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Determinants and matrices; Eigen values and Eigen vectors; Solution of linear

and non-linear algebraic equations ; Interpolation methods; Curve fitting;

Numerical Differentiation and Integration.

system of differential equations, Solution of higher-order differential equations,

Solving differential equations by finite differences with engineering applications.

Introduction

Introduction

What is Numerical Analysis and Why?

All physical systems in the universe, if mathematically

modeled, produce differential equations.

Engineers and Scientists have to solve the differential

equations to design, analyze and predict the behavior of the

physical systems.

linear, and difficult to solve analytically (in many cases no

analytical solution exists till date).

those differential equations numerically and thus facilitate

the design, analysis and description of the physical systems.

What will we learn in this course?

The step by step processes to solve smaller (humanly

possible) system of differential equations by hand

calculator.

Relevant basic numerical techniques such as root finding of

algebraic/transcendental equations, simultaneous equations,

differentiation, integration, curve fitting, etc. which are necessary

for the solution and development of the differential equations..

The development of the generic algorithms (step by

step processes) to solve larger (humanly impossible) system of

differential equations and other relevant techniques as described

above by using digital computers.

Matlab and/or C computer programming language

to implement those algorithms to solve for larger system of

equations.

Numerical Computing Process

Different Forms of Mathematical Equations

Alternative View of the

Computing Process

Simplified View of the Computing Process

Flowchart of the Computing Process

Example of Applied Numerical Analysis

Slender Fins

Example of Applied Numerical Analysis

Steady One-dimensional Conduction through Fins

qconv or qradiation

qx qx+dx

Conservation of Energy:

OR

For a constant cross section area:

d 2T

kAc 2 hP(T T ) 0

dx

d 2T hP

2

(T T ) 0

dx kA

hP

m

2

kA

d 2T

2

m 2

(T T ) 0

dx

Define: T T

d 2

2

m 0

2

dx

At the base of the fin:

base Tbase T

Tip of A Fin

Fin Performance Analysis

Temperature Distribution along the longitudinal direction

Heat Dissipated

Fin Efficiency

Some Engineering Problems

Example-2: The general equation relating to 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑖,

𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑉, 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑅 and 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝐿 of a serial

circuit is given by

𝑑𝑖

𝐿 + 𝑖𝑅 = 𝑉

𝑑𝑡

Find the value of current after 𝟐 𝒔𝒆𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒅𝒔, if

𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑅 = 20 𝑜ℎ𝑚𝑠, 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝐿 = 50 𝐻 and

𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑉 = 240 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑠. 𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑖 = 0 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑡 = 0.

the influence of earth gravity. Find its velocity after 5

seconds if it starts from the rest. The object experiences a

retarding force equal to 0.25 of its velocity.

𝑑𝑣

𝑚 = 𝑚𝑔 − 0.25𝑣 20

𝑑𝑡

Roots of Polynomials and

Transcendental Equations

(Single Root)

Root Finding Methods

Graphical Method

Iterative Method

Bisection (Halving) Method

False Position (Regula Falsi) Method

Newton-Raphson Method

Secant Method

Fixed Point Method

Bracketing Methods

(Or, two point methods for finding roots)

Chapter 5

root are required. These

guesses must “bracket” or

be on either side of the

root.

continuous function,

f(x)=0, is bounded by

values x=xl, x =xu then

f(xl) . f(xu) <0. (The function

changes sign on opposite sides of 23

the root)

The Bisection Method

For the arbitrary equation of one variable, f(x)=0

1. Pick xl and xu such that they bound the root of

interest, check if f(xl).f(xu) <0.

• If f(xl). f[(xl+xu)/2]<0, root lies in the lower interval,

then xu=(xl+xu)/2 and go to step 2.

24

• If f(xl). f[(xl+xu)/2]>0, root

lies in the upper interval, then

xl= [(xl+xu)/2, go to step 2.

xl xu

xl

• If f(xl). f[(xl+xu)/2]=0, then 2

100%

root is (xl+xu)/2 and xl xu

terminate. 2

or

4. Compare es with ea xl xu

xu

2

100%

xl xu

5. If ea< es, stop. Otherwise 2

repeat the process.

25

Figure 5.6

26

Bisection Method – An Example

The given equation, x3 – 20 = 0 = f(x)

so, xl = 1

so, xu = 3

Iteration, i = 1:

x1 = (xl + xu)/2 = (1 + 3)/2 = 2 and f(x1) = -12 {-ve}

so, xl = 2 and xu = 3

Bisection Method – An Example

Iteration, i = 2:

x2 = (xl + xu)/2 = (2 + 3)/2 = 2.5 and f(x2) = -4.375 {-ve}

so, xl = 2.5 and xu = 3

Iteration, i = 3:

x3 = (xl + xu)/2 = (2.5 + 3)/2 = 2.75 and f(x3) = 797 {+ve}

so, xl = 2.5 and xu = 2.75

Iteration, i = 4:

x4 = (xl + xu)/2 = (2.5 + 2.75)/2 = 2.625 and f(x4) = -1.91 {-ve}

so, xl = 2.625 and xu = 2.75

Iteration, i = 5:

x5 = (xl + xu)/2 = (2.625 + 2.75)/2 = 2.6875 and f(x5) = -0.589 {-ve}

so, xl = 2.6875 and xu = 2.75

Bisection Method – An Example

Iteration, i = 6:

x6 = (xl + xu)/2 = (2.6875 + 2.75)/2 = 2.71875 and f(x2) = 0.0959 {-ve}

so, xl = 2.6875 and xu = 2.71875

Similarly, the iterations are continued until the desired accuracy is

achieved.

Desired Accuracy:

Roots accurate up to n decimal places

Roots accurate up to n digits after decimal

[ n could be 2, 3, 4, 5 …….]

iterations (n+2 digits are recommended)

Bisection Method – An Example

For example, if 3 digits accuracy is desired, it is

recommended to keep 5 digits during each iteration.

iterations, the required number of digits remain

unchanged ( 3 is recommended).

successive iterations, the root approximations are

7.18532,

7.18514 and

7.18509,

then the iterations are stopped.

Bisection Iteration xl xu xi f(xi)

Method – An 1 1 3 2 -12

2 2 3 2.5 -4.375

Example 3 2.5 3 2.75 0.797

In the previous 4 2.5 2.75 2.625 -1.912

example, if the 5 2.625 2.75 2.6875 -0.589

desired accuracy is 6 2.6875 2.75 2.71785 0.0959

4 digits after 7 2.6875 2.71785 2.703125 -0.249

decimal, then we 8 2.703125 2.71785 2.710938 -0.077

can do iterations

9 2.710938 2.71875 2.714844 0.009

and summarize the

10 2.710938 2.714844 2.712891 -0.034

result in a table as

follows: 11 2.712891 2.714844 2.713867 -0.012

12 2.713867 2.714844 2.714355 -0.001

13 2.714355 2.714844 2.7146 0.004

[Note that the

table is generated 14 2.714355 2.7146 2.714478 0.001

as one row for one 15 2.714355 2.714478 2.714417 0.000

complete iteration] 16 2.714417 2.714478 2.714447 0.000

Evaluation of Method

Pros Cons

• Easy • Slow

• Always find root • Know a and b that

• Number of iterations bound root

required to attain an • Multiple roots

absolute error can be • No account is taken of

computed a priori. f(xl) and f(xu), if f(xl)

is closer to zero, it is

likely that root is

closer to xl . 32

How Many Iterations will It Take?

• Length of the first Interval Lo=b-a

• After 1 iteration L1=Lo/2

• After 2 iterations L2=Lo/4

Lk

e a 100% ea es

x

33

• If the absolute magnitude of the error is

es x 4

10

100%

and Lo=2, how many iterations will you have

to do to get the required accuracy in the

solution?

4 2

10 k 2 k 2 104 k 14.3 15

2

34

The False-Position Method

(Regula-Falsi)

• If a real root is

bounded by xl and xu of

f(x)=0, then we can

approximate the

solution by doing a

linear interpolation

between the points [xl,

f(xl)] and [xu, f(xu)] to

find the xr value such

that l(xr)=0, l(x) is the

linear approximation

of f(x).

35

Procedure

1. Find a pair of values of x, xl and xu such that

fl=f(xl) <0 and fu=f(xu) >0.

2. Estimate the value of the root from the

following formula:

xl f u xu f l

xi

fu fl

and evaluate f(xi).

36

3. Use the new point to replace one of the original

points, keeping the two points on opposite sides of

the x axis.

no further!

accuracy is achieved. 37

Regula Falsi Method – An Example

The given equation, x3 – 20 = 0 = f(x)

so, xl = 1

so, xu = 3

Iteration, i = 1:

fl = f(xl) = -19, fu = f(xu) = 7

x1 = (xl * fu – xu * fl) / (fu – fl) = 2.461538 and f(x1) = - 5.085 {-ve}

so, xl = 2.461538 and xu = 3

Regula Falsi Method – An Example

Iteration, i = 2:

fl = f(xl) = -5.08512, fu = f(xu) = 7

x1 = (xl * fu – xu * fl) / (fu – fl) = 2.68811 and f(x1) = - 0.576 {-ve}

so, xl = 2.68811 and xu = 3

Iteration, i = 3:

fl = f(xl) = - 0.575898, fu = f(xu) = 7

x1 = (xl * fu – xu * fl) / (fu – fl) = 2.711819 and f(x1) = - 0.0574 {-ve}

so, xl = 2.711819 and xu = 3

Iteration, i = 4:

fl = f(xl) = - 0.0573924, fu = f(xu) = 7

x1 = (xl * fu – xu * fl) / (fu – fl) = 2.714162 and f(x1) = - 0.0056 {-ve}

so, xl = 2.714162 and xu = 3

Regula Falsi Method – An Example

Again, if the desired accuracy is 4 digits after decimal, then

we can do iterations and summarize the result in a table as

follows:

Iteration xl f(xl) xu f(xu) xi f(xi)

2 2.461538 -5.085116 3 7 2.68811 -0.575898

3 2.68811 -0.575898 3 7 2.711819 -0.057392

4 2.711819 -0.057392 3 7 2.714162 -0.005644

5 2.714162 -0.005644 3 7 2.714393 -0.000554

6 2.714393 -0.000554 3 7 2.714415 -0.000054

7 2.714415 -0.000054 3 7 2.714417 -0.000005

8 2.714417 -0.000005 3 7 2.714418 -0.000001

complete iteration]

Regula Falsi Method

• Why this method?

– Faster

– Always converges for a single root.

equation to determine whether f(xi) ≈ 0.

let, f(x) = ax3 + bx2 +cx +d = 0

Matlab command: roots ( [ a b c d ] )

41

Newton-Raphson Method

• Most widely used method (one point method)

• Based on Taylor series expansion:

x 2

f ( xi ) f ( xi 1 ) f ( xi 1 )x f ( xi 1 ) Ox 3

2!

The root is the value of x i when f(xi ) 0

Rearrangin g,

Solve for

i 1 )( xi xi 1 )

0 f(xi 1 ) f (x

f ( xi 1 )

xi xi 1

f ( xi 1 ) Newton-Raphson formula

42

Newton-Raphson Method

• A convenient method for

functions whose

derivatives can be

evaluated analytically.

• It may not be convenient

for functions whose

derivatives cannot be

evaluated analytically.

Fig. 6.5

43

Newton-Raphson Method – An Example

The given equation, x3 – 20 = 0

Iteration, i = 1:

x1 = x0 – f(x0)/f’(x0) = 3 – 7/27 = 2.74074074

Iteration, i = 2:

x2 = x1 – f(x1)/f’(x1) = 2.74074074 – 0.5875127/22.53498

= 2.7146696

Newton-Raphson Method – An Example

So, if the desired accuracy is 4 digits after decimal, then we

can do iterations and summarize the result in a table as

follows:

Iteration xi-1 f(xi-1) f’(xi-1) xi

1 3 7 27 2.740740741

3 2.71467 0.005571 22.10829 2.71441764

complete iteration]

Newton-Raphson Method – Transcendental Equation Example

The given equation,

**Must remember that sinx, cosx, etc. should be calculated in radians.

Iteration, i = 1:

x1 = x0 – f(x0)/f’(x0) = 3 – 20.22666/19.09554

= 1.9407656

Iteration, i = 2:

x2 = x1 – f(x1)/f’(x1) = 1.9407656 – 7.896419/6.602494

= 0.744790406

Newton-Raphson Method – Transcendental Equation

Tabulating the iterations for an accuracy of 4 decimal places:

Iteration xi-1 f(xi-1) f’(xi-1) xi

1 3 20.22666 19.09554 1.940765632

2 1.940766 7.896419 6.602494 0.744790406

3 0.74479 2.783818 2.84123 -0.23500276

4 -0.235 0.557723 1.763082 -0.55133682

5 -0.55134 0.052353 1.428004 -0.58799821

6 -0.588 0.000742 1.387491 -0.58853263

7 -0.58853 1.59E-07 1.386897 -0.58853274

8 -0.58853 7.22E-15 1.386897 -0.58853274

let, ex + sinx = 0

Matlab command: fzero( ‘ exp(x) + sin(x)’ , 3)

The Secant Method

• A slight variation of Newton’s method for

functions whose derivatives are difficult to

evaluate. For these cases the derivative can be

approximated by a backward finite divided

difference.

1 xi xi 1

f ( xi ) f ( xi ) f ( xi 1 )

xi xi 1

xi 1 xi f ( xi ) i 1,2,3,

f ( xi ) f ( xi 1 )

48

The Secant Method

• Requires two initial

estimates of x , e.g, xo, x1.

However, because f(x) is

NOT required to change

signs between estimates, it is

not classified as a

“bracketing” method.

• In each successive iteration,

• Old xi+1 becomes xi,

• Old xi becomes xi-1

Fig. 6.7

• New xi+1 is then estimated • However, like Newton’s Method,

Convergence is NOT guaranteed

49

for all xo, f(x)

Secant Method – An Example

The given equation, x3 – 20 = 0

= 5 – [105(5 – 3) / (105 – 7)]

= 2.857143

Iteration, i = 2: (xi-1 = 5, fi-1= 105, xi = 2.857143, fi = 3.323615)

= 2.857143 – [3.323615(2.857143 – 5) / (3.323615 – 105)]

= 2.787097

Secant Method – An Example

Tabulating the iterations for an accuracy of 4 decimal places:

i xi-1 f(xi-1) xi f(xi) xi+1 f(xi+1)

Simple Fixed-point Iteration

•Rearrange the function so that x is on the

left side of the equation:

f ( x) 0 g ( x) x

xi g ( xi 1 ) xo given , i 1, 2, ...

•Bracketing methods are “convergent”.

•Fixed-point methods may sometime

“diverge”, depending on the stating point

(initial guess) and how the function behaves.

52

Simple Fixed-point Iteration

Example:

f ( x) x x 2

2

x0

g ( x) x 2

2

or

g ( x) x 2

or

2

g ( x) 1

x

53

Simple Fixed-point Iteration

Convergence:

• x=g(x) can be

expressed as a pair of

equations:

y1=x

y2=g(x) (component

equations)

• Plot them separately.

Figure 6.2 54

Simple Fixed-point Iteration

Convergence:

• Fixed-point iteration converges if

g ( x) 1 (slope of the line f(x) x)

•When the method converges, the error is

roughly proportional to or less than the error of

the previous step, therefore it is called “linearly

convergent.”

55

Fixed Point Method – An Example

The given equation, x3 – 20 = 0

Assuming x ≠ 0, x = √(20/x) , g(x) = √(20/x) , g’(x) = -√(5/x3)

Let, x0 = 3, | g’(x0) | < 1

Iteration, i = 1:

Iteration, i = 2:

x2 = g(x1) = √(20/2.581989) = 2.783158

Iteration, i = 3:

Fixed Point Method – An Example

Tabulating the iterations for an accuracy of 4 decimal places:

Iteration xi-1 g(xi-1) xi

1 3 2.581989 2.581989

2 2.581989 2.783158 2.783158

3 2.783158 2.680687 2.680687

4 2.680687 2.731442 2.731442

5 2.731442 2.705945 2.705945

6 2.705945 2.718664 2.718664

7 2.718664 2.712297 2.712297

8 2.712297 2.715479 2.715479

9 2.715479 2.713887 2.713887

10 2.713887 2.714683 2.714683

11 2.714683 2.714285 2.714285

12 2.714285 2.714484 2.714484

13 2.714484 2.714384 2.714384

14 2.714384 2.714434 2.714434

15 2.714434 2.714409 2.714409

16 2.714409 2.714422 2.714422

Some practice problems

•Solve the following equations to find a single root accurate up to

4 decimal places:

58

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