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INTRODUCTION

Marketing concept start with the consumer needs and in behaviour in meeting these needs.
Every action of a person in based on needs. The real problem is to learn what a customer
takes into consideration when he chooses a particular brand. Such a study is concerned with
consumer behaviour. Consumer buyer behaviour is that subset of human behaviour that is
concerned with decisions and acts of individuals in purchasing and using products. Consumer
behaviour is a subset of customers behaviour, is concerned with decisions that lead up to the
act of purchase.

Consumer behaviour is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and all the
activities associated with the purchase, use and disposal of goods and services, including the
consumer's emotional, mental and behavioural responses that precede or follow these
activities. Consumer behaviour emerged in the 1940s and 50s as a distinct sub-discipline in
the marketing area. Consumer behaviour is an inter-disciplinary social science that blends
elements
from psychology, sociology, social anthropology, ethnography, marketing and economics,
especially behavioural economics. It examines how emotions, attitudes and preferences affect
buying behaviour. Characteristics of individual consumers such
as demographics, personality lifestyles and behavioural variables such as usage rates, usage
occasion, loyalty, brand advocacy, willingness to provide referrals, in an attempt to
understand people's wants and consumption are all investigated in formal studies of consumer
behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour also investigates the influences, on the
consumer, from groups such as family, friends, sports, reference groups, and society in
general.

Consumer behaviour refers to the behaviour that consumers display in searching for
purchasing, using evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will
satisfy their needs. The study of consumer behaviour is the study of how individuals make
decisions to spend their available resources (time, money, effort) on consumption related
items.

It includes the study of what they buy, why they buy it, when they buy it, where they buy it,
how often they buy it, and how often they use it? Take the simple product-tooth paste.

In understand the concept of buying we have the some of the key questions. monthly)? Or consider a more durable product. convenience stores). The fax machine. when they go to bed. to attract romance). wants. messages and other marketing mix elements. drug stores.What types of tooth paste do consumers buy (gel. generic). why do they buy it (to prevent cavities. which are meaningful and attractive to target customers and creating solutions that deliver satisfaction to the customers. Understanding the buying behavior of the target market for its company products is the essential task for the marketing dep’t. preferences. They are: - Why does the market buying? Objective Who does the market buying? Organization What does the market buying? Objects When does the market buying? Occasions Where does the market buying? Outlets How does the market buying? Operations Along with that there are two more questions that are also related with above. product changes. Marketers must study the customer taste. price. bi weekly. private brand. to brighten or whiten teeth. where do they buy it (super market. how often do they use it (when they wake up. as a mouth wash. They are: - . What kinds of consumers buy fax machines for home use? What features do they look for? What benefits do they seek? What types of documents do they fax? For what reasons? How likely are they to replace their old model when new models with added features become available? The job of marketer is to meet and satisfy target customers needs and wants but “knowing customer" is not a simple task. what brand (national brand. The job of the marketers is to “think customer” and to guide the company into developing offers. regular striped). how often do they buy it (weekly. to remove stains. shopping and buying behavior because such study provides the clues for developing the new products. or any combination thereof). profits to customer and benefits to the stakeholders. after each meal.

Decider: . WAYS OF BUYING BEHAVIOR According to the concept of marketing the buying behavior can be divided in two ways :- 1. How do the buyer’s characteristics influence the buying behavior? How does the buyer make purchasing decisions? These are some of questions that solutions help to predict the buying behavior. i.A Person who influence the buying decision.e. and retailers. Consumer Behavior: . not to use for further sale purpose.A Person who first suggest the idea of buying. Initiator: -.It includes that user who buys the product for the direct consumption. CONSUMER BUYING ROLES In the consumer buying there are different buying roles. Those are involved in the buying decisions. Business Behavior: . dealers.A Person who actually buys the products. .A Person who is the user of the product.e.It includes those users who buy the product for the further sale purpose. Influencer: . User: . BUYING ROLES IN BUYING BEHAVIOR In the buying behavior there are different roles played in each of consumer and business. i.A Person who takes decisions regarding buying Buyer: . BUSINESS BUYING ROLES In the business buying there are different buying roles. Like as shopkeepers. Like as home users. 2.

influencer: -.A Person who actually buys the products. Decider: -. Straight Rebuy: -.when the consumer are highly involved in the purchase but sees little differences among brands.when the consumer are low involved in the purchase but sees absence of aware of differences among brands. Dissonance Reducing Buying Behavior: -. TYPES OF CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR This is to be extensively divided in four types: - 1. 3. TYPES OF BUSINESS BUYING BEHAVIOR This is to be extensively divided in four types: - 1. Habitual Buying Behavior: -. The types of buying behavior divided are separately divided as per of consumer and business buying.A Person who takes decisions regarding buying Buyer: -. 2. 4.when the consumer are low involved in the purchase but sees significant of differences among brands. Approver: -. Complex Buying Behavior: -. TYPES OF BUYING BEHAVIOR There is a great difference between the purchasing of a computer and a car.In this buyer approves the purchasing on the basis of the past buying records and satisfaction with suppliers.A Person who influence the buying decision. Variety Seeking Buying Behavior: -.when the consumer are highly involved in the purchase and aware of significant differences among brands. Buying decisions making varies with the type of buying decision. User: -.A Person who approves the idea of buying. .A Person who is the user of the product.

2. FACTOR AFFECTING CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR Cultural Factors Culture Personal factors Age Social Factors References Group Psychological Sub Culture Occupation Motivation Life Styles Family Social Class Personality Perception BUYER Roles and Statues Learning . Modified Rebuy: -. FACTOR AFFECTING THE BUYING BEHAVIOR There are various factors that affect the buying behavior on both consumer as well as business buying.where the buyer wants to modify product specifications. 3. delivery requirements.when the buyer approves the purchasing of product for the first time by consisting of the good and efficient salesperson. So. Prices. that it’s the types of the buying behavior of consumer as well as business buyer. New Task: -.

FACTOR AFFECTING BUSINESS BUYING BEHAVIOR Environmental Economic Organizational Objective Inter – Personal Political Authority Individual Policies Cost of Money Age Status Procedures Competition Education BUSINESS Empathy Structure Technological Income BUYER So.In this they used to maintain the list of the all-leading brand to those particular products. these are the factors that affect the consumer as well as business buying behavior. Consideration Set: .After that they used to make the list of those selected brands with that they are something knows and aware about their products. Choice Set: . BUYING DECISION MAKING Consumers make the decision on the different brands available in the market.After the all of the process in last most preferred. The Following is the model of buying decision-making: - 1.After that they used to make the list from the list of known brands. They will give the choice over the different brands. 4. most acceptable during the buying decision process. that are available in the market.After the consideration of some brands. a list of choice brands those having the greater chances of acceptance over others. Awareness Set: . Total Set: . . 3. 5. 2. So there is a model that describes how the consumers make the choice and preferences over the different brands. Decision Set: . about those they know something better than other brands.

companies for their employees. BUYING BEHAVIOR . Intel. the both of the buying behavior. The models are below for both behaviors: - . The both of term have same meaning as to define in the chapter of buying behavior. which defines that. There is model of the both of behavior as suggested by companies with the dividing in the SMB. hp. They are not indulging in the sale activity of the computer and other Products. Assemblers. Consumer and Business. CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR:- It includes all those person who are the direct user of the computers and their processors or for their employees and family member use.e. and business buying according to marketing concept. The both consumer and business are divided further as SMB —Small Medium Big . The job of the marketers is to “think customer and to guide the company into developing offers. So that it’s all about the general buying behavior of cons. profits to customer and benefits to the stakeholders.e. i. The computer processor company divides its buying behavior in both way i.to identify the type of client according to their sales and SMB have their own group of clients. home users. HCL. BUSINESS BUYING BEHAVIOR: - It includes all those person who are not the direct user of the computers and their processors or for their employees and family member use. because to understand and making study over buying behavior first its necessary to aware with concept of buying behavior.e. how a buying decisions are made among the number of brands available In the market.So that it’s a process. They can also be authorized from companies i. They are indulging in the sale activity of the computer and other Products.INTRODUCTION OF STUDY Understanding the buying behavior of the target market for its company products is the essential task for the marketing dep’t. which are meaningful and attractive to target customers and creating solutions that deliver satisfaction to the customers.e. i.

Now we will be discuss with the concept of the from the point our study and discuss how these companies make it possible.CONSUMER BUYING S–M–B SMALL MEDIUM BIG Home PC users Departmental Stores Banks. HCL. Assemblers Small Traders Big Assemblers e. Insurance Doctors Small Industries Laptop Users Chemists Small Software Companies Big Industries Shop Keepers Software Comp. And Self-Employed Scientists MODEL OF CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR BUSINESS BUYING S–M–B SMALL MEDIUM BIG Retailers Whole — Sellers Auth. HP. PROBLEM FORMULATION In this report we are making a study report for the buying behavior of Processors in order to know the position of different sets Processors brands of different companies in the market. ACER Small Assemblers Intel Agents Super Store Retailers MODEL OF BUSINESS BUYING BEHAVIOR So that’s all about the category of computer processors buying behavior as to each divided in SMB as to their use and sales point.g. So .

When. In these machines computer is one and buying of a computes is not a simple task. Problem defined as: - What is the Position of the computer processors all companies in the Indian market? Different players in the processor market.that we divide the problem in sub parts to make the good and result oriented study report. where and who is buying the Computer? Why. where and who is buying only INTEL processors? Why. How. When. How. where and who is buying other than INTEL processors? . so that it can be easily formulate and solved. How. Perception of dealers and consumer about these companies. What. Marketing and sales promotion activity of these companies. SIGNIFICANCE OF PROBLEM Every one knows the time of manual working and now we have different set of machines for the different work. What. How. When. Taste and preferences of dealer and consumer towards computer. Competition in terms of price. What. technology and after sale service. Physical distribution of these companies competing with others. For that we divide the problem as stated in above sect and each problem has its own significance to answer the following questions: - Why. So as to study the buying behavior we divide the problem overstated parts. What. When. it makes our work very easy and fast. where and who is buying processors and which one? Why. Price effect over consumer and dealer between competitions. In that buying behavior for the computer processors has Its own significance. Find out the consumer and business target groups.

anxiety. Compulsive buying is not limited to people who spend beyond their means. general impulsiveness and compulsiveness. and the need to gain control have also been linked to the disorder. Compulsive shopping is classified by ICD-10 (F63. Compulsive buying seems to represent a search for self in people whose identity is neither firmly felt nor dependable. Those with associated disorders such as anxiety.In the. People who score highly on compulsive buying scales tend to understand their feelings poorly and have low tolerance for unpleasant psychological states such as bad moods. is characterized by an obsession with shopping and buying behavior that causes adverse consequences. it also includes people who spend an inordinate amount of time shopping or who chronically think about buying things but never purchase them. . substance abuse and eating disorders.[6] Onset of CBD occurs in the late teens and early twenties and is generally chronic. Most people with CBD meet the criteria for a personality disorder. Several authors consider compulsive shopping rather as a variety of dependence disorder. Causes CBD often has roots in early experience. compulsive buying "is experienced as an irresistible–uncontrollable urge. Promising treatments for CBD include medication such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). expensive and time- consuming retail activity [that is] typically prompted by negative affectivity" and results in "gross social. personal and/or financial difficulties". depression and poor impulse control are particularly likely to be attempting to treat symptoms of low self-esteem through compulsive shopping. CBD is similar to. Characteristics CBD is frequently comorbid with mood. not otherwise classified". or oniomania (from Greek ὤνιος ṓnios "for sale" and μανία manía "insanity". context of the solving these questions. and support groups such as Debtors Anonymous. problem has significance in the form of the over stated questions? COMPULSIVE BUYING BEHAVIOUR Compulsive buying disorder (CBD).8) as an "impulse control disorder. Perfectionism. resulting in excessive. but distinguished from. OCD hoarding and mania. According to Kellett and Bolton. as indicated by the way purchases often provide social or personal identity-markers.

the compulsive shopping may become a more secretive act. however. At the point where bought goods are hidden or destroyed. 3. The 'high' of the purchasing may be followed by a sense of disappointment. with sufferers experiencing the highs and lows associated with other addictions. the price of the addiction in mental. with online auction addiction.Others. 2. object that such psychological explanations for compulsive buying do not apply to all people with CBD. in excess it represents a dangerous threat. Online shopping also facilitates oniomania. Readily available credit cards enable casual spending beyond one's means. the rise of consumer culture contributing to the view of compulsive buying as a specifically postmodern addiction. Symptoms and course Diagnostic criteria for compulsive buying have been proposed: 1. What differentiates oniomania from healthy shopping is the compulsive. followed again by regret or depression once they return home . While initially triggered by a perhaps mild need to feel special. With the now addicted person increasingly feeling negative emotions like anger and stress. destructive and chronic nature of the buying. the failure of compulsive shopping to actually meet such needs may lead to a vicious cycle of escalation. Where shopping can be a positive route to self-expression.leading to an urge for yet another spree. and of guilt. used to escape feelings of depression or guilt. and some would suggest that the compulsive buyer should lock up or destroy credit cards altogether. As debt grows. . distress or impairment as a result of the activity. financial and emotional terms becomes even higher. precipitating a further cycle of impulse buying. because the person concerned feels so ashamed of their addiction. Social conditions also play an important role in oniomania. compulsive buying is not limited to hypomanic or manic episodes. they may attempt to self-medicate through further purchases. becoming a recognisable problem. Over-preoccupation with buying.

Naltrexone and nalmefene have also shown effectiveness in the treatment of gambling addiction. Further problems can include ruined credit history. A review concluded that evidence is limited and insufficient to support their use at present. can be devastating. although current evidence is mixed. theft or defalcation of money. Compulsive buying Compulsive purchases are unplanned purchases. Lejoyeux and Weinstein also write about pharmacological treatment and studies that question the use of drugs on CB. etc. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluvoxamine and citalopram may be useful in the treatment of CBD. Research done by Michel Lejoyeux and Aviv Weinstein suggests that the best possible treatment for CB is through cognitive behavioral therapy. or even suicide. as well as anxietyand a sense of life spiraling out of control.. Opioid antagonists such as naltrexone and nalmefene are promising potential treatments for CBD. especially with depression. with marriages. The resulting stress can lead to physical health problems and ruined relationships. so that appropriate pharmacological treatment can be instituted. Treatment Treatment involves becoming conscious of the addiction through studying. and jobs all feeling the strain. Impulse buying can be defined as “a sudden and powerful urge to buy immediately” and occurs when a consumer purchases an item which they had no intention of purchasing prior to entering the store. Impulse buying can be . which may persist long after a spree. They declare "Few controlled studies have assessed the effects of pharmacological treatment on compulsive buying. group work. an associated disorder. defaulted loans. long-term relationships. and none have shown any medication to be effective" (252). general financial trouble and in some cases bankruptcy or extreme debt. The most effective treatment is to attend therapy and group work in order to prevent continuation of this addiction. therapy.Consequences The consequences of oniomania." Their research indicates that patients who received cognitive behavioral therapy over 10 weeks had reduced episodes of compulsive buying and spent less time shopping as opposed to patients who did not receive this treatment (251).. They suggest that a patient first be "evaluated for psychiatric comorbidity. however.

Suggestion buying Occurs when a consumer sees a product that they have no prior knowledge about.influenced by external stimuli such as store characteristics and sale promotions. This is triggered through various techniques such as in-store advertising or sensory marketing. envisions a use for it. and decides that they need it. suggestion impulse buying. The brochure convinces the consumer of the hand-mixer's superiority over the wooden spoon she has been using. reminded impulse buying. and planned impulse buying: Large family-sized cakes are more likely to be a planned purchase. An example of suggestion impulse buying is when a consumer is encouraged to purchase an electric hand-mixer after having picked up a brochure from the baking department of a home-ware store. Planned buying Involves a partially planned intention of buying. the consumer’s purchasing decision can be encouraged by retailing staff. a consumer may be reminded to buy ingredients for a barbecue when he/she drives past a butcher store. and demographic and socio-cultural factors such as gender. however specific product or categories are not yet determined. age. In this case. Stern introduced the four broad classifications of impulse buying including pure impulse buying. Reminded buying Occurs when a consumer remembers the need for a product by seeing it in a store. . For example. or even their peers who can persuade the consumer to purchase a substitute or provide reassurance about an alternative brand choice. This is type of buying is commonly influenced by low prices and even the approval to touch the product as this will create the imagine of actually owning the product. internal stimuli such as enjoyment and self-identity. Marketing techniques that can also trigger suggestion buying include long-term warranties or a free trial period. while the individual portions are much more likely to be an unplanned purchase Pure buying Occurs outside of the normal purchase behaviour where a consumer experiences a strong emotion of desire towards a product that he/she did not initially plan to buy. and education. situational and product related factors such as time and money available.

frozen desserts and snacks and the top unplanned purchases in the non-food category are cosmetics. The top unplanned purchases in the food category are candy (lollies). toothbrushes. hand-soaps and hand/body lotions. chocolate. . air-fresheners. This explains why supermarkets place these types of products at the front of the store or near the checkout where the consumer spends more time and is more likely to notice them and therefore more likely to pop them into the shopping basket. Retailers use insights from this type of research to design stores in ways that maximise opportunities for impulse-buying. cookies (biscuits).Recent research carried out by Nielsen International suggests that about 72 percent of FMCG purchases are planned. but that 28 percent of supermarket purchases are unplanned or impulse purchases.