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Lab #5 – Antibodies Simulation /20

Learning Outcomes:
 Understanding the structure and function of antibodies.
 Understanding the formation of antibody-antigen complexes.
 Learning about the role of different blood types.
Part A – Definitions (5 marks total)
1. Match the following terms in the list provided with the appropriate definition below.
(5 marks)
Agglutination Antigen Antibody Hemolysis Rhesus

Large, Y-shaped proteins generated by the immune system to identify and neutralize
substances or pathogens. Antibody

The lethal clumping of red blood cells resulting from an incompatible blood transfusion

Destruction of red blood cells Hemolysis

Molecule that is capable of binding to components of an immune system and thereby
triggering an immune response Antigen

An additional antigen (D antigen) that may be present or absent on the surface of red
blood cells Rhesus
Part B – Blood Type Compatibility (10 marks total)
2. Fill in the table below to summarize what types of blood can be received or
donated among different blood types. (4 marks)

Blood Type Can receive blood from Can donate blood to
A+ A+, A-, O+, O- A+,AB+
A- A-,O- A+, A-, AB+, AB-
B+ B+,B-,O+,O- B+, AB+
B- B-, O- B+,B-,AB+,AB-
AB+ A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, O- AB+
AB- A-,B-,AB-,O- AB+, AB-
O+ O+, O- A+, B+, AB+, O+
O- O- A+,A-,B+,B-,AB+,AB-,O+,O-

3. Which blood type is considered the universal donor? Select one answer. (1 mark)

☐ AB-

☐ AB+

☒ O-

☐ O+
4. Which blood type is considered the universal recipient? Select one answer. (1
☐ AB-

☒ AB+

☐ O-

☐ O+

5. A patient has type B- blood. If they received a transfusion of type AB+ blood, what
would happen? Select all that apply. (2 marks)
☒ The patient’s anti-A antibodies would attack

☐ The patient’s anti-B antibodies would attack

☒ The patient’s anti-Rh antibodies would attack

☒ The patient’s blood would agglutinate
6. Explain why agglutination can be lethal for the patient when it occurs during a
blood transfusion. (2 marks)
Because blood clots would form in the blood vessels which would prevent the
supply of oxygen to the body.

Part C – Rhesus Incompatibility (5 marks total)
7. When can rhesus incompatibility cause problems for couples who are having a
baby? (1 mark)
☐ When the father and the child have different rhesus factor

☐ When the father and mother have different rhesus factor

☐ When the mother and child have the same rhesus factor

☒ When the mother and child have different rhesus factor

8. Which of the following is/are true of rhesus incompatibility problems? (1 mark)
☐ They can be prevented by injecting RhoGAM into the mother’s blood

☐ They are much less likely to occur during the first pregnancy compared
to later pregnancies
☐ They occur if the mother is Rh negative and her fetus is Rh positive

☒ All of the above

9. True or False? The second pregnancy can be problematic in rhesus incompatibility
because the woman has produced antibodies to rhesus from her first pregnancy.
(1 mark)

☒ True

☐ False

10. Explain what can happen to the fetus of a subsequent pregnancy if the medical
treatment is not followed after a first pregnancy with rhesus incompatibility. (2
The RH antibodies produced in the mother from the first pregnancy can pass
through the placenta and attack the baby’s red blood cells resulting in hemolytic
anemia where the RBC’s are destroyed faster than the body can regenerate them.
This can be fatal to the child sine RBC’s carry oxygen to all parts of the body.