickness as described in section 12.2.1 until NEQUIVALENT ≥ NAIRCRAFT.

For a 3D design aircraft bogie equation ( XXXVIII ) is expanded similarly. For this load type the MAX will

typically be the middle peak, and there will then be two overlay peaks. The equation then becomes:

1 1 2

= + (3D bogie) ( XXXIX )

𝑁𝐸𝑄𝑈𝐼𝑉𝐴𝐿𝐸𝑁𝑇 𝑁𝜀𝑀𝐴𝑋 𝑁∆𝜀

Rigid Pavement overlay design is performed similarly to Flexible Pavement Overlay design for asphalt

layers, applying the design criteria defined by equations ( XXXII ) and ( XXXIII ) and the E modulus/MR

relationship described by equation ( XXXIV ).

Back calculation of PCC pavement E moduli yields higher spread of the Concrete E-moduli due to the low

deflections analysed, which increases the effect of measurement (im)precision. Unrealistically high E moduli

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are “normalized” to standard PCC E moduli, typically 27,600 MPa, and the foundation modulus of subgrade

reaction (k value) is adjusted so that the surface deflection in the load centre is kept constant.

The k value is determined from the modified Westergaard interior deflection equation (ref. 10):

𝑃 𝑎 𝑎

𝛿𝑖 = 2

× {1 + 0.159 × [ln ( ) − 0,673] × ( )2 } ( XL )

8𝑘𝑙 2𝑙 𝑙

P is the load in Newton,

h is the slab thickness in mm

l is the radius of relative stiffness:

4 𝐸ℎ3

𝑙=√ ( XLI )

12(1 − 𝜈 2 )𝑘

k is the Winkler foundation soil support value in N/mm3.

is Poisson’s ratio.

a is load radius

Overlay material can be either Asphalt concrete, typically with an E modulus of 3,000 MPa or 27,600 MPa for

PCC.

Stress is calculated with the Westergaard interior stress equation for Poisson’s Ratio = 0.15 (ref.12):

0.316𝑃 𝑙

𝜎𝑖 = 2

[4𝑙𝑜𝑔10 ( ) + 1.069] ( XLII )

ℎ 𝑏

In this equation the factors are as follows:

P is the load in Newton,

h is the slab thickness in mm

l is the radius of relative stiffness:

4 𝐸ℎ3

𝑙=√ ( XLIII )

12(1 − 𝜈 2 )𝑘

k is the Winkler foundation soil support value in N/mm3.

is Poisson’s ratio.

For both interior and edge loading:

2

𝑏 = √1.6𝑎2 + ℎ2 − 0.675ℎ ( XLIV )

𝑎 is load radius

For 𝑎 > 1.724ℎ use 𝑏 = 𝑎

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The Westergaard equation can only calculate the stress under the center of a wheel load. The effect of

neighboring wheels in dual or bogie gears is accounted for by an equation complex based on multiple

regression analysis of stresses calculated with the ISLAB2000 Finite Element program (ref.11).

Using the notation shown in Figure 107 the effect of the load, when moved away from an interior slab

analysis point can be determined by multiplying the maximum stress, when the load is placed at the

calculation point, with a correction factor determined by the directional angle, φ, the distance, r and the radius

of relative stiffness, l:

f = A2(φ)×(l/(r+l))2+A1(φ)×(l/(r+l))+A0(φ) ( XLV )

The constants A2, A1 and A0 are all functions of the angle, φ, on the form:

The stress at the slab edge for loads positioned away from the edge can be calculated by the same type of

correction.

The maximum stress, when the load is positioned at the edge is calculated with the modified Westergaard

edge stress equation for Poisson’s Ratio = 0.15 (ref. 10):

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The ACN-PCN system is a classification system that makes it possible to quickly determine whether it is safe

to operate a specific aircraft on a given airfield. The system classifies pavements by assigning a Pavement

Classification Number (PCN), including a simple subgrade strength indicator to the pavement. Any aircraft

with an Aircraft Classification Number (ACN) of equal or lesser magnitude may safely operate on that

pavement

The Flexible Pavement PCN methodology is closely tied to FAA's CBR design method, and described

thoroughly a.o. in Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 3 (ref.7). The basic definition of the Pavement

Classification Number (PCN) for flexible pavements is done by the following set of equations:

DSWL is the Derived Single Wheel Load (in 1000 kilo) that fulfils the equation:

DSWL DSWL

t ( XLVII )

C1 CBR C2 pS

C1 = 0.5695

C2 = 32.035

CBR is entered in percent (i.e. CBR 10% as "10")

ps = 1.25 MPa (contact pressure of DSWL)

The definition has its roots back in the time when the majority of airplanes had only single-wheel main gear,

whereby the PCN value simply becomes the (approximate) weight in tons of the airplane.

The reference thickness is the actual thickness of the pavement, designed according to the FAA CBR design

methodology.

For practical purposes, the equation complex above is not operational, and unit-wise it is mathematically

incorrect. It can, however, be shown that for flexible pavements that fulfil the PCN requirements, the

permissible vertical stress on the subgrade under the DSWL load is given by the equation:

−0.07

𝐸𝑚 𝑁

𝜎𝑃𝐸𝑅𝑀 = 0.00122 × ( )×( ) ( XLVIII )

1𝑀𝑃𝑎 10,000

The term (N/10,000)-0.07 allows the user to determine PERM for traffic levels differing from the definition traffic

of 10,000 coverages.

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For a pavement point with known layer thicknesses and E moduli, the PCN value can then be determined by

adjusting a uniformly distributed single wheel load with contact pressure 1.25 MPa until the calculated stress

on the subgrade matches PERM calculated by the equation given above.

Rigid pavement PCN is determined for the mid-slab loading case, in agreement with the methodology

outlined in ref.9. Critical stress is calculated with the Westergaard equation for interior loading, see section

13.3.2.

For PCC materials with the “standard” FAA E modulus 27,600 MPa, the allowable PCN stress is 2.75 MPa.

This allowable stress has its roots in conversions between metric and US customary units, as shown in Table

15, which indicates that the PCN load corresponds to 75,000 load repetitions according to the Portland

Cement Association (PCA) criterion.

Table 15 Basic definition of PCN allowable stress, US customary and Metric units

US Metric

PCN

N 75,000 75,000

PCA

E moduli determined from FWD testing rarely come out with a value of exactly 27,600 MPa. An adjusted

Modulus of Rupture, MRADJUSTED, is then calculated by entering the actual E-modulus into equation ( XXXIV ),

and the allowable tensile stress is then calculated as 0.57 × MRADJUSTED or:

The PCN value can then be determined by adjusting a uniformly distributed single wheel load with contact

pressure 1.25 MPa until the calculated tensile stress according to equation ( XLII ) matches PERM calculated

by the equation given above.

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Pavements with the same PCN value but different subgrade classification A - D can sustain an equal number

of passes of any single-wheel main gear aircraft, but this is not the case for aircraft with dual wheel or bogey

main gear configurations, where the acceptable gear load decreases with the subgrade CBR or k-value.

Point PCN values must instead be converted to allowable weight of a selected Design Aircraft on the specific

point.

Conversion between point PCN and allowable airplane weight is done according to regression formulae

derived from FAA tabulated ACN values, as shown in Figure 108 and Figure 109.

ACN = 0.258xW^(1.1238-0.00645xCBR) R2=0.991

60

50 ACN @ CBR 15%

ACN

30 ACN @ CBR 6%

20 ACN @ CBR 3%

10 Equation @ CBR 15%

0 Equation @ CBR 10%

30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Equation @ CBR 6%

Airplane Weight (ton)

Figure 108 ACN for A319 D-type gear for variation of Weight (ton) and CBR

ACN =0.0214×W^1.390-0.000589×k) R2=0.988

100

ACN@ k 150

80

ACN@ k 80

60

ACN

ACN@ k 40

40

ACN@ k 20

20

Equation @ k 150

0

Equation @ k 80

150 200 250 300 350 400 450

Equation @ k 40

Airplane Weight (ton)

Figure 109 ACN for B747 2D-type gear for variation of Weight (ton) and k-value

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

Characteristic allowable weight on a branch for the PCN Design Aircraft is then calculated by statistical

methods, and a PCN value for the branch is then back-calculated from this weight according to the

predominant subgrade class for the branch.

The resultant PCN value is only marginally affected by the choice of design aircraft, as shown in Table 16.

Table 16 Example of statistical PCN calculation for a rigid pavement branch and

different gear configurations, subgrade class A is the dominant class

D Gear 2D Gear 3D Gear

74 B 98.9 178.3 301.9

39 B 55.9 123.4 190.9

68 C 87.6 158.9 256.2

23 A 39.6 110.9 178.1

49 C 66.9 134.7 209.7

24 A 43.8 127.1 220.8

38 B 53.7 118.7 180.7

24 A 42.7 122.9 209.3

46 C 62.3 128.5 197.7

24 A 45.0 132.1 234.7

24 A 44.2 128.7 225.3

33 B 48.0 111.9 169.4

41 A 66.2 154.1 269.4

22 A 35.9 98.0 147.8

17 A 33.8 116.5 207.2

15 percentile 40 112 178

PCN ##/R/A/W/T 24 26 26

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14. References

Pavement Design and Evaluation, Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, D.C., USA.

2. Busch, C., “Composite Polymer Grid Reinforced Asphalt Overlays on PCC Slab Pavements – Design

and Performance Prediction”, Report No. 64, Institute of Roads, Transport and Town Planning,

Technical University of Denmark, 1991

3. DARWIN, “AASHTO MEPDG-1, Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide”, Interim Edition: A

Manual of Practice, AASHTO, 2008

4. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5320-6E, Airport Pavement Design and Evaluation, U.S. Department of

Transportation, 9/30/2009

5. MEPDG, “Guide for Mechanistic-Empirical Design of New and Rehabilitated Pavement Structures”,

Final Report, NCHRP, March 2004

6. Packard, Robert G., "Design of Concrete Airport Pavement", Portland Cement Association, 1973

7. "Aerodrome Design Manual, Part3, Pavements, Second Edition", ICAO, Montreal, Quebec, Canada,

1983

8. “The AASHO Road Test: History and Description of the Project “, Highway Research Board's Special

Report 61A, 1961.

9. “A Guide to Airfield Pavement Design and Evaluation”, Directorate of Civil Engineering Services,

Department of the Environment, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, United Kingdom, 1989

10. Ioannides, A.M., Thompson, M.R. and Barenberg, E.J., “Westergaard Solutions Reconsidered”,

Transportation Research Record 1043, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council,

Washington, D.C. 1984

11. ISLAB 2000 - an extension and improvement of the ILLI-SLAB and ILSL2 programs, ERES

Consultants, Champaign, Illinois, 2000

12. Westergaard, H.M., “Stresses in Concrete Runways of Airports”, Proc., 19th Annual Meeting, HRB,

National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1939

13. “BAKFAA” - Computer Program for Backcalculation of Airport Pavement Properties, Federal Aviation

Administration, Washington, D.C., USA. (http://www.airporttech.tc.faa.gov/naptf/download/index1.asp)

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

Normally, PRIMAX DESIGN expects that the E moduli of the layers will grow lower from the top layer down

to the bottom layer of a pavement structure. However, this is not the case with semi-rigid structures, which

have cement stabilized layers below the asphalt layer.

In order to handle such cases PRIMAX DESIGN has a feature that allows fixing of the E moduli of one or

more layers in a structure, however not the subsoil E modulus. This means that the fixed layers will not

change E moduli in the calculation process.

In order to fixate the E moduli of one or more layers during back-calculation, go to section 4.5 and insert a

minus-sign in front of the layer E moduli that needs to be fixed.

In the above example the unbound base layer E modulus will be fixed (locked) to 450 MPa. And only the

other layers will be allowed to vary during the back-calculation processing.

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

The icons of PRIMAX Design. PRIMAX Design is integrated in the Data Collection Software. Below you see

the icons of the Design Software

The present version of PRIMAX Design allows the user to set up and select

Design Options

his/her own design criteria, which best represent the local conditions and

material behaviour.

Road identification data:

Main District, road number, road name, chainage 0 is entered in main details.

Details As a standard routine, the program creates a database with the name

“Default”

Pavement Pavement structures can be entered for the road selected in the window

Main details.

Traffic details:

Enter traffic details required for calculation of overlay design. Such data is

Traffic

the number of ESA per day on the road section in question (a road can be

divided into smaller sections if the traffic changes along the road).

Width details:

Width The width is the total width of the road section in question (a road can be

divided into smaller sections if the width is changing along the road

The Design Wizard assists you in getting through all the points necessary to

start a calculation. A window will pop up with indication of how many points

Wizard

have been selected and how many drops will be used. Clicking the icon

NEXT will start the procedure and lead you through the required steps.

Enter data:

Add

Click this icon to enter data in the various windows.

Save data:

Save

Click this icon to save data

Create a job:

Job

Click this icon to create a new measuring job.

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Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

16. Support

Our design experts are ready to help you, if you have problems regarding interpretation / calculation of FWD

data. When purchasing our design software, a 6 month free support is granted and takes effect from date of

finalised training in use of the design software. Software support comprises support for entering of input data,

alteration of setups in software and how to retrieve results.

Support does not comprise requests for services resulting from or in so far as it concerns reasons which

cannot be ascribed to the liability of Sweco. Such services are invoiced separately to the User according to

spent time at the normal hourly rates of Sweco and paid outlays. Sweco offers continuous support packages.

If you would like to learn more about this, you are welcome to write to our support on email

primaxsupport@Sweco.dk.

The User shall give Sweco access to the User’s staff and the User’s equipment on which the Software shall

be applied, and with the highest privileges/authorisations that the User’s employees have.

The User shall supervise and control and understand and ensure correct use of the Software and the

Documentation. Moreover, the User shall carry through procedures for the protection of information and

implementation of backup facilities including cases of defects in the Software or malfunction in the User’s

equipment.

The User shall document and immediately report any defects in the Software to Sweco.

You are welcome to contact our experts if you need assistance in applying PRIMAX Design or in using the

results on e-mail, primaxsupport@Sweco.dk.

If it is not possible to solve a problem by e-mail or over the phone, we provide the option of creating remote

access to your computer and help you in this way using the Team Viewer facility allowing our expert to take

over your computer and in collaboration with you solve the problem.

Training courses

We provide training courses in the use of PRIMAX Design and how to interpret and calculate collected data.

A training course is normally 3-5 days. The participants are introduced to the software and how to use it.

When buying PRIMAX Design, a customer is offered to purchase a basic training course in use of the

program. It is, however, also possible to purchase supplementary training courses. Courses can take place

at our premises in Kolding or at your premises.

Persons to work with PRIMAX Design and to interpret and analyse data collected, must be capable of

acquiring, receiving and understanding a standard training program so that these persons will be capable of

using the software and understanding results obtained. It is entirely the responsibility of the client to see to it

that employees pointed out for training are able to acquire, receive and understand a standard training

program. Training is conducted in the English language.

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E-mail:primaxsupport@sweco.dk

Description of PRIMAX DESIGN

The back calculation expert receive knowledge of possibilities in the system to enable the client to make a

successful back calculation based on the collected FWD/HWD data.

OBS! This will NOT include back ground theory witch we assume the participant(s) already have in place

o Introduction to the calculation

o Validation of FWD/HWD data

o Import of the FWD/HWD data

o Temperature correction

o Entering of data

o How to run a calculation

o Description of the output from the system

o Reports and printout from PRIMAX Design

Jens P. Pedersen

Pavement Design Expert

Phone: +45 8228 1490

Mobile: +45 2723 1490

Email : primaxsupport@sweco.dk

______________________________________________________________________________________

Page 90 Sweco Danmark A/S, Pavement Consultants

www.pavement-consultants.com

E-mail:primaxsupport@sweco.dk

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