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James R.


Songs That Teach: Using a Bob Dylan song in
connection with two Chris

Using Song-Poems Crowe books on the 1955
murder of Emmett Till,

to Teach Critically Carlson describes the
value of teaching
nonfiction with song-

A s a high school English teacher, I
found it empowering to share songs
connected to the literature we stud-
ied by using my guitar. Using the
instrument as a way to share my passion for music
with my students, I also hoped to encourage stu-
and provides a more meaningful reading experience
for us all.

Showcasing Multiple Perspectives
through the Song-Poem
dents to make personal and world connections to Bringing my guitar to the classroom brought some
the literature we studied. My end goal for the les- students out of their shells. There were occasions
son was to challenge students to think critically when a student or two would hang back, after class,
about the issues being raised by the literature and to continue to share with me his or her interests,
the song. In preparation for these self-booked talents, goals, and ambitions with music or school-
“gigs,” I would rehearse the chords and lyrics until ing. New bonds were formed with previously quiet
they merged into a somewhat coherent unified and withdrawn students, as if the guitar had given
whole. Equally important to the sound, I also had students permission to freely share their musical
to have a reason, a rationale, or an objective. Usu- histories, interests, and goals. Eventually, students
ally, I had at least a hunch as to why the song re- would often choose music/performance as one of
lated to our study, and habitually, I relied on their presentation modes for various projects
students’ insights to carry the conversations that throughout the school year. I found that song-po-
would often follow. ems had an even more powerful effect on how my
Over time, I infused and incorporated numer- students and I talked about text.
ous song-poems into my classroom as a way to sup- As is the case with any printed, visual, or elec-
plement other literary excursions on which we were tronic text we ask students to “read,” when we ask
traveling. I found this practice encouraged students students to read song lyrics we run the risk of stu-
to become curious about the concepts, events, and dents believing in the “truth” of a text, simply be-
points of view that they encountered in school. One cause it has been published and, in this case, even
of my many goals included cultivating a spirit of performed. Unlike when we read a piece of literature,
inquiry that would allow students to write, speak, however, with musical texts—what I will call song-
and listen themselves into new connections through poems in this article (Day 293)—I became intrigued
a variety of rhetorical situations. I find that using with how the dynamics of the classroom seemed to
songs to enhance students’ reading of traditional change when we explored the genre of the song-poem
texts, as I describe below, encourages students to together.1 Many students felt as though they held no
become more critically engaged in their reading credentials when it came to talking about literature

Copyright © 2010 by the National Council of Teachers of English. All rights reserved.

English Journal 99.4 (2010): 65–71 65

EJ_Mar2010_B.indd 65 2/11/10 9:01:30 AM

in Roe 90). historical. ing of it. if not outright require. tions they pondered. thinkers. even in the feelings and ideas” by “nervously sweeping compli- older ones. The typical authority of the teacher seemed example.indd 66 2/11/10 9:01:31 AM . I also to maneuver through a variety of texts situated in a found that the juxtaposition of song-poem text vis. es- ated in collaboration with each pecially of published writers” (4). and modalities relates to what Peter Dylan. They looked to their classmates. Elbow challenges conventional ap- formance varied in both my proaches to the teaching of and production of re- We studied artists such as hitting of the notes (often a search in language arts classrooms. authoritative dialogue with the voices of others. As I attempted to challenge not rely on me to have the answers to all the ques. classrooms. researchers. our tant role in the multi-semiotic landscape that has 66 March 2010 EJ_Mar2010_B. but when it came to the genre of students with flexible rhetorical strategies that will the song-poem. A concept that has helped me to reflect on other sources in an effort to satiate their curiosity. students to write in a variety of rhetorical situations. ingly writes of the opportunity for both solo and Interestingly. and it’s important to always be looking cations under the rug” (5). Bob genres.” given some dents opportunities to showcase their writing in autonomy as we convened in collaboration together collage-like fashion in response to a song-poem. In his pioneering work on à-vis literature text seemed to create an exigency for emerging and “new” literacies. Students would literate situations” (23). newspaper La Republica why he revised and changed when students feel pressure to have a coherent the- his songs so often. The students would be lows students to experience research and the report- reading more than just the words on the page: they ing of it as the untidy and often contradictory would be reading the sound. Kress writes. Yes. Elbow has also stated for new meanings. Gunther Kress dis- student inquiry and writing. cultural. multitude of contexts. the spoken words that introduced the paragraph essay that is often rewarded in traditional song. other over the text of a song. to the point of demonstrat- tively investigated the multiple perspectives that ing quite readily the cognitive complexity required each genre and text afforded and withheld. meaning(s) that students cre. but I also found that my students them. and Johnny Cash for social. Bob Dylan once collaborative collage writing. not as the neatly packaged five- of their peers. they may end up accounting for any “conflicting me find new meanings to every song. I believed that by offering stu- selves were “wearing new clothes. significant challenge for me) Elbow. and writers. suddenly everyone in the classroom prepare them for actively participating in diverse was on the same level playing field. . indicating that there spoke about the phenomenon of meaning-making are multiple opportunities for the two to be used when he was asked in an interview with the Italian flexibly and unrestrictedly. Elbow convinc- and literary purposes. “The goal here [of collage writing] is to help and Johnny Cash for and also in terms of the students ‘place’ their own thoughts and voices—in social. before turning to quiry. music plays an impor- it is our role as teachers of writing to “equip . According to Elbow. I became intrigued with the idea of having students many of whom had far more accomplishments on see a song-poem as a starting point for further in- their musical résumé than me. the body of the song remains that teachers need to provide occasions that encour- the same but it wears new clothes” (qtd. Each per. students were their voice as they grapple with becoming critical given the task of “dressing it up” or making mean. the final picks of the guitar strings. His response was that “[t]ime lets sis. texts. cusses the significance of sound as a mode and rep- resentation of communication that has taken on greater presence in the everyday life worlds of the (Rhetorically) Equipping Students students in our classrooms. or ‘background noise’” Maureen Daly Goggin and Duane Roen suggest that (“Visual” 58). and literary purposes.” Collage writing al- cal. sophisticated thinking. Songs That Teach: Using Song-Poems to Teach Critically in the classroom. they could (and often would) demonstrate to transfer over to the students as they collabora. some of the work inspired by this collision between We studied artists such as Neil Young. students to contradict Each time I brought in a new song. According to Neil Young. histori. Bob Dylan. “[W]hether in the form for Inquiry through the Collage of ‘soundtrack’. the faces and gestures process that it is. for on a text. cultural. age. Elbow calls “collage writing. Like Elbow. . ‘music’.

racism. non- tion is well understood. Mississippi Trial. and modalities. Samuels played a 1955. Professor Rolf Samuels. Kress has suggested that “the English lan- guage arts need[s] an encompassing theory of text. and other discourses in- as normal and productive” (468). According to Kress. I realize that one of the most pation in a local YA Literature Book Club. Mississippi. such as art and music. Carlson seen significant signs of change in recent times. how each reading is emplotted and configured and in my classroom I combined it with our read- within the reader’s experience” (141). and genre. and injustice. and resistant to critique. pursuing an- model of a finished “product” for fear of the limits swers to ever-developing inquiry into the subjects such a practice can place on students’ imaginations. Wisconsin.2 in the pertinent examples of this phenomenon occurred in spring of 2006 my students also received a visit a Contemporary Literature course I taught as an from Chris Crowe. friendship. the meaning that can be constructed when der: The True Story of the Emmett Till Case. research.indd 67 2/11/10 9:01:31 AM . led Till’s murder. in defining the dis- tinctions between text and genre. in numerous genres of fiction. in which difference is seen fiction. Perhaps have the desirable circumstances to explore collage we have all struggled with the difficult decision of writing and critical literacy. Many versions of the story and details scholar Christopher Ricks has been quoted. Due to my partici- Looking back. James R. can offer: An education in which creativity and dif- ferent domains and at different levels of representa. He reminds “They were also revisionists” us that “[d]ifferent readings of the same text thus vary. not just from reader to reader but from read. Samuels challenged the group to ponder ing. of the event(s). To that end. For nearly three centuries. works. recording of Bob Dylan’s “The Death of Emmett was visiting family in Money. Peter Smagorinsky assures us that “no text or reader comes to the experience alone” (141). texts. While resources and interpretations abound. writing has maintained its stronghold as a dominant means of communication. During the fall of 2005. poetry. including family conflict. English language arts. space. depending on Crowe’s historical-fiction. when he Till. class began reading two works from Chris Crowe on a colleague of Smith’s from the English department the topic of the civil rights movement and Emmett at Viterbo University in La Crosse. journalism. When our Prior to Crowe’s visit. justice. in which the texts of high culture could be brought into productive conjunction with the most banal texts of the everyday” (“Genre” 468). Together we listen to (and read) a song-poem will never be with the books. 1955. as students try on vari- whether or not we should provide students with a ous outfits of new understandings. we spent weeks exploring a variety the same. allegedly whistled at a white woman and paid for it but as Boston Univesity’s resident Bob Dylan with his life. we stable. Illinois. and place for of themes. as elements of time. 14-year-old Emmett Till of Chicago. writing. formats and locations (see Pollack and Metress). exist in accessible subscribe to a notion of the discipline of English. In August of and why it mattered. the English Journal 67 EJ_Mar2010_B. a notable change occurred in my own our book club in a discussion on both of Crowe’s and my students’ processes of thinking. prejudice. as a set of rules. formulaic. has the opportu- nity to offer “what no other subject in the curriculum Emmett Till and his mother. In other ing of Crowe’s nonfictional Getting Away with Mur- words. and writing about finding the “truth” in the whose version of truth about the murder mattered various genres. perhaps to the exclusion of other means of commu- nicating. and for that matter. Often students cluding folk and hip-hop music.” Dylan’s song is seemingly well-intentioned. every individual and utterance will vary. of truth. elective for mostly high school seniors. I was introduced to Chris ing to reading by the same reader. fixed.

“This book is not Till” on the guitar. the two men were not —D. Lawrence. Others life through genuine personalities and distinct have criticized the song for providing listeners with manners. instead of after the ters in Mississippi Trial. funeral. students graduated high school. In other sources. made an unconscious eventually creating a writing sacrifice in the situation. Throughout the book. as I began work on this article. jus. 1924 (qtd. and genre. lan’s song-poem as a starting made a sacrifice by having Emmett’s body returned that necessitated point in their search for truth to Chicago and by having an open-casket. truth. I forced myself der. My (Whitfield). but how into the unit as a way to open the trial of Till’s murderers affected Hiram as a Demonstrating close. show the meanings of. critical reading of Dy. 1955 brought this case to trial. fish innards into Emmett Till’s face. they continued to lan’s lyrics. some students who tice. perspectives as we encountered related texts.” These engagements with “collage” as a representation of their search into texts. in Gray xiv) brothers. pleted in preparation for Crowe’s visit included der. ‘Two brothers they confessed that they had killed poor Emmett Till.indd 68 2/11/10 9:01:31 AM . as has been documented elsewhere. One student informed me that discussing both of Chris movement. juxtaposing fiction during her reading of The Invisible Man in a Com- Crowe’s works pointed and nonfiction. in the themes of the unit. misleading.’ but this statement is a bit Never trust the artist—trust the tale. Like and genre. Together. the Years later. Dylan’s perpetual revisioning of his songs. related to their continued learning about the mur- time reading and verance in the civil rights der of Emmett Till. For Critically Looking for Truth in example. public further inquiry. Rydell shoved terms of thinking more about Emmett Till’s mur. lyrics. among other things. find new meaning in the texts they had read—they able time reading and discussing both of Chris were also revisionists. in Green. Crowe’s works pointed out some aspects of Dylan’s song-poem that necessitated further inquiry. Mamie Till.” Miriam continuously tried on new critical reading of Dylan’s about the topics of truth. Danielle wrote: “In the song. and other parative Literature class. written seven years after the 1955 mur. One of the assignments that students com- The song. is “notable writing the author a letter “that encompasses the for its activism and errors” (“Literary” 231). ing of and study of the murder of Emmett Till. Samuels opened the door for me in emotions came to a boil when R. some students who had spent consider. Songs That Teach: Using Song-Poems to Teach Critically song is “ultimately awful” (qtd. my feelings supposed to have provoked the two murderers toward different characters ebbed and flowed. and his presentation would greatly influence to put the book down to regain composure before my teaching. Dylan “The Death of Emmett Till” writes.” In clude that the murderers confessed to the crime Miriam’s letter to Crowe. plunging back into the revolting scene. something this student related Dylan’s song-poem and genres. years after we read them in class. she wrote: “The charac- prior to (or during) the trial. Glenn De Voogd encourage teachers to provide op- Journalists and news reporters are held to different portunities for students to problem-pose by a pro- ethical standards.C. I guess I would prefer the truth— cess of juxtaposing texts side-by-side to encourage but how or when do I know I have that?” “students to view critical literacy as a natural part 68 March 2010 EJ_Mar2010_B. in the words of Christopher Metress. 11). where listeners may con. H. after my Demonstrating close. Your portrayal of the Southern attitude is no background on the incident in the store that is deftly written. I think writers and Critical literacy theorists Maureen McLaughlin and poets have the creative license to invent details. the professor discussed the out some aspects of (often) disenfranchised texts issue of sacrifice. Students used Dy. Metress various complexities experienced during the read- points to the third stanza. students and I explored the other former students contacted me with updates had spent considerable themes of struggle and perse. Emmett Till himself. doors into students’ thinking human being. importance these texts held for the students. back to Till: “Emmett Till’s mother. but half-brothers.” This same Later I learned to play “The Death of Emmett student continued in her letter. justice. and I integrated this song-poem about how Hiram affected the trial of Till. par.

fered by various genres and points of view. and it is in part our duty to help students “en. Jac. in combination with poetry. James R. speaking. is “filled with multiple perspectives” ditional multimodal and by various genres and (62). which offers a range of ad- disadvantages offered they maintain. often remain unseen and unheard. Each step brings us could naturally lead students into finding out about closer to finding out who we are. nonfiction. how do ney” (qtd. fers several suggestions for improving students’ in. asking addition to breaking codes. provide every student discipline can be a challenging endeavor. emerges from readings of Chris Crowe’s and Bob novels. we encourage students to see Imagination (Pollack and Metress) or Metress’s The the various levels of stratification of meaning that Lynching of Emmett Till: A Documentary Narrative. “[s]ongs are shoes for their lis- using both of Crowe’s texts to explore many of the teners: ways of proceeding. and technical writing skills while Corcoran once said. creating. McLaughlin and De heroic crown of sonnets. we English Journal 69 EJ_Mar2010_B. The real world. while also paying close attention to Till tragedy. and sky through various means of aspects of Crowe’s texts and Dylan’s song-poem basic and high-tech modes. . the Till song that “my mo- be critical-edge readers. thinking. asking questions not only about the texts queline S. how they locate truth in texts and genre. seek out multiple perspec. Sirpa Grierson has provided teachers tant genre for teachers to use to encourage students with unlimited possibilities for critically reading to be critical-edge readers. The song-poem. The authors envision a classroom 22). reflective. is from a critical stance” (61–62). Answers to in the class with opportunities to create a collage possible questions that may be raised about histori- writing piece based on their experiences of critically cal events and literary texts cannot be confined to reading. deepen mett Till” in Broadside magazine as a poem prior to their understanding. listening. (53). critical literacy opportuni- vision alternate ways of viewing the author’s topic” ties for students. Dean. lenced or discounted in this piece? Are there alter. As teachers. one author’s point of view. the first audio recording tives. A the texts but also about Voogd advocate that teachers help students embrace Wreath for Emmett Till. in Heylin 142). comfort on a journey” (22). step. making meaning. in the same article. which both offer extensive accounts of noteworthy As a way for students to think critically about literary texts that take into account the Emmett social justice. The song-poem . we are also that much closer to discovering der” published in Look magazine in 1956 (Harvey who we want to be in the future. Thursby provides an account for the role but also about the advantages and disadvantages of- of folklore in Crowe’s works and Deborah Dean of. water. author Neil formal.indd 69 2/11/10 9:01:31 AM . Whose viewpoints are presented? What are 1964. topher Metress’s annotated ing and by providing multiple genres about the bibliography in Emmett Till in Literary Memory and same issues or events. and other genres. and Chris. and Crowe). points of view. Guiding students through a unit of study in any mett Till” as an entry point. . consider spending a number of class periods looking into the The Power of Song-Poems details of Emmett Till and his impact on America. Using Bob Dylan’s song-poem “The Death of Em. Dylan’s de. Numerous interesting literature. the advantages and the role of critiquing the text (53). Carlson of learning” (61). They encourage nouncing of the topical. just one text. tives behind it were pho- nate perspectives? As a critical-edge reader. forms of protection and same issues addressed in this article (Grierson. Speaking about Dylan’s work. Thursby. By envisioning these alternate ways of view. We travel across land. is one impor- Dylan’s texts. reportedly saying of encourage students to we to think? Whose voices are missing? Who is si. and with each William Bradford Huie’s “true account of the mur. one important genre for students to interrogate each text using questions protest genre altogether in teachers to use to such as. or even one and visually viewing the multidynamic picture that genre. Dylan’s publishing of the “The Death of Em- where “students expand their reasoning. and 15 poems in the form of a questions not only about using text for something. and become active thinkers who comprehend (Harvey 22). trying on multiple I understand it? What action might I now take? In Marilyn Nelson’s beautiful perspectives. trying on multiple per- Crowe’s historical fiction. spectives.

and The Killers quotation marks. compare/contrast various versions of the song. Let you counsel among yourselves.g.” “The All these song-poems by Bob Dylan could benefit a unit Civil Rights Lonesome Death of on social justice and civil rights. the term emphasizes that lit- taking.. technical writing (i. pay close attention to the hysteria created by Miller by Johnny Cash Reverend John Hale in act 1 when he warns: “Think on (and others) cause and let you help me to discover it. mul. protection. Like other Dylan songs. Richie Havens. spectives. Exposing students to a variety of texts. erary. in. by Bob Marley to Douglass’s life? In what ways is Master Covey like an American Slave Marley’s “atomic energy”? Lord of the Flies “Hey Joe” by Jimi Opportunities to teach students about “Voice.P oems T hat T each Literature/ Unit S ong -poem C lassroom C onnection The Crucible by Arthur “Long Black Veil” In particular.indd 70 2/11/10 9:01:32 AM .” could play a formative role in developing students’ critical and “Hurricane” literacy skills. Literature from the “For What It’s Worth” Who is right? Who is wrong? Where are the battlefield Civil War by Buffalo Springfield lines drawn? What are the roles that youth play in this resistance today? Social Justice and “Oxford Town. we help students to see 1. can offer guidance.” but a closer look at the lyrics and music can provide opportunities to define patriotism more critically.e. and comfort on the spired by insatiable curiosity. by Bob Dylan. who applied the term to various songs written themselves as contributors in this dialogic under. words of (among others) attribution). contributors who are guided by inquiry. U2. I first came across the term song-poem in the work of Aidan Day. act 1). by Bob Dylan Romeo and Juliet “Romeo and Juliet” This is a classic song-poem with unlimited possibilities for by Dire Straits. was just as disillusioned in by Kate Chopin (see Man” by Ben Harper her marriage to Brently Mallard (students will likely have other Chopin short different views on this) as the nameless woman in Harper’s stories as well) song is by her ill-treating husband.e. Songs That Teach: Using Song-Poems to Teach Critically S ong . Girls. For there’s your way [e. “The Story of an Hour” “Widow of a Living Mrs. and voice writing (i. think on your village. Dave Matthews. and continually journey of learning about significant historical reimagining their interpretations from new per- events. Hattie Carroll. quotations within quotations. Indigo Girls. But in the process. and musical qualities are of equal impor- 70 March 2010 EJ_Mar2010_B. use “voice” adjectives).” Students by William Golding Hendrix (modified listen and take notes to sound and organizational to “Hey Jack” for structures to at least three versions of another Hendrix classroom purposes) song. in Chopin’s story. Indigo the classroom: role-playing. tiple voices. etc. For this paper. Truth] when such confusion strikes upon the world. and genres that include multiple mo- Notes dalities such as sound may not always comfort them. “What Is an American?” “Born in the USA” How do we read the sound and the lyrics in this song? by Jean de Crevecoeur by Bruce Springsteen Some might mistakenly find this song patriotic in the same way as Lee Greenwood’s “God Bless the USA. “All Along the Watchtower” (see versions by Bob Dylan.. The Narrative of “Redemption Song” How do we define redemption? How does the term apply Frederick Douglass. and they a Pawn in Their Game. and what may have drawn from heaven such thundering and wrath upon you all” (Miller.. Mallard. historical.).” “Only these song-poems are not without controversy.

Jones?” Bob Dylan with the Poets and Professors. Print. “Mississippi Trial. 2002. New York: ———. Print. Brown’s account of the Grierson. Peter. ed. 2002. The Lynching of Emmett Till: A Documentary Nar- ———. simile. Print. New tors of Smith’s expertise and contributions to our schools York: Harper. Prof’s Annual Dylan Lecture a text. Print. 7–23.. ———. “Oxford Town. 2002. See James W.1 (2004): ———. phy. Works Cited ———. Boynton/Cook.” Smagorinsky.readwritethink. Till. Ed. 1972. Christopher. Gunther. 53–79. and Duane Roen. Harvey. Print. Song and Dance Man: The Art of Bob In this lesson. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 48. Michael. A Death in the Delta: The Story of Emmett New York: Dutton. Literacy into the Electronic Era. Neil. students look for metaphor in popular music lyrics and then use an interactive graffiti tool to illustrate and explain the metaphor. “If Meaning Is Constructed.” Language Arts 76. Pollack. Ed. Portsmouth: Review of Educational Research 71. Gray. Deborah Dean.1 (2001): 133–69. New York: Dial. Print. Print.” Special Rider Houghton. Aidan. “Only a Pawn in Their Game. Baltimore: John Hopkins UP. Baton Dylan.6 (1999): 461–69. What Is It Research Writing Revised: A Sourcebook for Teachers. refer to a musical text. and plays they read in class. Neil Corcoran. and Ross Collin for their valuable feedback on early drafts. Music. Dawnene Hassett. “Using the Collage for Collaborative Writ. 1988. Print. 2004. CD. London: Chatto.” Composition Studies 27. Harriet Pollack and Christopher Metress. Neil Corcoran. eds. “Rhetorically London: Chatto.1 (1975): 23–31. McLaughlin. Whitfield. Print.” Special Rider Music. and Glenn De Voogd. James R. A Wreath for Emmett Till. Ilana Snyder. Rider Music.indd 71 2/11/10 9:01:32 AM . stu. Stephen J. tials of New Forms of Text. Print.” Page to Screen: Taking Corcoran. Heylin. Bob Dylan: Behind the Shades Revisited. Print. 27 Oct. “Critical Lit- Crowe. York: Routledge.” “Do You. 1998. 223–50. Clinton. Kress. 2008. Carlson tance as one seeks to understand the meaning of the whole in Green. Neil Corcoran. Lanham: Scarecrow. 81–104. Three rural schools in Western Wisconsin were the benefac. 2005. Maureen Daly. Ed.” Special rative. Writing and Reading Researched Arguments. Emmett Till ———. Getting Away with Murder: The True Story of the eracy as Comprehension: Expanding Reader Response.” Emmett Till Case. and symbolism—as the poetry. Print. “Genre and the Changing Contexts for English Language Arts. 275–94. Carlson is a graduate student and teaching assistant in UW–Madison’s Curriculum and Instruction Department (Literacy Studies). and others interested in YAL through a grant Influences. 52–62. Print. Print. Roe. Charlottesville: U of Virginia P. Ed.” The Daily Free Press. Louisiana State UP. Elbow.” “Do You.asp?id=975 English Journal 71 EJ_Mar2010_B. Discussion. and song-poem for a nuanced account of the multiple lexical. “Literary Representations of the Day. Ed. 2001.” 2. Baton Rouge: CD. “Playing Time. Mr. Todd. New York: . Chris. London: Chatto. “Introduction: Writing Aloud. Jacqueline S.” The Electronically Mediated Communication: The Poten- French Review 49. lyrics. Jones?” Bob Dylan with the Poets and Professors. Harriet. Print. Print. Goggin. Nelson. Chris Crowe.” Special Rider Rouge: Louisiana State UP. Print. CD.” Emmett Till in Literary Memory and Imagination. sponsored in part by the Wisconsin Humanities Council. Jones?” Bob ing. Sirpa. “Boston U. 2001. 2002. Maureen. 1999. Music. Ed. The Formative Dylan: Transmission and Stylistic dents. I have found the term useful as it distinguishes itself Explores Civil Rights. “Looking for Nothing: Dylan Now. or poem to sity Wire. Elon. http://www. Email him at jrcarlson@wisc. CD. He would like to thank Melissa Schieble. Dylan with the Poets and Professors. and Writing. and musical systems at play in the song-poem. 1964/1991. nized the YA literature book club to include teachers. RWT “Stairway to Heaven: Examining Metaphor in Popular Music” has students explore how the lyrics they hear and sing often contain the same literary elements—such as metaphor. James R. 2002. 1961–1963. and students. Lynching of Emmett Till: An Annotated Bibliogra- Mr. 2008. Print. “Visual and Verbal Modes of Representation in Brown. English Journal 96. New Mr. 2003. 1963/1991. novels. Nicholas. Professor Grant Smith of Viterbo University orga. Metress. parents. Print. 1955.” “Do You.1 (1999): 7–14. Bob.3 (2007): 80–85. Peter. R E A D W R IT E T H IN K C O N N E CT ION Lisa Storm Fink. James W. 1955: Tangling with cultural. Text through Reading. Boston U. Mississippi Trial. “The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll. Made From? Toward a Cultural Theory of Reading. Univer- from using confining terms such as song. in Literary Memory and Imagination.” Pavel Zemliansky and Wendy Bishop. and Christopher Metress. Marilyn. “The Death of Emmett Till. “For a Pedagogy of the Song-Poem. 1963/1991. Print. 1963/1991. Print. Thursby.

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