You are on page 1of 12

Teaching and Teacher Education 63 (2017) 231e242

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Teaching and Teacher Education
journal homepage:

Songs and poems in the language classroom: Teachers' beliefs and
Jenni Alisaari a, *, Leena Maria Heikkola b, **
Department of Teacher Education, Faculty of Education, University of Turku, Assistentinkatu 5, 20014, Finland
Department of Finnish Language, Åbo Akademi University, Tehtaankatu 2, 20500 Turku, Finland

h i g h l i g h t s 

Singing, listening to songs and reciting poems are seen as useful teaching techniques. 
Singing and poems are considered the most suitable for teaching pronunciation. 
Listening to songs is considered the most suitable technique for introducing a topic. 
While teachers believe these practices are beneficial, many report not using them. 
For teachers who use these techniques, practice is mainly supported by their beliefs.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: This paper examines Finnish language teachers' beliefs and practices related to singing, listening to
Received 17 May 2016 songs, and reciting poems as teaching techniques, and whether their teaching practices are congruent
Received in revised form with their beliefs. Teachers viewed all three techniques as highly beneficial for language learning. Singing
25 October 2016
and reciting poems were considered most suitable for teaching pronunciation; listening to songs was
Accepted 28 December 2016
Available online 17 January 2017
considered most suitable for introducing topics. For teachers who reported using particular techniques,
their practice was supported by their beliefs. However, overall, reported teaching practices did not
completely align with teachers' stated beliefs. These findings have implications for teacher training and
future research.
Listening to music © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reciting poems
Second-language teaching

1. Introduction increases more with singing than with rhythmical speech or
listening to songs (Alisaari & Heikkola, 2016). In practice, teachers
In recent years, several studies have found that singing has have long used singing, listening to songs, and rhythmic reciting of
positive effects on language learning. Legg (2009) found that jazz chants or poems as language teaching techniques (see, for
singing facilitates learning words and phrases more effectively than example, Graham, 1992; Murphey, 1990). In spite of this, no reports
traditional teaching techniques. Alisaari (2015) has shown that exist on how common these techniques are in the language class-
singing can be useful for receptively learning structures. It has also room. Moreover, little is known about teachers' beliefs or practices
been shown that singing is more beneficial for recall and repro- with respect to singing, listening to music, or reciting poems as
ducing phrases in a foreign language than rhythmical and normal teaching techniques, or how these beliefs and teaching practices
speech (Ludke, Ferreira, & Overy, 2014). In addition, written fluency are linked.
In Finland, the context of this study, core curricula guide the
aims and contents of teaching on every educational level. However,
teachers are independent in their choices of pedagogical methods
* Corresponding author.
and techniques to be used in the classroom. During the last decade,
** Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: (J. Alisaari),
there has been a shift toward more communicative approaches
(L.M. Heikkola). instead of a grammar-based approach in language teaching. This
0742-051X/© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

In are incorporated into one's own personal point of view based both recent years. we investigate an influence on what we do (actions) and what we think we do the beliefs that Finnish language teachers have about singing. 1985). However. 2003). Until recently. Music can be used to lower teachers' beliefs and actions are related to each other as well as to language learners' affective barriers. CLT was evident in their teaching practice. 2004. beliefs are the basis of our actions. & Li. The authors of this paper argue Woods & Ҫakir (2011. Furthermore. music increases relaxa- vidual (Negueruela-Azarola. the psychological effects of music have been studied at on what is meaningful and what is socially relevant to the indi. 2013). used poems and chants to teach pronunciation. & Ellis. (Dufva. Price. Sato & Kleinsasser. enhances energy levels. Songs and poems in language learning the truth (Dewey. & working context. Among its various positive effects. 1994). obtaining information beliefs refers to what the teachers think. a person's experiences and reflections on these expe- addition. However. according to language classrooms (Engh. Thus. L. collegial interactions.1. 1913). as not always orient in practice) (p. “[t]hat which we know teaching are also worth investigating. Patry. a person's beliefs are framed by the social realm and specifically examined the use of singing in language classrooms..M. Richards et al. 2011). the more develop different kinds of learning strategies (see Engh. James. Low. (ideas about our actions that explain post facto what we do but do listening to songs. with their practice (see. 1996. Karavas-Doukas (1996) and Sato and Kleinsasser techniques which they think are useful to create more communi.. Karavas-Doukas. & Theorell. poems and chants (rhyth- According to Mangubhai. 1995. qualifications. 2011). Tung. 2009. 1996. Mangubhai et al. the concept of language teachers' their language teaching (Barcelos. learning (see Ludke et al. Loewen. for example.. 2011). Dashwood. 386). Holme. 1910. practices (see also Wan. 1910). and Rossiter (2001). Richards. teaching that singing popular songs is an appropriate technique for Beliefs are context dependent and are both stable and dynamic practicing speaking for students at different levels of language at the same time (Dewey. 2002). increase their motivation. for example. 62). think we know (ideas about the nature of our ideas and actions) has Purnell-Webb & Speelman. curriculum. In the context of language education. 1913). working experience. Since teachers' beliefs affect their language teaching practices This gap between beliefs and practices could be explained with (Barcelos. 2003. Johnson. over 50% of teachers Graden. 2006). task performance is also enhanced previous schooling and professional studies. as well as their due to learners’ positive and relaxed mood (Hallam. 2013. 361)”. Derwing. and Son (2004). fects on group dynamics (Lake. although there are also opposite findings (see. Aro.2. and classroom Katsarou. & Ng. Alisaari. practice affect their beliefs (Borg. music has a Voet & De Wever. and brings joy due to the increased others may affect a person's beliefs about language teaching amount of oxytocin produced in the brain (Grape. In a study by 1999). 2008). but beliefs are always personal and Hansson. according to . 2010). 2016). In Overall. Wiltermuth & Heath. only limited and poems in the classroom. few studies had perspective. In sum. 2009). Beliefs influence our actions and vice versa (James. sometimes causing incongruence be- 1. 1992). Because teachers' beliefs affect According to Barcelos (2003). while beliefs refer to more subjective. Alanen. studies investigating the use of poems or chants not always in accord with beliefs (Negueruela-Azarola. In this study. (Barcelos & Kalaja. & Kalaja. with music and songs as language teaching techniques based on retical knowledge about language learning. we “do what we know. Teachers' (Kirschner & Tomasello. 2014). well as the teachers' practice regarding these three techniques. 2003. beliefs influence the perceptions language teachers have Language teachers' knowledge and beliefs have been defined in about teaching and learning and therefore affect language class- many different ways (see the conceptual analysis by Borg. 2011). (1999) found that even though teachers were positive in their be- cative teaching and learning environment including using songs liefs toward communicative language teaching (CLT). in the language classroom are scarce and concentrate primarily on Language teachers' beliefs have often been found to be incongruent teachers' reports of using poems or chants to teach pronunciation. Huron. language teachers' beliefs. Sandgren. 1992. there is a need for research concerning teachers' Borg's (2006) argument that theoretical and practical knowledge attitudes and practices related to the use of songs and music in are two different sources of knowledge. or the teachers' experience and training. and reciting poems as teaching techniques. Vygotsky. p. know. for example. For example. and educational setting are Borg (2006. their relationship been shown to enhance learners' helpfulness toward each other to actions is not simply causal but is more complex. about these beliefs is valuable for understanding teachers' teaching Knowledge is often used to refer to true and objective knowledge. Many they are of the communicative and practical aims of language studies focus on rhythm and melody as ways to promote language teaching (Richards et al. & Weber. 2006). 2006. p. be- liefs can be defined as teachers' opinions about topics such as As early as the 1980s. new understanding is devel- reported actions and investigate how a teacher's pedagogical oped by reflecting on previous experiences (Woods & Ҫakir. Ng & Farrell. and using songs in the classroom may result in positive ef- according to Borg (2011). From a socio-cultural proficiency (James. 2003) or (as in Foreign Language (ACTFL) stated in their guidelines for language this case) teachers' views on second-language teaching. Basturkmen. 2011.232 J. and believe. Generally. Simmermann. the American Council on the Teaching of learning a second language (L2) (Kalaja & Barcelos. 2003). In addition to many positive psychological effects. people consider their beliefs to represent 1. (1992) found that language positive influence on language learning. actions are rhythm. p. However. Heikkola / Teaching and Teacher Education 63 (2017) 231e242 shift has also led to more freedom for individual teachers to choose Singer. 1992. the more aware review on the effects of music in the language classroom). for a experience and training language teachers have. 2003). For example. Marland. as rhythmic reciting can be (ideas that are applicable in actual practice) and that which we beneficial for language learning (see. 2011). Both experiences and context therefore influence teachers' beliefs. mically recited words and phrases) should be investigated together language teachers' beliefs seem to be in line with general. room activities (Barcelos. “expressed by an individual with a unique set of life experiences” singing increases the sense of togetherness (Spychiger. theo. Olson & used chants to teach pronunciation. 2003). Language teachers' beliefs and practices tween beliefs and practice. in Burgess and Spencer’s (2000) study.” that attitudes and practices concerning reciting poems in language Negueruela-Azarola (2011) also argued. Ericson. 47% of teachers 2004. 2011. Lauper. 1986). individual opinions (Woods & Ҫakir. The views of tion. 275) argued that classroom situations also influence related to both beliefs and actions. Singing and music have also although. according to Barcelos and Kalaja (2011). we examine the link between these beliefs and teachers' riences are the basis of their beliefs. in practice. In fact. however. length. However. Breitkreutz.

length. Approximately one-fifth of the par- teaching or about the use of poem recitation for purposes other ticipants had been working 5e10 years. Finnish is Stahl. rhymes. teachers working in universities abroad. tigated whether teachers' actions align with their beliefs. we believe it is likely that teachers are influenced by Other 9 Unemployed 2 the findings of recent studies confirming the positive effects of a music on learning. or structures can be enhanced by combining words teachers teach Finnish outside of Finland. 1990). Legg.9% used songs to teach pronunciation.  How do the same teachers say they actually use songs and 2009). verbatim recall or in Finland-Schools. L.1. Approximately one-third of the beliefs related to the use of songs in L2 teaching that might influ. Thus. 2013). Alisaari. 1992. Turner. nunciation or speech patterns (Morley. in general migrant education.M. According to Burgess and Spencer (2000). 1994). . Additionally. February 16. ports concerning the use of poems and chants in teaching pro. or educa- of pronunciation in the target language (p. Ludke et al. Heikkola / Teaching and Teacher Education 63 (2017) 231e242 233 Hismanoglu and Hismanoglu (2010).. phrases. learners can practice pro. we limit our investigation to the use of songs and poems. abroad participated in the study. All teachers are required to Ke12 244a 27 Vocational schools 74 3 participate in in-service training regularly. 10) of teachers working in Finland-Schools and 4% (n ¼ 10) of 2014). 2009).6% were working in Finland-Schools. According to some studies. 1992). 2011). little is known about teachers' use of songs in language years to more than 15 years. February 16. 28. and than pronunciation. settings are presented in Table 1 alongside the total number of crease written fluency (Alisaari & Heikkola. one-fifth 10e15 years. The teachers with Because the use of songs as a teaching technique has proven to be more than five years of teaching experience were classified as effective in language-teaching (see. effects of songs and poem recitation on language learning. The numbers representing all teachers of This study examines Finnish language teachers' beliefs about the Finnish are based on K. and only one-tenth of the ence teachers' language-classroom practice (see Engh. M.7% In spite of anecdotal knowledge and reports of teachers using were working in Ke12. Holme (2009) Our sample represents 21% (n ¼ 74) of teachers who teach argued that due to the rhythmic nature of language. Legg. for example.  What beliefs do teachers have about singing. and they also develop Adult educationb 216c 33 their professional skills independently. working experience. 2016). as many studies have and reciting poems as teaching techniques? shown that musical and phonetic skills are linked (Milovanov. melody. investigating teachers' beliefs and practices in this area will be helpful. chants. 2008. where as 4. Kotz. ported classroom practices? singing and reciting songs. structures (Alisaari. we investigated whether The exact number of F2 teachers working in kindergartens is not available. 2016). Medina. Research questions university in Finland and abroad. The participants’ educational and text recollection (Wallace. Palmer & Kelly. Method content-specific language and developing learners’ academic lan- guage skills. teachers had been working for two years or less.. these settings were also to rhythmic movement (stamping or even dancing) or rhythmic included in the study. 1991). 2016). For example. stress. By using poems. with many of the teachers working in multiple settings. “clapping a poems in their language classrooms? rhythm or humming a tone” are effective techniques for the overt  Is there a relationship between teachers' beliefs or practices and practicing of suprasegmental features (e. listening to songs. or songs. and in universities. and the participants of the current study. J. as the use of chants is Table 1 Finnish as L2 teachers working in various educational settings in Finland and abroad not a common teaching technique in Finnish language classrooms. Ninety-four Finnish language teachers working in Finland and 2009. 205). according to Zwiers (2006). To confirm this. teachers had been working 3e5 years. learning new Finnish as a second language in Finland. In addition.. little is known about teachers' one-fifth more than 15 years. b teachers' beliefs on the positive effects of music in this context are Includes F2 teachers working in integration training of migrants. & Geyer. 2016). or chants can be seen as discourse skills (Cameron. Finnish to children who have a Finnish background. phrases (Legg. and because there will always be a need for teachers who had less than five years of working experience were effective second-language teaching. The educational settings in which the teachers were working varied from kindergarten to 2. Furthermore. 2014. Given the fact that teachers Finland-schools 460 10 regularly update their skills via ongoing learning and professional Universities abroad 220 10 development. as well as teachers working in liberal adult education in agreement with current research results. pedagogically qualified teachers have university-level Finnish as L2 teachers (place of work) All teachers Participating in study professional training at the MA (class teachers and subject teach- ers) or BA (kindergarten teachers) level. 2009. 1993. Heikkila€ (personal communication. only 0. In this study. singing can in. Murphy (1991) tional setting? argued that the use of chants in particular allows learners to  Is there a relationship between teachers' beliefs and their re- simultaneously practice communication and pronunciation. and tone) their pedagogical qualifications. Alisaari & experienced teachers. Participants to be effective in enhancing vocabulary (Coyle & Go mez Gracia. Ludke et al. they represent 62% of the sample. The teachers' working experience varied from less than two nunciation. 2016. whereas other taught mainly as an additional (rather than as a native) language in studies assert that melody combined with rhythm has a more universities and Finland-Schools. 10. Murphey. we inves. Henseler. In Hyv€arinen (personal communication. which are voluntary schools that teach increases when using rhythm (Purnell-Webb & Speelman. singing or listening to songs has proven 3. teachers of Finnish as a second language in various educational Rhythm. c The exact number of F2 teachers working in various universities in Finland is not The study reported here was framed by the following research available. Finland. Our sample represents 2% (n ¼ significant role for recall (Alisaari & Heikkola. and songs and poems in language classrooms and a few research re. Of the participating teachers. These Finnish teachers work in universities reciting of the language. chants and songs are effective when practicing academic or 3. in liberal adult education. and Kumpulainen (2014). As a significant number of words. 2003).g. and rhyme enhance the ability to remember settings in Finland and abroad. Furthermore. 2014). The Heikkola. language (Graham. 2015. the rest were working with adults.6% of teachers used questions: poems.

the questionnaire: Singing/Listening to songs/Reciting poems is sentimental reactions. 10 versities abroad. 2016). not merely whether they use (Corbin & Strauss. 64% (n ¼ 16) of the pedagogically unqualified group possible to measure the exact response rate. the following gories following discussion by the authors. relaxation. Only one concluded that the categories were accurate and comprehensive. The reliability of the survey. about singing. the email or the Facebook status with the survey link could have further shared the link with other colleagues. A cover letter 3. 72% (n ¼ 68) had and format by three professors (one in education. Alisaari. The initial categories formulated were example. b) the teachers working at the Ke12 lated according to the findings of earlier studies concerning the level. overall effects of the three teaching techniques. The link was also shared in social media and in in adult education.. from 0. “I use songs with scores between the individual statements within one sum variable. First. & Suhl. listening to songs. empowerment. their correlations. Third. or in Finland-Schools. as those who received had been working more than five years. Statements with similar meanings were pooled techniques: singing. the frequency question. These responses were eliminated from the analysis. and Cronbach's alpha. . For to help define the categories. The initial version of the questionnaire was reviewed for content lor's degree to doctoral studies. Finally. The whether rhymes enhance remembering. New York. and Finnish teachers in uni- cally unqualified teachers. negative feelings. dependent-samples t-tests were run to determine separate analysis. I use were reviewed by the authors for a third time to ensure accurate listening to songs to teach vocabulary. The results for the three teaching techniques were first as many teachers as possible. Subsequently.0 program (IBM. Singing/ students in education and two professors in education. active involvement. whether there were statistical differences in beliefs and practices The survey included statements about teachers' beliefs among the three teaching techniques. who jointly Listening to songs/Reciting poems motivates the learners. during which all items were initially reviewed to create the and questions were used for the three separate language-teaching coding categories.95. questionnaire was to investigate teachers' specific purposes for Open-ended responses underwent a content analysis process using the three teaching techniques. appropriateness of the three techniques for specific purposes in the Fourth. Both authors jointly performed this pro- To determine teachers' beliefs and practice. USA) was used. question type differed for the three teaching techniques: for singing The data from the open-ended questions were then reanalyzed and listening to songs. Principal component analysis was used to investigate the validity of teaching techniques. The link to the online survey (Webropol) was sent to classified as pedagogically qualified. and the use of poems.2. as well as Armonk. these responses are the subject of a Second. Finnish teachers were classified as pedagogically unqualified. one in Finnish formal teaching credentials. listening to songs. children”) or that they did not know how to answer the specific The scores were high. included in the questionnaire. teachers' beliefs and practices related to singing. the survey regarding beliefs and practices. and group dynamics. I use reciting poems to teach coding.g. Table 2 represents the number and type of items in 38% of the sample. and reciting poems as language. These appropriate for teaching pronunciation. them. based on the responses. The questionnaire contained both Likert-scaled (1e4) distribution of the principal components showed that the catego- statements (N ¼ 153) and open-ended questions (N ¼ 18). including teachers' formal training and composed the same principal components. To investigate the Ko€nig. Instrument and data analysis attached to the questionnaire included information about the aim of the study and clarified that the intended participants were A questionnaire was designed to gather information about the teachers of Finnish in Finland and abroad. listening to songs. the same statements cess. For data analysis. five in Finland-Schools and six in other settings. cross tables were used regarding the psychological and pedagogical benefits and the to analyze the relationships between teachers' beliefs and practices. L. In the rization of individual statements was justified.234 J. and c) the experi- psychological effects and influence of music and singing on enced and less-experienced teachers were analyzed using analysis learning. Busse. The statements and questions were formu. and in particular on language learning.86 to 0. Of the teachers. teachers were asked established categories. In Finland. various Facebook groups of L2 teachers in Finland. teachers who Finnish L2 teachers. respondents could use “zero” to indicate that a particular questionnaire was investigated by calculating Cronbach's alpha question did not apply to their context (e. The aim of the of variance (ANOVA) and cross tables. An online survey was used to collect information from techniques. we calculated the frequency distributions The questionnaire covered three main areas: a) teachers' beliefs of individual statements. analyzed separately to reveal any similarities or differences among reported data is often questioned. The teachers with formal teaching credentials were unambiguous. The inter-rater reliability was 97. the responses statements: I use singing songs to teach pronunciation. The teachers' professional preparation also varied from bache. It was not Furthermore. Kaiser. reliability of the survey. while 27% (n ¼ 25) did not (one language. in adult education. it is widely used in investi. whereas for poems. Items distribution of the answers supported the reliability of the related to teachers' possible music-related hobbies were also questionnaire. the following statements about beliefs were included in positive feelings. and reciting poems as language-teaching techniques. and c) determine whether the sum variables based on statements background information. 2008) in which data were coded and categorized those techniques in their language classrooms. descriptive statistics were differences in beliefs and practices regarding the three different used to describe beliefs and practices related to the three teaching techniques.M. Although the reliability of self. Heikkola / Teaching and Teacher Education 63 (2017) 231e242 classified as inexperienced teachers and represent the remaining Finnish culture. the IBM SPSS Statistics 22. b) teachers' practice in language classrooms the survey's structure based on different statements in order to concerning the three aforementioned teaching techniques. In addition. Among the pedagogi. four were working at the Ke12 level. The results from the experience. for example. Statements related to remaining cases (6 out of 247) were assigned to appropriate cate- teachers' reported practices included. pedagogical qualification. in Finland-Schools all over the world.97%. participants were asked whether melody independently by the two authors to assign the responses to the helps with language recall. those without these credentials various email lists: Finnish L2 teachers in Finland. sum variables were created to examine the gating teachers' practices and beliefs (Blo €meke. and one in music education) and two experienced respondent did not answer this question). Singing/Listening to songs/ categories were then verified in discussions among seven doctoral Reciting poems is appropriate for learning vocabulary. Minor adjustments were made in response to work in adult education are not required to have pedagogical reviewers’ suggestions to make the statements in the questionnaire qualifications. differences between a) the teachers with and without language classroom.

2 ¼ I disagree.39 (0.22 (0.23 (0.000 Encourages language production 3.16 (0.005 S e R p ¼ 0.44.82) 3.13 (0.015 Creates a sense of security 3. listening to songs.1. The open-ended questions specifically asked teachers to and d) how teachers' beliefs about using songs and poems as describe the emotional effects they believed were produced by teaching techniques coincided with their reported actions.37. 4 ¼ I totally agree).M. an examination of individual items revealed that “The students are more encouraged to talk after a song.29 (0. techniques were examined from two different points of view: a) Looking at the different techniques. Beliefs Psychological benefits 10 10 10 e Pedagogical benefits 15 15 15 e Appropriateness for use with language learners 3 3 3 e B.76) 3. gorization of the answers and the number of mentions in each of and reciting poems the six categories that emerged from the coding are presented in Table 4. To answer the first research question regarding the teachers' Because the teachers could report as many effects as they wanted. Moreover.014 L e R p ¼ 0.7% of the partici- teaching techniques. Sixty-four of the 94 teachers reported up to five effects.91 (0. singing.1. Teachers' beliefs about the psychological benefits of singing.12 (0.” there were a few exceptions in which reciting poems was viewed “The students get excited.1.05 (0.39 (0. you play with the words. listening to songs.74) S e L p ¼ 0. singing (n ¼ 118) than reciting poems (n ¼ 46). The cate- 4. and they want to sing along [while more favorably (see Table 3). Statements related to positive feelings included the scores) about the psychological effects of singing. c No statistically significant differences. M ¼ 3. following: and reciting poems. On the other hand. Psychological effect Singing Listening to songs Reciting poems Statistical significanceb M (SD)a M (SD)a M (SD)a Enhances a group's feeling of togetherness 3. there appear to be similar their psychological benefits and b) their pedagogical benefits and patterns in teachers' spontaneous responses about the effects of appropriateness as language-learning strategies.76) S e R p ¼ 0. working experience. Even though the differences between the beliefs concerning the three “With poems. or reciting poems. However. as presented in tionship between teachers' beliefs and practice and their peda.51) was a psychologically more effec- tive technique than reciting poems (M ¼ 3.78) 3. Table 3.81) 3. between the techniques for certain other items.66) 3.67) 3.000 Affects mood 3. J. or reciting poems as there are 247 mentions in total.45 (0. L.21 (0.20 (0. the Results are presented in the following order: a) the beliefs that teachers responded that listening to songs had the most powerful teachers have about singing. and laughing at the words liberates.” had positive psychological benefits on language learning. c) the rela.54) was considered almost as effective as singing.88) S e R p ¼ 0.62) 3.22 (0. or educational setting. Results songs when it comes to increasing students’ confidence in their ability to produce language (p ¼ 0. Music makes you smile. SD ¼ 0.55) 2. listening to songs. even though 28.033 a Answers were reported on the Likert Scale (1 ¼ I totally disagree.82) S e R p ¼ 0.56) 2.73) 3.65).65) 3. The teachers believed that all three techniques “The students are more joyful.21 (0. S e R ¼ between singing and reciting poems. there were many more answers related to 4. the teachers believed that singing (on a feel funny. singing. 3 ¼ I agree.77) NSc Reduces anxiety in producing the new language 3. Alisaari.67) 3.71) 3.25 (0. statistically significant differences existed using songs and poems in their language classrooms.60) L e R p ¼ 0. listening to songs. teachers' beliefs about the three teaching pants (n ¼ 27) did not answer these questions. .38 (0. gogical qualifications. Playing with words may techniques were not great. The two main ef- listening to songs. listening to songs. some of the answers addressed outcomes beyond emotional effects.027).71) 3. SD ¼ 0.” difference was found between reciting poems and listening to Table 3 Means and differences of the teachers' beliefs about the psychological benefits of singing.60) 3. L e R ¼ between listening to songs and reciting poems.57) NSc Motivates learners 2. and reciting poems fects that teachers mentioned were positive feelings and active Table 3 summarizes teachers' beliefs (represented as mean involvement. listening to songs. Heikkola / Teaching and Teacher Education 63 (2017) 231e242 235 Table 2 Number and types of survey items regarding beliefs and practice.16. or reciting poems as effect on arousing emotions and affecting moods as well as on teaching techniques. Notably. a statistically significant listening to songs].23 (0.28 (0. SD ¼ 0. Listening to to the stimulation of conversation or excitement: songs (M ¼ 3.” 1e4 scale.015).71) 3. and the Statements regarding the active involvement of students referred difference was statistically significant (p ¼ 0.006 L e R p ¼ 0. beliefs about singing.002 L e R p ¼ 0.73) NSc Increases confidence in language production 3. However. Singing Listening to songs Reciting poems General A. b S e L ¼ between singing and listening to songs.80) 3.41 (0.003 Activates learners 3.98 (0. b) teachers' reported practices concerning motivating learners.42 (0.36 (0.33 (0. Teachers' beliefs about the effects of singing.24 (0. and reciting poems. listening to songs. Practice 20 20 21 7 4. or reciting poems in the language classroom.99 (0.76) 3.50 (0.56) NSc Arouses emotions 3.

001). Teachers' beliefs about the appropriateness and pedagogical occasionally (M ¼ 2.46. was rare. Looking at the sum variables of each technique. listening to teaching subjects related to Finnish culture.31. but these.81).78.81) and C1eC2 effective technique for helping students to remember words. In contrast to humor and laughter. A statistically significant dif- benefits of singing. anxiety.49) and rhythm (M ¼ 3.236 J. listening to songs.” melody of songs that enhanced recall. or reciting poems on group dynamics: poems in their language classrooms “Sometimes [singing causes] tension.010). B1eB2 (M ¼ 3.001). also used only seldom and was used mainly for practicing pro- SD ¼ 0. SD ¼ 0.02. practicing vocabulary and pronunciation or in conjunction with tive. teachers primarily statistically significant compared to singing (p ¼ 0.3. and reciting poems.09.011) in the beliefs concerning word recall. SD ¼ 0.84) were seldom or never used.56) and reciting more comprehensively.44.55). although the other techniques were also considered nunciation. SD ¼ 1.01. The teachers listened to songs with children (M ¼ 3.65. SD ¼ 0. listening to songs. Teachers' reported practices concerning the use of songs and singing.72).09. SD ¼ 1. or.40) and rhythm (M ¼ 3. The teachers indicated that singing is the most (M ¼ 3. listening to songs. were seldom text analysis. or reciting poems would help students to SD ¼ 0.99). which included comments about why stu. The results are SD ¼ 0. remember words. Practicing text analysis was the only item for game or gestures (M ¼ 2. structures. there were 11 comments about the effects of 4. the results indicated that The teachers were asked what types of songs and poems they teachers considered the three techniques appropriate for almost all used in their language classrooms and with whom they used them.90) and schlagers.2.04.31. L. relaxation: melody.2.91). and . Teachers reported that they thought singing. when they did. listening to songs. SD ¼ 0. SD ¼ 0. too.001). or sadness) 19 13 5 Relaxation 14 10 6 Sentimental reactions 12 18 3 Group dynamics 8 1 2 No answer 6 19 41 Unclear meaning 1 2 2 Total 118 86 43 the three techniques were not great. SD ¼ 1. they are not When teachers were asked whether it was the rhythm or the used to it.495) in songs. The responses were highly posi.06).96). and listening comprehension as well as for teaching significant difference between the reported appropriateness of subjects related to Finnish culture. and listening to The teachers were asked for whom and for what purposes they songs and reciting poems (p < 0.47.010) and reciting used children's songs (M ¼ 2.14).46) in poems. However.02.M. When the songs were sung. there were statistically The results indicated that teachers used mainly pop music significant differences between the techniques (Table 5).32. Teachers were also asked whether they believed that singing. (p ¼ 0. structures.67). SD ¼ 0. Alisaari. they don't think they can sing.20) and adolescents (M ¼ 2. there was a statis- Teachers also reported negative feelings as an effect of the three tically significant difference between singing and reciting poems teaching techniques. SD ¼ 0. and rhymes “Music itself touches people very deeply.” teachers' beliefs about the benefits of the three techniques. looking at the sum variables. or reciting poems would be seldom used singing. a type of adult pop music example.61. Table 7 presents the statistically listening to songs and reciting poems (p ¼ 0.” actually using songs or poems in their language classrooms.18) and songs including a poems (p < 0. in the case of reciting The last two main categories were sentimental reactions and poems.92).93. when they used listening to songs as a technique for the introduction of a new topic. Reciting poems was songs was considered the most appropriate technique (M ¼ 3. SD ¼ 1. However.85. SD ¼ 0.03). SD ¼ 1. SD ¼ 1. SD ¼ 0. [there is] spondents were asked about their own practices. and adults (M ¼ 3. of the suggested purposes. Effects Number of times mentioned Singing Listening to songs Reciting poems Positive feelings (joy. these differences were also statistically significant.020). mainly for teaching or practicing vocabu- poems (M ¼ 3. but even this type of usage which singing and reciting poems were not considered effective. happiness) 32 21 15 Active involvement 32 21 10 Negative feelings (fear. (M ¼ 2. or meaningful phrases. listening to songs.” In addition.94) and reciting poems (M ¼ 1. and it addresses feelings. the findings reveal that singing (M ¼ 2. singing and reciting poems (p ¼ 0. and this finding was teaching technique. but the differences between (M ¼ 2. For certain items. and listening to songs was seldom used or only used 4. When they used poems. SD ¼ 0. there was a statistically lary. teachers primarily used chil- whereas listening to songs was considered effective for practicing dren's poems (M ¼ 2.1.74. and reciting poems as ference was present between singing and listening to songs language teaching techniques (p < 0. used. For (M ¼ 2. it was mainly for teaching or appropriate teaching techniques. Looking at single items (see Table 5).00). Singing was used mainly with children structures. adolescents (M ¼ 3. and with students on different language levels: A1eA2 presented in Table 6. dents may dislike singing: “Not everybody likes singing. Listening to songs was used somewhat more often and highly appropriate: singing (M ¼ 3. whether it was the rhymes or rhythm that enhanced recall. It arises from emotions (M ¼ 3. and rhymes were all seen as effective: melody (M ¼ 3. significant differences between the techniques for individual items. but often also a sense of To address the research question of how teachers reported community. listening to songs was considered the most appropriate (M ¼ 2. Heikkola / Teaching and Teacher Education 63 (2017) 231e242 Table 4 Teachers' statements regarding the effects of singing. and meaningful phrases. re- “[Reciting poems] creates a more relaxed atmosphere. rhythm.

42 (0.57) S e Rb p ¼ 0.63) 3.65) 3. S e R ¼ between singing and reciting poems.08 (0.75) S e L p ¼ 0.59.015 L e R p ¼ 0.49 (0.035 L e R p ¼ 0.07 (1.23).85 (0.38 (0.55 (0.87) S e L p ¼ 0.3.51 (0.90) 1.31 (1.16) 2.000 Repetition 3.93) S e L p ¼ 0.75) NSc Learning something new 3.32 (0.72 (0.49 (0.83) S e L p ¼ 0.87 (0.65) 3. J.31 (1.56) 3.38 (0.34 (0.30 (1.84) NSc Practicing text analysis 2.M.000 S e R p ¼ 0.41 (1. 4 ¼ I totally agree).79) 3.000 S e R p ¼ 0.35 (0.60) 3. .48.70) 3.65) 3. c No statistically significant differences. Alisaari.82) 3.011 Structures 3.56) in their beliefs that In order to respond to the research question concerning the singing enhances a group's sense of togetherness than were un- relationship between teachers' beliefs or practice and their qualified teachers (M ¼ 3. p ¼ 0.63) 3.36 (0.51 (0.97) 3.019 L e R p ¼ 0. 3 ¼ I agree.43. SD ¼ 1. differences between a) pedagogically qualified and un- children (M ¼ 2. 2 ¼ seldom.06) 2.95 (0.000 Listening comprehension 2.00 (1. L.77) 3. and c) teachers working in different educational settings were analyzed using ANOVA.54 (0.005 a Answers were reported on the Likert Scale (1 ¼ I totally disagree.72) 3. SD ¼ 0.67 (0.03) S e L p ¼ 0. 3 ¼ I agree.81) NSc Meaningful phrases 3.000 S e R p ¼ 0.61 (0.000 Vocabulary 2.41 (1.08).57) 3.23 (0. b) experienced and less experienced teachers.26 (0.39 (0.000 L e R p ¼ 0. Helps to remember … Singing Listening to songs Reciting poems Statistical significance M (SD)a M (SD)a M (SD)a Words 3.001 Practicing vocabulary 3.53 (0.62 (0.82 (0.000 As an introduction to a new topic 2.63) 3.35 (0.000 S e R p ¼ 0.61) 3.54) 3. 2 ¼ I disagree.89) 1. Table 6 Teachers' beliefs about the relationship of teaching techniques to memorization.31 (0.010 L e R p ¼ 0.53) 3. c No statistically significant differences. A1eA2 (M ¼ 2.16) 2.010 Introducing a new topic 3.02) S e L p ¼ 0.91 (1.70) NSc Practicing structures 3. 4 ¼ I totally agree).000 L e R p ¼ 0. I use … for teaching or practicing Singing Listening to songs M (SD)a Reciting poems M (SD)a Statistical significanceb M (SD)a Pronunciation 2. working experience. 4 ¼ often).09) 2.71) S e L p ¼ 0.46 (0.50 (0.000 Practicing pronunciation 3.23 (0. or educational although it was used infrequently.42 (0. b S e R ¼ between singing and reciting poems. Poems were used mainly with setting. with students on language level A1eA2 (M ¼ 2.55) 3. SD ¼ 1.71) L e R p ¼ 0.000 L e R p ¼ 0. The qualified teachers were more positive (M ¼ 3. The relationship between beliefs and practice and pedagogical Pedagogically qualified teachers differed from their unqualified qualification.77 (1.55) 3. or educational setting colleagues with respect to only a few items.55 (0.78 (0.62) 3. working experience.000 Learning about culture 3. although only rarely.93 (0. b S e L ¼ between singing and listening to songs.003 L e R p ¼ 0.81) L e R p ¼ 0.11) S e L p ¼ 0.00) 1.90) 2.60 (0.48 (0.90) 1.72) NSc a Answers were reported on the Likert Scale (1 ¼ I totally disagree.000 a Answers were reported on the Likert Scale (1 ¼ never.000 Finnish culture 2. SD ¼ 1. pedagogical qualification. Is suitable for … Singing Listening to songs Reciting poems Statistical significanceb M (SD)a M (SD)a M (SD)a Students of all ages 3.50 (0.00 (1.28 (0.65) 3.06) S e L p ¼ 0. b S e L ¼ between singing and listening to songs.01) 2.29 (0.000 L e R p ¼ 0.77) 3.005 S e R p ¼ 0.70) NSc Rehearsing 3.000 Text comprehension 1.002 L e R p ¼ 0.94) 2.35 (0.25.39) 3.79) L e R p ¼ 0.15) 2.11) 2.34 (0.70) S e L p ¼ 0.004 Developing language skills more generally 3.07) 1.24) and with students on language level qualified teachers. L e R ¼ between listening to songs and reciting poems. The qualified Table 7 Frequency of the reported use of songs and poems in language teaching. Heikkola / Teaching and Teacher Education 63 (2017) 231e242 237 Table 5 Teachers' beliefs about the appropriateness and pedagogical benefits of various techniques for language teaching. 2 ¼ I disagree. 4.69 (0.70) 3.000 Structures 2.62) 3. SD ¼ 0.23. 3 ¼ occasionally.63 (0.043). S e R ¼ between singing and reciting poems.84 (0.42 (1.03) S e L p ¼ 0. L e R ¼ between listening to songs and reciting poems.43 (0.55) 3.48 (0.05 (1.20 (0.85.40 (0.25 (1.96 (1.99) 2.

33.48 a new topic L 47. AE M ¼ 1. Used the technique Did not use the technique ginners (A-level) more often than did unqualified teachers (singing Vocabulary S 57. Looking at the results ho- in the use of songs or poems in introducing a new topic. AEeFS is the difference between teachers working in adult education and in Finland- Schools.80 (1.20. AEeFS appropriate and used or did not use them are presented in Table 9.2 used poems in their language teaching somewhat more (M ¼ 2.014 L AEeFS p ¼ 0.001).020 a S ¼ singing.99) R 1.00 (0. SD ¼ 0.006.05 (0.0 SD ¼ 0. Percentages of teachers who considered the techniques appropriate.80 (1. beliefs about individual aspects of teaching and 4. SD ¼ 1. For these listically.79) R K12eFS p ¼ 0.68 (0.6 with adolescents (M ¼ 2. SD ¼ 0.9 M ¼ 1.78 (0.81) R 2. Finnish culture S 50. significant classroom practice. p < 0. and reciting poems more often than did teachers from these techniques only rarely (if ever). SD ¼ 1.92) S AEeFS p ¼ 0. AEeFS ation among the different items.1 teachers (qualified M ¼ 3. .95. SD ¼ 0.001 Finnish culture S 2.6 52. for example.69. SD ¼ 3.99) L 3. SD ¼ 0. yet teachers reported using them only used children's poems (M ¼ 3. Overall. AE M ¼ 1. adult education (AE). AE M ¼ 1.7 26. SD ¼ 0.038 R 1.68) R 2.1% reported the difference was statistically significant (K12eFS p ¼ 0.82 (0. There was a similar tendency in the use of poems teachers' beliefs were not completely in line with their practice.80 (0. Furthermore.047).5 58.53. SD ¼ 0.03) R K12eFS p ¼ 0. For example.90. SD ¼ 1. SD ¼ (1. K12eFS p ¼ 0. listening in language teaching were quite positive. The qualified teachers used singing (M ¼ 2. the three songs to teach structures of Finnish language more seldom than did teaching techniques were considered highly positive when prac- other teachers.80 (0.64) R 2. for certain items. Only statistically significant differences are shown.0 66. However.4 did unqualified teachers (M ¼ 1.3 p ¼ 0.005 Text comprehension R 1.049).003). compared by using cross tables in SPSS.7 83. listening M ¼ 2.03).3 significantly from less experienced teachers in one item only: they Introduction to S 33.4 dKe12.33 (0.029).95.95. however.83) L 1.06.76. The same tendency was other settings. Text comprehension S 89.9 39. SD ¼ 0.007 R 2.75) R 1. with only one exception: they used listening to shown in the means of individual items.11.05.11) S 3.97) L 2.61) R 1.00 (1. SD ¼ 1.043).23) S AEeFS p ¼ 0. the teachers' responses in the two areas were differences were found in certain items (see Table 8).24.58.2 were classified as experienced teachers.1 42. Ke12 M ¼ 1.14 (0.a p ¼ 0. p ¼ 0.04) L 2.42 (0. suggesting that AEeFS p ¼ 0.69) R AEeFS p ¼ 0.013 Listening comprehension R 1. Teachers' beliefs compared with their classroom practice learning were more in line with practice.62.14 (0. In the teachers' practice.1 R 34.5 72.5 SD ¼ 1. Heikkola / Teaching and Teacher Education 63 (2017) 231e242 teachers were also more positive that rhythm enhances recall Table 9 (qualified M ¼ 3.001. SD ¼ 0.65. tically significant differences were found in the teachers' beliefs about the psychological or pedagogical benefits of the three teaching techniques.00. R ¼ reciting poems. and with traditional poems (FS M ¼ 2.86) with be.04 (1.16.50. unqualified M ¼ 3.67) L K12eFS p ¼ 0.4 52.5 Teachers who had worked for more than 5 years as a teacher L 45.97) than did less experienced teachers (M ¼ 2. teachers' beliefs about using songs or poems items.64.98) R 2. L ¼ listening to songs. a S ¼ singing.M. L.07.6 22. SD ¼ 0.95.17. actually using the technique often or occasionally.61 (0.93) R AEeFS p ¼ 0.76 (0.33.0 Structures S 41.8 R 47. Alisaari.64 (0.73) R 1.4 Looking at teachers working in different educational settings R 43. unqualified M ¼ 2.5 intermediate (B-level) learners more often than did unqualified L 60. qualified teachers used poems Pronunciation S 47. There were no other differences between these groups. and reported usage of them.03) more often than did seldom. 73.96. SD ¼ 1.3 p ¼ 0. among teachers who reported that they considered listening to music an In order to respond to the research question concerning appropriate technique. R 27. on average. b K12eFS is the difference between teachers working in Ke12 and in Finland-Schools. R ¼ reciting.007 R AEeFS p ¼ 0.6 56.8 54. In addition. or Finland-Schools (FS)dno statis.002). p ¼ 0.7 49.06) S 2.74 (0. Subsequent analysis of individual teachers revealed some vari- Ke12 M ¼ 1.04 (1.33 (0.4.003 L 2. The combined with play (FS M ¼ 3.2 46. only 57. the teachers working in Finland-Schools ticing pronunciation.046).036 R AEeFS p ¼ 0. teachers who considered the three techniques appropriate for language learning used them occasionally or often.00) L AEeFS p ¼ 0. for teachers who considered singing an other teachers (Ke12 M ¼ 1. L ¼ listening.238 J.86 ( and listening to songs (M ¼ 3.8 66.7% reported using this technique whether a relationship exists between teachers' beliefs and their Table 8 Differences in teachers' practice in various educational settings.57. They differed statistically R 16.30 (0.5 10.06) S 1. Moreover.57 (1. approximately half of the p ¼ 0. SD ¼ 1.83 (0. p ¼ 0. percentages of the teachers who considered the techniques SD ¼ 1.88) S 2. appropriate technique for teaching vocabulary.9 52.63 (0.90) R 2.85.00) somewhat more often than L 53.003 Structures L 2. L 77.020 As an introduction to a new topic S 2. Qualified teachers also used listening to songs with R 35. SD ¼ 0. L 73.70.003 R AEeFS p < 0. For example. but they reported using to songs.043.0 65.86) R 1. teachers working in Finland-Schools used singing.82) S K12eFS p ¼ I use … for teaching or practicing Ke12 Adult Education M (SD) Finland-Schools M (SD) Statistical significanceb M (SD) Vocabulary R 1.

7 5. For motivate learners. 2016. Pronunciation S 100 0 L 91. rhythm has been shown to be the listening to songs.2 Teachers who reported using particular techniques occasionally R 90.. singing was considered more effective than the other techniques in helping students to remember words. teachers different groups of teachers. for example. which emphasizes lifelong learning and Doukas. singing and reciting poems were used only seldom. or reciting poems for teaching structures (6. Positive beliefs tures. and 26. 2009. they reported 2013). Karavas- based teacher education.1 R 95. R 73. accord with their beliefs (see Basturkmen et al. effective in practicing pronunciation (M ¼ 3. Ludke et al. J. Wiltermuth & learning. a benefit that has been proven in previous research reporting that teachers' actions are not always in previous studies.018. 2010.3 gree as the other items.031).. 1913). teachers believed that singing and for language recall (Alisaari & Heikkola. 2009. vocabulary (see Coyle & comprehension (p ¼ 0.5%) and using singing. for example. Spychiger et al.7 8. 2009).5 teachers who did not use the techniques still considered them Structures S 93. rhythm.031). L 98. however. Lake. active professional development throughout the teaching career.. comprehension (singing p ¼ 0. encourage them to produce language. Sato & Kleinsasser. Alisaari. and 77.3 percentages of teachers who used the techniques and considered Finnish culture S 100 0 them appropriate or inappropriate. 2014).7 26. considered all three studied techniques appropriate for all of these aspects. R ¼ reciting poems..3 1. The educational level was significant Go mez Gracia.5% of the teachers who a S ¼ singing. although the teachers enhance a group's feeling of togetherness (see also Kirschner & believed that all three techniques had positive effects on language Tomasello. which singing to teach text comprehension (10. 2002.. Notably.3%. 2004). For example. 2014). if ever. According to recent listening to songs.. 2004. with using songs differed statistically significantly from reciting poems.95). The teachers believed that all three techniques and listening to songs was used only seldom or occasionally. 2016. reported using poems for text comprehension did not consider the technique appropriate for this purpose (see Table 10. . Teachers' practices were somewhat influenced by their beliefs positively affects group dynamics.a was used occasionally or often for teaching text comprehension by 89.5 37. 2003. and in. singing is an effective technique for language learningd- 14. 1999). 2003. there were statistically significant dif. 2014. Appropriate Inappropriate Poems. there were also anomalies R 96 4 that were not expected. listening p ¼ 0. 1996. were used occasionally or often for teaching text technique technique comprehension by only 16. 2011). 1991). most effective aspect of music in learning language (see Purnell- Teachers' beliefs were aligned with theoretical knowledge based on Webb & Speelman.5 vocabulary occasionally or often believed that singing was an Introduction to a new topic S 100 0 L 100 0 appropriate technique for vocabulary teaching. This awareness may be due to Finland's research.7 In the teachers' reported practices.2. and meaningful phrases (p ¼ 0. 2009). in particular.1 or often expressed beliefs that were in line with their actions. Discussion In this study. in practicing pronunciation regard to the use of listening to songs when teaching text (see Milovanov. as has been shown in earlier studies (Mangubhai have shown that melody combined with rhythm is more important et al. Heath. Table 10 represents R 94. 2015. many of the L 94. 2014). The same tendency occurred.3 comprehension” was not considered appropriate to the same de.1. pedagogical qualifications. In some studies. studies. However. and reciting poems in language teaching. Heikkola / Teaching and Teacher Education 63 (2017) 231e242 239 occasionally or often for teaching vocabulary.5 10. listening to songs create positive feelings and enhance relaxation and that all three techniques increase students' active interest in 5. James.. The but singing and listening to songs have been shown to be effective teachers' working experience had a significant effect only with for language learningdfor example.5 4.009).25). 37. was considered somewhat less appropriate. Legg.. Text comprehension S 89. 2011.6% reported Table 10 using it occasionally or often for teaching Finnish culture. but other studies previous research. 1993. and it differed statistically signifi- cantly from reciting poems. Table 11 presents the cross table comparison for the (see Legg. Occasional practices the classroom setting (see also Grape et al. L ¼ listening to songs. Stahl et al. L.7 14. Alisaari & Heikkola. with regard to using listening to songs for teaching culture structures (see Alisaari. language recall. Earlier studies have not comprehensively ferences in the use of singing or listening to songs for text studied recitation of poems as an L2 language-learning technique. For example. and meaningful phrases. Hallam et al. Singing Percentages of teachers who used the techniques and considered them appropriate or inappropriate. Huron. Ludke et al. This leads to the conclusion that teachers are aware of the seldom using the technique (M ¼ 2. Murphey. teachers held highly positive beliefs melody. 5. example. Ng & Farrell.5% of the teachers who believed this technique was appropriate. This finding is in line with possible benefits of using music. 2009. the second column).9 5. Ludke et al. 1990). 2003.9 appropriate (see the second column in Table 9). Listening to teaching techniques they deem highly positive.7% of the teachers who considered the Vocabulary S 100 0 technique appropriate for this purpose. Medina. 2006). even though the teachers believed that singing was highly crease their confidence in producing language (see also Engh. 100% of the teachers who used singing for teaching R 62. 1995.3%). struc- 5. 2008. Additionally.5 indicating that their practice was usually supported by their beliefs. the teachers considered According to this study. Furthermore. Morley. Only the item “text L 85. In this study.. and rhymes to be effective in helping learners’ concerning the psychological and pedagogical benefits of singing. L 100 0 For example. Karavas-Doukas (1996) and Sato and Kleinsasser Teachers considered singing and listening to songs to be almost (1999) have shown that teachers do not always use the language equally appropriate as language-learning techniques. Legg.M. Teachers believed that singing. and that all three techniques (see also Borg. even more effective than listening to songsdand both are more Reviewing the differences between teachers with and without effective than reciting poems (see.9 9.9%.1 6.

different structural fea- niques and teachers' pedagogical qualifications was significant in tures of a language are usually introduced through a wider textual only a few circumstances. to use singing. and reciting poems. . In between the qualified and unqualified teachers. they are more informal. language books). Another factor that might influence the use of the three did unqualified teachers. Earlier studies have shown curricula.8% 62. Pedagogical qualifications. Individual teachers can decide whether learners and reciting poems with adolescents. but this is not necessarily the case. This difference could be explained by differ- teaching techniques. it is not technique that was reportedly used with students of all ages was possible to draw any general conclusions about the habits of these listening to songs. teachers working at Ke12 level. as students attending for example.3% 14. it is clear that singing and listening to songs ences in formality: even though Finland-Schools have their own were mainly used to teach vocabulary. adult education. songs or poems are not pre- experience did not appear to have an effect on teachers' beliefs and sented as language-teaching materials.7% 4. there were statistically significant differences in their 5. and experienced and less-experienced teachers.010 LISTENING: Text comprehension Inappropriate technique 22.7% 85. teachers can choose techniques they use in using singing or listening to songs with intermediate (B-level) their language classroom. SINGING: Text comprehension Teachers with pedagogical qualifications Teachers without pedagogical qualifications Total sample Do not use Do use Do not use Do use Do not use Do use Inappropriate technique 45. The differences in the teachers' reported practices are not necessarily explained by differences in the core curricula for the various educational levels. strong generalizations cannot be made based on as language teachers suggests that teachers may choose to use these results. as only 4% of the teachers three techniques appropriate for students of all ages. Singing was used mainly with children and ad.5% Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Statistical significance (Fisher Exact test) p ¼ 0. the and levels. Furthermore.012 Reviewing the reasons teachers reported for using the three the other teachers. Heikkola / Teaching and Teacher Education 63 (2017) 231e242 Table 11 Cross table comparisons between teachers with and without pedagogical qualifications. Breitkreutz et al. for singing and reciting.011 p ¼ 0.9% 100% 77. and thus songs and poems that these techniques are an effective way to learn vocabulary (see. L.5% 0% 0% 0% 15% 1.7% Appropriate technique 87.5% 0% Appropriate technique 77. 2009). even when ified teachers had more positive beliefs about singing increasing a teaching Finnish for specific purposesdfor example.7% 7. Pop music wide variety of teachers working in various educational settings was used for listening purposes only.5% 29. In the Finnish setting.1% 40% 20% 44. listening to songs with beginning (A-level) learners more often and reciting poems are thus not dependent on the curriculum or than did unqualified teachers. Teachers' work Finnish as a second language books.8% 100% 76. as the participant population includes a olescents.M. Alisaari.9% 85% 98.6% 89.7% 91.3% Appropriate technique 86.3.. This finding is in line with earlier research. Comparison of beliefs and practices teaching practices.031 p ¼ 0.009 p ¼ 0.5% 70.5% 100% 11. more research is needed on how various children's songs because of their simpler vocabulary.5% Appropriate technique 54.3% 92. listening to songs.4. However. Qualified teachers used singing and context. but the only working in Finland-Schools participated in the study.e.1% 88.5% 93. language teaching curricula 5. 2001). Thus. Although the beliefs of teachers working in different settings (Ke12. (which could be considered more informal techniques of language for example. dents. teachers. This more frequent use of the three pronunciation. The aim of language teaching is The connection between the use of the three teaching tech. which techniques in Finland-Schools may be due to the age of the stu- found that poems or chants are used mainly for this purpose (see. In Finland.3% 40. The teachers working in Finland-Schools used the three techniques discussed in this paper more often than did When teachers reported using the three discussed techniques. the scarce use of songs and poems in Finnish language classrooms.1% 0% 22. qual.240 J. and Finland-Schools) were remarkably similar.3% 8.3% 37. Thus. with nursing group's sense of togetherness and rhythm enhancing recall than students. and melodies.4% 10. in adult education. Furthermore. work experience. This may be one reason for practices regarding the three teaching techniques.7% 59. or in Finland-Schools.3% 95. the use of singing. listening to songs. The same tendency was found in the educational level.018 p ¼ 0.5% 100% Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Statistical significance (Fisher Exact test) p ¼ 0. The teachers considered all Finland-School are aged 1e19.9% 60% 80% 55. teaching settings affect teachers’ beliefs and practices. not on specific teaching approaches or techniques. whereas poems were used only with children. Legg.3% Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Statistical significance (Fisher Exact test) p ¼ 0.5% 6. there were no other differences teaching techniques is teaching materials (i. communication and language use.7% Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Statistical significance (Fisher Exact test) p ¼ 0.. and work setting concentrate more on general aims and contents. Our own experience liefs and practices.006 LISTENING: Pronunciation Experienced teachers Less-experienced teachers Total sample Inappropriate technique 13.024 LISTENING: Culture Teachers in Ke12 level Teachers in adult education Teachers in Finland-Schools Total sample Do not use Do use Do not use Do use Do not use Do use Do not use Do use Inappropriate technique 12.2% 0% 23. structures. and as this variety may have affected the teachers' be- teachers also used children's songs and poems. Reciting poems was used for practicing teaching) are used more often. However.

5%) choice and use of various teaching techniques. Unless teachers are taught how and why they should use these techniques. teachers with formal pedagogical qual- reciting poems (43). we nique for a teacher to use. and Niina Junttila for commenting our paper. M. 2013) point to the beliefs and practice with regard to the use of songs and poems in many positive effects of music on language learning. However. In the data employ the techniques they consider beneficial indicates a need to from open-ended questions.M.5% of the teachers who reported no significant differences were found in beliefs or practices among using poems for text comprehension occasionally or often did not teachers from different educational settings. 37. they may not precisely reflect actual classroom practices.). received many more mentions (118) than listening to songs (86) or According to our findings. overall. Kauppinen. whereas singing and our paper. This finding participate in the study. There were only frequency of using songs and poems also needs to be studied minor differences between teachers with and without pedagogical further. However. reciting poems an effective language teaching technique. In P.3%. and experi. Engh. comparing the data from Likert ifications reported using the three techniques more widely than scale questions with the answers from open-ended questions. L. Retrieved from: example. J. Comparison of the open-ended and Likert scale questions re. Eero Laakkonen for valuable help in analysing the data as reciting poems were used only for a few specific purposes. & M. it will be important to examine the possible reasons for the Alisaari. qualifications. the results and using singing.). poems were consid- ered more suitable for use with children than with adolescents or adults.5. they seldom use these Acknowledgements techniques. it appears that is a deviation in teachers' beliefs: in the Likert scale answers. This raises many questions about why there is such a discrepancy between teachers' beliefs and practices. self-reported practices must be regarded cautiously. which reflect (namely. Beliefs about . however. Ela € va € gard to singing or listening to songs may affect the use of the ainepedagogiikka. while singing ering whether language-teacher education should include more was mentioned most often (n ¼ 32). J. Alisaari. A. concerning the effects of the three teaching techniques. for example. In future https://helda. References It is not possible. M. The variety of educational settings for the participants in this enced or less-experienced teachers. Marjo Nieminen might indicate that listening to songs is a more comfortable tech. Another question for L. listening to songs. In practice. professor Kirsti Siitonen. Are teachers We are grateful for all the participants of our study for taking intimidated by the prospect of using their own voices for singing or time to participate in our study. language learning. studies. opetuksessa. Laulaminen paikallissijojen harjoittelun menetelm€ ana€ S2- how teachers' beliefs about potential negative reactions with re. Additionally. In M. as research has shown the benefits of singing and listening to songs 6. there is a discrepancy be- niques. This leads to another ques. Our research the language classroom. there those teachers without such preparation. This study examined teachers' beliefs and aims to encourage teachers to make more frequent use of songs and practices related to singing. with the exception of listening to songs. However. it is clear from the results that. as it does not require the teacher to put would like to thank following persons for their contributions at herself or himself in the spotlight. for example. There were some notable study may restrict strong generalizations of the results. Barcelos. 14. however. This may reflect the consider the technique appropriate for this purpose. This well as professors Nancy Commins. and reciting poems poems as teaching techniques in their language classes and thereby as language teaching http:// dx. M. respectively). Thus. the study's results. Moreover. there is a lack of research concerning teachers' Numerous studies (see. Jyva a: Suomen ainedidaktinen tutkimusseura ry. teachers working on different levels. not accurately reflect the general view of Finnish language teachers. 6(2). for students of all ages.9%. Increasing fluency in L2 writing with singing. does it mean that they should be used teachers who reported using the techniques occasionally or often frequently? How often is often enough? Thus. teachers reported using listening to songs more than other tech. Ainedidaktisia tutkimuksia 9 (pp. Teachers' and students' beliefs within a Deweyan frame- tion: Even if using songs or poems has been shown to be beneficial work: Conflict and influence. as veals some differences in the teachers' responses. studied techniques. Conclusions in language learning. However. to deduce Alisaari.6. various stages of questionnaire development for collecting the data ation is this: Do these techniques seem too childish for formal for this paper: professor Marja Vauras.doi. However. In our next paper. information on how to use songs and poems in language teaching.. Heikkola / Teaching and Teacher Education 63 (2017) 231e242 241 their beliefs generally supported their practice: in most cases. (2003). Suo- men ainedidaktisen tutkimusseuran julkaisuja. Ainedidaktiikan symposium Jyva €skyla €ssa € 13. Overall.2. In addition. (2015). teachers' beliefs were enhance students' language learning. may appropriate) calls for further examination. or reciting poems for teaching may be influenced by the fact that teachers self-selected to structures (6. they are unlikely to use them in lan- Although there are studies about the benefits of singing in guage classrooms. being afraid of singing incorrectly) come from. we will highly positive: teachers seem to know that singing and listening to investigate the effects that teachers' own music hobbies have on songs can have positive effects on learning. promote the use of these techniques.2014. & Heikkola. for language learning. reciting poems help teachers align their practice with theory. They also consider their beliefs and practices. singing This study provides useful information for teacher education. Similar results overall independency of teachers in Finland when it comes to surfaced in using singing for teaching text comprehension (10. on the other hand. Barcelos (Eds. language teaching? The results of this study do not appear to professor Kimmo Lehtonen.e14.42). Marja Vauras. F. It is worth consid- received the least mentions in this category (n ¼ 10). For example. (2016). M. and 26. findings. Tarnanen (Eds. scarce use of songs and poems in the language classroom in order to Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching. based on the results of this study. the pedagogical qualification is associated with the use of more varied results indicate that teachers consider reciting poems the most teaching techniques.2016. the appropriate believed in the appropriateness of the techniques.14746/ssllt. We would like to thank three reciting in the classroom? Teachers reported that they use listening anonymous reviewers for their comments that helped us to revise to songs more widely for various purposes. & A. Anca Sarau-Vuorinen and Eeva indicate this. Thus. However.2. the finding that teachers do not effective technique for activating learners (M ¼ 3. Kalaja. and where those negative feelings (for €skyl€ 210e224). J. that teachers use techniques they do not consider highly positive beliefs toward the studied teaching techniques. The teachers reported all three techniques as suitable Hallivuori. Rautiainen. looking at the responses to open-ended questions tween beliefs and practices when it comes to teaching techniques. 271e292. listening to songs.3%.

The effects of background music on A Hong Kong example. A. http://dx. Journal of English for behavior in 4-year-old children.07. J. Los lyrics and the use of song and music in teaching English as a foreign language. 171e199). ELT other languages. Angli- Burgess. 28. 39. Derwing. 57e67.. M. (1991). (2016). 389e395. language: One teacher's practical theory. J. & Ҫakir. Teaching and Teacher Education.tate. Borg. B.1016/0749-596X(92) Grape. Communicative language teaching (CLT): http://dx. In P. approach for the second language classroom. Patry. P. 82. Brown. http://dx. T. Sato. T. L. 3083e3093. & Strauss. Frankfurt: Holme. J. Language teachers' preferences of pro.system. & Ellis. Translated by Henseler. H. 111e122.. Cognitive linguistics and language teaching. 39.doi. the Netherlands: [Teachers in Finland]. G. 7. C. R. Dashwood.. Research in Education. P.242 J. (2002). Basturkmen.oph. J. 81e102. & Geyer.. Heath & Co. The Journal of the Imagination System. 403e415. (2011).1111/j. e Sociocognitive approach to multimodality in learner beliefs. Using songs to enhance L2 vocabulary acqui. Basingstoke (Hamp. (2006). From students' and teachers' perspectives: during literacy instruction for non-native speakers of English. J. Ko Blo € nig. D. (Ed. Pronunciation teaching Milovanov. W. 65e74. 55. S. Behavior. RELC Journal.2011. (1990). P.. & G.. 322e336).. M... (1910). 494e517. (2013). Kotz. (2001). S. How language teachers' beliefs about reading are mediated by Olson. Murphey. S. Peter Lang.). Teachers' stated beliefs about inci. (Eds. K. Wallace. & Weber. G. 243e272. Kalaja. E. 1471e1485. singing promote well-being? An empirical study of professional and amateur Purnell-Webb. O. (2011). (1993). K. 29. (1913).). http://dx. 43e61.008. Busse. (2009). & Singer.. 191e215. literature. National Network for Early Language Learning. & Rossiter. C.doi. 51e75. S. Voices of literacy. communicative language teaching. Two dimensions of teacher knowledge: The case of Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Brain. TESL Canada J.009. Angeles. Spychiger. J. & Kelly. Hel. M. (1985). Bern: Peter Lang. L. A. Kaiser. 6632.02.1016/j.. Lincolnwood. thinking. (1992).. guage teaching and teacher education. E. System. 28(2). Y. Morley. (2003).tb05724. Memory. M.003. A. Price. M. (2008). K. Integrating academic language. Reading Research and Instruction. C. (2014). 59e84.07. Khan-Svik Behavioral Sciences. M. 6(2). UK: Palgrave Macmillan. L. Olechowski.2001. System. & Barcelos. Using music to accelerate language learning: An experimental dental focus on form and their classroom practices.x. 134. Alanen. 354e364. London. Wiltermuth. 50.doi. (2011). M. R. S.2016.system. Practical understandings. English in Singapore: Research on grammar (pp. S. . 381e390. 1e4). P. beliefs. J. (2011). TESOL Quarterly. (1992). 35e46. 113e127. http://dx. Examining teachers' beliefs. Forum Sprache. primary school pupils' task performance.. cana Turkuensia No 27... H. telling tales: Arts in the language classroom. 83. UK: Continuum. singers during a singing lesson. guage proficiency in the classroom and beyond. 31. IL: National Text. 56. Aro.. Oral communication in TESOL: Integrating speaking. Memory and Cognition. & Speelman. Teaching and Teacher 013-0342-5. C. Ng. W. Alisaari. 23. Introduction to beliefs about SLA revisited. Journal. Low (Eds. & Heath. Opettajat Suomessa. 20. J. 187e198. M. sition in preschool children. Experimental research on teaching and learning (pp. A. The impact of in-service teacher education on language teachers' Medina.). System. T. ELT Journal. http://dx. 25. and their relation to the class- sinki. 1e5.M. A.2011. National Board Kluwer Academic Publishers. H. (2011). C. Zwiers.. S.doi.. Silfverberg.. B.doi. Foreign Language Annals. Does 90027-U. 958e962. A. M. & Overy. How we think. 83e108. C. (Ed. Vygotsky. C.). Effects of music on memory for text.. Marland. (2016). 24. Legg. images of books dx. 68(3). CA: Sage. Do teachers' beliefs of grammar teaching match their 58e71. (2009). 25(1). L. Teacher cognition and language education: Research and practice. D.1016/ Murphy. Cambridge. C. J. S. The Woods. Sandgren. (1992). Journal Upper Saddle River. Palmer.2011. Mangubhai.001. the teaching of reading.system. Memory for music: Effect of melody on recall of text. Educational Studies. http://dx.C. Modern Language Journal. 98e107. and content: Learning Kirschner. English Language Teaching. (2000).org/10. M. J. Revue TESL du Canada. Teaching English to Young Learners. R. J. 38. History teachers' conceptions of inquiry-based James. (2009). E. 106. Joint music making promotes prosocial scaffolds for non-native speakers in the middle grades. MA: MIT Press. shire). 39. 6. (2011). 39.. E. J. Is music an evolutionary adaptation? Annals of the New York Why singing may not hold the key to recovery from aphasia. Finland: Graden. Linguistic prosody and musical meter in song. A. 525e542. in Language Learning. The basics of qualitative research (3rd ed..system.. Heikkola / Teaching and Teacher Education 63 (2017) 231e242 SLA: New research approaches (pp. S. 983e989.. R. & Li. (1992). Journal of Reading Metaphor analysis of beliefs about EFL teachers' roles... & Kleinsasser. Teaching a foreign Borg. Lake. 276e285. New research approaches (pp. Singing. F. E..07. Dordrecht. Breitkreutz. Simmermann. & Kalaja. Psychological Kalaja. & Farrell. room context. Beliefs about SLA.. J. S.1080/03055690220124551. Enhancing acquisition through music.. (1995). http://dx. (2003).07. J.. Why use music in English language learning? A survey of the E. 39. C. Negueruela-Azarola. F. T. (2003). & A. Evolution and Human Behavior. 20. W. S. learning skills: Neural and behavioural evidence (Doctoral dissertation).org/10. Singing can facilitate foreign language €meke.. L. 34.. of Education http://www. classroom practices? A Singapore case study. Dordrecht. Lauper. 128e137). Tung. P. P. (2014). F.1016/j. 105e112. 41e52. S.. chanting. 25(3). The connectivity of musical aptitude and foreign language practices in Canada. Loewen. 31(5). In I. M. G. A. 51e61. Boston: D. K. U. J. Challenges for ELT from the expansion in teaching children... (2011). Hansson.. Low. (1996). (2009). (2003). (2010).doi. & Spencer.1749. (2004).). & Theorell. Graham. Thought and language. W.doi. 1e12. Ericson. NJ: Prentice Hall. E. (2006). 5. Phonology and pronunciation in integrated lan.doi. 15.. The ACTFL foreign language education series: Foreign lan. M. P.. R. & Ng. L.1016/j. reflective change and their beliefs about students. Barcelos. The relationship between teachers' beliefs and practices Wan. S. The pronunciation component in teaching English to speakers of Cameron. Johnson. R. Karavas-Doukas. & Engh... Song and music in language learning: An analysis of pop song Corbin. 19(1). James. R. (2008). In D. Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science.. Pragmatismi [Pragmatism]. 317e332. (2004). & Tomasello. Perceptual and Motor Skills. (1994). Richards. Rhythm in disguise: Huron. University of Turku. & Hismanoglu. 97e110. Academic Purposes. and Cognition. Ferreira. The relation between learning. Turner. (1999). Journal book Company. learning. the communicative approach. http:// Dufva. and pronunciation. Introduction. Applied Linguistics. T.2011.). M. 930. M.3758/s13421- content-specific and general teacher knowledge and skills. & Kalaja.1016/j.doi. 359e369. Academy of Science. (2006). 57(2). (1991). of Memory and Language. Education. Teaching and Teacher Education. (1996). Hismanoglu. S. (Eds. Stahl. R. F. & Katsarou. C. (1986). M. 1e26. http://dx. 42. listening. The culture of the English language teacher: Hallam. System. Using attitude scales to investigate teachers' attitudes to 10.. (2003). M. & Suhl. R. 6. G. (2010). Synchrony and cooperation. The effect of music on second language vocabulary acquisition. 2. Ludke. Does more nunciation teaching techniques: Traditional or modern? Procedia Social and music teaching lead to a better social climate? In R. Voet. & Gomez Gracia. & Son.. (1994).1093/elt/ccu015.. Deterding.. Singapore: McGraw Hill. T. B. 370e380. D. TESOL Quarterly. study. M. S. Coyle.. System. R. beliefs about the nature of history. of Experimental Psychology: Learning. Beliefs as conceptualizing activity: A dialectical Dewey. & De Wever. Barcelos Science.